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Leipzig
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{{short description|Place in Saxony, Germany}}{{other uses}}{{use dmy dates|date=July 2012}}







factoids
|state=Sachsen|district=Urban districts of Germany|elevation|image_photo={{Photomontage
|position=center
|photo1a=Leipzig Fockeberg Zentrum.jpg
|photo2a=Völkerschlachtdenkmal Nacht.jpg
|photo2b=Bundesverwaltungsgericht in Leipzig.jpg
|photo3a=Leipzig Rathaus.jpg
|photo3b=Universität Leipzig - Paulinum – Aula und Universitätskirche St. Pauli (Juli 2012).JPG
|photo4a=Gondwanaland 1 - panoramio.jpg
|photo5a=Markkleeberger See Strand2.jpg
|size=280
|spacing=2
|color=#FFFFFF
|border=0
|foot_montage={{nobreak|From top: Skyline of Leipzig centre,}}Monument to the Battle of the Nations at night, Federal Administrative Court of Germany,New Town Hall, City-Hochhaus Leipzig and the Augusteum of the Leipzig University, inside Gondwanaland of Leipzig Zoological Garden, Markkleeberger See is part of Neuseenland
}}|area=297.36|Gemeindeschlüssel=14713000|population=581980|population_as_of=2017
Larger urban zone>LUZ)HTTP://APPSSO.EUROSTAT.EC.EUROPA.EU/NUI/SHOW.DO?DATASET=URB_LPOP1&LANG=EN>TITLE=POPULATION ON 1 JANUARY BY AGE GROUPS AND SEX - FUNCTIONAL URBAN AREASACCESS-DATE=2019-09-20, live, |postal_code=04001–04357|area_code=0341|licence=Lwww.leipzig.de}}|mayor=Burkhard Jung|Bürgermeistertitel=OberbürgermeisterSocial Democratic Party of Germany>SPD}}Leipzig ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|l|aɪ|p|s|ɪ|ɡ}}, also {{IPAc-en|US|-|(|t|)|s|ɪ|k}},AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY, Leipzig, 15 April 2019, OXFORD DICTIONARIES, Leipzig, 15 April 2019, MERRIAM-WEBSTER, Leipzig, 15 April 2019, {{IPA-de|ˈlaɪptsɪç|lang|Leipzig.ogg}}; ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the German federal state of Saxony. With a population of 587,857 inhabitants as of 2018 (1.1 millionBOOK, Redefining Urban: a new way to measure metropolitan areas, OECD, OECD, 2012, 9789264174054, 19, "Germany Leipzig Metropolitan area DE008 843,619",weblink residents in the larger urban zone), it is Germany's eighth most populous cityWEB,weblink Leipzig überholt bei Einwohnerzahl Dortmund – jetzt Platz 8 in Deutschland, LVZ - Leipziger Volkszeitung, de, 2019-09-20, WEB,weblink Statistik – Gebiet, Bevölkerung, Statistisches Landesamt des Freistaates, Sachsen, www.statistik.sachsen.de, as well as the second most populous city in the area of former East Germany after (East) Berlin. Together with Halle (Saale), the largest city of the neighbouring state of Saxony-Anhalt, the city forms the polycentric conurbation of Leipzig-Halle. Between the two cities (in Schkeuditz) lies Leipzig/Halle International Airport.Leipzig is located about {{convert|160|km|0}} southwest of Berlin in the Leipzig Bay, which constitutes the southernmost part of the North German Plain, at the confluence of the White Elster River (progression: {{PSaale}}) and two of its tributaries: the Pleiße and the Parthe. The name of the city as well as the names of many of its boroughs are of Slavic origin.Leipzig has been a trade city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire.WEB,weblink Shopping Tipps Leipzig :: Passagen :: Innenstadt :: Hauptbahnhof :: Informationen ::Infos :: Hinweise :: Beiträge :: Tipps :: Einkaufen, City-tourist.de, 2013-03-26, The city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and the Via Imperii, two important medieval trade routes. Leipzig was once one of the major European centres of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing.WEB,weblink The Frankfurt Fair, idehist.uu.se, English, 2019-09-21, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120403062816weblink">weblink 3 April 2012, Leipzig became a major urban centre within the former East Germany after the Second World War, but its cultural and economic importance declined. Events in Leipzig in 1989 played a significant role in precipitating the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe, mainly through demonstrations starting from St. Nicholas Church. Since the reunification of Germany, Leipzig has undergone significant change with the restoration of some historical buildings, the demolition of others, and the development of a modern transport infrastructure.WEB,weblink Infrastruktur, leipzig.de, Leipzig today is an economic centre, the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution and has the second-best future prospects of all cities in Germany, according to HWWI and Berenberg Bank.WEB,weblink Städteranking: Leipzig landet auf Platz zwei, LVZ - Leipziger Volkszeitung, WEB,weblink Deutschlands beliebteste Städte: Sicher, sauber, grün: Diese Stadt läuft sogar München den Rang ab, FOCUS Online, 11 December 2013, FOCUS Online, The city is one of two seats of the German National Library (together with Frankfurt), as well as the seat of the German Federal Administrative Court. Leipzig Zoo is one of the most modern zoos in Europe and ranks first in Germany and second in Europe according to Anthony Sheridan.WEB,weblink Zoo Leipzig: Auf Entdeckungsreise im Zoo der Zukunft, Zoo-leipzig.de, 2013-03-26, WEB,weblink Zoo Leipzig: Zweiter Platz im europäischen Zooranking – MDR.DE, mdr.de, 13 October 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151210214509weblink">weblink 10 December 2015, dmy-all, Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel in 2013, Leipzig forms the centrepiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system.WEB,weblink Die S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland stellt sich vor, Deutsche Bahn AG, Unternehmensbereich Personenverkehr, Marketing, eCommerce, www.s-bahn-mitteldeutschland.de, Leipzig is currently listed as a Gamma World CityWEB,weblink GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2012, lboro.ac.uk, , Germany's "Boomtown"WEB,weblink Leipzig ist die Boom-Stadt Deutschlands, Michael Fabricius, 27 May 2015, DIE WELT, and as the European City of the Year 2019.WEB,weblink Leipzig wins European City of the Year at 2019 Urbanism Awards {{!, The Academy of Urbanism|last=Admin|language=en-US|access-date=2019-09-20}}WEB,weblink Leipzig zur "European City of the Year 2019" gewählt, TAG24, de, 2019-09-20, Leipzig has long been a major centre for music, both classical as well as modern "dark alternative music" or darkwave genres. The Oper Leipzig is one of the most prominent opera houses in Germany. It was founded in 1693, making it the third-oldest opera venue in Europe after La Fenice (Venice, Italy) and the Hamburg State Opera (Hamburg, Germany). Leipzig is also home to the University of Music and Theatre "Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy". It was during a stay in this city that Friedrich Schiller wrote his poem "Ode to Joy". The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, established in 1743, is one of the oldest symphony orchestras in the world. Johann Sebastian Bach is one among many major composers who lived and worked in Leipzig.

History

{{See also|Timeline of Leipzig}}

Name

(File:Leipzig 1632.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Leipzig in the 17th century)The name Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word , which means "settlement where the linden trees (British English: lime trees; U.S. English: basswood trees) stand".Hanswilhelm Haefs. Das 2. Handbuch des nutzlosen Wissens. {{ISBN|3-8311-3754-4}} {{de icon}} An older spelling of the name in English is '. The Latin name ' was also used.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20120714185917weblink">weblink dead, Lexicum nominum geographicorum latinorum, 14 July 2012, 14 July 2012, The name is cognate with () in Russia and in Latvia.WEB,weblink Происхождение названий, Origin of names, bibliotekar.ru, In 1937 the Nazi government officially renamed the city (Imperial Trade Fair City Leipzig).WEB,weblink Stadtkreis Leipzig, Rolf Jehke, territorial.de, Since 1989 Leipzig has been informally dubbed "Hero City" (), in recognition of the role that the Monday demonstrations there played in the fall of the East German regime â€“ the name alludes to the honorary title awarded in the former Soviet Union to certain cities that played a key role in the victory of the Allies during the Second World War.WEB,weblink Heldenstadt Leipzig, Chronik der Wende, Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg, 2016-09-23, The common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt.de.NEWS, Reinhardt, Dirk,weblink Heldenstadt-Blogger, Die Zeit, 29 August 2012, 2016-09-23, More recently, the city has sometimes been nicknamed the "Boomtown of eastern Germany", "Hypezig" or "The better Berlin" for being celebrated by the media as a hip urban centre for the vital lifestyle and creative scene with many startups.NEWS,weblink Kann Leipzig Hypezig überleben?, Can Leipzig live up to the Hypezig?, Die Zeit, 1 October 2013, de, NEWS,weblink Hypezig – Leipzig mutiert zur Szenemetropole, Hypezig — Leipzig mutates into a fashionable metropolis, Handelsblatt, 3 October 2013, de, WEB, Wiemann, Mareike, Mehr Geburten als Sterbefälle: Leipzig boomt entgegen dem Deutschlandtrend, More births than deaths: Leipzig is booming against the German trend,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141222171333weblink">weblink 5 January 2014, Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk, 22 December 2014, 2016-09-23, de, WEB,weblink Leipzig vs Berlin: "Natürlich ist Leipzig das bessere Berlin", Leipzig vs Berlin: Naturally Leipzig is the better Berlin, Marcel Burkhardt, Berliner Zeitung,

Origins

{{See also|Margraviate of Meissen|Electorate of Saxony}}File:Karte Voelkerschlacht bei Leipzig 18 Oktober 1813.png|thumb|left|upright=1.15|A map from depicting the Battle of LeipzigBattle of Leipzig(File:Battle of Leipzig by Zauerweid.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Battle of Leipzig, 1813)Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as ( VII, 25) and endowed with city and market privileges in 1165 by Otto the Rich. Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, has become an event of international importance and is the oldest surviving trade fair in the world.There are records of commercial fishing operations on the river Pleiße in Leipzig dating back to 1305, when the Margrave Dietrich the Younger granted the fishing rights to the church and convent of St Thomas.WEB,weblink Pleißemühlgraben: Geschichte der Fischerei, Neue-ufer.de, 2013-03-26, There were a number of monasteries in and around the city, including a Franciscan monastery after which the (Barefoot Alley) is named and a monastery of Irish monks (, destroyed in 1544) near the present day (the old ).The foundation of the University of Leipzig in 1409 initiated the city's development into a centre of German law and the publishing industry, and towards being the location of the (Imperial Court of Justice) and the German National Library (founded in 1912).During the Thirty Years' War, two battles took place in , about {{convert|8|km|mi|abbr=off}} outside Leipzig city walls. The first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631 and the second in 1642. Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side.On 24 December 1701, an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced. The city employed light guards who had to follow a specific schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns.

