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Languages of Turkey
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factoids
Laz language>LazAdyghe language>Adyghe, Albanian language, Arabic language>Arabic, Bosnian language, Crimean Tatar language>Crimean Tatar,{{Ref labela}} Georgian language, Kabardian language>KabardianHTTP://WWW.UNHCR.ORG/REFWORLD/DOCID/4954CE3FC.HTML>TITLE=REFWORLD - WORLD DIRECTORY OF MINORITIES AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES - TURKEYLAST=REFUGEES, (in alphabetical order)English language>English (17%)German language (4%)French language>French (3%)Europeans and Their Languages| sign = Turkish Sign LanguageMardin Sign LanguageKeyboard layout#Turkish (Q-keyboard)>Turkish (Q-keyboard)Turkish (F-keyboard)200px)(File:KB Turkey f yeni.svg|200px)| extra label = FootnotesTurkish}} may be subsumed under the Turkish language.}}{{Culture of Turkey}}The languages of Turkey, apart from the only official language Turkish, include the widespread Kurmanji, the moderately prevalent minority languages Arabic and Zazaki and a number of less common minority languages, some of which are guaranteed by the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.

Constitutional rights

Official language

Article 3 of the Constitution of Turkey defines Turkish as the only official language of Turkey.WEB, Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, (wikisource:Constitution of the Republic of Turkey#3, Article 3), Turkey, Republic of Turkey,

Minority language rights

Article 42 of the Constitution explicitly prohibits educational institutions to teach any language other than Turkish as a mother tongue to Turkish citizens.WEB, Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, (wikisource:Constitution of the Republic of Turkey#42, Article 42), Republic of Turkey, Due to Article 42 and its longtime restrictive interpretation, ethnic minorities have been facing severe restrictions in the use of their mother languages.Concerning the incompatibility of this provision with the International Bill of Human Rights, Turkey signed the International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights and on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights only with reservations constraining minority rights and the right to education. Furthermore, Turkey hasn't signed either of the Council of Europe's Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, or the anti-discrimination Protocol 12 to the European Convention on Human Rights.{{sfn|European Commission|2005|pp=35 f.}}This particular constitutional provision has been contested both internationally and within Turkey. The provision has been criticized by minority groups, notably the Kurdish community. In October 2004, the Turkish State's Human Rights Advisory Board called for a constitutional review in order to bring Turkey's policy on minorities in line with international standards, but was effectively muted.{{sfn|European Commission|2005|p=35}} It was also criticized by EU member states, the OSCE, and international human rights organizations, including Human Rights Watch who observe that "the Turkish government accepts the language rights of the Jewish, Greek and Armenian minorities as being guaranteed by the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. But the government claims that these are Turkey's only minorities, and that any talk of minority rights beyond this is just separatism".BOOK, Questions and Answers: Freedom of Expression and Language Rights in Turkey, Human Rights Watch, April 2002, New York,weblink

Supplementary language education

In 2012, the Ministry of Education included Kurdish (based on both Kurmanji and Zazaki dialects)WEB,weblink Kürtçe İlk Kez Müfredata Girdi, 12 September 2012, Hürriyet Eğitim, Milliyet.com.tr, Milliyet, Turkish, Kurdish Is on the Academic Programme for the First Time, to the academic programme of the basic schools as optional classes from the fifth year on.Later, the Ministry of Education also included Abkhaz, Adyghe, Standard Georgian, and Laz languages in 2013, and Albanian as well as Bosnian languages in February 2017.WEB,weblink Boşnakça ve Arnavutça Müfredata Girdi, 23 February 2017, Hürriyet Eğitim, Hurriyet.com.tr, Hürriyet, Turkish, Bosnian and Albanian Languages Are on the Academic Programme, In 2015, the Turkey’s Ministry of Education announced that as of the 2016-17 academic year, Arabic courses (as a second language) will be offered to students in elementary school starting in second grade. The Arabic courses will be offered as an elective language course like German, French and English. According to a prepared curriculum, second and third graders will start learning Arabic by listening-comprehension and speaking, while introduction to writing will join these skills in fourth grade and after fifth grade students will start learning the language in all its four basic skills.Al-Monitor: Turks divided over plans to introduce Arabic-language teaching, 2 November 2015, Retrieved 29 December 2017.Hürriyet Daily News: Arabic to be offered as second language in Turkish elementary schools, 23 October 2015, Retrieved 29 December 2017.

