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Leonardo da Vinci

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Leonardo da Vinci
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{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|15th and 16th-century Italian Renaissance polymath}}{{Redirect|Da Vinci|other uses|Da Vinci (disambiguation)|and|Leonardo da Vinci (disambiguation)}}{{Renaissance Florentine name|da Vinci|Leonardo}}{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2016}}{{Use British English|date=August 2016}}







factoids
leoˈnardo di ˌsɛr ˈpjɛːro da (v)ˈvintʃiit-Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci.ogg}}David Alan Brown, Leonardo (da Vinci), Leonardo Da Vinci: Origins of a Genius, Yale University Press, 1998, p. 7, {{ISBN>0-300-07246-5}}| birth_date = 14/15 April 1452Vinci, Italy>Vinci, Republic of Florence (present-day Italy)df=yes5145215}}| death_place = Amboise, Kingdom of France| known_for = Art (painting, drawing, sculpting), science, engineering, architecture, anatomy| movement = High Renaissance {edih}260px)}}Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (14/15 April 1452{{efn|name=birth}}{{snds}}2 May 1519),BOOK,weblink 354, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists, Ian Chilvers, Oxford University Press, 2003, more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance whose areas of interest included invention, drawing, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. He has been variously called the father of palaeontology, ichnology,Baucon, A. (2010). "Leonardo da Vinci, the Founding Father of Ichnology," Palaios 25.weblink and architecture, and he is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time.The Mona Lisa is the most famous of his works and the most popular portrait ever made.John Lichfield, "The Moving of the Mona Lisa", The Independent, 2 April 2005 (accessed 2012-03-09) The Last Supper is the most reproduced religious painting of all time and his Vitruvian Man drawing is regarded as a cultural icon as well.Vitruvian Man is referred to as "iconic" at the following websites and many others:Vitruvian Man, Fine Art Classics, Key Images in the History of Science; {{webarchive |title=Curiosity and difference |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090130113435weblink |date=30 January 2009}}; "The Guardian: The Real da Vinci Code" Perhaps 15 of his paintings have survived.{{efn|There are 15 significant artworks which are ascribed to Leonardo by most art historians, either in whole or in large part. This number is made up principally of paintings on panel but includes a mural, a large drawing on paper, and two works which are in the early stages of preparation. There are a number of other works that have also been variously attributed to him.}} Nevertheless, these few works—together with his notebooks, which contain drawings, scientific diagrams, and his thoughts on the nature of painting—compose a contribution to later generations of artists rivalled only by that of Leonardo's contemporary Michelangelo.Kalb, Claudia, Why Leonardo da Vinci’s brilliance endures, 500 years after his death, National Geographic, 2019.05.01Although he had no formal academic trainingJOURNAL, Polidoro, Massimo, Massimo Polidoro, The Mind of Leonardo da Vinci, Part 2, Skeptical Inquirer, 2019, 43, 3, 23-24, , many historians and scholars regard Leonardo as the prime exemplar of the 'Universal Genius' or 'Renaissance Man', an individual of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination",BOOK, Helen, Gardner, Art through the Ages, 1970, 450–56, and he is widely considered one of the most diversely talented individuals ever to have lived.See the quotations from the following authors, in section "Fame and reputation": Vasari, Boltraffio, Castiglione, "Anonimo" Gaddiano, Berensen, Taine, Fuseli, Rio, Bortolon. According to art historian Helen Gardner, the scope and depth of his interests were without precedent in recorded history, and "his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, while the man himself mysterious and remote." Scholars interpret his view of the world as being based in logic, though the empirical methods he used were unorthodox for his time.{{sfn|Rosci|1977|p=8}}Leonardo is revered for his technological ingenuity. He conceptualised flying machines, a type of armoured fighting vehicle, concentrated solar power, an adding machine,WEB,weblink Roberto Guatelli's Controversial Replica of Leonardo da Vinci's Adding Machine, Kaplan, Erez, 1996, 19 August 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110529140741weblink">weblink 29 May 2011, and the double hull. Relatively few of his designs were constructed or even feasible during his lifetime, as the modern scientific approaches to metallurgy and engineering were only in their infancy during the Renaissance. Some of his smaller inventions, however, entered the world of manufacturing unheralded, such as an automated bobbin winder and a machine for testing the tensile strength of wire. He is also sometimes credited with the inventions of the parachute, helicopter, and tank.NEWS,weblink BBC Newsround, Leonardo da Vinci: Five great inventions by the artist, 1 May 2019, 1 May 2019, Rumerman, Judy. "Early Helicopter Technology." Centennial of Flight Commission, 2003. Retrieved 12 December 2010.WEB, Leonardo da Vinci's Helical Air Screw,weblink's%20Helical%20Air%20Screw.htm, Pilotfriend.com, He made substantial discoveries in anatomy, civil engineering, geology, optics, and hydrodynamics, but he did not publish his findings and they had no direct influence on subsequent science.Capra, pp. 5–6

Life

Leonardo was born out of wedlock to notary Piero da Vinci and a peasant woman named Caterina in Vinci in the region of Florence, and he was educated in the studio of Florentine painter Andrea del Verrocchio. Much of his earlier working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan. He later worked in Rome, Bologna, and Venice, and he spent his last years in France at the home awarded to him by Francis I.

Early life

File:Vinci casa Leonardo.jpg|thumb|Leonardo's childhood home in alt=Photo of a building of rough stone with small windows, surrounded by olive treesLeonardo was born on 14/15 April 1452{{efn|name=birth|His birth is recorded in the diary of his paternal grandfather Ser Antonio:Angela Ottino della Chiesa in Leonardo da Vinci, and Reynal & Co., Leonardo da Vinci (William Morrow and Company, 1956) "A grandson of mine was born April 15, Saturday, three hours into the night". The date was recorded in the Julian calendar; as it was Florentine time and sunset was 6:40 pm, three hours after sunset would be sometime around 9:40 pm, which was still 14 April by modern reckoning.}} in the Tuscan hill town of Vinci, in the lower valley of the Arno river in the territory of the Medici-ruled Republic of Florence.His birth is recorded in the diary of his paternal grandfather Ser Antonio, as cited by Angela Ottino della Chiesa in Leonardo da Vinci, p. 83 He was the out-of-wedlock son of Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci, a wealthy Florentine legal notary, and a peasant named Caterina,{{efn|Between 1493 and 1495, Leonardo listed a woman called Caterina among his dependents in his taxation documents. When she died in 1495, the list of funeral expenditures suggests that she was his mother.Codex II, 95 r, Victoria and Albert Museum, as cited by della Chiesa p. 85}} identified as Caterina Buti del Vacca and more recently as Caterina di Meo Lippi by historian Martin Kemp. There have been many theories regarding Leonardo's mother's identity, including that she was a slave of foreign origin or an impoverished local youth.BOOK, Alessandro, Vezzosi, Leonardo da Vinci: Renaissance Man, 'New Horizons (Thames & Hudson), New Horizons' series, 1997, BOOK, Angela Ottino, della Chiesa, The Complete Paintings of Leonardo da Vinci, 1967, 83, BOOK, Paratico, Angelo, 2015, Leonardo Da Vinci. A Chinese Scholar Lost in Renaissance Italy, English, Hong Kong, Lascar Publishing, 978-988-14198-0-4, BOOK, Kemp, Martin, Pallanti, Giuseppe, 2017, Mona Lisa: The People and the Painting, English, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 9780198749905, {{efn|It has been suggested that Caterina may have been a slave from the Middle East "or at least, from the Mediterranean" or even of Chinese descent. According to art critic Alessandro Vezzosi, head of the Leonardo Museum in Vinci, there is evidence that Piero owned a slave called Caterina.NEWS, John, Hooper, The Guardian,weblink Da Vinci's mother was a slave, Italian study claims, 12 April 2008, 16 August 2015, The reconstruction of one of Leonardo's fingerprints shows a pattern that matches 60% of people of Middle Eastern origin, suggesting the possibility that Leonardo may have had Middle Eastern blood. The claim is refuted by Simon Cole, associate professor of criminology, law and society at the University of California at Irvine: "You can't predict one person's race from these kinds of incidences, especially if looking at only one finger". More recently, historian Martin Kemp, after digging through overlooked archives and records in Italy, found evidence that Leonardo's mother was a young local woman identified as Caterina di Meo Lippi.NEWS, Alberge, Dalya, 2017-05-21, Tuscan archives yield up secrets of Leonardo's mystery mother,weblink The Guardian, 2019-06-05, }} Leonardo had no surname in the modern sense—da Vinci simply meaning 'of Vinci'; his full birth name was Lionardo di ser Piero da Vinci,The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci, Volume 1, 1967, p. 720, {{ISBN|1-105-31016-7}} meaning 'Leonardo, (son) of ser Piero from Vinci'.{{efn|The inclusion of the title 'ser' (shortening of Italian Messer or Messere, title of courtesy prefixed to the first name) indicated that Leonardo's father was a gentleman.}}Leonardo spent his first years in the hamlet of Anchiano in the home of his mother, and from at least 1457 lived in the household of his father, grandparents and uncle in the small town of Vinci.{{sfn|Wallace|1966|p=10}} His father had married a 16-year-old girl named Albiera Amadori, who loved Leonardo but died youngBOOK, Liana, Bortolon, The Life and Times of Leonardo, Paul Hamlyn, London, 1967, in 1465 without children. In 1468, when Leonardo was 16, his father married again to 20-year-old Francesca Lanfredini, who also died without children. Piero's legitimate heirs were born from his third wife Margherita di Guglielmo, who gave birth to six children,{{efn|Antonio, Giulian, Maddalena, Lorenzo, Violante and DomenicoMargherita (da Vinci) in: geni.com [retrieved 15 June 2016].}} and his fourth and final wife, Lucrezia Cortigiani, who bore him another six heirs.{{efn|Margherita, Benedetto, Pandolfo, Guglielmo, Bartolomeo and GiovanniLucrezia Cortigiani in: geni.com [retrieved 15 June 2016].}}{{sfn|Rosci|1977|p=20}}Magnano, p. 138.In all, Leonardo had 12 half-siblings, who were much younger than he was (the last was born when Leonardo was 40 years old) and with whom he had very little contact.{{efn|He also never wrote about his father, except a passing note of his death in which he overstates his age by three years.{{sfn|Wallace|1966|p=11}} Leonardo's siblings caused him difficulty after his father's death in a dispute over their inheritance.}}Leonardo received an informal education in Latin, geometry and mathematics. In later life, Leonardo recorded few distinct childhood incidents. One was of a kite coming to his cradle and opening his mouth with its tail; he regarded this as an omen of his writing on the subject.{{sfn|Rosci|1977|p=21}}{{sfn|Da Vinci|1971|p=217}} The second occurred while he was exploring in the mountains: he discovered a cave and was both terrified that some great monster might lurk there and driven by curiosity to find out what was inside. He also seems to have remembered some of his childhood observations of water, writing and crossing out the name of his hometown in one of his notebooks on the formation of rivers.{{sfn|Wallace|1966|p=10}}Leonardo's early life has been the subject of historical conjecture.BOOK, Brigstoke, Hugh, The Oxford Companion the Western Art, Oxford, 2001, {{page needed|date=December 2018}} Vasari, the 16th-century biographer of Renaissance painters, tells a story of Leonardo as a very young man: A local peasant made himself a round shield and requested that Ser Piero have it painted for him. Leonardo, inspired by the story of Medusa, responded with a painting of a monster spitting fire that was so terrifying that his father bought a different shield to give to the peasant and sold Leonardo's to a Florentine art dealer for 100 ducats, who in turn sold it to the Duke of Milan.{{sfnp|Vasari|1965|pp=258–259}}