19th century

File:Neues Rathaus Leipzig nach1905.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|right|New City Hall of Leipzig, built in 1905]]The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and an allied coalition of Prussia, Russia, Austria and Sweden. It was the largest battle in Europe before the First World War and the coalition victory ended Napoleon's presence in Germany and would ultimately lead to his first exile on Elba. The Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed in 1913. In addition to stimulating German nationalism, the war had a major impact in mobilizing a civic spirit in numerous volunteer activities. Many volunteer militias and civic associations were formed, and collaborated with churches and the press to support local and state militias, patriotic wartime mobilization, humanitarian relief and postwar commemorative practices and rituals.Katherine Aaslestad, "Cities and War: Modern Military Urbanism in Hamburg and Leipzig during the Napoleonic Era." German History 35.3 (2017): 381-402.When it was made a terminus of the first German long-distance railway to Dresden (the capital of Saxony) in 1839, Leipzig became a hub of Central European railway traffic, with Leipzig Hauptbahnhof the largest terminal station by area in Europe. The railway station has two grand entrance halls, the eastern one for the Royal Saxon State Railways and the western one for the Prussian state railways.In the 19th century, Leipzig was a centre of the German and Saxon liberal movements. The first German labor party, the General German Workers' Association (Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein, ADAV) was founded in Leipzig on 23 May 1863 by Ferdinand Lassalle; about 600 workers from across Germany travelled to the foundation on the new railway. Leipzig expanded rapidly to more than 700,000 inhabitants. Huge Gründerzeit areas were built, which mostly survived both war and post-war demolition.File:Leipzig um 1900.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|left|Augustusplatz with Leipzig OperaLeipzig Opera

20th century

{{See also|History of Leipzig from 1933-1939|Bombing of Leipzig in World War II|University of Music and Theatre Leipzig}}With the opening of a fifth production hall in 1907, the Leipziger Baumwollspinnerei became the largest cotton mill company on the continent, housing over 240,000 spindles. Daily production surpassed 5 million kilograms of yarn.WEB,weblink The heady early days, spinnerei.de, German, Müller-Stahl, Karoline, live,weblink 2019-06-12, During the 1930s and 1940s, music was prominent throughout Leipzig. Many students attended Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy College of Music and Theatre (then named Landeskonservatorium.) However, in 1944, it was closed due to World War II. It re-opened soon after the war ended in 1945.On 22 May 1930, Carl Friedrich Goerdeler was elected mayor of Leipzig. He was well known as an opponent of the Nazi regime.WEB,weblink German Resistance Memorial Center - Biographie, Center, German Resistance Memorial, www.gdw-berlin.de, en, 2018-05-03, He resigned in 1937 when, in his absence, his Nazi deputy ordered the destruction of the city's statue of Felix Mendelssohn. On Kristallnacht in 1938, the 1855 Moorish Revival Leipzig synagogue, one of the city's most architecturally significant buildings, was deliberately destroyed. Goerdeler was later executed by the Nazis on 2 February 1945.(File:Fotothek df roe-neg 0002629 002 Trümmerbeseitigung.jpg|thumb|upright=1.25|right|Leipzig after bombing in the Second World War)(File:Leipzigsuicide.jpg|thumb|upright=1.25|right|The Lisso family suicide)(File:With torn picture of his feuhrer beside his clenched fist, a dead general of the Volkssturm lies on the floor of city... - NARA - 535982.tif|thumb|upright=1.25|right|Major Walter Dönicke committed suicide)Several thousand forced labourers were stationed in Leipzig during the Second World War.Beginning in 1933, many Jewish citizens of Leipzig were members of the Gemeinde, a large Jewish religious community spread throughout Germany, Austria and Switzerland. In October 1935, the Gemeinde helped found the Lehrhaus (English: a house of study) in Leipzig to provide different forms of studies to Jewish students who were prohibited from attending any institutions in Germany. Jewish studies were emphasized and much of the Jewish community of Leipzig became involved.Willingham, Robert, and Crew, David F. Jews in Leipzig: Nationality and Community in the 20th Century, 2005, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Pgs. 1-148Like all other cities claimed by the Nazis, Leipzig was subject to aryanisation. Beginning in 1933 and increasing in 1939, Jewish business owners were forced to give up their possessions and stores. This eventually intensified to the point where Nazi officials were strong enough to evict the Jews from their own homes. They also had the power to force many of the Jews living in the city to sell their houses. Many people who sold their homes emigrated elsewhere, outside of Leipzig. Others moved to Judenhäuser, which were smaller houses that acted as ghettos, housing large groups of people.As with other cities in Europe during the Holocaust, the Jews of Leipzig were greatly affected by the Nuremberg Laws. However, due to the Leipzig Trade Fair and the international attention it garnered, Leipzig was especially cautious about its public image. Despite this, the Leipzig authorities were not afraid to strictly apply and enforce anti-semitic measures. Shortly before Kristallnacht, Polish Jews living in the city were expelled.On 20 December 1937, after the Nazis took control of the city, they renamed it Reichsmessestadt Leipzig, meaning the "Imperial Trade Fair City Leipzig".WEB,weblink Stadtkreis Leipzig, Jehke, Rolf, www.territorial.de, 2018-05-02, In early 1938, Leipzig saw an increase in Zionism through Jewish citizens. Many of these Zionists attempted to flee before deportations began. On 28 October 1938, Heinrich Himmler ordered the deportation of Polish Jews from Leipzig to Poland."Nazi Germany", Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook, XLII 1997, 167. Fred Grubel and Frank Mecklenburg "Leipzig: Profile of a Jewish Community during the first years of Nazi Germany", Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook, XLII 1997, 167On 9 November 1938, as part of Kristallnacht, in Gottschedstrasse (German: Gottschedstraße), now a popular dining and nightlife area in Leipzig, synagogues and businesses were set on fire. Only a couple of days later, on 11 November 1938, many Jews in the Leipzig area were deported to the Buchenwald Concentration Camp.WEB,weblink Holocaust Survivors and Victims Database -- Leipzig Jewish Community Collection., www.ushmm.org, en, 2018-04-30, As World War II came to an end, much of Leipzig was destroyed. Following the war, the Communist Party of Germany (German: Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, KPD) provided aid for the reconstruction of the city.NEWS,weblink Leipzig {{!, Germany|work=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2018-04-30|language=en}}In 1933, a census recorded that over 11,000 Jews were living in Leipzig. In the 1939 census, the number had fallen to roughly 4,500, and by January 1942 only 2,000 remained. In that month, these 2,000 Jews began to be deported. On 13 July 1942, 170 Jews were deported from Leipzig to Auschwitz Concentration Camp. On 19 September 1942, 440 Jews were deported from Leipzig to Theresienstadt Concentration Camp. On 18 June 1943, the remaining 18 Jews still in Leipzig were deported from Leipzig to Auschwitz Concentration Camp. According to records of the two waves of deportations to Auschwitz there were no survivors. According to records of the Theresienstadt deportation, only 53 Jews survived.BOOK, Chronik der Juden in Dresden, Diamont, Adolph, 104–106, 109, Until late 1943, there was little threat of aerial bombings to the city. However, on the morning of 4 December 1943, the British Royal Air Force dropped over 1,000 tons of explosives, resulting in the death of nearly 1,000 civilians.WEB,weblink History, english.leipzig.de, en, 2018-05-02, This bombing was the largest up to that time. Due to the close proximity of many of the buildings hit, a firestorm occurred. This prompted firefighters to rush to the city; however, the storm was too overwhelming for them. Unlike its neighbouring city of Dresden, this was a largely conventional bombing with high explosives rather than incendiaries. The resultant pattern of loss was a patchwork, rather than wholesale loss of its centre, but was nevertheless extensive.The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Leipzig in late April 1945. The U.S. 2nd Infantry Division and U.S. 69th Infantry Division fought their way into the city on 18 April and completed its capture after fierce urban action, in which fighting was often house-to-house and block-to-block, on 19 April 1945.Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books, p. 78, 139. In April 1945 the SS Gruppehfuhrer/Mayor of Leipzig Bruno Erich Alfred Freyberg, his wife and daughter; the Deputy Mayor/Treasurer of Leipzig, Ernest Kurt Lisso, his wife, daughter, and a Volkssturm Major Walter Dönicke committed suicide in Leipzig City Hall. The United States turned the city over to the Red Army as it pulled back from the line of contact with Soviet forces in July 1945 to the designated occupation zone boundaries. Leipzig became one of the major cities of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).Following the end of World War II in 1945, Leipzig saw a slow return of Jews to the city.Ausschuß der Deutschen Statisker, P 136-142. In Lothar Mertens, Davidstern unter Hammer und Zirkel: Die Jüdischen Gemeinden in der SBZ-DDR und ihre Behandlung durch Partei und Staat 1945- 1990. (Haskala, 18) Hildesheim, 1997.In the mid-20th century, the city's trade fair assumed renewed importance as a point of contact with the Comecon Eastern Europe economic bloc, of which East Germany was a member. At this time, trade fairs were held at a site in the south of the city, near the Monument to the Battle of the Nations. In October 1989, after prayers for peace at St. Nicholas Church, established in 1983 as part of the peace movement, the Monday demonstrations started as the most prominent mass protest against the East German government.David Brebis (ed.), Michelin guide to Germany, Greenville (2006), p. 324.NEWS,weblink The day I outflanked the Stasi, BBC, 9 October 2009, + video. Since the reunification of Germany, Leipzig has undergone significant change with the restoration of some historical buildings, the demolition of others, and the development of a modern transport infrastructure.

21st century

{{multiple image|align=right|image1=Federal Administrative Court Leipzig at night 2 (aka).jpg|width1=280|caption1=Federal Administrative Court of Germany|image2=Völkerschlachtdenkmal Leipzig HDR.jpg|width2=100|caption2=Monument to the Battle of the Nations|image3=Universität Leipzig - Paulinum – Aula und Universitätskirche St. Pauli (Juli 2012).JPG|width3=265City-Hochhaus Leipzig and the Augusteum (Leipzig)>Augusteum of the University of Leipzig}}Nowadays, Leipzig is an important economic center in Germany. Since the 2010s, the city has been celebrated by the media as a hip urban center with a very high quality of living.WEB,weblink Leipzig ist die Boom-Stadt Deutschlands – WELT, DIE WELT, Fabricius, Michael, 2015-05-27, live,weblinkweblink 2018-05-05, WEB,weblink "Hypezig": Leipzig mutiert zur Szenemetropole, Handelsblatt, 2013-10-03, German, 2019-09-21, live,weblinkweblink 2019-09-21, WEB,weblink Mehr Beschäftigte – Über 18 000 neue Jobs in Sachsen – Leipzig boomt am meisten – LVZ – Leipziger Volkszeitung, LVZ-Online, www.lvz.de,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160409045712weblink">weblink 2016-04-09, dead, It is often called "The new Berlin".WEB,weblink Leipzig vs. Berlin: "Natürlich ist Leipzig das bessere Berlin", Marcel, Burkhardt, Leipzig is also Germany's fastest growing city.WEB,weblink Wachstum – Prognose zur Bevölkerung: Warum Leipzig früher als gedacht 600.000 Einwohner haben wird – LVZ – Leipziger Volkszeitung, LVZ-Online, www.lvz.de, Leipzig was the German candidate for the 2012 Summer Olympics, but was unsuccessful. After ten years of construction, the Leipzig City Tunnel opened on 14 December 2013.WEB,weblink City-Tunnel eröffnet: Leipzig rast durch die Röhre, BILD.de, Leipzig forms the centerpiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system, which operates in the four German states of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and Brandenburg.