Lists of languages

The following table lists the mother tongues of people in Turkey by percentage of their speakers.{| class="wikitable sortable" border="1" |+ Mother tongues in TurkeyREPORT
,
,
,
, September 2006
, Toplumsal Yapı Araştırması 2006 [Social Structure Research 2006]
,weblink
, KONDA
, PDF
,
,
,
, Etnik Kimlikler: Anadil [Ethnic Identitites: Mother Tongue]
, 19
,
,
,
, ! Mother tongue! PercentageTurkish language>Turkish 84.54Northern Kurdish >| 11.97Arabic language>Arabic 1.38Zazaki language>Zazaki 1.01| 0.28| 0.23Laz language>Laz 0.12Circassian languages >| 0.11Armenian language>Armenian 0.07| 0.07Greek language>Greek 0.06| 0.03Jewish languages >| 0.01Coptic language>Coptic 0.01| 0.12Ethnologue lists many minority and immigrant languages in Turkey some of which are spoken by large numbers of people.{| class="wikitable sortable" border="1" |+ Languages by number of speakers in Turkey (with Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale)WEB
, Lewis
, M. Paul (ed.)
,
, Ethnologue report for Turkey (Europe)
, Ethnologue: Languages of the World
, SIL International
, 2009
,weblink
,
,
, 2009-09-08,
WEB
, Lewis
, M. Paul (ed.)
,
, Ethnologue report for Turkey (Asia)
, Ethnologue: Languages of the World
, SIL International
, 2009
,weblink
,
,
, 2009-09-08,
! Language! Dialect or variety! Speakers! Status (EGIDS){{Ref label|EGIDS|a}}! NotesTurkish language>Turkish| | 66,850,000 (2006)| 1 (National)| Non-indigenousKurdish language>Kurdish| Northern Kurdish| 8,130,000 {{decrease}} (2014)| 3 (Wider communication)| 3,000,000 monolinguals Zazaki| Southern Zazaki| 1,500,000 {{decrease}} (1998)| 5 (Developing)| | Northern Zazaki| 184,000 (2014)| 4 (Educational)| Arabic| North Levantine Arabic| 1,130,000 (2014)| 3 (Wider communication)| Modern Standard Arabic language>Modern Standard Arabic| 686,000 (2015)| 4 (Educational)| Non-indigenousNorth Mesopotamian Arabic language>North Mesopotamian Arabic| 520,000 (2014) 6a (Vigorous)| Do not read Arabic| Other Mesopotamian Arabic| 101,000 (2014)| Non-indigenousKabardian language>Kabardian|| 1,000,000 (2005)| 5 (Developing)| Non-indigenousAzerbaijani language>Azerbaijani| | 540,000 (2014)| 5 (Dispersed)| Romani language>Romani| Balkan Romani 500,000 (1985)| 6a (Vigorous) Non-indigenousDomari language>Domari| | 8b (Nearly extinct)| Turkish Sign Language| | 400,000 (1998)| 6a (Vigorous)|Bulgarian language>BulgarianPomak language>Pomak Bulgarian| 351,000 (2014)| 5 (Dispersed)| | Balkan Gagauz Turkish| | 327,000 (1993)| 7 (Shifting)| Adyghe language>Adyghe|| 316,000 (2014)| 5 (Dispersed) GreekPontic Greek language>Pontic Greek| 5,000 (2009)| 7 (Shifting) Varieties of Modern Greek#Standard Modern Greek>Standard Modern Greek| 3,600 (2014)| 5 (Dispersed)Georgian language>Georgian| | 151,000 (2014)| 6b (Threatened)| Non-indigenousCrimean Tatar language>Crimean Tatar| | 100,000 (2014)| 5 (Developing)| Non-indigenous Albanian| Tosk Albanian| 66,000 (2014)| 6b (Threatened) Non-indigenous| Gheg Albanian| | 5 (Dispersed)Armenian language>Armenian|| 61,000 (2014)| 6b (Threatened)| Abkhaz language>Abkhaz| | 44,000 (2014)| 6b (Threatened)| Non-indigenousOssetian language>Ossetian| Digor Ossetian| 37,000 (2014)| 5 (Developing)| Non-indigenousTatar language>Tatar| | | 5 (Dispersed)| Non-indigenousLaz language>Lazuri| | 20,000 (2007)| 6b (Threatened)| AramaicTuroyo language>Turoyo| 15,000 (2014)| 6b (Threatened)| Hértevin language>Hértevin| 1,000 (1999)| 6a (Vigorous)|Syriac dialect>Syriac varieties| | 9 (Dormant)| Judaeo-Spanish>Ladino| | 13,000 (2007)| 7 (Shifting)| Non-indigenousTurkmen language>Turkmen||| 5 (Dispersed)| Non-indigenousBosnian language>Bosnian| | 4,500 (2013)| 6b (Threatened)| Non-indigenousUzbek language>UzbekSouthern Uzbek language>Southern Uzbek| 3,800 (2014)| 5 (Dispersed)| Non-indigenousKyrgyz language>Kyrgyz| || 5 (Dispersed)| Non-indigenousUyghur language>Uyghur| | | 5 (Dispersed)| Non-indigenousa{{note|EGIDS}}Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS) of Ethnologue:1 (National): "The language is used in education, work, mass media, and government at the national level."2 (Provincial): "The language is used in education, work, mass media, and government within major administrative subdivisions of a nation."3 (Wider Communication): "The language is used in work and mass media without official status to transcend language differences across a region."4 (Educational): "The language is in vigorous use, with standardization and literature being sustained through a widespread system of institutionally supported education."5 (Developing): "The language is in vigorous use, with literature in a standardized form being used by some though this is not yet widespread or sustainable."6a (Vigorous): "The language is used for face-to-face communication by all generations and the situation is sustainable."6b (Threatened): "The language is used for face-to-face communication within all generations, but it is losing users."7 (Shifting): "The child-bearing generation can use the language among themselves, but it is not being transmitted to children."8a (Moribund): "The only remaining active users of the language are members of the grandparent generation and older."8b (Nearly Extinct): "The only remaining users of the language are members of the grandparent generation or older who have little opportunity to use the language."9 (Dormant): "The language serves as a reminder of heritage identity for an ethnic community, but no one has more than symbolic proficiency."10 (Extinct): "The language is no longer used and no one retains a sense of ethnic identity associated with the language."2-7637-7044-4}}">

