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Lancashire
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{{About|the county in England}}{{Use dmy dates|date=November 2015}}{{Cleanup|reason= Revision of tone required .|date=October 2018}} {{short description|County of England}}







factoids
| established_by = | preceded_by = | origin = | lord_lieutenant_office = | lord_lieutenant_name = | high_sheriff_office = High Sheriff of LancashirePUBLISHER=HIGH SHERIFFS ASSOCIATION, 18 April 2019, (2019–20)| area_total_km2 = 3079| area_total_rank = 17th2005 Estimates}}| county_council = Lancashire County Council| unitary_council = | unitary_council1 = | government = | joint_committees = Preston, Lancashire>Preston| area_council_km2 = 2903| area_council_rank = 16th| iso_code = GB-LAN| ons_code = 30| gss_code = | nuts_code = UKD43| districts_map = (File:Lancashire Ceremonial Numbered.png)| districts_key = | districts_list = #West Lancashire
  1. Chorley
  2. South Ribble
  3. Fylde
  4. City of Preston
  5. Wyre
  6. City of Lancaster
  7. Ribble Valley
  8. Pendle
  9. Burnley
  10. Rossendale
  11. Hyndburn
  12. Blackpool (Unitary)
  13. Blackburn with Darwen (Unitary)
Jake Berry Conservative Party (UK)>(C) }}Lancashire ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|l|æ|ŋ|k|ə|ʃ|ər}} {{respell|LANG|kə|shər}}, {{IPAc-en|-|ʃ|ɪər}} {{respell|-sheer}}; abbreviated Lancs.) is a ceremonial county in North West England. The administrative centre is Preston. The county has a population of 1,449,300 and an area of {{convert|1189|sqmi|km2}}. People from Lancashire are known as Lancastrians.The history of Lancashire begins with its founding in the 12th century. In the Domesday Book of 1086, some of its lands were treated as part of Yorkshire. The land that lay between the Ribble and Mersey, Inter Ripam et Mersam, was included in the returns for Cheshire. When its boundaries were established, it bordered Cumberland, Westmorland, Yorkshire, and Cheshire.Lancashire emerged as a major commercial and industrial region during the Industrial Revolution. Liverpool and Manchester grew into its largest cities, with economies built around the docks and the cotton mills respectively.NEWS, 13 May 2010, Rivals: Liverpool v Manchester, BBC Liverpool,weblink These cities dominated global trade and the birth of modern industrial capitalism. The county contained several mill towns and the collieries of the Lancashire Coalfield. By the 1830s, approximately 85% of all cotton manufactured worldwide was processed in Lancashire.BOOK, Greater Manchester: A panorama of people and places in Manchester and its surrounding towns, 13, Gibb, Robert, Myriad, 2005, 1-904736-86-6, Accrington, Blackburn, Bolton, Burnley, Bury, Chorley, Colne, Darwen, Manchester, Nelson, Oldham, Preston, Rochdale and Wigan were major cotton mill towns during this time. Blackpool was a centre for tourism for the inhabitants of Lancashire's mill towns, particularly during wakes week.The historic county was subject to a significant boundary reform in 1974 which created the current ceremonial county and removed Liverpool and Manchester, and most of their surrounding conurbations to form the metropolitan and ceremonial counties of Merseyside and Greater Manchester.George, D., Lancashire, (1991)Local Government Act 1972. 1972, c. 70 The detached northern part of Lancashire in the Lake District, including the Furness Peninsula and Cartmel, was merged with Cumberland and Westmorland to form Cumbria. Lancashire lost 709 square miles of land to other counties, about two fifths of its original area, although it did gain some land from the West Riding of Yorkshire. Today the ceremonial county borders Cumbria to the north, Greater Manchester and Merseyside to the south, and North and West Yorkshire to the east; with a coastline on the Irish Sea to the west. The county palatine boundaries remain the same as those of the pre-1974 county with Lancaster serving as the county town, and the Duke of Lancaster (ie the Queen) exercising sovereignty rights,WEB,weblink County Palatine, Duchy of Lancaster, 24 August 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170713121602weblink">weblink 13 July 2017, no, dmy-all, including the appointment of lords lieutenant in Greater Manchester and Merseyside.WEB, NWDA Chairman appointed as High Sheriff of Lancashire, Northwest Regional Development Agency,weblink 17 October 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110524142832weblink">weblink 24 May 2011,

History

Early history

File:Lancashire 1610 Speed Hondius - Restoration.jpg|upright=1.4|thumb|left|The Countie Pallatine of Lancaster Described and Divided into Hundreds, 1610, a map of Lancashire engraved in around 1627 by John Speed. The map features a street plan of the county town, Lancaster, and side panels containing portraits of kings from the House of Lancaster and the House of YorkHouse of YorkThe county was established in 1182, later than many other counties. During Roman times the area was part of the Brigantes tribal area in the military zone of Roman Britain. The towns of Manchester, Lancaster, Ribchester, Burrow, Elslack and Castleshaw grew around Roman forts. In the centuries after the Roman withdrawal in 410AD the northern parts of the county probably formed part of the Brythonic kingdom of Rheged, a successor entity to the Brigantes tribe. During the mid-8th century, the area was incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria, which became a part of England in the 10th century.In the Domesday Book, land between the Ribble and Mersey were known as "Inter Ripam et Mersam"WEB,weblink Lancashire: County History, The High Sherrifs' Association of England and Wales, High Sheriff's Association of England and Wales (The Shrievalty Association), 26 August 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120320101912weblink">weblink 20 March 2012, yes, dmy-all, Sylvester (1980). p. 14. and included in the returns for Cheshire.Morgan (1978). pp.269c–301c,d. Although some historians consider this to mean south Lancashire was then part of Cheshire,Booth, P. cited in George, D., Lancashire, (1991) it is by no means certain.Harris and Thacker (1987). write on page 252: Certainly there were links between Cheshire and south Lancashire before 1000, when Wulfric Spot held lands in both territories. Wulfric's estates remained grouped together after his death, when they were left to his brother Aelfhelm. And indeed, there still seems to have been some kind of connexion in 1086, when south Lancashire was surveyed together with Cheshire by the Domesday commissioners. Nevertheless, the two territories do seem to have been distinguished from one another in some way and it is not certain that the shire-moot and the reeves referred to in the south Lancashire section of Domesday were the Cheshire ones.Phillips and Phillips (2002). pp. 26–31.Crosby, A. (1996). writes on page 31: The Domesday Survey (1086) included south Lancashire with Cheshire for convenience, but the Mersey, the name of which means 'boundary river' is known to have divided the kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia and there is no doubt that this was the real boundary. It is also claimed that the territory to the north formed part of the West Riding of Yorkshire. It bordered on Cumberland, Westmorland, Yorkshire, and Cheshire.The county was divided into hundreds, Amounderness, Blackburn, Leyland, Lonsdale, Salford and West Derby.Vision of Britain {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071001002010weblink |date=1 October 2007 }} – Lancashire ancient county divisions Lonsdale was further partitioned into Lonsdale North, the detached part north of the sands of Morecambe Bay including Furness and Cartmel, and Lonsdale South.