Verrocchio's workshop

File:Andrea del Verrocchio, Leonardo da Vinci - Baptism of Christ - Uffizi.jpg|thumb|upright|right|The Baptism of Christ (1472–1475), Uffizi, by alt=Painting showing Jesus, naked except for a loin-cloth, standing in a shallow stream in a rocky landscape, while to the right, John the Baptist, identifiable by the cross that he carries, tips water over Jesus' head. Two angels kneel at the left. Above Jesus are the hands of God, and a dove descendingIn the mid-1460s, Leonardo's family moved to Florence, and around the age of 14,{{sfn|Wallace|1966|p=11}} he became a garzone (studio boy) in the workshop of Verrocchio, who was the leading Florentine painter and sculptor of his time.{{sfn|Rosci|1977|p=13}} Leonardo became an apprentice by the age of 17 and remained in training for seven years.BOOK, Bacci, Mina, Tanguy, J., The Great Artists: Da Vinci, 1978, 1963, Funk & Wagnalls, New York, WEB,weblink Leonardo da Vinci – Encarta (cached), refseek.com, 8 November 2015, Other famous painters apprenticed in the workshop or associated with it include Ghirlandaio, Perugino, Botticelli, and Lorenzo di Credi.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}} Leonardo was exposed to both theoretical training and a wide range of technical skills,{{sfn|Rosci|1977|p=27}} including drafting, chemistry, metallurgy, metal working, plaster casting, leather working, mechanics, and wood-work, as well as the artistic skills of drawing, painting, sculpting, and modelling.BOOK, Andrew, Martindale, 1972, The Rise of the Artist, {{efn|The "diverse arts" and technical skills of Medieval and Renaissance workshops are described in detail in the 12th-century text On Divers Arts by Theophilus Presbyter and in the early 15th-century text Il Libro Dell'arte O Trattato Della Pittui by Cennino Cennini.}}Much of the painting in Verrocchio's workshop was done by his employees. According to Vasari, Leonardo collaborated with Verrocchio on his The Baptism of Christ, painting the young angel holding Jesus' robe in a manner that was so far superior to his master's that Verrocchio put down his brush and never painted again, although this is believed to be an apocryphal story.Vasari, p. 258 Close examination reveals areas of the work that have been painted or touched-up over the tempera, using the new technique of oil paint, including the landscape, the rocks seen through the brown mountain stream, and much of the figure of Jesus, bearing witness to the hand of Leonardo.della Chiesa, p. 88 Leonardo may have been the model for two works by Verrocchio: the bronze statue of David in the Bargello, and the Archangel Raphael in Tobias and the Angel.By 1472, at the age of 20, Leonardo qualified as a master in the Guild of Saint Luke, the guild of artists and doctors of medicine,{{efn|That Leonardo joined the guild by this time is deduced from the record of payment made to the Compagnia di San Luca in the company's register, Libro Rosso A, 1472–1520, Accademia di Belle Arti.}} but even after his father set him up in his own workshop, his attachment to Verrocchio was such that he continued to collaborate and live with him.{{sfn|Wallace|1966|p=13}} Leonardo's earliest known dated work is (:File:Study of a Tuscan Landscape.jpg|a 1473 pen-and-ink drawing) of the Arno valley,{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}} which has been cited as the first 'pure' landscape in the Occident.{{efn|On the back he wrote: "I, staying with Anthony, am happy," possibly in reference to his father.}} According to Vasari, the young Leonardo was the first to suggest making the Arno river a navigable channel between Florence and Pisa.{{sfn|Wallace|1966|p=15}}

Professional life

{{See also|List of works by Leonardo da Vinci}}File:Leonardo Da Vinci - Vergine delle Rocce (Louvre).jpg|thumb|upright|left|Leonardo's Virgin of the RocksVirgin of the RocksLeonardo left Verrocchio's studio in 1478. In January of that year, he received an independent commission to paint an altarpiece for the Chapel of St. Bernard in the Palazzo Vecchio.BOOK, Clark, Kenneth, Kemp, Martin, Leonardo da Vinci, Penguin, United Kingdom, 9780141982373, 45, Newition,weblink One anonymous writer claims that in 1480, Leonardo was living with the Medici and often worked in the garden of the Piazza San Marco, Florence, where a Neoplatonic academy of artists, poets and philosophers organized by the Medici met. In March 1481, Leonardo received a commission from the monks of (:it:Chiesa_di_San_Donato_in_Scopeto|San Donato in Scopeto) for The Adoration of the Magi.BOOK, Jack, Wasserman, Leonardo da Vinci, 1975, 77–78, Neither of Leonardo's initial commissions were completed, being abandoned when he went to Milan to offer his services to the duke of Milan, Ludovico Sforza. In 1482, Leonardo casted a silver lyre from a horse's skull and ram horns to bring to Sforza as a gift.{{sfn|Wallace|1966|pp=53–54}}BOOK, Rossi, Paolo, The Birth of Modern Science, 2001, 33, Leonardo wrote a letter to Ludovico describing the marvellous and diverse things that he could achieve in the field of engineering and weapon design, and mentioning that he could paint.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}}{{sfn|Wallace|1966|pp=53–54}}WEB, Leonardo's Letter to Ludovico Sforza, Leonardo-History,weblink 5 January 2010, Leonardo worked in Milan from 1482 until 1499. He was commissioned to paint the Virgin of the Rocks for the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception and The Last Supper for the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie.BOOK, Martin, Kemp, Leonardo, 2004, In the spring of 1485, Leonardo travelled to Hungary on behalf of Ludovico to meet Matthias Corvinus, and was commissioned by him to paint a Madonna.{{ill|Franz-Joachim Verspohl|de}}, Michelangelo Buonarroti und Leonardo Da Vinci: Republikanischer Alltag und Künstlerkonkurrenz in Florenz zwischen 1501 und 1505 (Wallstein Verlag, 2007), p. 151.File:Study of horse.jpg|thumb|upright|Study of horse from Leonardo's journals, Royal Library, alt=A page with two drawings of a war-horse, one from the side, and the other showing the chest and right legLeonardo was employed on many different projects for Ludovico, including the preparation of floats and pageants for special occasions, designs for a dome for Milan Cathedral, and a model for a huge equestrian monument to Francesco Sforza, Ludovico's predecessor. This would have surpassed in size the only two large equestrian statues of the Renaissance, Donatello's Gattamelata in Padua and Verrocchio's Bartolomeo Colleoni in Venice, and became known as the Gran Cavallo.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}} Leonardo completed a model for the horse and made detailed plans for its casting,{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}} but in November 1494, Ludovico gave the bronze to his brother-in-law to be used for a cannon to defend the city from Charles VIII.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}}With Ludovico Sforza overthrown at the dawn of the Second Italian War, Leonardo, with his assistant Salaì and friend, the mathematician Luca Pacioli, fled Milan for Venice.della Chiesa, p. 85 There, he was employed as a military architect and engineer, devising methods to defend the city from naval attack. On his return to Florence in 1500, he and his household were guests of the Servite monks at the monastery of Santissima Annunziata and were provided with a workshop where, according to Vasari, Leonardo created the cartoon of The Virgin and Child with St Anne and St John the Baptist, a work that won such admiration that "men and women, young and old" flocked to see it "as if they were attending a great festival".Vasari, p. 256{{efn|In 2005, the studio was rediscovered during the restoration of part of a building occupied for 100 years by the Department of Military Geography.NEWS, Richard, Owen, Found: the studio where Leonardo met Mona Lisa, The Times, 12 January 2005,weblink 5 January 2010, London, }}File:Leonardo da Vinci - Plan of Imola - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|left|Leonardo's very accurate map of Imola, created for Cesare BorgiaCesare BorgiaIn Cesena in 1502, Leonardo entered the service of Cesare Borgia, the son of Pope Alexander VI, acting as a military architect and engineer and travelling throughout Italy with his patron. Leonardo created a map of Cesare Borgia's stronghold, a town plan of Imola in order to win his patronage. Maps were extremely rare at the time and it would have seemed like a new concept. Upon seeing it, Cesare hired Leonardo as his chief military engineer and architect. Later in the year, Leonardo produced another map for his patron, one of Chiana Valley, Tuscany, so as to give his patron a better overlay of the land and greater strategic position. He created this map in conjunction with his other project of constructing a dam from the sea to Florence, in order to allow a supply of water to sustain the canal during all seasons.File:Front of the Da Vinci Globe.jpg|thumb|272x272px|Mundus Novus depicted on the (Da Vinci Globe]].Verhoeven, G. J. and Missinne, S. J.: Unfolding Leonardo Da Vinci's Globe (AD 1504) To Reveal Its Historical World Map, ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-2/W2, 303-310,weblink 2017.)Leonardo returned to Florence, where he rejoined the Guild of Saint Luke on 18 October 1503. By this same month, Leonardo had begun working on a portrait of Lisa del Giocondo—the model of the Mona Lisa,WEB, Mona Lisa – Heidelberg discovery confirms identity,weblink University of Heidelberg, 4 July 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131105050239weblink">weblink 5 November 2013, EPISODE, Vincent, Delieuvin, Télématin, Journal Télévisé, France 2 Télévision, 15 January 2008, which he would continue working on until his twilight years. In January 1504, he was part of a committee formed to recommend where Michelangelo's statue of David should be placed.BOOK, Coughlan, Robert, The World of Michelangelo: 1475–1564, et al, Time-Life Books, 1966, 90, He then spent two years in Florence designing and painting a mural of The Battle of Anghiari for the Signoria, with Michelangelo designing its companion piece, The Battle of Cascina.{{efn|Both works are lost. The entire composition of Michelangelo's painting is known from a copy by Aristotole da Sangallo, 1542.BOOK, Ludwig, Goldscheider, Michelangelo: paintings, sculptures, architecture, 1967, Phaidon Press, 978-0-7148-1314-1, Leonardo's painting is known only from preparatory sketches and several copies of the centre section, of which the best known, and probably least accurate, is by Peter Paul Rubens.della Chiesa, pp. 106–07}} While in Florence, Leonardo wrote in the Codex Atlanticus of the Da Vinci Globe (1504), which proves that he was aware of the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus.Missinne, Stefaan, The Da Vinci Globe, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 2018, x + 282 p., 220 illustrations mostly in colour, 4 tables, 2 diagrams, 29 x 20.5 cm, soft cover, ISBN (Special:BookSources/978-1-5275-1134-7|978-1-5275-1134-7). In 1506, Leonardo returned to Milan. Many of his most prominent pupils or followers in painting either knew or worked with him in Milan, including Bernardino Luini, Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio and Marco d'Oggiono.{{efn|D'Oggiono is known in part for his contemporary copies of the Last Supper.}} At this time he may have commenced a project for an equestrian figure of Charles II d'Amboise, the acting French governor of Milan.JOURNAL, Achademia Leonardi Vinci, Journal of Leonardo Studies & Bibliography of Vinciana, VIII, 243–44, 1990, A wax model survives and, if genuine, is the only extant example of Leonardo's sculpture.Leonardo did not stay in Milan for long because his father had died in 1504, and in 1507 he was back in Florence trying to sort out problems with his brothers over his father's estate. By 1508, Leonardo was back in Milan, living in his own house in Porta Orientale in the parish of Santa Babila.della Chiesa, p. 86

