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List of heads of state of the Soviet Union

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List of heads of state of the Soviet Union
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{{Soviet Union sidebar}}The Constitution of the Soviet Union recognised the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and the earlier Central Executive Committee (CEC) of the Congress of Soviets as the highest organs of state authority in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Under the 1924, 1936 and 1977 Soviet Constitutions these bodies served as the collective head of state of the Soviet Union.BOOK,weblink Ideology, Politics, and Government in the Soviet Union: An Introduction– Google Knihy, Books.google.cz, January 1, 1978, 2016-11-26, The Chairman of these bodies personally performed the largely ceremonial functions assigned to a single head of stateBOOK, Isham, Heyward, Remaking Russia, M.E. Sharpe, 1995,weblink 978-1-56324-436-0, 218, but held little real power.The Soviet Union was established in 1922. However, the country's first constitution was adopted in 1924. Before that time, the 1918 Constitution of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic was adopted as the constitution of the USSR. According to the 1918 Constitution, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (CEC), whose chairman was head of state, had the power to determine what matters of income and taxation would go to the state budget and what would go to the local Soviets. The CEC could also limit taxes.RUSSIAN LAW, Всероссийский съезд Советов, Статья, 81, 10 июля 1918 г., Бюджетное право,weblink Федерального конституционного закона, All-Russian Congress of Soviets, Article, 81, 10 July 1918, The Budget,weblink In periods between convocations of the Congress of Soviets the CEC held supreme power.RUSSIAN LAW, Всероссийский съезд Советов, Статья, 30, 10 июля 1918 г., О Всероссийском съезде Советов рабочих, крестьянских, казачьих и красноармейских депутатов,weblink Федерального конституционного закона, All-Russian Congress of Soviets, Article, 30, 10 July 1918, The All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers', Peasants', Cossacks', and Red Army Deputies,weblink In between sessions of the Congress of Soviets the CEC was responsible for all the affairs of the Congress of Soviets.RUSSIAN LAW, Всероссийский съезд Советов, Статья, 29, 10 июля 1918 г., О Всероссийском съезде Советов рабочих, крестьянских, казачьих и красноармейских депутатов,weblink Федерального конституционного закона, All-Russian Congress of Soviets, Article, 29, 10 July 1918, The All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers', Peasants', Cossacks', and Red Army Deputies,weblink The CEC and the Congress of Soviets was replaced by the Presidium and the Supreme Soviet by several amendments to the 1936 constitution in 1938.RUSSIAN LAW, Съезд Советов СССР, Статья, 30–56, 10 июля1918 г., Высшие органы государственной власти Союза Советских Социалистических Республик,weblink Федерального конституционного закона, Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union, Article, 30–56, 10 July 1918, The Highest Organs of State Authority of The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,weblink Under the Constitution of the Soviet Union, the Supreme Soviet was the highest organ of state power and the sole organ in the country to hold legislative authority. Sessions of the Supreme Soviet were convened by the Presidium twice a year; however, special sessions could be convened on the orders of a Union Republic. In the event of a disagreement between the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities the Presidium could form a conciliation commission. If this commission failed, the Presidium could dissolve the Supreme Soviet and order new elections. According to the 1977 Soviet Constitution, the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, along with the first and fifteen other vice chairmen, would be elected by the deputies of the Supreme Soviet.RUSSIAN LAW, Верховный Совет СССР, Статья, 120, 7 октября 1977 г., Верховный Совет СССР,weblink Федерального конституционного закона, Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, Article, 120, The Supreme Soviet of the USSR,weblink In practice, the Chairman of the Presidium held little influence over policy ever since the delegation of the office's power to the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) during Joseph Stalin's rule.BOOK, Service, Robert, 363, Stalin: A Biography, Harvard University Press, 2005,weblink 978-0-674-01697-2, Robert Service (historian), The Presidency was established in 1990 and the President would, according to the altered constitution, be elected by the Soviet people by direct and secret ballot. However, the first and only Soviet President, Mikhail Gorbachev, was elected by the democratically elected Congress of People's Deputies.BOOK, Kort, Michael, The Soviet Colossus: History and Aftermath, M.E. Sharpe, 2010,weblink 978-0-7656-2387-4, 394, In connection with the dissolution of the Soviet Union national elections for the office of President never took place. To be elected to the office a person must have been a Soviet citizen and older than thirty-five but younger than sixty-five years. The same person could not be elected president for more than two terms.RUSSIAN LAW, Верховный Совет СССР, Статья, 127.1, 26 декабря 1990 г., Президент СССР,weblink Федерального конституционного закона, Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, Article, 127.1, 26 December 1990, President of the USSR, The Presidency was the highest state office, and was the most important office in the Soviet Union by influence and recognition, eclipsing that of Premier and General Secretary. With the establishment of the Presidency executive power was shared between the President and the Prime Minister. The Presidency was given broad powers, such as being responsible for negotiating the membership of the Cabinet of Ministers with the Supreme Soviet;BOOK, Huskey, Eugene, Executive Power and Soviet Politics: The Rise and Decline of the Soviet State, M.E. Sharpe, 1992,weblink 978-1-56324-059-1, 90, the Prime Minister, however, was responsible for managing the nomenklatura and economic matters.BOOK, Huskey, Eugene, Presidential Power in Russia, M.E. Sharpe, 1999,weblink 978-1-56324-536-7, 16,