Modern history

File:Historical and current boundaries of Lancashire.png|thumb|left|The historic county palatinecounty palatineLancashire is smaller than its historical extent following a major reform of local government.Berrington, E., Change in British Politics, (1984) In 1889, the administrative county of Lancashire was created, covering the historic county except for the county boroughs such as Blackburn, Burnley, Barrow-in-Furness, Preston, Wigan, Liverpool and Manchester.Vision of Britain {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071001001412weblink |date= 1 October 2007 }} – Lancashire ancient county boundaries The area served by the Lord-Lieutenant (termed now a ceremonial county) covered the entirety of the administrative county and the county boroughs, and was expanded whenever boroughs annexed areas in neighbouring counties such as Wythenshawe in Manchester south of the River Mersey and historically in Cheshire, and southern Warrington. It did not cover the western part of Todmorden, where the ancient border between Lancashire and Yorkshire passes through the middle of the town.During the 20th century, the county became increasingly urbanised, particularly the southern part. To the existing county boroughs of Barrow-in-Furness, Blackburn, Bolton, Bootle, Burnley, Bury, Liverpool, Manchester, Oldham, Preston, Rochdale, Salford, St. Helens and Wigan were added Warrington (1900), Blackpool (1904) and Southport (1905). The county boroughs also had many boundary extensions. The borders around the Manchester area were particularly complicated, with narrow protrusions of the administrative county between the county boroughs – Lees urban district formed a detached part of the administrative county, between Oldham county borough and the West Riding of Yorkshire.Lord Redcliffe-Maud and Bruce Wood. English Local Government Reformed. (1974)By the census of 1971, the population of Lancashire and its county boroughs had reached 5,129,416, making it the most populous geographic county in the UK.WEB,weblink High Sheriff - Lancashire County History, highsheriffs.com, 7 September 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140819222224weblink">weblink 19 August 2014, no, dmy-all, The administrative county was also the most populous of its type outside London, with a population of 2,280,359 in 1961. On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the administrative county was abolished, as were the county boroughs. The urbanised southern part largely became part of two metropolitan counties, Merseyside and Greater Manchester.Jones, B. et al., Politics UK, (2004)The new county of Cumbria incorporates the Furness exclave.The boroughs of Liverpool, Knowsley, St. Helens and Sefton were included in Merseyside. In Greater Manchester the successor boroughs were Bury, Bolton, Manchester, Oldham (part), Rochdale, Salford, Tameside (part), Trafford (part) and Wigan. Warrington and Widnes, south of the new Merseyside/Greater Manchester border were added to the new non-metropolitan county of Cheshire. The urban districts of Barnoldswick and Earby, Bowland Rural District and the parishes of Bracewell and Brogden and Salterforth from Skipton Rural District in the West Riding of Yorkshire became part of the new Lancashire. One parish, Simonswood, was transferred from the borough of Knowsley in Merseyside to the district of West Lancashire in 1994.OPSI {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070930165106weblink |date=30 September 2007 }} â€“ The Cheshire, Lancashire and Merseyside (County and Metropolitan Borough Boundaries) Order 1993 In 1998 Blackpool and Blackburn with Darwen became independent unitary authorities, removing them from the non-metropolitan county but not from the ceremonial county.The Wars of the Roses tradition continued with Lancaster using the red rose symbol and York the white. Pressure groups, including Friends of Real Lancashire and the Association of British Counties advocate the use of the historical boundaries of Lancashire for ceremonial and cultural purposes.FORL. Retrieved 7 November 2008. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150708165111weblink |date=8 July 2015 }}ABC Counties {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081016010405weblink |date=16 October 2008 }}. Retrieved 7 November 2008.

Geography

Divisions and environs

Lancashire, the shire county controlled by the county council is divided into local government districts, Burnley, Chorley, Fylde, Hyndburn, Lancaster, Pendle, Preston, Ribble Valley, Rossendale, South Ribble, West Lancashire, and Wyre.Vision of Britain {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070930235607weblink |date=30 September 2007 }} – Divisions of LancashireLancashire County Council {{Webarchive|url=https://archive.is/20070415113304weblink |date=15 April 2007 }} – Lancashire districtsBlackpool and Blackburn with Darwen are unitary authorities that do not come under county council control.OPSI {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060710120000weblink |date=10 July 2006 }} – The Lancashire (Boroughs of Blackburn and Blackpool) (Structural Change) Order 1996 The Lancashire Constabulary covers the shire county and the unitary authorities.Lancashire County Council {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060908144434weblink |date=8 September 2006 }} – Map of Lancashire (Unitary boundaries shown) The ceremonial county, including the unitary authorities, borders Cumbria, North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside in the North West England region.Government Office for the North West {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070926222552weblink |date=26 September 2007 }} – Local Authorities