Geography

File:Weisse Elster ehem. Wollgarnfabrik.jpg|thumb|White ElsterWhite ElsterFile:Auwald leipzig.jpg|thumb|Leipzig Riverside ForestLeipzig Riverside Forest

Location

Leipzig lies at the confluence of the rivers White Elster, Pleiße and Parthe, in the Leipzig Bay, on the most southerly part of the North German Plain, which is the part of the North European Plain in Germany. The site is characterized by swampy areas such as the Leipzig Riverside Forest, though there are also some limestone areas to the north of the city. The landscape is mostly flat though there is also some evidence of moraine and drumlins.Although there are some forest parks within the city limits, the area surrounding Leipzig is relatively unforested. During the 20th century, there were several open-cast mines in the region, many of which are being converted to use as lakes.JOURNAL, Untersuchung zum Landschaftswandel im Südraum Leipzig, Standort, 2002-12-01, 0174-3635, 159–165, 26, 4, 10.1007/s00548-002-0103-3, de, Dagmar, Haase, Matthias, Rosenberg, Robert, Mikutta, Also see: NeuseenlandLeipzig is also situated at the intersection of the ancient roads known as the Via Regia (King's highway), which traversed Germany in an east-west direction, and the Via Imperii (Imperial Highway), a north-south road.Leipzig was a walled city in the Middle Ages and the current "ring" road around the historic centre of the city follows the line of the old city walls.

Subdivision

Since 1992 Leipzig has been divided administratively into ten districts, which in turn contain a total of 63 subdistricts. Some of these correspond to outlying villages which have been annexed by Leipzig.(File:Verwaltung Leipzig.svg|thumb|right|Stadtteile and regions){|class="wikitable"|+ Stadtteile of LeipzigOrtsteilkatalog der Stadt Leipzig 2008 class="hintergrundfarbe5"! style="width:80px;"|District||style="width:50px;"|Pop.||style="width:50px;"|Areakm²||style="width:50px;"|Pop.per km2Center13,88style="text-align:center"|3,570Northeaststyle="text-align:center"26.29style="text-align:center"|1.566Eaststyle="text-align:center"40.74style="text-align:center"|1,710Southeaststyle="text-align:center"34.65style="text-align:center"|1,476Southstyle="text-align:center"16.92style="text-align:center"|3,394Southweststyle="text-align:center"46.67style="text-align:center"|983Weststyle="text-align:center"14.69style="text-align:center"|3,491Old Weststyle="text-align:center"26.09style="text-align:center"|1,764Northweststyle="text-align:center"39.09style="text-align:center"|717Northstyle="text-align:center"38.35style="text-align:center"|1,501Delitzsch">

Neighbouring communities{|style"width:30%; text-align:center; border-width:0;"Delitzsch

Jesewitz|Schkeuditz|Rackwitz|Taucha|100px)|Borsdorf|Brandis|Markranstädt|Markkleeberg|Naunhof|Kitzen|ZwenkauGroßpösna>Grosspoesna|||

Climate

Like many places located in Eastern parts of Germany, Leipzig has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb close to a Dfb [0 °C US isoterm]) with significant continental influences due to inland location. Winters are variably mild to cold, with an average of around {{convert|1|°C|°F|sigfig=2}}. Summers are generally warm, averaging at {{convert|19|°C|°F|sigfig=2}} with daytime temperatures of {{convert|24|°C|°F|sigfig=2}}. Precipitation in winter is about half that of the summer. The amount of sunshine is very different between winter and summer, with an average of around 51 hours of sunshine in December (1.7 hours a day) compared with 229 hours of sunshine in July (7.4 hours a day).WEB, Climatological maps of Germany,weblink DWD: Deutscher Wetterdienst, Deutscher Wetterdienst (German Weather Service), 25 February 2019, {{Weather box|location=Leipzig/Halle, Germany for 1981–2010, temperature records for 1973–2013 (Source: DWD)|metric first=Yes|single line=Yes|Jan record high C=15.9|Feb record high C=18.6|Mar record high C=23.0|Apr record high C=29.5|May record high C=31.9|Jun record high C=34.8|Jul record high C=36.6|Aug record high C=37.2|Sep record high C=32.9|Oct record high C=28.2|Nov record high C=18.7|Dec record high C=16.5|year record high C=37.2|Jan high C=3.2|Feb high C=4.3|Mar high C=8.7|Apr high C=13.9|May high C=19.0|Jun high C=21.7|Jul high C=24.5|Aug high C=24.1|Sep high C=19.3|Oct high C=14.0|Nov high C=7.6|Dec high C=3.6|year high C=13.67|Jan mean C=0.5|Feb mean C=1.1|Mar mean C=4.7|Apr mean C=8.9|May mean C=13.8|Jun mean C=16.5|Jul mean C=19.0|Aug mean C=18.6|Sep mean C=14.4|Oct mean C=9.8|Nov mean C=4.7|Dec mean C=1.3|year mean C=9.45|Jan low C=-2.2|Feb low C=-2.0|Mar low C=1.1|Apr low C=4.1|May low C=8.5|Jun low C=11.5|Jul low C=13.8|Aug low C=13.6|Sep low C=10.1|Oct low C=6.2|Nov low C=2.0|Dec low C=-1.2|year low C=5.47|Jan record low C=-27.6|Feb record low C=-21.6|Mar record low C=-16.6|Apr record low C=-6.5|May record low C=-2.6|Jun record low C=1.8|Jul record low C=5.7|Aug record low C=5.5|Sep record low C=0.5|Oct record low C=-6.7|Nov record low C=-12.9|Dec record low C=-20.2|year record low C=-27.6|precipitation colour=green|Jan precipitation mm=31.9|Feb precipitation mm=26.3|Mar precipitation mm=38.8|Apr precipitation mm=39.6|May precipitation mm=46.9|Jun precipitation mm=54.8|Jul precipitation mm=68.9|Aug precipitation mm=63.1|Sep precipitation mm=49.9|Oct precipitation mm=31.0|Nov precipitation mm=43.4|Dec precipitation mm=39.8|year precipitation mm=534.10|Jan sun=62.8|Feb sun=77.8|Mar sun=124.5|Apr sun=181.7|May sun=227.4|Jun sun=224.8|Jul sun=229.0|Aug sun=213.1|Sep sun=160.9|Oct sun=122.9|Nov sun=61.5|Dec sun=51.1|year sun=1737.30Deutscher Wetterdienst, note: sunshine hours are from 1991–2013HTTPS://WWW.WETTERKONTOR.DE/DE/KLIMA/KLIMA2.ASP?LAND=DE&STAT=10469ACCESSDATE=2019-09-21LANGUAGE=GERMANARCHIVE-DATE=2019-03-22, }}

Demographics

(File:Einwohnerentwicklung von Leipzig.svg|thumb|upright=1.15|Population development since 1200)File:Leipzig (Rathausturm, Neues Rathaus) 11 ies.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|right|Typically dense cityscape of Leipzig old town, view from Neues Rathaus. Buildings from left to right: Gondwanaland of Leipzig Zoo, St. Thomas Church, Highrise of Sparkasse Leipzig Bank, Hotel The Westin Leipzig and Museum of Fine Arts to the right.]]Leipzig has a population of about 570,000. In 1930, the population reached its historical peak of over 700,000. It decreased steadily from 1950-89 to about 530,000. In the 1990s, the population decreased rather rapidly to 437,000 in 1998. This reduction was mostly due to outward migration and suburbanisation. After almost doubling the city area by incorporation of surrounding towns in 1999, the number stabilised and started to rise again with an increase of 1,000 in 2000.(:de:Einwohnerentwicklung von Leipzig#Von 1945 bis 1989) {{As of|2015}}, Leipzig is the fastest-growing city in Germany with over 500,000 inhabitants.WEB,weblink Leipzig wächst: Einwohner-Entwicklung übertrifft selbst optimistischste Prognosen, leipzig.de, 2015-03-02, German, live,weblink 2018-06-28, The growth of the past 10–15 years has mostly been due to inward migration. In recent years, inward migration accelerated, reaching an increase of 12,917 in 2014.WEB,weblink Überschuss der Zu- bzw. Fortzüge im Freistaat Sachsen 1990 bis 2018 nach Kreisfreien Städten und Landkreisen, German, statistik.sachsen.de, 2019-09-20, live,weblinkweblink 2016-03-08, In the years following German reunification, many people of working age took the opportunity to move to the states of the former West Germany to seek employment opportunities. This was a contributory factor to falling birth rates. Births dropped from 7,000 in 1988 to less than 3,000 in 1994.WEB,weblink Geburten je Frau im Freistaat Sachsen 1990 2011, 2013-03-26, However, the number of children born in Leipzig has risen since the late-1990s. In 2011, it reached 5,490 births resulting in a RNI of -17.7 (-393.7 in 1995).WEB,weblink Überschuss der Lebendgeborenen bzw. Gestorbenen im Freistaat Sachsen 1990 bis 2018 nach Kreisfreien Städten und Landkreisen, statistik.sachsen.de, German, 2019-09-20, live,weblinkweblink 2019-09-20, The unemployment rate decreased from 18.2% in 2003 to 9.8% in 2014 and 7.6% in June 2017.WEB,weblink Leipzig-Informationssystem, Statistik.leipzig.de, 2012-05-18, 2013-03-26, WEB,weblink Leipzig – statistik.arbeitsagentur.de, arbeitsagentur.de, WEB,weblink Arbeitsmarkt – Sommerflaute vorbei – Arbeitslosenquote in Leipzig erreicht Tiefststand – LVZ – Leipziger Volkszeitung, LVZ-Online, www.lvz.de, The percentage of the population from an immigrant background is low compared with other German cities. {{As of|2012}}, only 5.6% of the population were foreigners, compared to the German national average of 7.7%.WEB,weblink Zensus 2011 - Bevölkerung Bundesrepublik Deutschland am 9. Mai 2011, German, destatis.de, 2019-09-20, dead,weblinkweblink 2013-11-15, The number of people with an immigrant background (immigrants and their children) grew from 49,323 in 2012 to 77,559 in 2016, making them 13.3% of the city's population (Leipzig's population 579,530 in 2016).WEB,weblink Leipzig-Informationssystem > Kleinräumige Daten > Bevölkerungsbestand > Einwohner mit Migrationshintergund, Stadt Leipzig, leipzig.de, The largest minorities (first and second generation) in Leipzig by country of origin in 31.12.2018 are:WEB, Statistisches Jahrbuch – Aktuelle Jahrbuch-Ausgabe,weblink Stadt Leipzig, 2017-11-15, {{clear right}}{|class="wikitable sortable"! style="background:#efefef;"|Rank! style="background:#efefef;"|Ancestry! style="background:#efefef;"|Total! style="background:#efefef;"|Foreigners! style="background:#efefef;"|GermansSyria}}9,0598,523536Russia}}8,7733,2145,559Poland}}5,0193,0062,013Romania}}4,1613,675486Ukraine}}3,4912,2451,246Vietnam}}3,4302,4031,027Iraq}}2,8162,104712Turkey}}2,4671,549218Kazakhstan}}2,2442461,998Afghanistan}}2,1711,916255Italy}}1,9831,564419Hungary}}1,8141,349465Bulgaria}}1,6151,238377France}}1,5441,016528China}}1,4651,254211