List of heads of state

Of the eleven individuals appointed head of state, three died in office of natural causes (Leonid Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko), one held the position in a temporary role (Vasili Kuznetsov), and four held posts of party leader and head of state simultaneously (Brezhnev, Andropov, Chernenko and Mikhail Gorbachev). The first head of state was Mikhail Kalinin, who was inaugurated in 1922 after the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR. At over twenty years, Kalinin spent the longest time in office; he died shortly after his resignation in 1946. Andropov spent the shortest time in office.{| class="wikitable" width=80%! align="center" width="1%" | №Repeat head of state and vice heads of state are numbered only once; subsequent terms are marked with their original number italicised. Acting heads of state are not numbered. These numbers are not official.! scope="col" style="width:11em;" | Name(Birth–Death)! scope="col" width="1%" | Portrait! scope="col" style="width:20em;" | Term of office! scope="col" | Supreme SovietConvocationsA convocation in the Soviet sense of the word were elected members of Parliament in between elections.
! rowspan="5" style="text-align:center;"| 1
! colspan="4" align="center" |Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets (1922–1938)
! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Mikhail Kalinin(1875–1946)BOOK, 413, The Kremlin's Scholar: A Memoir of Soviet Politics under Stalin and Khrushchev, Yale University Press, 2007,weblink 978-0-300-09206-6, Shepilov, Dmitri, Austin, Anthony, Bittner, Stephen, Dmitri Shepilov,
100px)|30 December 1922 – 12 January 19381st Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union>1st–8th Convocation
!colspan="4" align="center" |Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1938–1989)
! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Mikhail Kalinin(1875–1946)
100px)|17 January 1938 – 19 March 19461st Convocation
! style="text-align:center;"| 2! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Nikolay Shvernik(1888–1970)BOOK, 441, The Kremlin's Scholar: A Memoir of Soviet Politics under Stalin and Khrushchev, Yale University Press, 2007,weblink 978-0-300-09206-6, Shepilov, Dmitri, Austin, Anthony, Bittner, Stephen, Dmitri Shepilov,
100px|alt=A picture taken by the Soviet Government of Nikolai Shvernik in grey)|19 March 1946 – 15 March 19532nd Convocation of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union>2nd–3rd Convocation
! style="text-align:center;"| 3! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Kliment Voroshilov(1881–1969)BOOK, 406, The Kremlin's Scholar: A Memoir of Soviet Politics under Stalin and Khrushchev, Yale University Press, 2007,weblink 978-0-300-09206-6, Shepilov, Dmitri, Austin, Anthony, Bittner, Stephen, Dmitri Shepilov,
100px|alt=A photo taken in 1937 of Kliment Voroshilov)|15 March 1953 – 7 May 19603rd Convocation of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union>3rd–5th Convocation
! style="text-align:center;"| 4! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Leonid Brezhnev(1906–1982)BOOK, Bliss Eaton, Katherine, 29, Daily Life in the Soviet Union, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004,weblink 978-0-313-31628-9,
100px|alt=An official portrait of Leonid Brezhnev dating back to 1977)|7 May 1960 – 15 July 19645th Convocation of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union>5th–6th Convocation
! style="text-align:center;"| 5! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Anastas Mikoyan(1895–1978)BOOK, 404, The Kremlin's Scholar: A Memoir of Soviet Politics under Stalin and Khrushchev, Yale University Press, 2007,weblink 978-0-300-09206-6, Shepilov, Dmitri, Austin, Anthony, Bittner, Stephen, Dmitri Shepilov,
100px)|15 July 1964 – 9 December 19656th Convocation of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union>6th Convocation