Old age and death

In 1512, Leonardo was working on plans for an equestrian monument for Gian Giacomo Trivulzio, but this was prevented by an invasion of a confederation of Swiss, Spanish and Venetian forces, which drove the French from Milan. Leonardo stayed in Milan, spending several months in 1513 at the Medici's Vaprio d'Adda villa.{{sfn|Wallace|1972|pp=149–150}} In March of that year, Lorenzo de' Medici's son Giovanni assumed the papacy (as Leo X); Leonardo went to Rome that September, where he was received by the pope's brother Giuliano.{{sfn|Wallace|1972|pp=149–150}} From September 1513 to 1516, Leonardo spent much of his time living in the Belvedere Courtyard (designed by Donato Bramante) in the Apostolic Palace, where Michelangelo and Raphael were both active. Leonardo was given an allowance of 33 ducats a month, and according to Vasari, decorated a lizard with scales dipped in quicksilver.{{sfn|Wallace|1972|p=150}} The pope gave him a painting commission of unknown subject matter, but cancelled it impatiently when the artist set about developing a new kind of varnish.{{sfn|Wallace|1972|p=150}}{{efn|Pope Leo X is quoted as saying, "This man will never accomplish anything! He thinks of the end before the beginning!" {{harv|Wallace|1972|p=150}}}}In October 1515, King Francis I of France recaptured Milan. On 19 December, Leonardo was present at the meeting of Francis I and Leo X, which took place in Bologna.Georges Goyau, François I, Transcribed by Gerald Rossi. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI. Published 1909. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved on 4 October 2007WEB, Salvador, Miranda,weblink The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: Antoine du Prat, 1998–2007, 4 October 2007, Leonardo was commissioned to make a mechanical lion for Francis that could walk forward then open its chest to reveal a cluster of lilies.Vasari, p. 265{{efn|It is unknown for what occasion the mechanical lion was made, but it is believed to have greeted the king at his entry into Lyon and perhaps was used for the peace talks between the French king and Pope Leo X in Bologna. A conjectural recreation of the lion has been made and is on display in the Museum of Bologna.WEB, Reconstruction of Leonardo's walking lion,weblink Italian, 5 January 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090825195910weblink">weblink 25 August 2009, dmy-all, }} In 1516, he entered Francis' service, being given the use of the manor house Clos Lucé, near the king's residence at the royal Château d'Amboise. He spent the last three years of his life here, accompanied by his friend and apprentice, Francesco Melzi, and supported by a pension totalling 10,000 scudi. At some point, Melzi drew a (:File:A portrait of Leonardo, by Francesco Melzi.jpg|portrait of Leonardo); the only others known from his lifetime were a sketch by an unknown assistant on the back of one of Leonardo's studies (c. 1517)WEB, Brown, Mark, Newly identified sketch of Leonardo da Vinci to go on display in London,weblink The Guardian, 2 May 2019, 1 May 2019, and a drawing by Giovanni Ambrogio Figino depicting an elderly Leonardo with his right arm assuaged by cloth.WEB, Strickland, Ashley, What caused Leonardo da Vinci's hand impairment?,weblink CNN, 4 May 2019, 4 May 2019, {{efn|Identified via its similarity to Leonardo's presumed self-portraitWEB, McMahon, Barbara, Da Vinci 'paralysis left Mona Lisa unfinished',weblink The Guardian, 2 May 2019, 1 May 2005, }}{{efn|name=500th|These two portraits were announced on the 500th anniversary of Leonardo's death.}} The latter confirms an account of Leonardo's right hand being paralytic at the age of 65, which may indicate why he left works such as the Mona Lisa unfinished.WEB, Saplakoglu, Yasemin, A Portrait of Leonardo da Vinci May Reveal Why He Never Finished the Mona Lisa,weblink Live Science, 5 May 2019, 4 May 2019, WEB, Bodkin, Henry, Leonardo da Vinci never finished the Mona Lisa because he injured his arm while fainting, experts say,weblink The Telegraph, 6 May 2019, 4 May 2019, He continued to work at some capacity until eventually becoming ill and bedridden for several months, as Vasari states.WEB, Lorenzi, Rossella, Did a Stroke Kill Leonardo da Vinci?,weblink Seeker, 5 May 2019, 10 May 2016, File:Clos luce 04 straight.JPG|thumb|left|alt=Photo of a large medieval house, built of brick with many windows and gables and a circular tower with a conical roofLeonardo died at Clos Lucé on 2 May 1519 at the age of 67, possibly of a stroke.Charlier, Philippe; Deo, Saudamini. physical sign of stroke sequel on the skeleton of Leonardo da Vinci?". Neurology. 4 April 2017; 88(14): 1381–82 Francis I had become a close friend. Vasari describes Leonardo as lamenting on his deathbed, full of repentance, that "he had offended against God and men by failing to practice his art as he should have done."Antonina Vallentin, Leonardo da Vinci: The Tragic Pursuit of Perfection, (New York: The Viking Press, 1938), 533 Vasari states that in his last days, Leonardo sent for a priest to make his confession and to receive the Holy Sacrament.Vasari, p. 270 Vasari also records that the king held Leonardo's head in his arms as he died, although this story may be legend rather than fact.{{efn|This scene is portrayed in romantic paintings by Ingres, Ménageot and other French artists, as well as Angelica Kauffman.}}{{efn|On the day of Leonardo's death, a royal edict was issued by the king at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, a two-day journey from Clos Lucé. This has been taken as evidence that King Francis cannot have been present at Leonardo's deathbed, but the edict was not signed by the king.White, Leonardo: The First Scientist}} In accordance with his will, sixty beggars carrying tapers followed Leonardo's casket.{{efn|Each of the sixty paupers were to have been awarded in accord with Leonardo's will.}} Melzi was the principal heir and executor, receiving, as well as money, Leonardo's paintings, tools, library and personal effects. Leonardo also remembered his other long-time pupil and companion, Salaì, and his servant Battista di Vilussis, who each received half of Leonardo's vineyards. His brothers received land, and his serving woman received a black cloak "of good stuff" with a fur edge.{{efn|The black cloak, of good quality material, was a ready-made item from a clothier, with the fur trim being an additional luxury. The possession of this garment meant that Leonardo's house keeper could attend his funeral "respectably" attired at no expense to herself.}}WEB, Leonardo's will, Leonardo-history,weblink 28 September 2007, Leonardo da Vinci was buried in the Collegiate Church of Saint-Florentin in Château d'Amboise in France.Some 20 years after Leonardo's death, Francis was reported by the goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini as saying: "There had never been another man born in the world who knew as much as Leonardo, not so much about painting, sculpture and architecture, as that he was a very great philosopher."BOOK, Mario, Lucertini, Ana Millan, Gasca, Fernando, Nicolo, Technological Concepts and Mathematical Models in the Evolution of Modern Engineering Systems,weblink 3 October 2007, 978-3-7643-6940-8, 2004, Birkhäuser,