Culture, sights and cityscape

Architecture

{{multiple image|align=right|image1=Leipzig Palais Roßbach.jpg|width1=150|caption1=Palais Roßbach, one of the many Gründerzeit buildings in Leipzig|image2=Mädlerpassage Figurenpruppen Auerbachs Keller Leipzig 052-cvh.jpg|width2=185|caption2=Mädler Passage, one of 24 covered passages in Leipzig city centre}}The historic central area of Leipzig features a Renaissance-style ensemble of buildings from the sixteenth century, including the old city hall in the marketplace. There are also several baroque period trading houses and former residences of rich merchants. As Leipzig grew considerably during the economic boom of the late-nineteenth century, the town has many buildings in the historicist style representative of the Gründerzeit era. Approximately 35% of Leipzig's flats are in buildings of this type. The new city hall, completed in 1905, is built in the same style.Some 64,000 apartments in Leipzig were built in Plattenbau buildings during Communist rule in East Germany.(:de:Liste der Plattenbausiedlungen in Sachsen#Leipzig) and although some of these have been demolished and the numbers living in this type of accommodation have declined in recent years, at least 10% of Leipzig's population (50,000 people) are still living in Plattenbau accommodation.(:de:Plattenbauten in Leipzig) Grünau, for example, has approximately 40,000 people living in this sort of accommodation.WEB,weblink Leipzig-Grünau, leipzig.de, The St. Paul's Church was destroyed by the Communist government in 1968 to make room for a new main building for the university. After some debate, the city decided to establish a new, mainly secular building at the same location, called Paulinum, which was completed in 2012. Its architecture alludes to the look of the former church and it includes space for religious use by the faculty of theology, including the original altar from the old church and two newly built organs.Many commercial buildings were built in the 1990s as a result of tax breaks after German reunification.

Tallest buildings and structures

The tallest structure in Leipzig is the chimney of the Stahl- und Hartgusswerk Bösdorf GmbH with a height of {{convert|205|m|ft|abbr=off}}. With {{convert|142|m|ft|abbr=off}}, the City-Hochhaus Leipzig is the tallest high-rise building in Leipzig. From 1972 to 1973 it was Germany's tallest building.{|class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center; background:#fefef6; width:50%;"! Buildings and structures!class="unsortable"|Image! Height in metres! Year!class="unsortable"|NotesChimney of Stahl- und Hartgusswerk Bösdorf GmbH80px)|205|1984|Funkturm Leipzig80px)|191|2015|DVB-T-Sendeturm80px)|190|1986|City-Hochhaus Leipzig80px)|142|1972|Total height 153 m, tallest building in Germany 1972–1973. Headquarter of European Energy Exchange.Fernmeldeturm Leipzig80px)|132|1995|Tower of New Town Hall80px)|115|1905|Tallest Town Hall in GermanyWintergartenhochhaus80px)|106,8|1972|Used as residential towerHotel The Westin Leipzig80px)|95|1972|Hotel with skybar and restaurantMonument to the Battle of the Nations80px)|91|1913|Tallest monument in Europe.St. Peters'80px)|88,5|1885|Leipzig's tallest church.MDR-Hochhaus80px)|65|2000|MDR is one of Germany's public broadcasters.Hochhaus Löhr's Carree80px)|65|1997Landesbank Baden-Württemberg>Sachsen Bank and Sparkasse Leipzig.Center Torgauer Platz80px)|63|1995|Europahaus80px)|56|1929|Headquarters of Stadtwerke Leipzig

Museums and arts

One of the highlights of the city's contemporary arts was the Neo Rauch retrospective opening in April 2010 at the Leipzig Museum of Fine Arts. This is a show devoted to the father of the New Leipzig School(:de:Neue Leipziger Schule|Neue Leipziger Schule) (German Wikipedia entry)NEWS,weblink The New Leipzig School, Lubow, Arthur, The New York Times, 8 January 2006, 5 April 2010, of artists. According to The New York Times,NEWS,weblink The 31 Places to Go in 2010, The New York Times, 10 January 2010, this scene "has been the toast of the contemporary art world" for the past decade. In addition, there are eleven galleries in the so-called Spinnerei.WEB,weblink Leipziger Baumwollspinnerei - From Cotton to Culture, live, 2019-09-21, English, The Grassi Museum complex contains three more of Leipzig's major collections:WEB,weblink Museen at Grassi, German, grassimuseum.de, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150510230345weblink">weblink 10 May 2015, the Ethnography Museum, Applied Arts Museum and Musical Instrument Museum (the last of which is run by the University of Leipzig). The university also runs the Museum of Antiquities.WEB,weblink Institut für Klassische Archäologie und Antikenmuseum, German, Founded in March 2015, the G2 Kunsthalle houses the Hildebrand Collection.WEB,weblink G2 Kunsthalle, www.bmw-art-guide.com, 2016-03-16, This private collection focuses on the so-called New Leipzig School. Leipzig's first private museum dedicated to contemporary art in Leipzig after the turn of the millennium is located in the city centre close to the famous St. Thomas Church on the third floor of the former GDR processing centre.WEB,weblink G2 Leipzig, g2-leipzig.de, 2016-03-16, Other museums in Leipzig include the following:
  • The German Museum of Books and Writing is the world's oldest museum of its kind, founded in 1884.
  • The Egyptian Museum of the University of Leipzig comprises a collection of about 7,000 artefacts from several millennia.
  • The Schillerhaus is the house where Schiller lived in summer 1785.
  • The Zeitgeschichtliches Forum Leipzig (Forum of Contemporary History) shows the history of the German division and the everyday life in the socialist German Democratic Republic.
  • Naturkundemuseum Leipzig is the city's natural history museum.
  • The Leipzig Panometer is a visual panorama displayed inside a former gasometer, accompanied by a thematic exhibition.
  • The "Museum in der Runden Ecke" is the best known museum in the city. It deals with the operation of the Stasi State Security of former East Germany.
  • Johann Sebastian Bach lived from 1723 until his death in Leipzig. The Bach Archive is an institution for the documentation and research of his life and work.
File:DNB2012.JPG|German Museum of Books and WritingFile:Ägyptisches Museum Leipzig 099.jpg|Exhibits of the Egyptian MuseumFile:Leipzig-Grassi-Museen.jpg|Grassi MuseumFile:LE-Connewitz Gasometer I Arena-02.jpg|Inside Gasometer, next to the PanometerFile:Runde Ecke Leipzig.jpg|Museum in der Runden EckeFile:Museum der bildenden Künste.JPG|Museum of Fine ArtsFile:Baumwollspinnerei.jpg|Baumwollspinnerei

Main sights

File:Leipzig - Zoo - Gondwanaland in 14 ies.jpg|Inside Gondwanaland at Leipzig Zoological GardenFile:VölkerschlachtdenkmalLeipzig1.jpg|Monument to the Battle of the NationsFile:Bundesverwaltungsgericht 2, Leipzig.jpg|Federal Administrative Court of GermanyFile:Neues Rathaus Leipzig jpg8.jpg|New city hallFile:Leipzig 03.jpg|Old city hall at market squareFile:Rainbowflash 2013 Leipzig (4).jpg|City-HochhausFile:Uni Leipzig Paulinum Universitätskirche St. Pauli 216-cvh.jpg|New Augusteum of the University of LeipzigFile:Messe Pano DRI.jpg|Leipzig Trade FairFile:Bahnhof Leipzig von Panorama Tower 2013.jpg|Leipzig main stationFile:Schilder an Auerbachs Keller 2013.jpg|Auerbachs Keller in the MädlerpassageFile:Goethe Statue Naschmarkt Leipzig.jpg|Old Leipzig bourseFile:Suedfriedhof Leipzig.jpg|SüdfriedhofFile:BibLeipzigaussen.JPG|German National LibraryFile:City-Tunnel Leipzig - Station Bayerischer Bahnhof 01 (Zugang 1).JPG|Leipzig Bayerischer BahnhofFile:Leipzig Gohliser Schloesschen.jpg|Gohliser SchlösschenFile:Synagogue Memorial (Leipzig) (3).jpg|Leipzig Synagogue Memorial

Churches

  • St. Thomas's Church (Thomaskirche): Most famous as the place where Johann Sebastian Bach worked as a cantor and home to the renowned boys choir Thomanerchor. A monument to Felix Mendelssohn stands in front of this church. Destroyed by the Nazis in 1936, the statue was re-erected on 18 October 2008.
  • St. Nicholas's Church (Nikolaikirche), for which Bach was also responsible. The weekly Montagsgebet (Monday prayer) held here became the starting point of peaceful Monday demonstrations against the DDR regime in the 1980s.
  • St. Peter's has the highest tower of any church in Leipzig, at {{convert|87|m|ft|abbr=off}}.
  • The new Propsteikirche, opened in 2015.
  • The Continental Reformed Church of Leipzig (Evangelisch-reformierte Kirche) is one of the most prominent buildings on the Leipzig Innercity ring.
  • The Russian Church of Leipzig is the Russian-Orthodox church of Leipzig.
  • St. Michael's Church is one of the landmarks of Gohlis district.
File:Nikolaikirche Leipzig 2009.jpg|St. Nicholas Church.File:Leipzig Thomaskirche.jpg|St. Thomas Church.File:Peterskirche Leipzig easyHDR.jpg|St. Peter.File:Neue Propsteikirche St. Trinitatis Leipzig.jpg|Propsteikirche in May 2015, New Town Hall in the backgroundFile:Evangel.-Reform. Kirche (3668182160).jpg|Continental Reformed church of Leipzig.File:Leipzig Russische Gedaechtniskirche.jpg|Russian Church of Leipzig.File:Michaelis-SWL.jpg|St. Michael's Church with the headquarters of Stadtwerke Leipzig to the right.