! style="text-align:center;"| 6! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Nikolai Podgorny(1903–1983)BOOK, Ploss, Sidney, 218, The Roots of Perestroika: the Soviet Breakdown in Historical Context, McFarland & Company, 2010,weblink 978-0-7864-4486-1,
100px|alt=Nikolai Podgorny as depicted during his visit to the German Democratic Republic in 1963)|9 December 1965 – 16 June 19776th Convocation of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union>6th–9th Convocation
! style="text-align:center;"| (4)! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Leonid Brezhnev(1906–1982)
100px|alt=An official portrait of Leonid Brezhnev dating back to 1977)|16 June 1977 – 10 November 19829th Convocation of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union>9th–10th Convocation
! style="text-align:center;"| —! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Vasili Kuznetsov(1901–1990)WEB,weblink ru:Кузнецов Василий Васильевич, Russian, World History on the Internet, 7 December 2010, Vasili Vasilyevich Kuznetsov,
100px)|10 November 1982 – 16 June 1983 10th Convocation
! style="text-align:center;"| 7! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" | Yuri Andropov(1914–1984)
100px)|16 June 1983 – 9 February 1984
! style="text-align:center;"| —! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Vasili Kuznetsov(1901–1990)
100px)|9 February 1984 – 11 April 1984 11th Convocation
! style="text-align:center;"| 8! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" | Konstantin Chernenko(1911–1985)BOOK, Ploss, Sidney, 216, The Roots of Perestroika: the Soviet Breakdown in Historical Context, McFarland & Company, 2010,weblink 978-0-7864-4486-1,
100px)|11 April 1984 – 10 March 1985
! style="text-align:center;"| —! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" |Vasili Kuznetsov(1901–1990)
100px)|10 March 1985 – 27 July 1985
! style="text-align:center;"| 9! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" | Andrei Gromyko(1909–1989)BOOK, Ploss, Sidney, 217, The Roots of Perestroika: the Soviet Breakdown in Historical Context, McFarland & Company, 2010,weblink 978-0-7864-4486-1,
100px|alt=Gromyko at the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe)|27 July 1985 – 1 October 1988
! rowspan="5" style="text-align:center;"| 10! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" | Mikhail Gorbachev(1931–)
100px)|1 October 1988 – 25 May 198911th Convocation of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union>11th–12th Convocation
!colspan="4" align="center" | {{anchor|Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (1989–1990)}}Chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1989–1990){{#tag:ref|On 15 March 1990 most constitutional powers were transferred to the newly created office of President of the Soviet Union. Anatoly Lukyanov was elected Chairman of the Supreme Soviet to replace Mikhail Gorbachev. Although the Chairman's office retained its name, it was now that of a parliamentary speaker, not a head of state. Real executive powers were retained by Gorbachev.BOOK, Anderson, John, 188, Religion, state, and politics in the Soviet Union and successor states, Cambridge University Press, 1994,weblink 978-0-521-46784-1, |group="note"}}
! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" | Mikhail Gorbachev(1931–)
100px)|25 May 1989 – 15 March 199012th Convocation of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union>12th Convocation
!colspan="4" align="center" |President (1990–1991)
! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" | Mikhail Gorbachev(1931–)BOOK, Bliss Eaton, Katherine, 32, Daily Life in the Soviet Union, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004,weblink 978-0-313-31628-9,
100px)|15 March 1990 – 25 December 199112th Convocation of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union>12th Convocation