Geology, landscape and ecology

{{See also|Geology of Lancashire}}(File:Topography of Lancashire.png|thumb|upright=1.15|Topography of Lancashire)The highest point of the county is Gragareth, near Whernside, which reaches a height of 627 m (2,057 ft).BUBL Information Service {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120726194651weblink |date=26 July 2012 }} – The Relative Hills of Britain Green Hill near Gragareth has also been cited as the county top.WEB,weblink Administrative (1974) County Tops, Hill-bagging.co.uk, 25 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101124191010weblink">weblink 24 November 2010, no, dmy-all, The highest point within the historic boundaries is Coniston Old Man in the Lake District at 803 m (2,634 ft).WEB,weblink Historic County Tops, Hill-bagging.co.uk, 25 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101123215803weblink">weblink 23 November 2010, no, dmy-all, Lancashire rivers drain westwards from the Pennines into the Irish Sea. Rivers in Lancashire include the Ribble, Wyre and Lune. Their tributaries are the Calder, Darwen, Douglas, Hodder, and Yarrow. The Irwell has its source in Lancashire.To the west of the county are the West Lancashire Coastal Plain and the Fylde coastal plain north of the Ribble Estuary. Further north is Morecambe Bay. Apart from the coastal resorts, these areas are largely rural with the land devoted to vegetable crops. In the northwest corner of the county, straddling the border with Cumbria, is the Arnside and Silverdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB), characterised by its limestone pavements and home to the Leighton Moss nature reserve.To the east of the county are upland areas leading to the Pennines. North of the Ribble is Beacon Fell Country Park and the Forest of Bowland, another AONB. Much of the lowland in this area is devoted to dairy farming and cheesemaking, whereas the higher ground is more suitable for sheep, and the highest ground is uncultivated moorland. The valleys of the River Ribble and its tributary the Calder form a large gap to the west of the Pennines, overlooked by Pendle Hill. Most of the larger Lancashire towns are in these valleys South of the Ribble are the West Pennine Moors and the Forest of Rossendale where former cotton mill towns are in deep valleys. The Lancashire Coalfield, largely in modern-day Greater Manchester, extended into Merseyside and to Ormskirk, Chorley, Burnley and Colne in Lancashire.

Green belt

{{further|North West Green Belt}}Lancashire contains green belt interspersed throughout the county, covering much of the southern districts and towns throughout the Ribble Valley, West Lancashire and The Fylde coastal plains to prevent convergence with the nearby Merseyside and Greater Manchester conurbations. Further pockets control the expansion of Lancaster, and surround the Blackpool urban area, as part of the western edge of the North West Green Belt. It was first drawn up from the 1950s. All the county's districts contain some portion of belt, the portion by Burnley also abutting the Forest of Pendle Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

Politics

Parliamentary constituencies

{{Unreferenced section|date=November 2012}}{| class=wikitable! colspan=7 | General Election 2017: Lancashire! style="background:#39f;"| Conservative !! style="background:#f66;"| Labour !! style="background:#c9f;"| UKIP !! style="background:orange;"| Liberal Democrats !! style="background:#3f3;"| Green !! Others !! Turnout 338,000+59,000 362,000+94,000 11,000-90,000 28,000−5,000 9,000-9,000 2,000−5,000| 750,000+40,000{| class=wikitable! colspan=6 | Overall Number of Seats as of 2017! style="background:#39f;"| Conservative !! style="background:#f66;"| Labour !! style="background:#c9f;"| UKIP !! style="background:orange;"| Liberal Democrats !! style="background:#3f3;"| Green !! Others style="text-align:center;" 8 8 0 0 0 0

County Council

(File:Lancs-C-C-Logo-2009.jpg|thumb|Logo)Lancashire County Council is based in County Hall in Preston, It was built as a home for the county administration, the Quarter Sessions and Lancashire Constabulary) and opened on 14 September 1882."Opening of the new Town-Hall at Preston". The Times. 15 September 1882.Local elections for 84 councillors from 84 divisions are held every four years. The council is currently No Overall Control with the Labour Party leading a minority administration.{| class="wikitable"! rowspan=2 width=10%|Election !!colspan=8 width=80%|Number of councillors elected by each political party!!width=10%|Conservative !!width=10%|Labour !!width=10%|Liberal Democrats !!width=10%|Independent !!width=10%|Green Party !!width=10%|BNP !!width=10%|UKIP !!width=10%|Idle Toad align=centerLancashire County Council election, 2017>2017 46 30 4 2 1 0 1HTTP://WWW3.LANCASHIRE.GOV.UK/ELECTIONS/RESULTS/2017/DIVRES.ASP?DIV=1206&P=D>TITLE=LANCASHIRE COUNTY COUNCIL: ELECTIONSACCESS-DATE=19 MARCH 2018ARCHIVE-DATE=20 MARCH 2018DF=DMY-ALL, 0align=centerLancashire County Council election, 2013>2013 35 396 3 1 0 0 0align=centerLancashire County Council election, 2009>2009 51 16 10 3 2 1 0 1 align=centerLancashire County Council election, 2005>2005 31 44 6 1 1 0 0 1align=center Lancashire County Council election, 2001>2001 27 44 5 1 1 0 0 0