Parks and lakes

Leipzig is well known for its large parks. The Leipziger Auwald (riparian forest) lies mostly within the city limits. Neuseenland is an area south of Leipzig where old open-cast mines are being converted into a huge lake district. It is planned to be finished in 2060.
  • Leipzig Botanical Garden is the oldest of its kind in Germany. It contains a total of some 7,000 plant species, of which nearly 3,000 species comprise ten special collections.
  • Johannapark and Clara-Zetkin-Park are the most prominent parks in the Leipzig city centre.
  • Leipziger Auwald covers a total area of approx. 2,500 hectares. The Rosental is a park in the north of the forest and borders Leipzig Zoo.
  • Wildpark in Connewitz, showing 25 species.
File:SDC11449 - Epipedobates anthonyi.JPG|Inside Leipzig Botanical GardenFile:Johannapark Leipzig.JPG|JohannaparkFile:Leipziger Auenwald April 2014 005.JPG|Leipziger AuwaldFile:Sonnenaufgang Rosental Leipzig.jpg|Rosental in the morningFile:Leipzig Friedenspark.jpg|FriedensparkFile:Markkleeberger See Strand.jpg|Markkleeberger SeeFile:Cospudener See (1) 2005-09-09.JPG|Cospudener See

Music

Johann Sebastian Bach worked in Leipzig from 1723-50, conducting the Thomanerchor (St. Thomas Church Choir), at the St. Thomas Church, the St. Nicholas Church and the Paulinerkirche, the university church of Leipzig (destroyed in 1968). The composer Richard Wagner was born in Leipzig in 1813, in the Brühl. Robert Schumann was also active in Leipzig music, having been invited by Felix Mendelssohn when the latter established Germany's first musical conservatoire in the city in 1843. Gustav Mahler was second conductor (working under Artur Nikisch) at the Leipzig Opera from June 1886 until May 1888, and achieved his first significant recognition while there by completing and publishing Carl Maria von Weber's opera Die Drei Pintos. Mahler also completed his own 1st Symphony while living in Leipzig.Today the conservatory is the University of Music and Theatre Leipzig.WEB,weblink Welcome to our University of Music & Theatre, 2 December 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100119022822weblink">weblink 19 January 2010, A broad range of subjects are taught, including artistic and teacher training in all orchestral instruments, voice, interpretation, coaching, piano chamber music, orchestral conducting, choir conducting and musical composition in various musical styles. The drama departments teach acting and scriptwriting.The Bach-Archiv Leipzig, an institution for the documentation and research of the life and work of Bach (and also of the Bach family), was founded in Leipzig in 1950 by Werner Neumann. The Bach-Archiv organizes the prestigious International Johann Sebastian Bach Competition, initiated in 1950 as part of a music festival marking the bicentennial of Bach's death. The competition is now held every two years in three changing categories. The Bach-Archiv also organizes performances, especially the international festival Bachfest Leipzig ((:de:Bachfest Leipzig|de)) and runs the Bach-Museum.The city's musical tradition is also reflected in the worldwide fame of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, under its chief conductor Riccardo Chailly, and the Thomanerchor.The MDR Leipzig Radio Symphony Orchestra is Leipzig's second largest symphony orchestra. Its current chief conductor is Kristjan Järvi. Both the Gewandhausorchester and the MDR Leipzig Radio Symphony Orchestra make use of in the Gewandhaus concert hall.For over sixty years Leipzig has been offering a "school concert"WEB,weblink Schulkonzerte, musikschule-leipzig.de, programme for children in Germany, with over 140 concerts every year in venues such as the Gewandhaus and over 40,000 children attending.As for contemporary music, Leipzig is known for its independent music scene and subcultural events. Leipzig has for twenty years been home to the world's largest Gothic festival, the annual Wave-Gotik-Treffen (WGT), where thousands of fans of gothic and dark styled music from across Europe and the world gather in the early summer. The first Wave Gotik Treffen was held at the Eiskeller club, today known as Conne Island, in the Connewitz district. Mayhem's notorious album Live in Leipzig was also recorded at the Eiskeller club.WEB,weblink Mayhem – Live in Leipzig – Encyclopaedia Metallum: The Metal Archives, www.metal-archives.com, Leipzig Pop Up is an annual music trade fair for the independent music scene as well as a music festival taking place on Pentecost weekend.WEB,weblink Pop Up official website, Its most famous indie-labels are Moon Harbour Recordings (House) and Kann Records (House/Techno/Psychedelic). Several venues offer live music on a daily basis, including the MoritzbasteiWEB,weblink Moritzbastei homepage, which was once part of the city's fortifications, and is one of the oldest student clubs in Europe with concerts in various styles. For over 15 years "Tonelli's"WEB,weblink Tonelli's homepage, 2 December 2010, German, has been offering free weekly concerts every day of the week, though door charges may apply Saturdays.The cover photo for the Beirut band's 2005 album Gulag Orkestar, according to the sleeve notes, was stolen from a Leipzig library by Zach Condon.The city of Leipzig is also the birthplace of Till Lindemann, best known as the lead vocalist of Rammstein, a band formed in 1994.File:Opernhaus Leipzig Abend Nacht.jpg|Leipzig OperaFile:AUGUSTUSPLATZ-014.jpg|View over Augustusplatz with the Gewandhaus.File:Leipzig - Universitätsstraße - Moritzbastei 05 ies.jpg|Moritzbastei is the largest student club in Germany and is famous for its atmosphere and large number of cultural and music events.File:Johann Sebastian Bach Denkmal Leipzig.jpg|Monument of Johann Sebastian BachFile:Wahren3.jpg|Haus Auensee, a concert hall

Annual events

  • Auto Mobil International (AMI) motor showWEB,weblink AMI – Auto Mobil International, Leipziger Messe, 2 December 2010,
  • AMITEC, trade fair for vehicle maintenance, care, servicing and repairs in Germany and Central EuropeWEB,weblink AMITEC – Fachmesse für Fahrzeugteile, Werkstatt und Service, Leipziger Messe, 2 December 2010,
  • A cappella: vocal music festival, organized by the Ensemble amarcord
  • Bach-Fest: Johann Sebastian Bach-festival
  • Christmas market (since 1767)
  • Dok Leipzig: international festival for documentary and animated film
  • Jazztage,WEB,weblink Jazzclug-leipzig.de homepage, contemporary jazz festival
  • Ladyfest LeipzigWEB,weblink Ladyfest Leipzigerinnen homepage, (August) (wikt:emancipatoric|Emancipatoric), feminist punk and electro festival
  • Leipzig Book Fair: the second largest German book fair after Frankfurt
  • {{Interlanguage link multi|Lichtfest Leipzig|de}}, festival celebrating the demonstrations leading up to the collapse of the East German regime
  • OPER unplugged with Music Dance Theatre by Heike Hennig & CoWEB,weblink Oper Unplugger – Musik Tanz Theater, German, 2 December 2010,
  • Stadtfest: city festival
  • Wave-Gotik-Treffen at Pentecost: world's largest goth or "dark culture" festival
  • Leipzig Pop UpWEB,weblink Leipzig Pop Up independent music trade fair and festival, 2 December 2010,
  • Chaos Communication Congress
File:Leipzig Messe Kongresszentrum Glashalle.jpg|Leipzig Trade FairFile:Leipziger Buchmesse 2015.jpg|Leipzig Book Fair 2015File:2016 WGT 002 Belantis.jpg|Wave-Gotik-Treffen 2016, Belantis park in the backgroundFile:Leipziger Weihnachtsmarkt Eingang.jpg|Leipzig Christmas market entranceFile:Dokwoche.jpg|DOK Leipzig

Sports

More than 300 sport clubs in the city represent 78 different disciplines. Over 400 athletic facilities are available to citizens and club members.WEB,weblink Das Leipziger Sportangebot aktuell, leipzig.de, 2 December 2010, German, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080228223928weblink">weblink 28 February 2008,

Football

File:Red Bull arena, Leipzig von oben Zentralstadion.jpg|thumb|The Red Bull Arena from above. Home of RB LeipzigRB LeipzigFile:BrunoPlacheStadion.JPG|thumb|Bruno-Plache-Stadion is the home stadion of 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig1. FC Lokomotive LeipzigThe German Football Association (DFB) was founded in Leipzig in 1900. The city was the venue for the 2006 FIFA World Cup draw, and hosted four first-round matches and one match in the round of 16 in the central stadium.VfB Leipzig, now 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig, won the first national Association football championship in 1903. The club was reformed as 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig in 1966 and has had a glorious past in international competition as well, having been champions of the 1965–66 Intertoto Cup, semi-finalists in the 1973–74 UEFA Cup, and runners-up in the 1986–87 European Cup Winners' Cup.In May 2009 Red Bull entered the local market after being denied the right to buy into FC Sachsen Leipzig in 2006. The newly founded RB Leipzig declared the intention to come up through the ranks of German football to bring Bundesliga football back to the region.JOURNAL, Christoph, Ruf,weblink Buying Its Way to the Bundesliga – Red Bull Wants to Caffeinate Small football Club, Spiegel Online International, 19 June 2009, 2 December 2010, RB Leipzig was finally promoted to the top level of the Bundesliga after finishing the 2015–16 2. Bundesliga season as runners-up.List of Leipzig men and women's football clubs playing at state level and above:{|class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align: center;" bgcolor="#efefef"! class="unsortable"|Club! Founded! class="unsortable"|League! Level! class="unsortable"|Home ground! CapacityRB Leipzig2009align=leftBundesliga>Red Bull Arena (Leipzig)>|42,959RB Leipzig affiliated teams#Women's football>#fn 1>1align=leftRegionalliga (women)>Sportanlage Gontardweg1,3001. FC Lokomotive Leipzig2003align=leftRegionalliga Nordost>Bruno-Plache-Stadion7,000BSG Chemie Leipzig (1997)>#fn 2>2align=leftNOFV-Oberliga Süd>Alfred-Kunze-Sportpark4,999Inter Leipzig>NOFV-Oberliga Süd5align=left|1,500Roter Stern Leipzig ((:de:Roter Stern LeipzigLandesklasse Sachsen Nord7align=left|1,200Note 1: The RB Leipzig women's football team was formed in 2016 and began play in the 2016-17 season.Note 2: The club began play in the 2008-09 season.