1965 Census {| class"wikitable sortable"Heinz Kloss & Grant McConnel, Linguistic composition of the nations of the world, vol,5, Europe and USSR, Québec, Presses de l'Université Laval, 1984, {{ISBN>2-7637-7044-4}}

!Language!Mother tongue!Only language spoken!Second best language spokenAbaza language>Abaza| 4,563| 280| 7,556Albanian language>Albanian| 12,832| 1,075| 39,613Arabic language>Arabic| 365,340| 189,134| 167,924Armenian language>Armenian| 33,094| 1,022| 22,260Bosnian language>Bosnian| 17,627| 2,345| 34,892Bulgarian language>Bulgarian| 4,088| 350| 46,742Pomak language>Pomak| 23,138| 2,776| 34,234Chechen language>Chechen| 7,563| 2,500| 5,063Circassian language>Circassian| 58,339| 6,409| 48,621Croatian language>Croatian| 45| 1| 1,585Czech language>Czech| 168| 25| 76Dutch language>Dutch| 366| 23| 219English language>English| 27,841| 21,766| 139,867French language>French| 3,302| 398| 96,879Georgian language>Georgian| 34,330| 4,042| 44,934German language>German| 4,901| 790| 35,704Greek language>Greek| 48,096| 3,203| 78,941Italian language>Italian| 2,926| 267| 3,861Kurdish language>Kurdish (Kurmanji)| 2,219,502| 1,323,690| 429,168Ladino language>Judæo-Spanish| 9,981| 283| 3,510Laz language>Laz| 26,007| 3,943| 55,158Persian language>Persian| 948| 72| 2,103Polish language>Polish| 110| 20| 377Portuguese language>Portuguese| 52| 5| 3,233Romanian language>Romanian| 406| 53| 6,909Russian language>Russian| 1,088| 284| 4,530Serbian language>Serbian| 6,599| 776| 58,802Spanish language>Spanish| 2,791| 138| 4,297Turkish language>Turkish| 28,289,680| 26,925,649| 1,387,139Zazaki language>Zaza| 150,644| 92,288| 20,413! Total! 31,009,934! 28,583,607! 2,786,610{| class="wikitable sortable"|+ Languages spoken in Turkey by provinces, 1965 censusAhmet Buran Ph.D., Türkiye'de Diller ve Etnik Gruplar, 2012!Province / Language!Turkish!Kurdish!Arabic!Zazaki!Circassian!Greek!Georgian!Armenian!Laz!Pomak!Bosnian!Albanian!JewishAdana Province (including Osmaniye Province>Osmaniye)|866,316|7,581|22,356|332|51|51|0|28|9|0|312|483|29Adıyaman|143,054|117,325|7|6,705|0|0|0|84|4|0|0|0|0Afyonkarahisar|499,461|125|19|1|2,172|169|2|2|1|16|14|2|1Ağrı|90,021|156,316|105|4|2|2|77|5|0|1|103|0|0Amasya|279,978 |2,179 |9 |2 |1,497 |6 |1,378 |208 |6 |0 |10 |336 |1 Ankara Province (including Kırıkkale Province>Kırıkkale)|1,590,392 |36,798 |814 |21 |393 |124 |41 |66 |120 |7 |126 |833 |64 Antalya|486,697 |23 |2 |0 |0 |14 |0 |0 |2 |0 |0 |1 |0 Artvin|190,183 |46 |4 |0 |0 |4 |7,698 |1 |12,093 |1 |1 |0 |0 Aydın|523,583 |168 |85 |0 |112 |71 |4 |1 |4 |0 |26 |88 |0 Balıkesir|698,679 |560 |38 |8 |3,144 |236 |1,273 |9 |205 |1,707 |314 |24 |4 Bilecik|137,674|5 |4 |0 |736 |4 |73 |1 |1 |2 |6 |3 |0 Bingöl|62,668 |56,881 |19 |30,878|17 |0 |1 |11 |1 |0 |0 |0 |3 Bitlis|56,161 |92,327 |3,263 |2,082 |205 |1 |5 |16 |0 |0 |0 |1 |2 Bolu Province (including parts of Düzce Province>Düzce)|375,786 |363 |0 |0 |1,593 |3 |1,541 |488 |1,791 |0 |40 |6 |1 Burdur|194,910 |2 |7 |0 |0 |3 |12 |0 |0 |0 |0 |1 |0 Bursa|746,633 |213 |22 |0 |799 |106 |2,938 |35 |517 |65 |1,169 |1,928 |69 Çanakkale|338,379 |443 |0 |25 |1,604 |5,258 |4 |9 |12 |3,675 |516 |6 |121 Çankırı Province (including parts of Karabük Province>Karabük)|250,510 |158 |1 |0 |0 |1 |0 |3 |2 |0 |0 |0 |0 Çorum|474,638 |8,736 |4 |0 |1,808 |12 |8 |51|3 |7 |0 |0 |0Denizli|462,860 |283 |28 |5 |8 |97 |1 |1 |0 |2 |1 |3 |0 Diyarbakır|178,644 |236,113 |2,536 |57,693 |1 |1 |3 |134 |3 |48 |1 |5 |0 Edirne|290,610 |386 |104 |21 |9 |18 |2 |12 |3 |10,285 |329 |58|92Elazığ|244,016|47,446|17|30,921|0|2|0|2 |30 |12 |3 |2 |0 Erzincan|243,911|14,323|13|298 |4 |5 |0 |12 |2 |3 |0 |1 |0 Erzurum|555,632|69,648|86|2,185|109 |8 |4 |11 |24 |7 |1 |5 |1 Eskişehir|406,212|327 |42|0 |1,390|4 |3 |0 |14 |23 |114 |78 |0 Gaziantep|490,046|18,954 |885 |1 |4 |6 |0 |4 |3 |0 |1 |11 |0 Giresun|425,665 |305 |1 |1 |2 |0 |2,029 |0 |5 |0 |0 |0 |0 Gümüşhane Province (including Bayburt Province>Bayburt)|260,419 |2,189 |0 |0 |91 |0 |0 |0 |17 |0 |0 |0 |0 Hakkari Province (including parts of Şırnak Province>Şırnak) |10,357|72,365|165|0|1|0|1 |21|2|0|0|0|0Hatay|350,080|5,695|127,072|7|780|767|11|376|6|2|8|44|1Isparta|265,305|688|75|11|8|91|0|1|2|1|1|3|4Mersin|500,207|1,067|9,430|23|76|137|13|12|19|3|3|9|1İstanbul|2,185,741|2,586|2,843|26|317|35,097|849|29,479|128|165|3,072|4,341|8,608İzmir|1,214,219|863|352|5|1,287|898|15|17|15|1,289|2,349|1,265|753Kars Province (including Ardahan Province>Ardahan and Iğdır)|471,287|133,144|61|992|215|6|8|5|24|1|5|4|1Kastamonu Province (including parts of Düzce Province>Düzce) |439,355|1,090|2|0|3 |2|180|849|1|0|0|0|0Kayseri|509,932|8,454|34|8|17,110|1|1|9|6|9|15|160|1Kırklareli|252,594|602|136|24|5|3|5|3|7 |3,375|1,148|144|11Kırşehir|185,489|11,309|4|0|2|0|0|0|1|0|1|0|0Kocaeli|320,808|235|0|10|1,467|63|2,755|46|2,264|381|3,827|22|7Konya Province (including Karaman Province>Karaman)|1,092,819|27,811|67|4|1,139|3|7|1|5|1|11|75|0Kütahya|397,221|105|13|2|17|4|2 |88|9|0|0|34|0Malatya|374,449|77,794|33 |10|14|5|7|148|5|4|0|3|0Manisa|746,514|241|15|0|488|42|67|2|6|54|116|192|3 Kahramanmaraş|386,010|46,548|21|0|4,185|0|0|13|3|0|0|9|0Mardin Province (including parts of Batman Province>Batman) |35,494|265,328|79,687|60|75|11|15|11|0|0|1|6|0 Muğla|334,883|6|4|1|0|28|0|0|0|1|0|0|4Muş|110,555|83,020|3,575|507|898|0|1|3|103 |0|0|0|0Nevşehir|203,156 |22|0|0|0 |0|0|0|0|0|0|22|0Niğde Province (including Aksaray Province>Aksaray)|353,146|8,991|10|0 |227|5|0|12|4|0|15|4|0Ordu|538,978|12|0|0|5|0|4,815|34|0 |1|0|1|0Rize|275,291|11|1|1|0|9|4|0|5,754|1|0|1|0Sakarya|388,481|2,163|32|3|538|6|4,535|2|2,671|23|2,899|794|1Samsun|747,115|1,366|3|0|3,401|91|2,350|5|51|319|10|610|0Siirt Province (including parts of Batman Province>Batman and parts of Şırnak) |46,722|179,023|38,273|484|1|0|15|98|3|0|10|0|0Sinop|261,341|2,126|0|0|659|1|1,144|228|3|5|0|7|3Sivas|649,099|32,284|19|23|2,086|0|0|217|1|0|515|0|0Tekirdağ|284,222|548|76|18|5|19|52|8|2|1,627|6|51|102Tokat|483,948|3,974|7|3|5,934|0|367|45|2|0 |0|964|0Trabzon|590,799|72|12|0|0|4,535|1|11|0|0|0|0|0Tunceli|120,553|33,431|20|2,370|28|0|0|4|0|18|10|8|0Şanlıurfa|207,652|175,100|51,090|14,554|3|0|5|2|4|0|2|0|0Uşak |190,506|16|2|0|1|0|0|4|1|0|0|0|0Van|118,481|147,694|557|3|1|2|1|1|8|0|1|1|66Yozgat|433,385|2,424|1|0|1,597|2|0|118|0|0|14|1|0Zonguldak Province (including Bartın Province>Bartın and parts of Karabük) |649,757|43|26|0|5|17|2|3|15|0|1|1|1{{legend2|#64b1ff|Provinces with Turkish speakers in majority|border=1px solid #AAAAAA}} {{legend2|#b2d8ff|Provinces with Turkish speakers in plurality|border=1px solid #AAAAAA}} {{legend2|#ffb3b3|Provinces with Kurdish speakers in plurality|border=1px solid #AAAAAA}} {{legend2|#FF6666|Provinces with Kurdish speakers in majority|border=1px solid #AAAAAA}}File:Mother language in 1965 Turkey census - Turkish and Kurdish.png|Turkish- and Kurdish-speaking pluralitiesFile:Mother language in 1965 Turkey census - Turkish.png|Turkish-speaking populationFile:Mother language in 1965 Turkey census - Kurdish.png|Kurdish-speaking populationFile:Mother language in 1965 Turkey census - Arabic.png|Arabic-speaking populationFile:Mother language in 1965 Turkey census - Zaza.png|Zaza-speaking populationFile:Mother language in 1965 Turkey census - Circassian.png|Circassian-speaking populationFile:Mother language in 1965 Turkey census - Greek.png|Greek-speaking populationFile:Mother language in 1965 Turkey census - Armenian.png|Armenian-speaking populationFile:Mother language in 1965 Turkey census - Georgian.png|Georgian-speaking populationFile:Mother language in 1965 Turkey census - Laz.png|Laz-speaking populationFile:Mother language in 1965 Turkey census - Pomak.png|Pomak-speaking populationFile:Mother language in 1965 Turkey census - Bosniak.png|Bosnian-speaking populationFile:Mother language in 1965 Turkey census - Albanian.png|Albanian-speaking populationFile:Mother language in 1965 Turkey census - Jewish.png|Hebrew-speaking population