Duchy of Lancaster

File:Lancashire Brit Isles Sect 3.svg|thumb|right|upright=0.8|Lancashire, County Palatine shown within England]]The Duchy of Lancaster is one of two royal duchies in England. It has landholdings throughout the region and elsewhere, operating as a property company, but also exercising the right of the Crown in the County Palatine of Lancaster. While the administrative boundaries changed in the 1970s, the county palatine boundaries remain the same as the historic boundaries.WEB,weblink House of Commons Hansard Debates for 15 Jun 1992, parliament.uk, 2 September 2017,weblink 20 November 2017, no, dmy-all, As a result, the High Sheriffs for Lancashire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside are appointed "within the Duchy and County Palatine of Lancaster".High Sheriffs, The Times, 21 March 1985The High Sheriff is an ancient county officer, but is now a largely ceremonial post. High Shrievalties are the oldest secular titles under the Crown, in England and Wales. The High Sheriff is the representative of the monarch and is the "Keeper of The Queen's Peace" in the county, executing judgements of the High Court.The Duchy administers bona vacantia within the County Palatine, receiving the property of persons who die intestate and where the legal ownership cannot be ascertained. There is no separate Duke of Lancaster, the title merged into the Crown many centuries ago – but the Duchy is administered by the Queen in Right of the Duchy of Lancaster. A separate court system for the county palatine was abolished by Courts Act 1971. A particular form of The Loyal Toast, 'The Queen, Duke of Lancaster' is in regular use in the county palatine. Lancaster serves as the county town of the county palatine.It is traditional that when giving the dinner toast to the Queen, in Lancashire only, that the form of words is to 'The Queen, the Duke of Lancaster'. This practice is still upheld within the county where after dinner toasts are made.

Economy

(File:Lancashire County Hall, Preston.jpg|thumb|Lancashire County Hall, Preston)Lancashire in the 19th century was a major centre of economic activity, and hence one of wealth. Activities included coal mining, textile production, particularly cotton, and fishing. Preston Docks, an industrial port are now disused for commercial purposes. Lancashire was historically the location of the port of Liverpool while Barrow-in-Furness is famous for shipbuilding.As of 2013, the largest private sector industry is the defence industry with BAE Systems Military Air Solutions division based in Warton on the Fylde coast. The division operates a manufacturing site in Samlesbury. Other defence firms include BAE Systems Global Combat Systems in Chorley, Ultra Electronics in Fulwood and Rolls-Royce plc in Barnoldswick.The nuclear power industry has a plant at Springfields, Salwick operated by Westinghouse and Heysham nuclear power station is operated by British Energy. Other major manufacturing firms include Leyland Trucks, a subsidiary of Paccar building the DAF truck range.Other companies with a major presence in Lancashire include: The Foulnaze cockle fishery is in Lytham. It has only opened the coastal cockle beds three times in twenty years; August 2013 was the last of these openings.NEWS, Eyewitness: Lytham, Lancashire,weblink 14 August 2013, The Guardian, 13 August 2013, Christopher Thomond, Image upload,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140304203853weblink">weblink 4 March 2014, no, dmy-all,

Enterprise zone

The creation of Lancashire Enterprise Zone was announced in 2011. It was launched in April 2012, based at the airfields owned by BAE Systems in Warton and Samlesbury.NEWS,weblink 'Big companies' interested in East Lancashire enterprise zone, Dillon, Jonathon, Lancashire Telegraph, 26 February 2012, 26 March 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402095837weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, no, dmy-all, Warton Aerodrome covers {{convert|72|ha}} and Samlesbury Aerodrome is 74 hectares.NEWS,weblink Lancashire enterprize [sic] zone due in to boost jobs 18 months, Woodhouse, Lisa, Lancashire Telegraph, 23 August 2012, 26 March 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160823015430weblink">weblink 23 August 2016, no, dmy-all, Development is coordinated by Lancashire Enterprise Partnership, Lancashire County Council and BAE Systems. The first businesses to move into the zone did so in March 2015, at Warton.NEWS,weblink Enterprise zone takes off, Blackpool Gazette, 25 March 2015, 26 March 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150327235136weblink">weblink 27 March 2015, no, dmy-all, In March 2015 the government announced a new enterprise zone would be created at Blackpool Airport, using some airport and adjoining land.NEWS,weblink New Lancashire enterprise zone confirmed in Budget, Blackpool Gazette, 18 March 2015, 26 March 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150322050345weblink">weblink 22 March 2015, no, dmy-all, Operations at the airport will not be affected.NEWS,weblink No impact on runway from redevelopment, Blackpool Gazette, 20 March 2015, 26 March 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150322192718weblink">weblink 22 March 2015, no, dmy-all,

Economic output

File:cattle Banks marsh.JPG|thumb|right|Cattle grazing on the salt marshes of the Ribble Estuary near Banks ]]This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Lancashire at basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British pounds sterling.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2015-10-20, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070226163731weblink">weblink 26 February 2007, pp. 240–253 Office for National Statistics{| class="wikitable"! Year || Regional Gross Value AddedComponents may not sum to totals due to rounding || Agricultureincludes hunting and forestry || Industryincludes energy and construction || Servicesincludes financial intermediation services indirectly measured13,789 >| 7,98416,584 >| 10,22919,206 >| 12,560

Education

Lancashire has a mostly comprehensive system with four state grammar schools. Not including sixth form colleges, there are 77 state schools (not including Burnley's new schools) and 24 independent schools. The Clitheroe area has secondary modern schools. Sixth form provision is limited at most schools in most districts, with only Fylde and Lancaster districts having mostly sixth forms at schools. The rest depend on FE colleges and sixth form colleges, where they exist. South Ribble has the largest school population and Fylde the smallest (only three schools). Burnley's schools have had a new broom and have essentially been knocked down and started again in 2006. There are many Church of England and Catholic faith schools in Lancashire.Lancashire is home to four universities: Lancaster University, the University of Central Lancashire, Edge Hill University and the Lancaster campus of the University of Cumbria. Seven colleges offer higher education courses.