Location of remains

File:Tombe de Léonard de Vinci.JPG|thumb|upright|Tomb of Leonardo da Vinci in the Chapel of Saint Hubert at the Château d'AmboiseChâteau d'AmboiseOn 12 August 1519, Leonardo's remains were interred in the Collegiate Church of Saint Florentin at the Château d'Amboise.WEB, Florentine editorial staff, Hair believed to have belonged to Leonardo on display in Vinci,weblink The Florentine, 4 May 2019, 2 May 2019, Much of the château was damaged during the French Revolution, leading to the church's demolition in 1802. Some of the graves were destroyed in the process, scattering the bones interred there and thereby leaving the whereabouts of Leonardo's remains subject to dispute. While excavating the site in 1863, fine-arts inspector general Arsène Houssaye found a partially complete skeleton with a bronze ring on one finger, some white hair, and stone fragments bearing the inscriptions "EO", "AR", "DUS", and "VINC"—interpreted as forming "Leonardus Vinci".WEB, Montard, Nicolas, Léonard de Vinci est-il vraiment enterré au château d'Amboise?,weblink Ouest France, 4 May 2019, fr, 30 April 2019, BOOK, Leonardo da Vinci: Flights of the Mind, Nicholl, Charles, Penguin, 2005, 1st, 978-0-14-029681-5,weblink 502, A silver shield found near the bones depicts a beardless Francis I, corresponding to the king's appearance during Leonardo's lifetime, and the skull's inclusion of eight teeth corresponds to someone of approximately the appropriate age. The unusually large skull led Houssaye to believe that he had located Leonardo's remains, but he thought the skeleton seemed too short. Other art historians say that the {{convert|1.73|m|ft}} tall skeleton may well be Leonardo's.Heaton, Mary Margaret (1874), Leonardo da Vinci and his works, Kessinger Publishing, Whitefish, MT, 2004, p. 204: "The skeleton, which measured five feet eight inches, accords with the height of Leonardo da Vinci. The skull might have served for the model of the portrait Leonardo drew of himself in red chalk a few years before his death."The remains, except for the ring and a lock of hair which Houssaye kept, were brought to Paris in a lead box, where the skull was allegedly presented to Napoleon, before being returned to the Château d'Amboise and {{nowrap|re-interred}} in the Chapel of Saint Hubert in 1874. A new memorial tombstone was added by sculptor Francesco La Monaca in the 1930s.BOOK, Collignon, Roland AE, Leonardo da Vinci, 1, Lulu.com, 9780244668464, 309,weblink {{bettersource|date=May 2019}} Reflecting doubts about the attribution, a plaque above the tomb states that the remains are only presumed to be those of Leonardo. It has since been theorized that the folding of the skeleton's right arm over the head may correspond to the paralysis of Leonardo's right hand.In 2016, it was announced that DNA tests would be conducted to determine whether the attribution is correct.NEWS,weblink Leonardo da Vinci paintings analysed for DNA to solve grave mystery, Knapton, Sarah, The Daily Telegraph, 5 May 2016, August 21, 2017, The DNA of the remains will be compared to that of samples collected from Leonardo's work and his half-brother Domenico's descendants; it may also be sequenced.WEB, Newman, Lily Hay, Researchers Are Planning to Sequence Leonardo da Vinci's 500-Year-Old Genome,weblink Slate Magazine, 4 May 2019, 6 May 2016, The lock of hair and ring, now in a private US collection,{{efn|Bought from Houssaye's great-grandson in Paris in 1925 by an American collector, and sold to the current owner, another American collector, in 1985.}} were displayed in Vinci beginning on 2 May 2019, the 500th anniversary of the artist's death.WEB, Messia, Hada, Robinson, Matthew, Leonardo da Vinci's 'hair' to undergo DNA testing,weblink CNN, 3 May 2019, en, 30 April 2019,

Relationships and influences

Artistic and social background

Florence at the time of Leonardo's youth was the centre of Christian Humanist thought and culture.{{sfn|Rosci|1977|p=13}} Leonardo commenced his apprenticeship with Verrocchio in 1466, the year that Verrocchio's master, the great sculptor Donatello, died.{{efn|The humanist influence of Donatello's David can be seen in Leonardo's late paintings, particularly John the Baptist.{{sfn|Rosci|1977|p=13}}}} The painter Uccello, whose early experiments with perspective were to influence the development of landscape painting, was a very old man. The painters Piero della Francesca and Filippo Lippi, sculptor Luca della Robbia, and architect and writer Leon Battista Alberti were in their sixties. The successful artists of the next generation were Leonardo's teacher Verrocchio, Antonio del Pollaiuolo, and the portrait sculptor Mino da Fiesole.BOOK, Frederich, Hartt, A History of Italian Renaissance Art, 1970, 127–33, {{sfn|Rosci|1977|pp=9–20}}File:Madonna benois 01.jpg|thumb|upright|left|1478}}Leonardo's youth was spent in a Florence that was ornamented by the works of these artists and by Donatello's contemporaries, Masaccio, whose figurative frescoes were imbued with realism and emotion; and Ghiberti, whose Gates of Paradise, gleaming with gold leaf, displayed the art of combining complex figure compositions with detailed architectural backgrounds. Piero della Francesca had made a detailed study of perspective,Piero della Francesca, On Perspective for Painting (De Prospectiva Pingendi) and was the first painter to make a scientific study of light. These studies and Alberti's treatise De picturaLeon Battista Alberti, De Pictura, 1435. On Painting, in English, De Pictura, in Latin were to have a profound effect on younger artists and in particular on Leonardo's own observations and artworks.A prevalent tradition in Florence was the small altarpiece of the Virgin and Child. Many of these were created in tempera or glazed terracotta by the workshops of Filippo Lippi, Verrocchio and the prolific della Robbia family. Leonardo's early Madonnas such as The Madonna with a carnation and the Benois Madonna followed this tradition while showing idiosyncratic departures, particularly in the latter in which the Virgin is set at an oblique angle to the picture space with the Christ Child at the opposite angle. This compositional theme was to emerge in Leonardo's later paintings such as The Virgin and Child with St. Anne.Leonardo was a contemporary of Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Perugino, who were all slightly older than he was.{{sfn|Rosci|1977|pp=9–20}} He would have met them at the workshop of Verrocchio, with whom they had associations, and at the Academy of the Medici. Botticelli was a particular favourite of the Medici family, and thus his success as a painter was assured. Ghirlandaio and Perugino were both prolific and ran large workshops. They competently delivered commissions to well-satisfied patrons who appreciated Ghirlandaio's ability to portray the wealthy citizens of Florence within large religious frescoes, and Perugino's ability to deliver a multitude of saints and angels of unfailing sweetness and innocence.These three were among those commissioned to paint the walls of the Sistine Chapel, the work commencing with Perugino's employment in 1479. Leonardo was not part of this prestigious commission. His first significant commission, The Adoration of the Magi for the Monks of Scopeto, was never completed.File:Hugo van der Goes 006.jpg|thumb|The Portinari Altarpiece (c. 1475), Hugo van der GoesHugo van der GoesIn 1476, during the time of Leonardo's association with Verrocchio's workshop, the Portinari Altarpiece by Hugo van der Goes arrived in Florence, bringing from Northern Europe new painterly techniques that were to profoundly affect Leonardo, Ghirlandaio, Perugino and others.{{sfn|Rosci|1977|pp=9–20}} In 1479, the Sicilian painter Antonello da Messina, who worked exclusively in oils, travelled north on his way to Venice, where the leading painter Giovanni Bellini adopted the technique of oil painting, quickly making it the preferred method in Venice. Leonardo was also later to visit Venice.{{sfn|Rosci|1977|pp=9–20}}Like the two contemporary architects Bramante and Antonio da Sangallo the Elder, Leonardo experimented with designs for centrally planned churches, a number of which appear in his journals, as both plans and views, although none was ever realised.{{sfn|Rosci|1977|pp=9–20}}Hartt, pp. 391–92Leonardo's political contemporaries were Lorenzo de' Medici (il Magnifico), who was three years older, and his younger brother Giuliano, who was slain in the Pazzi conspiracy in 1478. Leonardo was sent as an ambassador by the Medici court to Ludovico il Moro, who ruled Milan between 1479 and 1499.{{sfn|Rosci|1977|pp=9–20}}With Alberti, Leonardo visited the home of the Medici and through them came to know the older Humanist philosophers of whom Marsiglio Ficino, proponent of Neo Platonism; Cristoforo Landino, writer of commentaries on Classical writings, and John Argyropoulos, teacher of Greek and translator of Aristotle were the foremost. Also associated with the Academy of the Medici was Leonardo's contemporary, the brilliant young poet and philosopher Pico della Mirandola.{{sfn|Rosci|1977|pp=9–20}}BOOK, Hugh Ross, Williamson, Lorenzo the Magnificent, 1974, Leonardo later wrote in the margin of a journal, "The Medici made me and the Medici destroyed me." While it was through the action of Lorenzo that Leonardo received his employment at the court of Milan, it is not known exactly what Leonardo meant by this cryptic comment.Although usually named together as the three giants of the High Renaissance, Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael were not of the same generation. Leonardo was 23 when Michelangelo was born and 31 when Raphael was born.{{sfn|Rosci|1977|pp=9–20}} Raphael died at the age of 37 in 1520, the year after Leonardo died, but Michelangelo went on creating for another 45 years.BOOK, Gene A., Brucker, Renaissance Florence, 1969, BOOK, Ilan, Rachum, The Renaissance, an Illustrated Encyclopedia, 1979,