History

{{seealso|Languages of the Ottoman Empire}}File:Galatapostcard.jpg|thumb|A 1901 postcard depicting Galata in Constantinople (IstanbulIstanbulTurkey has historically been the home to many now extinct languages. These include Hittite, the earliest Indo-European language for which written evidence exists (circa 1600 BCE to 1100 BCE when the Hittite Empire existed). The other Anatolian languages included Luwian and later Lycian, Lydian and Milyan. All these languages are believed to have become extinct at the latest around the 1st century BCE due to the Hellenization of Anatolia which led to Greek in a variety of dialects becoming the common language.Urartian belonging to the Hurro-Urartian language family existed in eastern Anatolia around Lake Van. It existed as the language of the kingdom of Urartu from about the 9th century BCE until the 6th century. Hattian is attested in Hittite ritual texts but is not related to the Hittite language or to any other known language; it dates from the 2nd millennium BCE.In the post-Tanzimat period French became a common language among educated people, even though no ethnic group in the empire natively spoke French.BOOK, Strauss, Johann,weblink 2010, A Constitution for a Multilingual Empire: Translations of the Kanun-ı Esasi and Other Official Texts into Minority Languages, Herzog, Christoph, Malek Sharif, The First Ottoman Experiment in Democracy, Orient-Institut Istanbul, Wurzburg, 21-51, (info page on book at Martin Luther University) CITED: p. 26 (PDF p. 28): "French had become a sort of semi-official language in the Ottoman Empire in the wake of the Tanzimat reforms.[...]It is true that French was not an ethnic language of the Ottoman Empire. But it was the only Western language which would become increasingly widespread among educated persons in all linguistic communities." Johann Strauss, author of "Language and power in the late Ottoman Empire," wrote that "In a way reminiscent of English in the contemporary world, French was almost omnipresent in the Ottoman lands."BOOK, Strauss, Johann, Language and power in the late Ottoman Empire, Murphey, Rhoads, Imperial Lineages and Legacies in the Eastern Mediterranean: Recording the Imprint of Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Rule, Routledge, 2016-07-07, ({{ISBN|1317118456}}, 9781317118459), p. [https:books.google.ca/books?id=XI-kDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA122 122]. Strauss also stated that that French was "a sort of semi-official language",BOOK, Strauss, Johann, Language and power in the late Ottoman Empire, Murphey, Rhoads, Imperial Lineages and Legacies in the Eastern Mediterranean: Recording the Imprint of Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Rule, Routledge, 2016-07-07, ({{ISBN|1317118448}}, 9781317118442), Google Books PT192. which "to some extent" had "replaced Turkish as an 'official' language for non-Muslims".BOOK, Strauss, Johann, Language and power in the late Ottoman Empire, Murphey, Rhoads, Imperial Lineages and Legacies in the Eastern Mediterranean: Recording the Imprint of Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Rule, Routledge, 2016-07-07, ({{ISBN|1317118448}}, 9781317118442), Google Books PT193. Therefore late empire had multiple French-language publications, and several continued to operate when the Republic of Turkey was declared in 1923. However French-language publications began to close in the 1930s.WEB, Tanatar Baruh, Lorans, Sara Yontan Musnik,weblink Francophone press in the Ottoman Empire, French National Library, 2019-07-13,

See also

{{-}}

References

{{reflist}}

Bibliography and further reading

{{commons category|Languages of Turkey}}
  • WEB, European Commission, European Commission, Turkey 2005 Progress Report, 2005-11-09,weblink harv,
  • WEB, Turgut, Ãœveys Mücahit,weblink A CONCEPTUAL HISTORY OF ULUS IN THE CONTEXT OF NATION-BUILDING AND LANGUAGE POLICIES IN TURKEY, May 2007, - Thesis submitted to Istanbul Sehir University
{{Asia in topic|Languages of}}

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