Transport

Road

File:M6 motorway near Carnforth.jpg|thumb|right|The M6 near CarnforthCarnforthThe Lancashire economy relies strongly on the M6 motorway which runs from north to south, past Lancaster and Preston. The M55 connects Preston to Blackpool and is 11.5 miles (18.3 km) long. The M65 motorway from Colne, connects Burnley, Accrington, Blackburn to Preston. The M61 from Preston via Chorley and the M66 starting {{convert|500|m|mi|1}} inside the county boundary near Edenfield, provide links between Lancashire and Manchester] and the trans-Pennine M62. The M58 crosses the southernmost part of the county from the M6 near Wigan to Liverpool via Skelmersdale.Other major roads include the east-west A59 between Liverpool in Merseyside and Skipton in North Yorkshire via Ormskirk, Preston and Clitheroe, and the connecting A565 to Southport; the A56 from Ramsbottom to Padiham via Haslingden and from Colne to Skipton; the A585 from Kirkham to Fleetwood; the A666 from the A59 north of Blackburn to Bolton via Darwen; and the A683 from Heysham to Kirkby Lonsdale via Lancaster.

Rail

{{Location map+|LancashireRailways in Lancashire}}{{Div col|colwidth=10em}}{{Legend-line|4px solid #000000|Primary route}}{{Legend-line|2px solid #404040|Secondary route}}{{Legend-line|2px solid #be2d2c|Rural route}}{{Legend-line|2px solid #a0a0a0|Goods only}}{{Legend-line|2px solid #018f10|Heritage railway}}{{Legend-line|2px dotted #0000ff|Light rail/tramway}}{{Legend-line|1px solid #d8a000|Disused railway}}{{Div col end}}| AlternativeMap=Lancashire railway map.svg| float=right| width=300| places =
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.756|long=-2.707|label={{stnlnk|Preston}}|label_size=85|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=54.048|long=-2.807|label={{stnlnk|Lancaster}}|label_size=85|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.822|long=-3.049|label=Blackpool North|label_size=85|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.746|long=-2.479|label={{stnlnk|Blackburn}}|label_size=85|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.794|long=-2.245|label={{stnlnk|Burnley Central}}|label_size=85|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.855|long=-2.182|label={{stnlnk|Colne}}|label_size=85|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.698|long=-2.465|label={{stnlnk|Darwen}}|label_size=85|position=left}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.874|long=-2.394|label={{stnlnk|Clitheroe}}|label_size=85|position=left}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=54.070|long=-2.870|label={{stnlnk|Morecambe}}|label_size=85|position=left}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=54.033|long=-2.912|label={{stnlnk|Heysham Port}}|label_size=85|position=left}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.569|long=-2.881|label={{stnlnk|Ormskirk}}|label_size=85|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.573|long=-2.425|label={{stnlnk|Bolton}}|label_size=85|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.698|long=-2.292|label={{stnlnk|Rawtenstall}}|label_size=85|position=right|mark=Green pog.svg}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=54.130|long=-2.771|label={{stnlnk|Carnforth}}|label_size=85|position=left}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.959|long=-2.026|label={{stnlnk|Skipton}}|label_size=85|position=left|outside=1}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.798|long=-3.049|label=Blackpool South|label_size=85|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.739|long=-2.964|label={{stnlnk|Lytham}}|label_size=85|position=bottom}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.753|long=-2.370|label={{stnlnk|Accrington}}|label_size=85|position=right}}
}}The West Coast Main Line provides direct rail links with London, Glasgow and other major cities, with stations at {{stnlnk|Preston}} and {{stnlnk|Lancaster}}. East-west connections are carried via the East Lancashire Line between Blackpool and {{stnlnk|Colne}} via {{stnlnk|Lytham}}, Preston, {{stnlnk|Blackburn}}, {{stnlnk|Accrington}} and Burnley. The Ribble Valley Line runs from {{stnlnk|Bolton}} to {{stnlnk|Clitheroe}} via {{stnlnk|Darwen}} and Blackburn. There are connecting lines from Preston to {{stnlnk|Ormskirk}} and Bolton, and from Lancaster to {{stnlnk|Morecambe}}, Heysham and {{stnlnk|Skipton}}.

Air

Blackpool Airport are no longer operating domestic or international flights, but it is still the home of flying schools, private operators and North West Air Ambulance . Manchester Airport is the main airport in the region. Liverpool John Lennon Airport is nearby, while the closest airport to the Pendle Borough is Leeds Bradford.There is an operational airfield at Warton near Preston where there is a major assembly and test facility for BAE Systems.

Ferry

Heysham offers ferry services to Ireland and the Isle of Man.Transport for Lancashire – Lancashire Inter Urban Bus and Rail Map (PDF) {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110930083732weblink |date=30 September 2011 }} As part of its industrial past, Lancashire gave rise to an extensive network of canals, which extend into neighbouring counties. These include the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, Lancaster Canal, Sankey Canal, Bridgewater Canal, Rochdale Canal, Ashton Canal and Manchester Ship Canal.

Bus

Several bus companies run bus services in the Lancashire area serving the main towns and villages in the county with some services running to neighbouring areas, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Merseyside and West Yorkshire.

Demography

{{see also|List of settlements in Lancashire by population}}The major settlements in the ceremonial county are concentrated on the Fylde coast (the Blackpool Urban Area), and a belt of towns running west-east along the M65: Preston, Blackburn, Accrington, Burnley, Nelson and Colne. South of Preston are the towns of Leyland and Chorley; the three formed part of the Central Lancashire New Town designated in 1970. The north of the county is predominantly rural and sparsely populated, except for the towns of Lancaster and Morecambe which form a large conurbation of almost 100,000 people. Lancashire is home to a significant Asian population, numbering over 70,000 and 6% of the county's population, and concentrated largely in the former cotton mill towns in the south east.{{Location map+|Lancashire
|alt=Lancashire is in North West England
|caption=The largest towns and cities of Lancashire
|float=center
|width=600
|places =