Personal life

File:Da Vinci Isabella d'Este.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Study for a portrait of Isabella d'Este (1500) LouvreLouvreWithin Leonardo's lifetime, his extraordinary powers of invention, his "outstanding physical beauty", "infinite grace", "great strength and generosity", "regal spirit and tremendous breadth of mind", as described by Vasari,Vasari, p. 253 as well as all other aspects of his life, attracted the curiosity of others. One such aspect was his respect for life, evidenced by his vegetarianism and his habit, according to Vasari, of purchasing caged birds and releasing them.Vasari, p. 257BOOK, Müntz, Eugène, 17,weblink 1898, Leonardo da Vinci. Artist, Thinker, and Man of Science. Volume 1, William Heinemann, London, Leonardo had many friends who are now renowned either in their fields or for their historical significance. They included the mathematician Luca Pacioli,WEB,weblink Leonardo, Left-(can't find: GetWiki:lc:Handed, Draftsman and writer |accessdate=18 October 2009 |last=Bambach |first=Carmen |year=2003 |location=New York |publisher=Metropolitan Museum of Art |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20091110221047weblink |archivedate=10 November 2009)
with whom he collaborated on the book Divina proportione in the 1490s. Leonardo appears to have had no close relationships with women except for his friendship with Cecilia Gallerani and the two Este sisters, Beatrice and Isabella.Cartwright Ady, Julia. Beatrice d'Este, Duchess of Milan, 1475–1497. Publisher: J.M. Dent, 1899; Cartwright Ady, Julia. Isabella D'Este, Marchioness of Mantua, 1474–1539. Publisher; J.M. Dent, 1903. While on a journey that took him through Mantua, he drew a portrait of Isabella that appears to have been used to create a painted portrait, now lost.Beyond friendship, Leonardo kept his private life secret. His sexuality has been the subject of satire, analysis, and speculation. This trend began in the mid-16th century and was revived in the 19th and 20th centuries, most notably by Sigmund Freud.Sigmund Freud, Eine Kindheitserinnerung des Leonardo da Vinci, (1910) Leonardo's most intimate relationships were perhaps with his pupils Salaì and Melzi. Melzi, writing to inform Leonardo's brothers of his death, described Leonardo's feelings for his pupils as both loving and passionate. It has been claimed since the 16th century that these relationships were of a sexual or erotic nature. Court records of 1476, when he was aged twenty-four, show that Leonardo and three other young men were charged with sodomy in an incident involving a well-known male prostitute. The charges were dismissed for lack of evidence, and there is speculation that since one of the accused, Lionardo de Tornabuoni, was related to Lorenzo de' Medici, the family exerted its influence to secure the dismissal. Since that date much has been written about his presumed homosexuality and its role in his art, particularly in the androgyny and eroticism manifested in John the Baptist and Bacchus and more explicitly in a number of erotic drawings.Michael Rocke, Forbidden Friendships epigraph, p. 148 & N120 p. 298

Assistants and pupils

File:Leonardo da Vinci - Saint John the Baptist C2RMF retouched.jpg|thumb|upright|John the Baptist ({{circa|1513}}{{ndash}}16), LouvreLouvreGian Giacomo Caprotti da Oreno, nicknamed Salaì or Il Salaino ('The Little Unclean One' i.e., the devil), entered Leonardo's household in 1490. After only a year, Leonardo made a list of his misdemeanours, calling him "a thief, a liar, stubborn, and a glutton", after he had made off with money and valuables on at least five occasions and spent a fortune on clothes.Leonardo, Codex C. 15v, Institut of France. Trans. Richter Nevertheless, Leonardo treated him with great indulgence, and he remained in Leonardo's household for the next thirty years.della Chiesa, p. 84 Salaì executed a number of paintings under the name of Andrea Salaì, but although Vasari claims that Leonardo "taught him a great deal about painting",Vasari, p. 265" his work is generally considered to be of less artistic merit than others among Leonardo's pupils, such as Marco d'Oggiono and Boltraffio. In 1515, he painted a nude version of the Mona Lisa, known as (:File:Monna Vanna.jpg|Monna Vanna).WEB, Gross, Tom, Mona Lisa Goes Topless, Paintingsdirect.com,weblink 27 September 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070403073656weblink">weblink 3 April 2007, Salaì owned the Mona Lisa at the time of his death in 1524, and in his will it was assessed at 505 lire, an exceptionally high valuation for a small panel portrait.WEB, Rossiter, Nick, Could this be the secret of her smile?, Daily Telegraph, 4 July 2003,weblink 3 October 2007, London, In 1506, Leonardo took on another pupil, Count Francesco Melzi, the son of a Lombard aristocrat, who is considered to have been his favourite student. He travelled to France with Leonardo and remained with him until Leonardo's death. Melzi inherited the artistic and scientific works, manuscripts, and collections of Leonardo and administered the estate.

Painting

{{See also|List of works by Leonardo da Vinci}}Despite the recent awareness and admiration of Leonardo as a scientist and inventor, for the better part of four hundred years his fame rested on his achievements as a painter. A handful of works that are either authenticated or attributed to him have been regarded as among the great masterpieces. These paintings are famous for a variety of qualities that have been much imitated by students and discussed at great length by connoisseurs and critics. By the 1490s Leonardo had already been described as a "Divine" painter.{{efn|1=His fame is discussed by Daniel Arasse.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998|pp=11–15}}}}Among the qualities that make Leonardo's work unique are his innovative techniques for laying on the paint; his detailed knowledge of anatomy, light, botany and geology; his interest in physiognomy and the way humans register emotion in expression and gesture; his innovative use of the human form in figurative composition; and his use of subtle gradation of tone. All these qualities come together in his most famous painted works, the Mona Lisa, the Last Supper, and the Virgin of the Rocks.These qualities of Leonardo's works are discussed by Frederick Hartt in A History of Italian Renaissance Art, pp. 387–411.

Early works

File:Leonardo Da Vinci - Annunciazione.jpeg|thumb|upright=1.5|Annunciation (1475{{ndash}}1480), UffiziUffiziLeonardo first gained attention for his work on the Baptism of Christ, painted in conjunction with Verrocchio. Two other paintings appear to date from his time at Verrocchio's workshop, both of which are Annunciations. One is small, {{nowrap|{{convert|59|cm}}}} long and {{nowrap|{{convert|14|cm}}}} high. It is a "predella" to go at the base of a larger composition, a painting by Lorenzo di Credi from which it has become separated. The other is a much larger work, {{nowrap|{{convert|217|cm}}}} long.della Chiesa, pp. 88, 90 In both Annunciations, Leonardo used a formal arrangement, like two well-known pictures by Fra Angelico of the same subject, of the Virgin Mary sitting or kneeling to the right of the picture, approached from the left by an angel in profile, with a rich flowing garment, raised wings and bearing a lily. Although previously attributed to Ghirlandaio, the larger work is now generally attributed to Leonardo.BOOK, Luciano, Berti, The Uffizi, 1971, 59–62, In the smaller painting, Mary averts her eyes and folds her hands in a gesture that symbolised submission to God's will. Mary is not submissive, however, in the larger piece. The girl, interrupted in her reading by this unexpected messenger, puts a finger in her bible to mark the place and raises her hand in a formal gesture of greeting or surprise. This calm young woman appears to accept her role as the Mother of God, not with resignation but with confidence. In this painting, the young Leonardo presents the humanist face of the Virgin Mary, recognising humanity's role in God's incarnation.{{efn|Michael Baxandall lists 5 "laudable conditions" or reactions of Mary to the presence and announcement of the angel. These are: Disquiet, Reflection, Inquiry, Submission and Merit. In this painting Mary's attitude does not comply with any of the accepted traditions.BOOK, Michael, Baxandall, Painting and Experience in Fifteenth Century Italy, 1974, 49–56, }}

Paintings of the 1480s

In the 1480s, Leonardo received two very important commissions and commenced another work that was of ground-breaking importance in terms of composition. Two of the three were never finished, and the third took so long that it was subject to lengthy negotiations over completion and payment.File:Leonardo, san girolamo.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Unfinished painting of Saint Jerome in the Wilderness ({{c|1480}}), Vatican ]]One of these paintings was Saint Jerome in the Wilderness, which Bortolon associates with a difficult period of Leonardo's life, as evidenced in his diary: "I thought I was learning to live; I was only learning to die." Although the painting is barely begun, the composition can be seen and is very unusual.{{efn|The painting, which in the 18th century belonged to Angelica Kauffman, was later cut up. The two main sections were found in a junk shop and cobbler's shop and were reunited. It is probable that outer parts of the composition are missing.}} Jerome, as a penitent, occupies the middle of the picture, set on a slight diagonal and viewed somewhat from above. His kneeling form takes on a trapezoid shape, with one arm stretched to the outer edge of the painting and his gaze looking in the opposite direction. J. Wasserman points out the link between this painting and Leonardo's anatomical studies.Wasserman, pp. 104–06 Across the foreground sprawls his symbol, a great lion whose body and tail make a double spiral across the base of the picture space. The other remarkable feature is the sketchy landscape of craggy rocks against which the figure is silhouetted.The daring display of figure composition, the landscape elements and personal drama also appear in the great unfinished masterpiece, the Adoration of the Magi, a commission from the Monks of San Donato a Scopeto. It is a complex composition, of about {{nowrap|250 x 250 centimetres.}} Leonardo did numerous drawings and preparatory studies, including a detailed one in linear perspective of the ruined classical architecture that forms part of the background. In 1482 Leonardo went to Milan at the behest of Lorenzo de' Medici in order to win favour with Ludovico il Moro, and the painting was abandoned.The third important work of this period is the Virgin of the Rocks, commissioned in Milan for the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception. The painting, to be done with the assistance of the de Predis brothers, was to fill a large complex altarpiece.Wasserman, p. 108 Leonardo chose to paint an apocryphal moment of the infancy of Christ when the infant John the Baptist, in protection of an angel, met the Holy Family on the road to Egypt. The painting demonstrates an eerie beauty as the graceful figures kneel in adoration around the infant Christ in a wild landscape of tumbling rock and whirling water.WEB, The Mysterious Virgin, National Gallery, London,weblink 27 September 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071015062743weblink">weblink 15 October 2007, dmy-all, While the painting is quite large, about {{nowrap|200×120 centimetres}}, it is not nearly as complex as the painting ordered by the monks of St Donato, having only four figures rather than about fifty and a rocky landscape rather than architectural details. The painting was eventually finished; in fact, two versions of the painting were finished: one remained at the chapel of the Confraternity, while Leonardo took the other to France. The Brothers did not get their painting, however, nor the de Predis their payment, until the next century.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}}

