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Lebesgue measure
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In measure theory, the Lebesgue measure, named after French mathematician Henri Lebesgue, is the standard way of assigning a measure to subsets of n-dimensional Euclidean space. For n = 1, 2, or 3, it coincides with the standard measure of length, area, or volume. In general, it is also called n-dimensional volume, n-volume, or simply volume.The term volume is also used, more strictly, as a synonym of 3-dimensional volume It is used throughout real analysis, in particular to define Lebesgue integration. Sets that can be assigned a Lebesgue measure are called Lebesgue-measurable; the measure of the Lebesgue-measurable set A is here denoted by Î»(A).Henri Lebesgue described this measure in the year 1901, followed the next year by his description of the Lebesgue integral. Both were published as part of his dissertation in 1902.JOURNAL, Henri Lebesgue, IntÃ©grale, longueur, aire, 1902, UniversitÃ© de Paris, The Lebesgue measure is often denoted by dx, but this should not be confused with the distinct notion of a volume form.

## Definition

Given a subset Esubseteqmathbb{R}, with the length of interval I = [a,b] (text{or }I = (a, b)) given by ell(I)= b - a, the Lebesgue outer measure BOOK, Real analysis, Royden, H.L., 1988, Macmillan, 978-0024041517, 3rd, New York, 56, lambda^*(E) is defined as
lambda^*(E) = operatorname{inf} left{sum_{k=1}^infty ell(I_k) : {(I_k)_{k in mathbb N}} text{ is a sequence of intervals with open boundaries with } Esubseteq bigcup_{k=1}^infty I_kright}.
The Lebesgue measure is defined on the Lebesgue Ïƒ-algebra, which is the collection of all sets E which satisfy the "CarathÃ©odory criterion" which requires that for every Asubseteq mathbb{R},
lambda^*(A) = lambda^*(A cap E) + lambda^*(A cap E^c)
For any set in the Lebesgue Ïƒ-algebra, its Lebesgue measure is given by its Lebesgue outer measure lambda(E)=lambda^*(E).Sets that are not included in the Lebesgue Ïƒ-algebra are not Lebesgue-measurable. Such sets do exist, i.e., the Lebesgue Ïƒ-algebra is strictly contained in the power set of mathbb{R}.

### Intuition

The first part of the definition states that the subset E of the real numbers is reduced to its outer measure by coverage by sets of open intervals. Each of these sets of intervals I covers E in the sense that when the intervals are combined together by union, they contain E. The total length of any covering interval set can easily overestimate the measure of E, because E is a subset of the union of the intervals, and so the intervals may include points which are not in E. The Lebesgue outer measure emerges as the greatest lower bound (infimum) of the lengths from among all possible such sets. Intuitively, it is the total length of those interval sets which fit E most tightly and do not overlap.That characterizes the Lebesgue outer measure. Whether this outer measure translates to the Lebesgue measure proper depends on an additional condition. This condition is tested by taking subsets of the real numbers A using E as an instrument to split A into two partitions: the part of A which intersects with E and the remaining part of A which is not in E: the set difference of A and E. These partitions of A are subject to the outer measure. If for all possible such subsets A of the real numbers, the partitions of A cut apart by E have outer measures whose sum is the outer measure of A, then the outer Lebesgue measure of E gives its Lebesgue measure. Intuitively, this condition means that the set E must not have some curious properties which causes a discrepancy in the measure of another set when E is used as a "mask" to "clip" that set, hinting at the existence of sets for which the Lebesgue outer measure does not give the Lebesgue measure. (Such sets are, in fact, not Lebesgue-measurable.)