Ice hockey

Since the beginning of the 20th century Ice hockey gained popularity and several local clubs established departments dedicated to that sport.WEB,weblink Was einst mit dem Krummstab begann ... Zur Geschichte des Eishockeysports in der Region Leipzig, Fritz Rudolph, sportmuseum-leipzig.de, 2 December 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100115042649weblink">weblink 15 January 2010,

Handball

SC DHfK Leipzig is the men's handball club in Leipzig and were six times (1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1965 and 1966) the champion of East Germany handball league and was winner of EHF Champions League in 1966. They finally promoted to Handball-Bundesliga as champions of 2. Bundesliga in 2014–15 season. They play in the Arena Leipzig which has a capacity of 6,327 spectators in HBL games but can take up to 7,532 spectators for handball in maximum capacity.Handball-Club Leipzig is one of the most successful women's handball clubs in Germany, winning 20 domestic championships since 1956 and 3 Champions League titles. The team was however relegated to the third tier league in 2017 due to failing to achieve the economic standard demanded by the league licence.

Other sports

File:Markkleeberger See Wildwasseranlage2.jpg|thumb|The artificial whitewater course Kanupark Markkleeberg at Markkleeberger SeeMarkkleeberger SeeFrom 1950 to 1990 Leipzig was host of the Deutsche Hochschule für Körperkultur (DHfK, German College of Physical Culture), the national sports college of the GDR.Leipzig also hosted the Fencing World Cup in 2005 and hosts a number of international competitions in a variety of sports each year.Leipzig made a bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympic Games. The bid did not make the shortlist after the International Olympic Committee pared the bids down to 5.Markkleeberger See is a new lake next to Markkleeberg, a suburb on the south side of Leipzig. A former open-pit coal mine, it was flooded in 1999 with groundwater and developed in 2006 as a tourist area. On its southeastern shore is Germany's only pump-powered artificial whitewater slalom course, Markkleeberg Canoe Park (Kanupark Markkleeberg), a venue which rivals the Eiskanal in Augsburg for training and international canoe/kayak competition.Leipzig Rugby Club competes in the German Rugby Bundesliga but finished at the bottom of their group in 2013.WEB,weblink Rugby Club Leipzig e.V., leipzig-rugby.de,

Food and drink

  • An all-season local dish is Leipziger Allerlei, a stew consisting of seasonal vegetables and crayfish.
  • Leipziger Lerche is a shortcrust pastry dish filled with crushed almonds, nuts and strawberry jam; the name ("Leipzig lark") comes from a lark pâté which was a Leipzig speciality until the banning of songbird hunting in Saxony in 1876.
  • Gose is a locally brewed top-fermenting sour beer that originated in the Goslar region and in the 18th century became popular in Leipzig.
File:Leipziger Lerchen.jpg|Leipziger LerchenFile:Goseflasche Pressglas.jpg|Historical Gose bottle (ca. 1900)

Education

File:Leipzig - Universitätsstraße - Uni + Paulinum + Neues Augusteum - Schinkeltor 02 ies.jpg|thumb|Campus of Leipzig UniversityLeipzig UniversityFile:HGB-LichthofMontage.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|Atrium of the Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst LeipzigHochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst Leipzig

University

Leipzig University, founded 1409, is one of Europe's oldest universities. The philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was born in Leipzig in 1646, and attended the university from 1661 to 1666. Nobel Prize laureate Werner Heisenberg worked here as a physics professor (from 1927 to 1942), as did Nobel Prize laureates Gustav Ludwig Hertz (physics), Wilhelm Ostwald (chemistry) and Theodor Mommsen (Nobel Prize in literature). Other former staff of faculty include mineralogist Georg Agricola, writer Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, philosopher Ernst Bloch, eccentric founder of psychophysics Gustav Theodor Fechner, and psychologist Wilhelm Wundt. Among the university's many noteworthy students were writers Johann Wolfgang Goethe and Erich Kästner, and philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, political activist Karl Liebknecht, and composer Richard Wagner. Germany's chancellor since 2006, Angela Merkel, studied physics at Leipzig University.WEB,weblink Leipzig University homepage, The university has about 30,000 students.A part of Leipzig University is the German Institute for Literature which was founded in 1955 under the name "Johannes R. Becher-Institut". Many noted writers have graduated from this school, including Heinz Czechowski, Kurt Drawert, Adolf Endler, Ralph Giordano, Kerstin Hensel, Sarah and Rainer Kirsch, Angela Krauß, Erich Loest, Fred Wander. After its closure in 1990 the institute was refounded in 1995 with new teachers.

Visual arts and theatre

The Academy of Visual Arts (Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst) was established in 1764. Its 530 students ({{As of|2006|lc=y}}) are enrolled in courses in painting and graphics, book design/graphic design, photography and media art. The school also houses an Institute for Theory.The University of Music and Theatre offers a broad range of subjects ranging from training in orchestral instruments, voice, interpretation, coaching, piano chamber music, orchestral conducting, choir conducting and musical composition to acting and scriptwriting.

University of Applied Science

The Leipzig University of Applied Sciences (HTWK)WEB,weblink ?, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150321154621weblink">weblink 21 March 2015, has approximately 6,200 students ({{As of|2007|lc=y}}) and is ({{As of|2007|lc=y}}) the second biggest institution of higher education in Leipzig. It was founded in 1992, merging several older schools. As a university of applied sciences (German: Fachhochschule) its status is slightly below that of a university, with more emphasis on the practical part of the education. The HTWK offers many engineering courses, as well as courses in computer science, mathematics, business administration, librarianship, museum studies and social work. It is mainly located in the south of the city.

Leipzig Graduate School

The private Leipzig Graduate School of Management, (in German Handelshochschule Leipzig (HHL)), is the oldest business school in Germany. According to The Economist, HHL is one of the best schools in the world, rankend at number six overall.WEB,weblink Management Master – Leipziger HHL-Absolventen erhalten weltweit zweithöchstes Einstiegsgehalt – LVZ – Leipziger Volkszeitung, LVZ-Online, www.lvz.de, WEB,weblink Masters in Management 2017, The Economist,

Research Institutes

File:LE Max Blanck MIS MPI.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|The Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the SciencesMax Planck Institute for Mathematics in the SciencesLeipzig is currently the home of twelve research institutes and the Saxon Academy of Sciences and Humanities.Max Planck Society: Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, and Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Fraunhofer Society institutes: Fraunhofer IZI and Fraunhofer IMW. Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research(:de:Deutsches_Biomasseforschungszentrum|Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum – DBFZ)Leibniz Association: (:de:Leibniz-Institut_für_Troposphärenforschung|Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research), (:de:Leibniz-Institut_für_Oberflächenmodifizierung|Leibniz-Institute IOM), (:de:Leibniz-Institut_für_Geschichte_und_Kultur_des_östlichen_Europa|Leibniz-Institute for the History and Culture of Eastern Europe), (:de:Leibniz-Institut_für_Länderkunde|Leibniz-Institute IfL), Leibniz-Institute Jewish history.

Others

Leipzig is home to one of the world's oldest schools Thomasschule zu Leipzig (St. Thomas' School, Leipzig), which gained fame for its long association with the Bach family of musicians and composers.The Lutheran Theological Seminary is a seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran Free Church in Leipzig.WEB, Lutherisches Theologisches Seminar,weblink WEB, Lutherisches Theologisches Seminar Leipzig,weblink The seminary trains students to become pastors for the Evangelical Lutheran Free Church or for member church bodies of the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference.WEB, Evangelical Lutheran Free Church – Germany,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160207102042weblink">weblink 7 February 2016, dmy-all,

Economy

The city is a location for automobile manufacturing by BMW and Porsche in large plants north of the city. In 2011 and 2012 DHL transferred the bulk of its European air operations from Brussels Airport to Leipzig/Halle Airport. Kirow Ardelt AG, the world market leader in breakdown cranes, is based in Leipzig. The city also houses the European Energy Exchange, the leading energy exchange in Central Europe. With VNG – Verbundnetz Gas AG, one of Germany's large natural gas suppliers is headquartered at Leipzig. In addition, inside its larger metropolitan area, Leipzig has developed an important petrochemical center.Some of the largest employers in the area (outside of manufacturing) include software companies such as Spreadshirt and the various schools and universities in and around the Leipzig/Halle region. The University of Leipzig attracts millions of euros of investment yearly and is in the middle of a massive construction and refurbishment to celebrate its 600th anniversary.Leipzig also benefits from world leading medical research (Leipzig Heart Centre) and a growing biotechnology industry.WEB,weblink Discover Leipzig, Stephan Gasteyger, Berlin Things to Do, Many bars, restaurants and stores found in the downtown area are patronized by German and foreign tourists. Leipzig Hauptbahnhof itself is the location of a shopping mall.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20080406003423weblink">weblink dead, 2008-04-06, Promenaden Hauptbahnhof Leipzig, Leipzig is one of Germany's most visited cities with over 3 million overnight stays in 2017.WEB,weblink Leipziger Volkszeitung, Tourismusboom in Leipzig – erstmals drei Millionen Übernachtungen, 22 February 2018, 13 December 2018, In 2010, Leipzig was included in the top 10 cities to visit by The New York Times, and ranked 39th globally out of 289 cities for innovation in the 4th Innovation Cities Index published by Australian agency 2thinknow.WEB, Date: 1 September 2010,weblink Innovation Cities Global Index 2010 " Innovation Cities Program & Index: Creating Innovative Cities: USA, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Asia, Australia, Innovation-cities.com, 2010-09-01, 2013-03-26, In 2015, Leipzig have among the 30 largest German cities the third best prospects for the future.WEB,weblink Lebensqualität in der Hauptstadt: Berlin erobert Platz 2 im Städteranking, Berliner Zeitung, Berliner Zeitung, In recent years Leipzig has often been nicknamed the "Boomtown of eastern Germany" or "Hypezig". {{As of|2013}} it had the highest rate of population growth of any German city.Companies with operations in or around Leipzig include: File:Porsche Diamond.jpg|Porsche Diamond, the customer center building of Porsche LeipzigFile:BMW Leipzig MEDIA Download Luftaufnahme 3 max.jpg|BMW production facility in LeipzigFile:Amazon.de Versandhaus Leipzig.jpg|Amazon in LeipzigFile:EAT LEJ Hangar.jpg|Leipzig is the hub of DHLFile:Löhrs Carré Leipzig.JPG|Headquarters of the Sparkasse Leipzig bankFile:Markkleeberger See Bootsanlegestelle.jpg|Tourism in and around Leipzig plays a significant role. The photo shows the Markkleeberger See.File:Höfe am Brühl 20120928-3.jpg|Leipzig is a well known shopping destination (picture shows the Höfe am Brühl)