Paintings of the 1490s

File:Última CenaII.jpg|thumb|upright=1.5|The Last Supper (1498), Convent of Sta. Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy]]Leonardo's most famous painting of the 1490s is The Last Supper, commissioned for the refectory of the Convent of Santa Maria della Grazie in Milan. It represents the last meal shared by Jesus with his disciples before his capture and death, and shows the moment when Jesus has just said "one of you will betray me", and the consternation that this statement caused.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}}The novelist Matteo Bandello observed Leonardo at work and wrote that some days he would paint from dawn till dusk without stopping to eat and then not paint for three or four days at a time.Wasserman, p. 124 This was beyond the comprehension of the prior of the convent, who hounded him until Leonardo asked Ludovico to intervene. Vasari describes how Leonardo, troubled over his ability to adequately depict the faces of Christ and the traitor Judas, told the Duke that he might be obliged to use the prior as his model.Vasari, p. 263When finished, the painting was acclaimed as a masterpiece of design and characterisation,Vasari, p. 262 but it deteriorated rapidly, so that within a hundred years it was described by one viewer as "completely ruined".della Chiesa, p. 97 Leonardo, instead of using the reliable technique of fresco, had used tempera over a ground that was mainly gesso, resulting in a surface subject to mould and to flaking.della Chiesa, p. 98 Despite this, the painting remains one of the most reproduced works of art; countless copies have been made in various mediums.File:Leonardo da Vinci - Lady with an Ermine.jpg|thumb|upright|Lady with an Ermine, c. 1489–1490, National Museum, Kraków, Poland]]Remarkable is the portrait of Cecilia Gallerani (c. 1483–1490), lover of Leonardo's patron Ludovico Sforza.WEB,weblink Da Vinci's Lady with an Ermine among Poland's "Treasures" – Event – Culture.pl, 18 November 2017, BOOK, The Lady with an Ermine in the exhibition Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration, Kemp, M., Washington-New Haven-London, 271, Interpretation of the portrait stating that it has allegorical elements has contradicted the theory that Leonardo's portrait painting had only a realistic character. There is few interpretations of the portrait, one considering that the portrayed woman was actually pregnant with Ludovico, and the ermine she holds is an allegorical statement of that fact. Also the animal's Greek name is galé, which itself is part of the surname of the model: Gallerani. The animal is also a readable symbol of Ludovico Sforza himself, called by the contemporary "Ermellino", meaning "Ermine", in reference to the prestigious Order of the Ermine, of which he was a beholder, and whose image he used as his emblem. The painting is in the possession of National Museum in Kraków, Poland.

Paintings of the 16th century

File:Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, from C2RMF retouched.jpg|thumb|upright|Mona Lisa or La Gioconda (1503–1505/07), the LouvreLouvreAmong the works created by Leonardo in the 16th century is the small portrait known as the Mona Lisa or "la Gioconda", the laughing one. In the present era, it is arguably the most famous painting in the world. Its fame rests, in particular, on the elusive smile on the woman's face, its mysterious quality perhaps due to the subtly shadowed corners of the mouth and eyes such that the exact nature of the smile cannot be determined. The shadowy quality for which the work is renowned came to be called "sfumato", or Leonardo's smoke. Vasari, who is generally thought to have known the painting only by repute, said that "the smile was so pleasing that it seemed divine rather than human; and those who saw it were amazed to find that it was as alive as the original".Vasari, p. 267{{efn|Whether or not Vasari had seen the Mona Lisa is the subject of debate. The opinion that he had not seen the painting is based mainly on the fact that he describes the Mona Lisa as having eyebrows. Daniel Arasse in Leonardo da Vinci discusses the possibility that Leonardo may have painted the figure with eyebrows that were subsequently removed. (They were not fashionable in the mid-16th century.){{sfnp|Arasse|1998}} Pascal Cotte said in 2007 that, according to his analysis of high-resolution scans, the Mona Lisa had eyebrows and eyelashes that have been subsequently removed.NEWS, BBC News, The Mona Lisa had brows and lashes, 22 October 2007,weblink 22 February 2008, }}Other characteristics of the painting are the unadorned dress, in which the eyes and hands have no competition from other details; the dramatic landscape background, in which the world seems to be in a state of flux; the subdued colouring; and the extremely smooth nature of the painterly technique, employing oils laid on much like tempera, and blended on the surface so that the brushstrokes are indistinguishable.{{efn|Jack Wasserman writes of "the inimitable treatment of the surfaces" of the painting.Wasserman, p. 144}} Vasari expressed the opinion that the manner of painting would make even "the most confident master{{nbsp}}... despair and lose heart."Vasari, p. 266 The perfect state of preservation and the fact that there is no sign of repair or overpainting is rare in a panel painting of this date.della Chiesa, p. 103In the painting Virgin and Child with St. Anne, the composition again picks up the theme of figures in a landscape, which Wasserman describes as "breathtakingly beautiful"Wasserman, p. 150 and harkens back to the St Jerome picture with the figure set at an oblique angle. What makes this painting unusual is that there are two obliquely set figures superimposed. Mary is seated on the knee of her mother, St Anne. She leans forward to restrain the Christ Child as he plays roughly with a lamb, the sign of his own impending sacrifice.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}} This painting, which was copied many times, influenced Michelangelo, Raphael, and Andrea del Sarto,della Chiesa, p. 109 and through them Pontormo and Correggio. The trends in composition were adopted in particular by the Venetian painters Tintoretto and Veronese.

Murals

Leonardo's The Battle of Anghiara was a fresco commissioned in 1505 for the Salone dei Cinquecento (Hall of the Five Hundred) in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence. Its central scene depicted four men riding raging war horses engaged in a battle for possession of a standard, at the Battle of Anghiari in 1440. At the same time his rival Michelangelo, who had just finished his David, was assigned the opposite wall. All that remains of Leonardo's work is a copy by Rubens, but Maurizio Seracini is convinced it can still be found and has spent a lifetime searching for it. He was allowed to drill some pilot holes in a mural in the Salone dei Cinquecento, and his team did find evidence of an oil painting underneath.NEWS,weblink A High-Tech Hunt for Lost Art, 6 October 2009, The New York Times, 19 March 2016, Tierney, John, WEB, Seracini, Maurizio, The Secret Lives of Paintings,weblink lecture, 2012, In the Sforza Castle in Milan, there is a room decorated with the fresco technique by Leonardo and his assistants: Sala delle Asse (in English 'room of the wooden boards'). The room was decorated with a trompe-l'œil depicting trees, with an intricate labyrinth of leaves and knots on the ceiling. The red fruits of mulberry ("moroni" in local dialect) were an allusion to the name of "Ludovico il Moro", duke of Milan at that time. The first document about the room and Leonardo's work dates back to 1498: on 21 April, the secretary confirms to the duke that "magistro Leonardo" will complete the decoration by September.Two restorations were accomplished, in 1902 and 1956. Another restoration is currently under way,WEB, Segui il restauro,weblink Castello Sforzesco – Sala delle Asse, it-IT, Follow the restoration, 2018-10-19, thanks to which beautiful preparatory drawings have been uncovered on the walls: roots of trees penetrating the stones of the foundations.

Drawings

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Leonardo was not a prolific painter, but he was a most prolific draftsman, keeping journals full of small sketches and detailed drawings recording all manner of things that took his attention. As well as the journals there exist many studies for paintings, some of which can be identified as preparatory to particular works such as The Adoration of the Magi, The Virgin of the Rocks and The Last Supper.His earliest dated drawing is a Landscape of the Arno Valley, 1473, which shows the river, the mountains, Montelupo Castle and the farmlands beyond it in great detail.BOOK, A.E., Popham, The Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci, 1946, {{efn|This work is now in the collection of the Uffizi, Drawing No. 8P.}} According to art historian Ludwig Heydenreich, this is "The first true landscape in art."{{sfn|Wallace|1966|p=30}} Massimo Polidoro says that it was the first landscape "not to be the background of some religious scene or a portrait. It is the first [documented] time where a landscape was drawn just for the sake of it."JOURNAL, Polidoro, Massimo, Massimo Polidoro, The Mind of Leonardo da Vinci, Part 1, Skeptical Inquirer, 2019, 43, 2, 30-31, Center for Inquiry, File:Da Vinci Vitruve Luc Viatour (cropped).jpg|thumb|upright|The Vitruvian Man ({{circa|1485}}) Accademia, VeniceAccademia, VeniceAmong his famous drawings are the Vitruvian Man, a study of the proportions of the human body; the Head of an Angel, for The Virgin of the Rocks in the Louvre; a botanical study of Star of Bethlehem; and a large drawing (160×100 cm) in black chalk on coloured paper of The Virgin and Child with St. Anne and St. John the Baptist in the National Gallery, London. This drawing employs the subtle sfumato technique of shading, in the manner of the Mona Lisa. It is thought that Leonardo never made a painting from it, the closest similarity being to The Virgin and Child with St. Anne in the Louvre.della Chiesa, p. 102Other drawings of interest include numerous studies generally referred to as "caricatures" because, although exaggerated, they appear to be based upon observation of live models. Vasari relates that if Leonardo saw a person with an interesting face he would follow them around all day observing them.Vasari, p. 261 There are numerous studies of beautiful young men, often associated with Salaì, with the rare and much admired facial feature, the so-called "Grecian profile".{{efn|The "Grecian profile" has a continuous straight line from forehead to nose-tip, the bridge of the nose being exceptionally high. It is a feature of many Classical Greek statues.}} These faces are often contrasted with that of a warrior. Salaì is often depicted in fancy-dress costume. Leonardo is known to have designed sets for pageants with which these may be associated. Other, often meticulous, drawings show studies of drapery. A marked development in Leonardo's ability to draw drapery occurred in his early works. Another often-reproduced drawing is a macabre sketch that was done by Leonardo in Florence in 1479 showing the body of Bernardo Baroncelli, hanged in connection with the murder of Giuliano, brother of Lorenzo de' Medici, in the Pazzi conspiracy. In his notes, Leonardo recorded the colours of the robes that Baroncelli was wearing when he died.