{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.814|long=-3.050|label=Blackpool|label_size=100|marksize=12|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.759|long=-2.699|label=Preston|label_size=100|marksize=12|position=top}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.745|long=-2.477|label=Blackburn|label_size=100|marksize=12|position=top}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.789|long=-2.248|label=Burnley|label_size=100|marksize=12|position=right}}

{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=54.047|long=-2.801|label=Lancaster|label_size=85|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=54.064|long=-2.879|label=Morecambe|label_size=85|position=left}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.743|long=-2.997|label=Lytham St Annes|label_size=85|position=bottom}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.653|long=-2.632|label=Chorley|label_size=85|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.692|long=-2.697|label=Leyland|label_size=85|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.547|long=-2.785|label=Skelmersdale|label_size=85|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.753|long=-2.364|label=Accrington|label_size=85|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.698|long=-2.461|label=Darwen|label_size=85|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.874|long=-3.021|label=Thornton-Cleveleys|label_size=85|position=right}}

{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.835|long=-2.218|label=Nelson|label_size=70|position=left}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.923|long=-3.015|label=Fleetwood|label_size=70|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.845|long=-2.955|label=Poulton-le-Fylde|label_size=70|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.570|long=-2.883|label=Ormskirk|label_size=70|position=left}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.740|long=-2.720|label=Penwortham|label_size=70|position=left}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.871|long=-2.392|label=Clitheroe|label_size=70|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.699|long=-2.291|label=Rawtenstall|label_size=70|position=right}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.702|long=-2.310|label=Haslingden|label_size=70|position=left}}
{{Location map~|Lancashire|lat=53.855|long=-2.176|label=Colne|label_size=70|position=right}}
}}

Population change

{{historical populations|align=none|shading=off|percentages=pagr|cols=3| title = Population totals for modern (post-1998) Lancashire 163,310 192,283 236,724 261,710 289,925 313,957 419,412 524,869 630,323 736,233 798,545 873,210 886,114 902,965 922,812 948,592 991,648 1,049,013 1,076,146 1,122,097 1,134,976 1,171,339Source: Great Britain Historical GIS.HTTP://WWW.VISIONOFBRITAIN.ORG.UK/DATA_CUBE_PAGE.JSP?DATA_THEME=T_POP&DATA_CUBE=N_TOT_POP&U_ID=10097848&C_ID=10001043&ADD=NAUTHOR=A VISION OF BRITAIN THROUGH TIMEAUTHORLINK=A VISION OF BRITAIN THROUGH TIMEarchive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110615005052weblinkdead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}}}

Settlements

The table below has divided the settlements into their local authority district. Each district has a centre of administration; for some of these correlate with a district's largest town, while others are named after the geographical area.

Areas

{| class="wikitable" style="border:0; text-align:left; line-height:150%;"! colspan=2 | Administrative borough! Centre ofadministration! width="300pt"|Other towns, villages and settlementsBlackburn with Darwen>Blackburn with Darwen Borough(unitary)50px)| BlackburnBelmont, Lancashire>Belmont, Chapeltown, Lancashire, Darwen, Edgworth, Lancashire>Edgworth, Hoddlesden, Tockholes, North TurtonBlackpool>Blackpool Borough(unitary)50px)| BlackpoolBispham, Blackpool>Bispham, LaytonBurnley (borough)>Burnley Borough50px)| BurnleyPadiham, Hapton, Lancashire>Hapton, Harle Syke, Worsthorne, Cliviger.Chorley (borough)>Chorley Borough50px)| ChorleyAdlington, Lancashire>Adlington, Clayton-le-Woods, Coppull, Croston, Eccleston, Euxton, Mawdesley, Whittle-le-WoodsFylde (borough)>Fylde Borough50px)| Lytham St AnnesFreckleton, Kirkham, Lancashire>Kirkham, Warton, Wrea GreenHyndburn>Hyndburn Borough50px)| AccringtonAltham, Lancashire>Altham, Church, Clayton-le-Moors, Great Harwood, Oswaldtwistle, Rishton| City of Lancaster50px)Lancaster, Lancashire>Lancaster| Bolton-le-Sands, Carnforth, MorecambePendle (borough)>Pendle Borough50px)Nelson, Lancashire>NelsonBarnoldswick†, Barrowford, Brierfield, Lancashire>Brierfield, Colne, Earby†, Foulridge, TrawdenCity of Preston, Lancashire>City of Preston50px)Preston, Lancashire>PrestonBarton, Preston>Barton, Broughton, Lancashire, Fulwood, Lancashire>Fulwood, Goosnargh, Grimsargh, WhittinghamRibble Valley>Ribble Valley Borough50px)| ClitheroeBolton-by-Bowland†, Chipping, Lancashire>Chipping, Hurst Green, Lancashire, Longridge, Read, Lancashire>Read, Ribchester, Slaidburn†, Whalley, Wilpshire,Borough of Rossendale>Rossendale Borough50px)| RawtenstallBacup, Chatterton, Lancashire>Chatterton, Edenfield, Haslingden, Helmshore, Waterfoot, Lancashire, Whitworth, Lancashire>WhitworthSouth Ribble>South Ribble Borough50px)Leyland, Lancashire>LeylandBamber Bridge, Farington, Longton, Lancashire>Longton, Lostock Hall, Penwortham, Samlesbury, Walton-le-DaleWest Lancashire>West Lancashire Borough50px)| OrmskirkAppley Bridge, Aughton, Lancashire>Aughton, Banks, Lancashire, Bickerstaffe, Burscough, Downholland, Great Altcar, Halsall, Lathom, Parbold, Rufford, Lancashire>Rufford, Scarisbrick, Skelmersdale, Tarleton, UphollandBorough of Wyre>Wyre Borough50px)| Poulton-le-FyldeCleveleys, Fleetwood, Garstang, Great Eccleston, Pilling, Preesall, St Michael's On Wyre, Thornton, Lancashire>Thornton
† – part of the West Riding of Yorkshire until 1974
This table does not form an extensive list of the settlements in the ceremonial county. More settlements can be found at (:Category:Towns in Lancashire), (:Category:Villages in Lancashire), and (:Category:Civil parishes in Lancashire).