## Examples

• Any open or closed interval {{nowrap|[a, b]}} of real numbers is Lebesgue-measurable, and its Lebesgue measure is the length {{nowrap|ba}}. The open interval {{nowrap|(a, b)}} has the same measure, since the difference between the two sets consists only of the end points a and b and has measure zero.
• Any Cartesian product of intervals {{nowrap|[a, b]}} and {{nowrap|[c, d]}} is Lebesgue-measurable, and its Lebesgue measure is {{nowrap|(ba)(dc)}}, the area of the corresponding rectangle.
• Moreover, every Borel set is Lebesgue-measurable. However, there are Lebesgue-measurable sets which are not Borel sets.WEB,weblink What sets are Lebesgue-measurable?, math stack exchange, 26 September 2015, Asaf Karagila, WEB,weblink Is there a sigma-algebra on R strictly between the Borel and Lebesgue algebras?, math stack exchange, 26 September 2015, Asaf Karagila,
• Any countable set of real numbers has Lebesgue measure 0.
• In particular, the Lebesgue measure of the set of rational numbers is 0, although the set is dense in R.
• The Cantor set is an example of an uncountable set that has Lebesgue measure zero.
• If the axiom of determinacy holds then all sets of reals are Lebesgue-measurable. Determinacy is however not compatible with the axiom of choice.
• Vitali sets are examples of sets that are not measurable with respect to the Lebesgue measure. Their existence relies on the axiom of choice.
• Osgood curves are simple plane curves with positive Lebesgue measureJOURNAL, Osgood, William F., January 1903, A Jordan Curve of Positive Area, Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, American Mathematical Society, 4, 1, 107â€“112, 10.2307/1986455, 0002-9947, 1986455, William Fogg Osgood, (it can be obtained by small variation of the Peano curve construction). The dragon curve is another unusual example.
• Any line in mathbb{R}^n, for n geq 2, has a zero Lebesgue measure. In general, every proper hyperplane has a zero Lebesgue measure in its ambient space.

## Properties

(File:Translation of a set.svg|thumb|300px|Translation invariance: The Lebesgue measure of A and A+t are the same.)The Lebesgue measure on Rn has the following properties:
1. If A is a cartesian product of intervals I1 × I2 × ... × In, then A is Lebesgue-measurable and lambda (A)=|I_1|cdot |I_2|cdots |I_n|. Here, |I| denotes the length of the interval I.
2. If A is a disjoint union of countably many disjoint Lebesgue-measurable sets, then A is itself Lebesgue-measurable and Î»(A) is equal to the sum (or infinite series) of the measures of the involved measurable sets.
3. If A is Lebesgue-measurable, then so is its complement.
4. Î»(A) â‰¥ 0 for every Lebesgue-measurable set A.
5. If A and B are Lebesgue-measurable and A is a subset of B, then Î»(A) â‰¤ Î»(B). (A consequence of 2, 3 and 4.)
6. Countable unions and intersections of Lebesgue-measurable sets are Lebesgue-measurable. (Not a consequence of 2 and 3, because a family of sets that is closed under complements and disjoint countable unions need not be closed under countable unions: {emptyset, {1,2,3,4}, {1,2}, {3,4}, {1,3}, {2,4}}.)
7. If A is an open or closed subset of Rn (or even Borel set, see metric space), then A is Lebesgue-measurable.
8. If A is a Lebesgue-measurable set, then it is "approximately open" and "approximately closed" in the sense of Lebesgue measure (see the regularity theorem for Lebesgue measure).
9. A Lebesgue-measurable set can be "squeezed" between a containing open set and a contained closed set. This property has been used as an alternative definition of Lebesgue measurability. More precisely, Esubset mathbb{R} is Lebesgue-measurable if and only if for every varepsilon>0 there exist an open set G and a closed set F such that Fsubset Esubset G and lambda(Gsetminus F)0, then the dilation of A by delta defined by delta A={delta x:xin A} is also Lebesgue-measurable and has measure delta^{n}lambda,(A).
10. More generally, if T is a linear transformation and A is a measurable subset of Rn, then T(A) is also Lebesgue-measurable and has the measure left|det(T)right| lambda(A).
All the above may be succinctly summarized as follows:
The Lebesgue-measurable sets form a Ïƒ-algebra containing all products of intervals, and λ is the unique complete translation-invariant measure on that σ-algebra with lambda([0,1]times [0, 1]times cdots times [0, 1])=1.
The Lebesgue measure also has the property of being Ïƒ-finite.