Journals and notes

{{See also|List of works by Leonardo da Vinci#Manuscripts}}Renaissance humanism recognised no mutually exclusive polarities between the sciences and the arts, and Leonardo's studies in science and engineering are sometimes considered as impressive and innovative as his artistic work.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}} These studies were recorded in 13,000 pages of notes and drawings, which fuse art and natural philosophy (the forerunner of modern science). They were made and maintained daily throughout Leonardo's life and travels, as he made continual observations of the world around him.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}}File:Leonardo da Vinci - Studies of the foetus in the womb.jpg|thumb|upright|A page showing Leonardo's study of a foetus in the womb ({{circa|1510}})Royal Library, Windsor CastleWindsor CastleLeonardo's notes and drawings display an enormous range of interests and preoccupations, some as mundane as lists of groceries and people who owed him money and some as intriguing as designs for wings and shoes for walking on water. There are compositions for paintings, studies of details and drapery, studies of faces and emotions, of animals, babies, dissections, plant studies, rock formations, whirlpools, war machines, flying machines and architecture.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}}These notebooks—originally loose papers of different types and sizes, distributed by friends after his death—have found their way into major collections such as the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, the Louvre, the Biblioteca Nacional de España, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, which holds the 12-volume Codex Atlanticus, and British Library in London, which has put a selection from the Codex Arundel (BL Arundel MS 263) online.WEB, Sketches by Leonardo, Turning the Pages, British Library,weblink 27 September 2007, The Codex Leicester is the only major scientific work of Leonardo in private hands; it is owned by Bill Gates and is displayed once a year in different cities around the world.Most of Leonardo's writings are in mirror-image cursive.{{sfn|Da Vinci|1971|p=x}} Since Leonardo wrote with his left hand,BOOK, Livio, Mario, Mario Livio, The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, the World's Most Astonishing Number,weblink 2002, First trade paperback, 2003, Random House, Broadway Books, New York City, 0-7679-0816-3, 136, {{efn|He also drew with his left hand, the strokes of his shading "slanting down from left to right—the natural stroke of a left-handed artist."{{sfn|Wallace|1966|p=31}}}} it was probably easier for him to write from right to left.{{efn|He also occasionally wrote left-to-right with his right hand.WEB,weblink Da Vinci was ambidextrous, new handwriting analysis shows, Ciaccia, Chris, Fox News, April 15, 2019, April 15, 2019, }} Leonardo uses a variety of shorthand and symbols, and states in his notes that he intended to prepare them for publication.{{sfn|Da Vinci|1971|p=x}} In many cases a single topic is covered in detail in both words and pictures on a single sheet, together conveying information that would not be lost if the pages were published out of order.Windsor Castle, Royal Library, sheets RL 19073v–74v and RL 19102. Why they were not published during Leonardo's lifetime is unknown.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}}

Scientific studies

File:De divina proportione - Vigintisex Basium Planum Vacuum.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Rhombicuboctahedron as published in Pacioli's Divina proportioneDivina proportioneLeonardo's approach to science was observational: he tried to understand a phenomenon by describing and depicting it in utmost detail and did not emphasise experiments or theoretical explanation. Since he lacked formal education in Latin and mathematics, contemporary scholars mostly ignored Leonardo the scientist, although he did teach himself Latin. In the 1490s he studied mathematics under Luca Pacioli and prepared a series of drawings of regular solids in a skeletal form to be engraved as plates for Pacioli's book Divina proportione, published in 1509.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}}The content of his journals suggest that he was planning a series of treatises to be published on a variety of subjects. A coherent treatise on anatomy was said to have been observed during a visit by Cardinal Louis d'Aragon's secretary in 1517.BOOK, O'Malley, Saunders, Leonardo on the Human Body, 1982, Dover Publications, New York, Aspects of his work on the studies of anatomy, light and the landscape were assembled for publication by his pupil Francesco Melzi and eventually published as Treatise on Painting by Leonardo da Vinci in France and Italy in 1651 and Germany in 1724,della Chiesa, p. 117 with engravings based upon drawings by the Classical painter Nicolas Poussin.{{Britannica|336408}} According to Arasse, the treatise, which in France went into 62 editions in fifty years, caused Leonardo to be seen as "the precursor of French academic thought on art".{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}}While Leonardo's experimentation followed clear scientific methods, a recent and exhaustive analysis of Leonardo as a scientist by Fritjof Capra argues that Leonardo was a fundamentally different kind of scientist from Galileo, Newton and other scientists who followed him in that, as a Renaissance Man, his theorising and hypothesising integrated the arts and particularly painting.Capra, Fritjof (2007). The Science of Leonardo; Inside the Mind of the Genius of the Renaissance. New York: Doubleday. {{ISBN missing}}{{page needed|date=December 2018}}

Anatomy and physiology

(File:Studies of the Arm showing the Movements made by the Biceps.jpg|thumb|upright|Anatomical study of the arm ({{c|1510}}))Leonardo started his study in the anatomy of the human body under the apprenticeship of Andrea del Verrocchio, who demanded that his students develop a deep knowledge of the subject.BOOK, Davinci, Leonardo, 2011, The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci, Lulu, 978-1-105-31016-4, 736,weblink 16 September 2016, As an artist, he quickly became master of topographic anatomy, drawing many studies of muscles, tendons and other visible anatomical features.As a successful artist, Leonardo was given permission to dissect human corpses at the Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova in Florence and later at hospitals in Milan and Rome. From 1510 to 1511 he collaborated in his studies with the doctor Marcantonio della Torre. Leonardo made over 240 detailed drawings and wrote about 13,000 words towards a treatise on anatomy. These papers were left to his heir, Francesco Melzi, for publication, a task of overwhelming difficulty because of its scope and Leonardo's idiosyncratic writing. The project was left incomplete at the time of Melzi's death more than 50 years later, with only a small amount of the material on anatomy included in Leonardo's Treatise on painting, published in France in 1632.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}}JOURNAL, Keele Kenneth D, 1964, Leonardo da Vinci's Influence on Renaissance Anatomy, Med Hist, 8, 4, 360–70, 1033412, 14230140, 10.1017/s0025727300029835, During the time that Melzi was ordering the material into chapters for publication, they were examined by a number of anatomists and artists, including Vasari, Cellini and Albrecht Dürer, who made a number of drawings from them.(File:Leonardo Da Vinci's Brain Physiology.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Leonardo's physiological sketch of the human brain and skull ({{c|1510}}))Leonardo's anatomical drawings include many studies of the human skeleton and its parts, and of muscles and sinews. He studied the mechanical functions of the skeleton and the muscular forces that are applied to it in a manner that prefigured the modern science of biomechanics.BOOK, Mason, Stephen F., Stephen F. Mason, A History of the Sciences, Collier Books, 1962, New York, 550, He drew the heart and vascular system, the sex organs and other internal organs, making one of the first scientific drawings of a fetus in utero. The drawings and notation are far ahead of their time, and if published would undoubtedly have made a major contribution to medical science.Alastair Sooke, Daily Telegraph, 28 July 2013, "Leonardo da Vinci: Anatomy of an artist", accessed 29 July 2013.Leonardo also closely observed and recorded the effects of age and of human emotion on the physiology, studying in particular the effects of rage. He drew many figures who had significant facial deformities or signs of illness.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}} Leonardo also studied and drew the anatomy of many animals, dissecting cows, birds, monkeys, bears, and frogs, and comparing in his drawings their anatomical structure with that of humans. He also made a number of studies of horses.Leonardo's dissections and documentation of muscles, nerves, and vessels helped to describe the physiology and mechanics of movement. He attempted to identify the source of 'emotions' and their expression. He found it difficult to incorporate the prevailing system and theories of bodily humours, but eventually he abandoned these physiological explanations of bodily functions. He made the observations that humours were not located in cerebral spaces or ventricles. He documented that the humours were not contained in the heart or the liver, and that it was the heart that defined the circulatory system. He was the first to define atherosclerosis and liver cirrhosis. He created models of the cerebral ventricles with the use of melted wax and constructed a glass aorta to observe the circulation of blood through the aortic valve by using water and grass seed to watch flow patterns. Vesalius published his work on anatomy and physiology in De humani corporis fabrica in 1543.JOURNAL, Jones, Roger, Leonardo da Vinci: anatomist, British Journal of General Practice, 62, 599, 2012, 319, 0960-1643, 10.3399/bjgp12X649241, 22687222, 3361109,