Historic areas

Some settlements which were historically part of the county now fall under the counties of West Yorkshire, Cheshire, Merseyside, Greater Manchester and Cumbria:Vision of Britain {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071001023302weblink |date=1 October 2007 }} – Lancashire boundaries 1974Chandler, J., Local Government Today, (2001)Youngs. Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. Volume 2. Northern England.{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%; border:0; text-align:left; line-height:150%;"! scope="row" | Greater ManchesterAbram, Greater Manchester>Abram, Ashton-in-Makerfield, Ashton-under-Lyne, Aspull, Astley, Greater Manchester, Atherton, Greater Manchester>Atherton, Audenshaw, Blackrod, Bolton, Bury, Greater Manchester, Cadishead, Chadderton, Clifton, Greater Manchester>Clifton, Denton, Greater Manchester, Droylsden, Eccles, Greater Manchester>Eccles, Failsworth, Farnworth, Golborne, Four Heatons, Heywood, Greater Manchester>Heywood, Horwich, Hindley, Greater Manchester, Ince-in-Makerfield, Irlam, Kearsley, Lees, Greater Manchester>Lees, Leigh, Greater Manchester, Littleborough, Greater Manchester>Littleborough, Little Lever, Manchester, Middleton, Greater Manchester, Milnrow, Mossley (part), Oldham, Prestwich, Radcliffe, Greater Manchester>Radcliffe, Ramsbottom, Reddish, Rochdale, Royton, City of Salford, Shaw and Crompton, Shevington, South Turton, Standish, Greater Manchester>Standish, Stalybridge (part), Stretford, Swinton and Pendlebury, Tottington, Greater Manchester, Tyldesley, Urmston, Walkden, Westhoughton, Whitefield, Greater Manchester>Whitefield, Wigan, Worsley! scope="row" | MerseysideBootle, Billinge, Merseyside>Billinge, Crosby, Merseyside, Eccleston, St Helens>Eccleston, Formby, Halewood, Haydock, Huyton, Kirkby, Litherland, Liverpool, Maghull, Newton-le-Willows, Prescot, Rainford, Rainhill, St. Helens, Southport! scope="row" | CumbriaAskam and Ireleth, Barrow-in-Furness, Broughton-in-Furness, Cartmel, Coniston, Cumbria>Coniston, Dalton-in-Furness, Grange-over-Sands, Hawkshead, Ulverston, Walney Island! scope="row" | Cheshire| Culcheth, Warrington, Widnes! scope="row" | West Yorkshire| Todmorden (part)Boundary changes to occur before 1974 include:

Symbols

(File:Red Rose Badge of Lancaster.svg|thumb|upright|right|The Red Rose of Lancaster)The Red Rose of Lancaster is the county flower found on the county's heraldic badge and flag. The rose was a symbol of the House of Lancaster, immortalised in the verse "In the battle for England's head/York was white, Lancaster red" (referring to the 15th-century Wars of the Roses). The traditional Lancashire flag, a red rose on a white field, was not officially registered. When an attempt was made to register it with the Flag Institute it was found that it was officially registered by Montrose in Scotland, several hundred years earlier with the Lyon Office. Lancashire's official flag is registered as a red rose on a gold field.

Sport

Cricket

Lancashire County Cricket Club has been one of the most successful county cricket teams, particularly in the one-day game. It is home to England cricket team members James Anderson and Jos Buttler. The County Ground, Old Trafford, Trafford has been the home cricket ground of LCCC since 1864.WEB,weblink LCCC contact details, Lccc.co.uk, 16 January 2009, 25 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100924003212weblink">weblink 24 September 2010, no, dmy-all, Historically important local cricket leagues include the Lancashire League, the Central Lancashire League and the North Lancashire and Cumbria League, all of which were formed in 1892. These league clubs hire international professional players to play alongside their amateur players.{{Citation needed|date=May 2010}}Since 2000, the designated ECB Premier LeagueWEB,weblink List of ECB Premier Leagues, Ecb.co.uk, 25 September 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081015120858weblink">weblink 15 October 2008, for Lancashire has been the Liverpool and District Cricket Competition.

Football

Football in Lancashire is governed by the Lancashire County Football Association which like most County Football Associations has boundaries which are aligned roughly with the historic counties. The Manchester Football Association and Liverpool County Football Association operate in Greater Manchester and Merseyside.WEB,weblink Manchester FA | About Us, Manchesterfa.com, 25 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101007185050weblink">weblink 7 October 2010, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Liverpool FA | About Us, Liverpoolfa.com, 25 September 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110614225956weblink">weblink 14 June 2011, dmy-all, Lancashire clubs were prominent in the formation of the Football League in 1888, with the league being officially named at a meeting in Manchester.WEB,weblink BBC Sport, One letter, two meetings and 12 teams - the birth of league football, 26 February 2013, Paul, Fletcher, 2018-08-12,weblink 15 October 2018, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink EFL Official Website, On this day in 1888: The letter that led to the formation of The Football League, 2 March 2016, 2018-08-12, Of the twelve founder members of the league, six were from Lancashire: Accrington, Blackburn Rovers, Bolton Wanderers, Burnley, Everton, and Preston North End.The Football League now operates out of Preston.WEB,weblink Contact Us, English Football League, 2018-08-12,weblink 13 September 2018, no, dmy-all, The National Football Museum was founded at Deepdale, Preston in 2001, but moved to Manchester in 2012.NEWS,weblink Why football museum moved to Manchester, Airey, Tom, 2012-07-06, BBC News, 2018-08-12, en-GB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171202100648weblink">weblink 2 December 2017, no, dmy-all, Seven professional full-time teams were based in Lancashire, at the start of the 2018–2019 season: The county's most prominent football rivalries are the East Lancashire derby between Blackburn Rovers and Burnley, and the West Lancashire derby between Blackpool and Preston North End.A further nine professional full-time teams lie within the historical borders of Lancashire but outside of the current ceremonial county. These include the Premier League clubs Everton, Liverpool, Manchester City and Manchester United.