List of vice heads of state

There have been four individuals appointed vice head of state. At over eight years, Vasily Kuznetsov spent the longest time in office. Gennady Yanayev spent the shortest time in office.{| class="wikitable" width=80%! align="center" width="1%" | №! scope="col" style="width:11em;" | Name(Birth–Death)! scope="col" width="1%" | Portrait! scope="col" style="width:10em;" | Term of office! scope="col" | Convocations
! colspan="5" align="center" | First Vice Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1977–1989)
! scope="row" style="fomt-weight:mormal;" | 1! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" | Vasili Kuznetsov(1901–1990)
100px)|7 October 1977 – 18 June 19869th Convocation of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union>9th–11th Convocation
! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" | 2! rowspan="1" style="font-weight:normal;" | Pyotr Demichev(1917–2010)WEB,weblink ru:Петр Демичев : Умер министр культуры СССР Петр Демичев, Russian, Peoples.ru (Lenta.Ru), 8 December 2010, The Minister of Culture of the USSR Pyotr Demichev dies, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110716163132weblink">weblink 16 July 2011,
—|18 June 1986 – 1 October 198811th Convocation of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union>11th Convocation
! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" rowspan="3" | 3! rowspan="1" style="font-weight:normal;" | Anatoly Lukyanov(1930–2019)BOOK, Evtuhov, Catherine, Stites, Richard, 474, A History of Russia: Peoples, Legends, Events, Forces since 1800, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2004,weblink 978-0-395-66073-7,
100px)|1 October 1988 – 25 May 198911th Convocation of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union>11th–12th Convocation
!colspan="4" align="center" | Vice Chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1989–1990)
! rowspan="1" style="font-weight:normal;" | Anatoly Lukyanov(1930–2019)
(File:Anatoliy Lukjanov foto.jpg|100px) 25 May 1989 – 15 March 1990 12th Convocation
!colspan="5" align="center" |Vice President (1990–1991)
! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" | 4! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" | Gennady Yanayev(1937–2010)NEWS, Schwirz, Michael,weblink Gennadi I. Yanayev, 73, Soviet Coup Plotter, Dies, The New York Times, 24 September 2010, 8 December 2010,
100px)Yanayev was Acting President of the Soviet Union during the August Coup of 1991, but was jailed following the coup's collapse and Gorbachev returned to his post as President.STAFF WRITER>URL=HTTPS://WWW.BBC.CO.UK/NEWS/WORLD-EUROPE-11405117DATE=10 FEBRUARY 2011PUBLISHER=BBC ONLINE, |group="note"}} 12th Convocation
! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" | —! scope="row" style="font-weight:normal;" | Office abolishedWEB, Government of the USSR: Mikhail Gorbachev, Gorbachev, Mikhail, ru:Закон "Об органах государственной власти и управления Союза ССР в переходный период", Law: On the bodies of State Authority and Administration of the USSR in the Period of Transition,weblink 5 September 1991, 13 February 2011, Soviet Union, Soyuz Sovietskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Russian, |
Following the failed August Coup of 1991 the State Council of the Soviet Union was given the power to elect a Vice President in the temporary absence of the President.>group="note"}}

See also

Soviet Union-related
{{further|Index of Soviet Union-related articles}}

Russia-related

Notes

{{NoteFoot}}

References

{{Reflist}}{{-}}{{Supreme Soviet Chairmen}}{{Lists of Russians}}{{Heads of state and government of Europe}}{{Featured list}}

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