Media

File:Leipzig Ri.-Le.-Str 6.jpg|thumb|MDR, one of Germany's public broadcasters]]
  • MDR, one of Germany's public broadcasters, has its headquarters and main television studios in the city. It provides programmes to various TV and radio networks and has its own symphony orchestra, choir and a ballet.
  • Leipziger Volkszeitung (LVZ) is the city's only daily newspaper. Founded in 1894, it has published under several different forms of government. The monthly magazine Kreuzer specializes in culture, festivities and the arts in Leipzig. Leipzig was also home to the world's first daily newspaper in modern times. The "Einkommende Zeitungen" were first published in 1650.(:de:Einkommende Zeitungen)
  • Leipzig has one daily or semi-daily English-language publication, "The Leipzig Glocal." It is an online-based magazine and blog that caters to an international as well as local audience."ABOUT US." The Leipzig Glocal.weblink (Retrieved 8 February 2017) Besides publishing pages on jobs, doctors and movies available in English and other languages, the site's team of authors writes articles about lifestyle, arts & culture, politics, entertainment, Leipzig events, etc."Leipzig: ein Paradies für kreative Blogs." Mephisto 97.6.weblink (Retrieved 8 February 2017).
  • Once known for its large number of publishing houses, Leipzig had been called Buch-Stadt (book city).,WEB,weblink Homepage of the City of Leipzig/Buchstadt, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130523114136weblink">weblink 23 May 2013, the most notable of them being branches of Brockhaus and Insel Verlag. Few are left after the years of economic decline during the German Democratic Republic, during which time Frankfurt developed as a much more important publishing center. Reclam, founded in 1828, was one of the large publishing houses to move away. Leipzig still has a book fair, but Frankfurt's is far bigger.
  • The German Library (Deutsche Bücherei) in Leipzig is part of Germany's National Library. Its task is to collect a copy of every book published in German.German National Library

Quality of life

(File:Leipzig - Thomasgasse + Thomaswiese + Thomaskirche 01 ies.jpg|thumb|right|Leipzig has the most attractive inner city of all large German cities.)In December 2013, according to a study by Marktforschungsinstituts GfK, Leipzig was ranked as the most livable city in GermanyWEB,weblink Deutschlands beliebteste Städte: Leipzig im Ranking ganz vorne – N24.de, 9 December 2013, N24.de, and is one of the three European cities with the highest quality of living (after Groningen and Kraków).WEB,weblink Lebensqualität: Leipzig ist die beste deutsche Stadt Europas – DIE WELT, 26 July 2007, DIE WELT, In 2015/2016, Leipzig was named the second-best city for students in Germany (after Munich).WEB,weblink Beliebte Studentenstädte: Wo es sich am besten leben, lernen und feiern lässt, Eva, Heidenfelder, 17 August 2016, FAZ.NET, In a 2017 study, the Leipzig inner city ranked first among all large cities in Germany due to its urban aesthetics, gastronomy, and shopping opportunities.WEB,weblink Platz 1 bei bundesweiter Innenstadtumfrage – 5 Gründe, warum Leipzigs City die beste ist, WEB,weblink Bundesweite Städte-Umfrage: Leipzig, Erfurt und Quedlinburg am attraktivsten – MDR.DE, mdr.de, 31 January 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170203033705weblink">weblink 3 February 2017, dead, dmy-all, It also has the second-best future prospects of all cities in Germany, only surpassed by Munich.According to the 2017 Global Least & Most Stressful Cities Ranking, Leipzig was one of the least stressful cities in the World. It was ranked 25th out of 150 cities worldwide and above Dortmund, Cologne, Frankfurt, and Berlin.WEB,weblink 2017 Stressful Cities Ranking {{!, Zipjet|website=www.zipjet.co.uk|access-date=2019-09-20}}In 2018, Leipzig won the European Cities of Future prize in the category of "Best Large City for Human Capital & Lifestyle".WEB,weblink Leipzig gewinnt als einzige ostdeutsche Stadt wichtigen Preis in Cannes, TAG24, de, 2019-09-20, Leipzig was named European City of the Year at the 2019 Urbanism Awards.WEB,weblink Leipzig wins European City of the Year at 2019 Urbanism Awards {{!, The Academy of Urbanism|last=Admin|language=en-US|access-date=2019-09-20}}According to the 2019 study by Forschungsinstitut Prognos, Leipzig is the most dynamic region in Germany. Within 15 years, the city climbed 230 places and occupied in 2019 rank 104 of all 401 German regions.WEB,weblink Zukunftsatlas: Leipzig ist dynamischste Region Deutschlands, LVZ - Leipziger Volkszeitung, de, 2019-09-20, WEB,weblink Zukunftsatlas 2019: Das sind die deutschen Regionen mit den besten Zukunftsaussichten, www.handelsblatt.com, de, 2019-09-20,

Transport

Founded at the crossing of Via Regia and Via Imperii, Leipzig has been a major interchange of inter-European traffic and commerce since medieval times. After the Reunification of Germany, immense efforts to restore and expand the traffic network have been undertaken and left the city area with an excellent infrastructure.

Rail

File:Bahnhof Leipzig von Panorama Tower 2013.jpg|thumb|right|Leipzig HauptbahnhofLeipzig Hauptbahnhof(File:Leipziger Bahnhof (228148125).jpeg|thumb|right|Inside Leipzig main station.)Opened in 1915, Leipzig Central Station is the largest overhead railway station in Europe in terms of its built-up area. At the same time, it is an important supra-regional junction in the ICE and Intercity network of the Deutsche Bahn as well as a connection point for S-Bahn and regional traffic in the Halle/Leipzig area.In Leipzig, the Intercity Express routes (Hamburg-)Berlin-Leipzig-Nuremberg-Munich and Dresden-Leipzig-Erfurt-Frankfurt am Main-(Wiesbaden/Saarbrücken) intersect. After completion of the high-speed line to Erfurt, the ICE will run on both lines via Leipzig/Halle Airport and Erfurt. Leipzig is also the starting point for the intercity lines Leipzig-Halle (Saale)-Magdeburg-Braunschweig-Hannover-Dortmund-Köln and -Bremen-Oldenburg(-Norddeich Mole). Both lines complement each other at hourly intervals and also stop at Leipzig/Halle Airport. The only international connection is the daily EuroCity Leipzig-Prague.Most major and medium-sized towns in Saxony and southern Saxony-Anhalt can be reached without changing trains. There are also direct connections via regional express lines to Falkenberg/Elster-Cottbus, Hoyerswerda and Dessau-Magdeburg as well as Chemnitz. Neighbouring Halle (Saale) can be reached via two S-Bahn lines, one of which runs hourly via Leipzig/Halle Airport. The surrounding area of Leipzig is served by numerous regional and S-Bahn lines.The city's rail connections are currently being greatly improved by major construction projects, particularly within the framework of the German Unity transport projects. The line to Berlin has been extended and has been passable at 200 km/h since 2006. On 13 December 2015, the high-speed line from Leipzig to Erfurt, designed for 300 km/h, was put into operation. Its continuation to Nuremberg is scheduled for completion in December 2017. This integration into the high-speed network will considerably reduce the journey times of the ICE from Leipzig to Nuremberg, Munich and Frankfurt am Main. The Leipzig-Dresden railway line, which was the first German long-distance railway to go into operation in 1839, is also undergoing expansion for 200 km/h. The ICE will also be able to operate from Leipzig to Dresden in the near future. The most important construction project in regional transport was the four-kilometer-long City Tunnel, which went into operation in December 2013 as the main line of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland.For freight traffic, there are freight stations in the districts of Wahren and Engelsdorf. In addition, a large freight traffic centre has been set up near the Schkeuditzer Kreuz junction for goods handling between road and rail, as well as a freight station on the site of the DHL hub at Leipzig/Halle Airport.

Suburban train

{{see also|S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland}}File:S-Bahn - City-Tunnel Leipzig mit BR 182 und Doppelstockwagen (HP Markt).jpg|thumb|right|Trains of S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland at Leipzig Markt stationLeipzig Markt stationLeipzig is the core of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland line network. Together with the tram, six of the ten lines form the backbone of local public transport and an important link to the region and the neighbouring Halle. The main line of the S-Bahn consists of the underground S-Bahn stations Hauptbahnhof, Markt, Wilhelm-Leuschner-Platz and Bayerischer Bahnhof leading through the City Tunnel as well as the above-ground station Leipzig MDR. There are a total of 30 S-Bahn stations in the Leipzig city area. Endpoints of the S-Bahn lines include Oschatz, Zwickau, Geithain and Bitterfeld. Two lines run to Halle, one of them via Leipzig/Halle Airport. In 2015, the network will be extended to Dessau and Lutherstadt Wittenberg.With the timetable change in December 2004, the networks of Leipzig and Halle were combined to form the Leipzig-Halle S-Bahn. However, this network only served as a transitional solution and was replaced by the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland on 15 December 2013. At the same time, the main line tunnel, marketed as the Leipzig City Tunnel, went into operation. The tunnel, which is almost four kilometres long, crosses the entire city centre from the main railway station to the Bavarian railway station. The S-Bahn stations are up to 22 metres underground. This construction was the first to create a continuous north-south axis, which had not existed until now due to the north-facing terminus station. The connection to the south of the city and the federal state will thus be greatly improved.

Tramway and Buses

{{see also|Trams in Leipzig}}File:Leipzig Tram 2017.jpg|thumb|right|Tram at GoerdelerringGoerdelerringThe Leipziger Verkehrsbetriebe, existing since 1 January 1917, operate a total of 13 tram lines and 51 bus lines in the city. The total length of the tram network is 149.9 km, making it the largest in Saxony (130.2 km) ahead of Dresden and the second largest in Germany (193.6 km after Berlin). The longest line in the Leipzig network is line 11, which connects Schkeuditz with Markkleeberg over 22 kilometres and is the only tram line in Leipzig to run in three tariff zones of the Central German Transport Association. Night bus lines N1 to N9 and the night tram N17 operate in the night traffic. On Saturdays, Sundays and holidays the tram line N10 and the bus line N60 also operate. The central transfer point between the bus and tram lines as well as to the S-Bahn is Leipzig Central Station.

Bicycle

Like most German cities, Leipzig has a traffic layout designed to be bicycle-friendly. There is an extensive cycle network. In most of the one-way central streets, cyclists are explicitly allowed to cycle both ways. A few cycle paths have been built or declared since 1990.Since 2004 there is a bicycle-sharing system. Bikes can be borrowed and returned via smartphone app or by telephone. Since 2018, the system has enabled flexible borrowing and returning of bicycles in the inner city; in this zone, bicycles can be handed in and borrowed from almost any street corner. Outside these zones, there are stations where the bikes are waiting. The current locations of the bikes can be seen via the app. There are cooperation offers with the Leipzig public transport companies and car sharing in order to offer as complete a mobility chain as possible.