## Null sets

A subset of Rn is a null set if, for every Îµ > 0, it can be covered with countably many products of n intervals whose total volume is at most Îµ. All countable sets are null sets.If a subset of Rn has Hausdorff dimension less than n then it is a null set with respect to n-dimensional Lebesgue measure. Here Hausdorff dimension is relative to the Euclidean metric on Rn (or any metric Lipschitz equivalent to it). On the other hand, a set may have topological dimension less than n and have positive n-dimensional Lebesgue measure. An example of this is the Smithâ€“Volterraâ€“Cantor set which has topological dimension 0 yet has positive 1-dimensional Lebesgue measure.In order to show that a given set A is Lebesgue-measurable, one usually tries to find a "nicer" set B which differs from A only by a null set (in the sense that the symmetric difference (AB) cup(BA) is a null set) and then show that B can be generated using countable unions and intersections from open or closed sets.

## Construction of the Lebesgue measure

The modern construction of the Lebesgue measure is an application of CarathÃ©odory's extension theorem. It proceeds as follows.Fix {{nowrap|nN}}. A box in Rn is a set of the form
B=prod_{i=1}^n [a_i,b_i] , ,
where {{nowrap|biai}}, and the product symbol here represents a Cartesian product. The volume of this box is defined to be
operatorname{vol}(B)=prod_{i=1}^n (b_i-a_i) , .
For any subset A of Rn, we can define its outer measure Î»*(A) by:
lambda^*(A) = inf left{sum_{Bin mathcal{C}}operatorname{vol}(B) : mathcal{C}text{ is a countable collection of boxes whose union covers }Aright} .
We then define the set A to be Lebesgue-measurable if for every subset S of Rn,
lambda^*(S) = lambda^*(S cap A) + lambda^*(S setminus A) , .
These Lebesgue-measurable sets form a Ïƒ-algebra, and the Lebesgue measure is defined by {{nowrap|Î»(A) {{=}} Î»*(A)}} for any Lebesgue-measurable set A.The existence of sets that are not Lebesgue-measurable is a consequence of a certain set-theoretical axiom, the axiom of choice, which is independent from many of the conventional systems of axioms for set theory. The Vitali theorem, which follows from the axiom, states that there exist subsets of R that are not Lebesgue-measurable. Assuming the axiom of choice, non-measurable sets with many surprising properties have been demonstrated, such as those of the Banachâ€“Tarski paradox.In 1970, Robert M. Solovay showed that the existence of sets that are not Lebesgue-measurable is not provable within the framework of Zermeloâ€“Fraenkel set theory in the absence of the axiom of choice (see Solovay's model).JOURNAL, Solovay, Robert M., A model of set-theory in which every set of reals is Lebesgue-measurable, Annals of Mathematics, 1970696, Second Series, 92, 1970, 1, 1â€“56, 10.2307/1970696,

## Relation to other measures

The Borel measure agrees with the Lebesgue measure on those sets for which it is defined; however, there are many more Lebesgue-measurable sets than there are Borel measurable sets. The Borel measure is translation-invariant, but not complete.The Haar measure can be defined on any locally compact group and is a generalization of the Lebesgue measure (Rn with addition is a locally compact group).The Hausdorff measure is a generalization of the Lebesgue measure that is useful for measuring the subsets of Rn of lower dimensions than n, like submanifolds, for example, surfaces or curves in R3 and fractal sets. The Hausdorff measure is not to be confused with the notion of Hausdorff dimension.It can be shown that there is no infinite-dimensional analogue of Lebesgue measure.

## References

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