Engineering and inventions

(File:Design for a Flying Machine.jpg|thumb|A design for a flying machine ({{c|1488}}), Institut de France, Paris)During his lifetime, Leonardo was valued as an engineer. In a letter to Ludovico il Moro, he wrote that he could create all sorts of machines both for the protection of a city and for siege. When he fled to Venice in 1499, he found employment as an engineer and devised a system of moveable barricades to protect the city from attack. He also had a scheme for diverting the flow of the Arno river, a project on which Niccolò Machiavelli also worked.BOOK, Masters, Roger, Roger Masters, Machiavelli, Leonardo and the Science of Power, 1996, BOOK, Masters, Roger, Roger Masters, Fortune is a River: Leonardo Da Vinci and Niccolò Machiavelli's Magnificent Dream to Change the Course of Florentine History, 1998, Leonardo's journals include a vast number of inventions, both practical and impractical. They include musical instruments, a mechanical knight, hydraulic pumps, reversible crank mechanisms, finned mortar shells, and a steam cannon.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}}In 1502, Leonardo produced a drawing of a single span {{convert|720|ft|m|adj=on}} bridge as part of a civil engineering project for Ottoman Sultan Beyazid II of Constantinople. The bridge was intended to span an inlet at the mouth of the Bosporus known as the Golden Horn. Beyazid did not pursue the project because he believed that such a construction was impossible. Leonardo's vision was resurrected in 2001 when a smaller bridge based on his design was constructed in Norway.WEB,weblink The Leonardo Bridge Project, Vebjorn-sand.com, 29 October 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111104061901weblink">weblink 4 November 2011, MAGAZINE, Levy, Daniel S., Dream of the Master, Time (magazine), Time, 4 October 1999,weblink 27 September 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070912033510weblink">weblink 12 September 2007, Leonardo was fascinated by the phenomenon of flight for much of his life, producing many studies, including Codex on the Flight of Birds ({{circa|1505}}), as well as plans for several flying machines such as a flapping ornithopter and a machine with a helical rotor.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}} The British television station Channel Four commissioned a 2003 documentary, Leonardo's Dream Machines, in which various designs by Leonardo, such as a parachute and a giant crossbow, were interpreted, constructed and tested.WEB,weblink Leonardo's Dream Machines (TV Movie 2003), IMDb, British Library online gallery (retrieved 10 October 2013) Some of those designs proved successful, whilst others fared less well when practically tested.

Fame and reputation

File:Francois I recoit les derniers soupirs de Leonard de Vinci by Ingres.jpg|thumb|Francis I of France receiving the last breath of Leonardo da Vinci, by IngresIngresLeonardo's fame within his own lifetime was such that the King of France carried him away like a trophy, and was claimed to have supported him in his old age and held him in his arms as he died. Interest in Leonardo and his work has never diminished. Crowds still queue to see his best-known artworks, T-shirts still bear his most famous drawing, and writers continue to hail him as a genius while speculating about his private life, as well as about what one so intelligent actually believed in.{{sfnp|Arasse|1998}}Giorgio Vasari, in the enlarged edition of Lives of the Artists, 1568,Vasari, p. 255 introduced his chapter on Leonardo with the following words:File:Statue of Leonardo DaVinci in Uffizi Alley, Florence, Italy.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Statue outside the Uffizi, Florence, created by Luigi PampaloniLuigi PampaloniThe continued admiration that Leonardo commanded from painters, critics and historians is reflected in many other written tributes. Baldassare Castiglione, author of Il Cortegiano ("The Courtier"), wrote in 1528: "... Another of the greatest painters in this world looks down on this art in which he is unequalled ..."JOURNAL
, Baldassare Castiglione
, Baldassare
, Castiglione
, Il Cortegiano
, 1528
, while the biographer known as "Anonimo Gaddiano" wrote, {{circa|1540}}: "His genius was so rare and universal that it can be said that nature worked a miracle on his behalf{{nbsp}}..."."Anonimo Gaddiani", elaborating on Libro di Antonio Billi, 1537–1542The 19th century brought a particular admiration for Leonardo's genius, causing Henry Fuseli to write in 1801: "Such was the dawn of modern art, when Leonardo da Vinci broke forth with a splendour that distanced former excellence: made up of all the elements that constitute the essence of genius{{nbsp}}..."JOURNAL
, Henry
, Fuseli
, Lectures
, II
, 1801
, This is echoed by A.E. Rio who wrote in 1861: "He towered above all other artists through the strength and the nobility of his talents."JOURNAL
, A.E.
, Rio
, L'art chrétien
, 1861
, File:Leonardo IMG 1759.JPG|thumb|Statue of Leonardo in AmboiseAmboiseBy the 19th century, the scope of Leonardo's notebooks was known, as well as his paintings. Hippolyte Taine wrote in 1866: "There may not be in the world an example of another genius so universal, so incapable of fulfilment, so full of yearning for the infinite, so naturally refined, so far ahead of his own century and the following centuries."JOURNAL
, Hippolyte
, Taine
, Voyage en Italie
, 1866
, Art historian Bernard Berenson wrote in 1896: "Leonardo is the one artist of whom it may be said with perfect literalness: Nothing that he touched but turned into a thing of eternal beauty. Whether it be the cross section of a skull, the structure of a weed, or a study of muscles, he, with his feeling for line and for light and shade, forever transmuted it into life-communicating values."JOURNAL
, Bernard
, Berenson
, Bernard Berenson
, The Italian Painters of the Renaissance
, 1896
, The interest in Leonardo's genius has continued unabated; experts study and translate his writings, analyse his paintings using scientific techniques, argue over attributions and search for works which have been recorded but never found.WEB
,weblink
, ArtNews article about current studies into Leonardo's life and works
, Melinda
, Henneberger
, Art News Online
, 10 January 2010
weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060505165842weblink">weblink >archivedate = 5 May 2006, Liana Bortolon, writing in 1967, said: "Because of the multiplicity of interests that spurred him to pursue every field of knowledge ... Leonardo can be considered, quite rightly, to have been the universal genius par excellence, and with all the disquieting overtones inherent in that term. Man is as uncomfortable today, faced with a genius, as he was in the 16th century. Five centuries have passed, yet we still view Leonardo with awe."21st-century author Walter Isaacson in his biography of LeonardoBOOK, Leonardo da Vinci, Isaacson, Walter, Simon & Schuster, 2017, 978-1-5011-3915-4, New York, Walter Isaacson, based much of his book on the thousands of notebook entries, studying the personal notes, sketches, budget notations, and musings of the man whom he considers the greatest of innovators. Isaacson was surprised to discover a "fun, joyous" side of Leonardo in addition to his limitless curiosity and creative genius.NEWS, Italie, Hillel, NonFiction: Biography honors 'fun, joyous' sides of genius da Vinci, Associated Press, Richmond Times-Dispatch, January 7, 2018, G6,

Art market

File:Leonardo da Vinci, Salvator Mundi, c.1500, oil on walnut, 45.4 × 65.6 cm.jpg|thumb|upright|Salvator Mundi (c. 1500), oil on walnut]]Salvator Mundi, a painting by Leonardo depicting Jesus holding an orb, sold for a world record US$450.3 million at a Christie's auction in New York, 15 November 2017.NEWS,weblink Leonardo da Vinci Painting 'Salvator Mundi' Sells for $450.3 Million, Crow, Kelly, 2017-11-16, Wall Street Journal, 2017-11-16, en-US, 0099-9660, The highest price previously paid for a work of art at auction was for Pablo Picasso's Les Femmes d'Alger, which sold for US$179.4 million in May 2015 at Christie's New York. The highest known sale price for any artwork was US$300 million, for Willem de Kooning's Interchange, sold privately in September 2015 by the David Geffen Foundation to hedge fund manager Kenneth C. Griffin.Leonardo da Vinci painting 'Salvator Mundi' sold for record $450.3 million, Fox News, 16 November 2017

See also

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Notes

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References

{{Reflist}}

Sources

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  • BOOK, Nicholl, Charles, Charles Nicholl (author), Leonardo da Vinci: The Flights of the Mind, Penguin, 2005, 978-0-14-029681-5, Leonardo da Vinci: The Flights of the Mind,
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  • BOOK, Popham, A.E., Arthur E. Popham, The Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci, Jonathan Cape, 1946, 978-0-224-60462-8,
  • BOOK, Priwer, Shana, Phillips, Cynthia, The Everything Da Vinci Book: Explore the Life and Times of the Ultimate Renaissance Man, Adams Media, 2006, 978-1-59869-101-6,
  • BOOK, Rachum, Ilan, The Renaissance, an Illustrated Encyclopedia, Octopus, 1979, 978-0-7064-0857-7,
  • BOOK, Richter, Jean Paul, Jean Paul Richter, The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, Dover, 1970, 978-0-486-22572-2, volume 2: {{ISBN|0-486-22573-9}}. A reprint of the original 1883 edition.
  • BOOK, Rosci, Marco, Leonardo, Bay Books Pty Ltd, 1977, 978-0-85835-176-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Rossi, Paolo, The Birth of Modern Science, Blackwell Publishing, 2001, 978-0-631-22711-3,
  • BOOK, Santi, Bruno, Leonardo da Vinci, Scala / Riverside, 1990,
  • BOOK, Theophilus, On Divers Arts, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1963, 978-0-226-79482-2,
  • BOOK, Wallace, Robert, The World of Leonardo: 1452–1519, Time-Life Books, New York, 1966, harv,
  • BOOK, Wasserman, Jack, Leonardo da Vinci, Abrams, 1975, 978-0-8109-0262-6,
  • BOOK, harv, Vasari, Giorgio, Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Artists, Penguin Classics, George Bull, 1965, 1568, 978-0-14-044164-2,
  • BOOK, Hugh Ross, Williamson, Hugh Ross Williamson, Lorenzo the Magnificent, 1974, Michael Joseph, 978-0-7181-1204-2,
  • BOOK, Winternitz, Emanuel, Leonardo Da Vinci As a Musician, 1982, Yale University Press, New Haven, 978-0-300-02631-3,
  • BOOK, Vezzosi, Alessandro, Alessandro Vezzosi, Bonfante-Warren, Alexandra, Leonardo da Vinci: Renaissance Man, 'New Horizons (Thames & Hudson), New Horizons' series, Thames & Hudson Ltd, London, 1997, English translation, 978-0-500-30081-7,
  • BOOK, Zollner, Frank, Leonardo da Vinci: The Complete Paintings and Drawings, Taschen, 2003, 978-3-8228-1734-6, [The chapter "The Graphic Works" is by Frank Zollner & Johannes Nathan].

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