Road

(File:Mitteldeutsche-Schleife.png|thumb|Leipzig's road network)File:Leipzig-Halle Airport Check-in.jpg|thumb|Leipzig/Halle Airport, hub of DHL ]]Several federal motorways pass by Leipzig: the A 14 in the north, the A 9 in the west and the A 38 in the south. The three motorways form a triangular partial ring of the double ring Mitteldeutsche Schleife around Halle and Leipzig. To the south towards Chemnitz, the A 72 is also partly under construction or being planned. The federal roads B 2, B 6, B 87, B 181, B 184 and B 186 lead through the city area.The ring, which corresponds to the course of the old city fortification, surrounds the city centre of Leipzig, which today is largely traffic-calmed.Leipzig has a dense network of carsharing stations. Additionally, since 2018 there is also a stationless car sharing system in Leipzig. Here the cars can be parked and booked anywhere in the inner city without having to define a specific car or period in advance. Finding and booking is done via a smartphone app.Apart from the usual taxi traffic, Leipzig is one of the few cities in Germany with a ridesharing provider. Taxi-like rides can be booked via an app. However, in contrast to a taxi, the start and destination must be defined beforehand and other passengers can be taken along at the same time if they share a route.

Long-distance buses

Since March 2018 there has been a central bus station directly east of Leipzig Central Station.In addition to a large number of national lines, several international lines also serve Leipzig. The cities of Bregenz, Budapest, Milan, Prague, Sofia and Zurich, among others, can be reached without having to change trains. Around 30,000 journeys and 1.5 million passengers a year are expected at the new bus station.Some lines also use Leipzig/Halle Airport, located at the A 9/A 14 motorway junction, and Leipziger Messe for a stop. Passengers can take the S-Bahn from there to the city centre.

Air

Leipzig/Halle Airport is the international commercial airport of the region. It is located at the Schkeuditzer Kreuz junction northwest of Leipzig, halfway between the two major cities. The easternmost section of the new Erfurt-Leipzig/Halle line under construction gave the airport a long-distance railway station, which was also integrated into the ICE network when the railway line was completed in 2015.Passenger flights are operated to the major German hub airports, European metropolises and holiday destinations, especially in the Mediterranean region and North Africa. The airport is of international importance in the cargo sector. In Germany, it ranks second behind Frankfurt am Main, fifth in Europe and 26th worldwide (as of 2011). DHL uses the airport as its central European hub. It is also the home base of the freight airlines Aerologic and European Air Transport Leipzig.The former military airport near Altenburg, Thuringia called Leipzig-Altenburg Airport about a half-hour drive from Leipzig was served by Ryanair until 2010.

Water

File:Leipzig - Elsterflutbett + Palmengartenwehr 01 ies.jpg|thumb|Boats at the Elsterflutbett ]]In the first half of the 20th century, the construction of the Elster-Saale canal, White Elster and Saale was started in Leipzig in order to connect to the network of waterways. The outbreak of the Second World War stopped most of the work, though some may have continued through the use of forced labor. The Lindenauer port was almost completed but not yet connected to the Elster-Saale and Karl-Heine canal respectively. The Leipzig rivers (White Elster, New Luppe, Pleiße, and Parthe) in the city have largely artificial river beds and are supplemented by some channels. These waterways are suitable only for small leisure boat traffic.Through the renovation and reconstruction of existing mill races and watercourses in the south of the city and flooded disused open cast mines, the city's navigable water network is being expanded. The city commissioned planning for a link between Karl Heine Canal and the disused Lindenauer port in 2008. Still more work was scheduled to complete the Elster-Saale canal. Such a move would allow small boats to reach the Elbe from Leipzig. The intended completion date has been postponed because of an unacceptable cost-benefit ratio.File:Leipzig NGT12-LEI Waldplatz defekt.jpg|Tram of Leipziger VerkehrsbetriebeFile:Leipzig Georg-Schumann-Strasse.jpg|Tramsystem at the Georg-Schumann-StraßeFile:S-Bahnhof Leipzig Markt.jpg|Leipzig City Tunnel, part of Leipzig's new S-Bahn networkFile:S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland. Talent 2,008,Station Leipzig Wilhelm-Leuschner-Platz.jpg|A new train of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland at Leipzig Wilhelm-Leuschner-Platz railway station, August 2016File:S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland. Talent 2,027, Innenansicht Sitze.jpg|Inside the S-Bahn train

Quotations

Mein Leipzig lob' ich mir! Es ist ein klein Paris und bildet seine Leute. (I praise my Leipzig! It is a small Paris and educates its people.) – Frosch, a university student in Goethe's Faust, Part OneIch komme nach Leipzig, an den Ort, wo man die ganze Welt im Kleinen sehen kann. (I'm coming to Leipzig, to the place where one can see the whole world in miniature.) – Gotthold Ephraim LessingExtra Lipsiam vivere est miserrime vivere. (To live outside Leipzig is to live miserably.) – Benedikt Carpzov the YoungerDas angenehme Pleis-Athen, Behält den Ruhm vor allen, Auch allen zu gefallen, Denn es ist wunderschön. (The pleasurable Pleiss-Athens, earns its fame above all, appealing to every one, too, for it is mightily beauteous.) – Johann Sigismund Scholze

International relations

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany}}(File:Plaque at 2-37 Leipzig Street, Kiev, Ukraine.jpg|thumb|Plaque on Leipzig Street in Kiev, one of Leipzig's twin towns)Leipzig is twinned with:WEB,weblink Leipzig – International Relations, Referat Internationale Zusammenarbeit, City of Leipzig, 2015-01-29, {{div col|colwidth=30em}}
  • {{flagicon|ETH}} Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, since 2004
  • {{flagicon|UK}} Birmingham, UK, since 1992WEB,weblink Partner Cities, Birmingham City Council, 17 July 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090915223157weblink">weblink 15 September 2009,
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Bologna, Italy, since 1962, renewed in 1997
  • {{flagicon|CZE}} Brno, Czech Republic, since 1973, renewed in 1999WEB,weblink Brno – oficiální web statutárního mÄ›sta Brna, Brno.cz, 22 January 2017,
  • {{flagicon|GER}} Frankfurt am Main, Germany, since 1990WEB,weblink Partner Cities, Frankfurt.de, 22 January 2017, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071107080201weblink">weblink 7 November 2007,
  • {{flagicon|GER}} Hanover, Germany, since 1987WEB,weblink HANNOVER.DE – Portal der Landeshauptstadt und der Region Hannover, Hannover.de, 22 January 2017,
  • {{flagicon|ISR}} Herzliya, Israel, since 2010
  • {{flagicon|USA}} Houston, United States, since 1993
  • {{flagicon|UKR}} Kiev, Ukraine, since 1961, renewed in 1992
  • {{flagicon|POL}} Kraków, Poland, since 1973, renewed in 1995WEB,weblink Leipzig – International Relations, 2009 Leipzig City Council, Office for European and International Affairs, 17 July 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090629111302weblink">weblink 29 June 2009, WEB,weblink Kraków – Miasta Partnerskie, 2013-08-10, Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków, Polish, Kraków -Partnership Cities,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130702010825weblink">weblink 2 July 2013, dead, dmy,
  • {{flagicon|FRA}} Lyon, France, since 1981WEB,weblink Partner Cities of Lyon and Greater Lyon, lyon.fr 2008 Mairie de Lyon, 17 July 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090719003816weblink">weblink 19 July 2009,
  • {{flagicon|PRC}} Nanjing, China, since 1988
  • {{flagicon|GRE}} Thessaloniki, Greece, since 1984WEB,weblink Twinning Cities, City of Thessaloniki, 7 July 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090331054219weblink">weblink 31 March 2009,
  • {{flagicon|BIH}} Travnik, Bosnia and Herzegovina, since 2003
{{div col end}}

Notable residents

17th century

(File:Christoph Bernhard Francke - Bildnis des Philosophen Leibniz (ca. 1695).jpg|thumb|upright|Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (c. 1695))

18th century

19th century

1801–1850

  • Christian Hermann Weisse; (1801–1866), Protestant theologian and philosopher
  • Felix Mendelssohn; (1809–1847), composer, pianist, organist and conductor
  • Robert Schumann; (1810–1856), composer and music critic
  • Richard Wagner; (1813–1883), composer, theatre director and conductor (among others opera The Flying Dutchman)
  • Louise Otto-Peters; (1819–1895), suffragette, author, founder of the General German Women's Association
(File:Andreas Staub - Clara Schumann (Pastell 1838).png|thumb|upright|Clara Schumann (1838))

1851–1900

(File:KLiebknecht.jpg|thumb|upright|Karl Liebknecht (c. 1911))
  • Hans Meyer; (1858–1929), geographer, Africanist and mountaineer, first European to reach the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro
  • Wilhelm Souchon; (1864–1946), Vice Admiral of the Imperial Navy, commander of the Ottoman and Bulgarian Navy
  • Karl Liebknecht; (1871–1919), socialist politician (co-founder of the Communist Party of Germany)
  • Carl Friedrich Goerdeler; (1884–1945), mayor, one of the leaders of conservative resistance against Hitler
  • Max Beckmann; (1884–1950), Expressionist painter, professor at art academies and schools
  • Wilhelm Backhaus; (1884–1969), pianist
  • Paul Frölich; (1884–1953), politician (KPD co-founder), executor and biographer of Rosa Luxemburg
  • Walter Ulbricht; (1893–1973), Communist politician (SED), GDR Chairman of the Council of State from 1960 to 1973
  • Ruth Fischer; (1895–1961), communist politician and journalist, co-founder of the CPA
  • Hanns Eisler; (1898–1962), composer (inter alia of the national anthem of the GDR.)
  • Bruno Apitz; (1900–1979), writer (Naked among wolves)

20th century

1901–1950

1951–present

(File:Rauch neo bruehl maxernstmuseum 281007 06.jpg|thumb|upright|Neo Rauch (2017))

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

{{See also|Timeline of Leipzig#Bibliography|l1=Bibliography of the history of Leipzig}}

External links

{{Commons|Leipzig}}{{EB1911 Poster|Leipzig}}{{Wikivoyage}} {{Geographic location|Center =Leipzig|North =Delitzsch, Dessau|Northeast=Berlin|East =Dresden|Southeast=Chemnitz|South =Gera, Zwickau|Southwest=Jena, Weimar, Erfurt|West =KasselHalle, Saxony-Anhalt>Halle}}{{Germany districts Saxony}}{{Cities in Germany}}{{Bezirke DDR Seats}}{{Authority control}}

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