Rugby League

Along with Yorkshire and Cumberland, Lancashire is recognised as the heartland of Rugby League. The county has produced many successful top flight clubs such as St. Helens, Wigan, Warrington and Widnes. The county was once the focal point for many of the sport's professional competitions including the Lancashire League competition which ran from 1895 to 1970, and the Lancashire County Cup which ran until 1993. Rugby League has also seen a representative fixture between Lancashire and Yorkshire contested 89 times since its inception in 1895.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 15 May 2010,weblink" title="archive.is/20080930084834weblink">weblink 30 September 2008, yes, dmy-all, In recent times there were several rugby league teams that are based within the ceremonial county which include Blackpool Panthers, East Lancashire Lions, Blackpool Sea Eagles, Bamber Bridge RLFC, Leyland Warriors, Chorley Panthers, Blackpool Stanley, Blackpool Scorpions and Adlington Rangers.

Archery

There are many archery clubs located within Lancashire.WEB,weblink Archery clubs in Lancashire, Lancashire-archery.org.uk, 25 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101107191535weblink">weblink 7 November 2010, no, dmy-all, In 2004 Lancashire took the winning title at the Inter-counties championships from Yorkshire who had held it for 7 years.WEB,weblink Bowmen of Skelmersdale, Bowmen of Skelmersdale, 25 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110615025522weblink">weblink 15 June 2011, no, dmy-all,

Wrestling

Lancashire has a long history of wrestling, developing its own style called Lancashire wrestling, with many clubs that over the years have produced many renowned wrestlers.{{Citation needed|date=May 2010}} Some of these have crossed over into the mainstream world of professional wrestling, including Shak Khan, Billy Riley, Davey Boy Smith, William Regal, Wade Barrett and the Dynamite Kid.{{Citation needed|date=May 2010}}

Music

Folk music

Lancashire has a long and highly productive tradition of music making. In the early modern era the county shared in the national tradition of balladry, including perhaps the finest border ballad, "The Ballad of Chevy Chase", thought to have been composed by the Lancashire-born minstrel Richard Sheale. The county was also a common location for folk songs, including "The Lancashire Miller", "Warrington Ale" and "The soldier's farewell to Manchester", while Liverpool, as a major seaport, was the subject of many sea shanties, including "The Leaving of Liverpool" and "Maggie May",J. Shepherd, D. Horn, and D. Laing, Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World (London: Continuum, 2003), {{ISBN|0-8264-7436-5}}, p. 360. beside several local Wassailing songs.D. Gregory, '"The Songs of the People for Me: The Victorian Rediscovery of Lancashire Vernacular Song', Canadian Folk Music/Musique folklorique canadienne, 40 (2006), pp. 12–21. In the Industrial Revolution changing social and economic patterns helped create new traditions and styles of folk song, often linked to migration and patterns of work. These included processional dances, often associated with rushbearing or the Wakes Week festivities, and types of step dance, most famously clog dancing.Lancashire Folk,weblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100310014202weblink |date=10 March 2010 }}, retrieved 16 February 2009.G. Boyes, The Imagined Village: Culture, Ideology, and the English Folk Revival'' (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993), 0-71902-914-7, p. 214.A local pioneer of folk song collection in the first half of the 19th century was Shakespearean scholar James Orchard Halliwell,E. D. Gregory, Victorian Songhunters: the Recovery and Editing of English Vernacular Ballads and Folk Lyrics, 1820–1883 (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2006), {{ISBN|0-8108-5703-0}}, p. 248. but it was not until the second folk revival in the 20th century that the full range of song from the county, including industrial folk song, began to gain attention. The county produced one of the major figures of the revival in Ewan MacColl, but also a local champion in Harry Boardman, who from 1965 onwards probably did more than anyone to popularise and record the folk song of the county.Folk North West, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2009-02-25, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090212123824weblink">weblink 12 February 2009, , retrieved 16 February 2009. Perhaps the most influential folk artists to emerge from the region in the late 20th century were Liverpool folk group The Spinners, and from Manchester folk troubadour Roy Harper and musician, comedian and broadcaster Mike Harding.J, C. Falstaff, 'Roy Harper Longest Running Underground Act', Dirty Linen, 50 (Feb/Mar '94),weblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071021215750weblink |date=21 October 2007 }}, 16 February 2009.S. Broughton, M. Ellingham and R. Trillo, World Music: Africa, Europe and the Middle East (Rough Guides, 1999), {{ISBN|1-85828-635-2}}, p. 67. The region is home to numerous folk clubs, many of them catering to Irish and Scottish folk music. Regular folk festivals include the Fylde Folk Festival at Fleetwood.'Festivals', Folk and Roots, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2009-02-25, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090224075454weblink">weblink 24 February 2009, , retrieved 8 January 2009.

Classical music

Lancashire had a lively culture of choral and classical music, with very large numbers of local church choirs from the 17th century,R. Cowgill and P. Holman, Music in the British Provinces, 1690–1914 (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007), {{ISBN|0-7546-3160-5}}, p. 207. leading to the foundation of local choral societies from the mid-18th century, often particularly focused on performances of the music of Handel and his contemporaries.R. Southey, Music-Making in North-East England During the Eighteenth Century (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2006), {{ISBN|0-7546-5097-9}}, pp. 131–2. It also played a major part in the development of brass bands which emerged in the county, particularly in the textile and coalfield areas, in the 19th century.D. Russell, Popular Music in England, 1840–1914: a Social History (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987), {{ISBN|0-7190-2361-0}}, p. 163. The first open competition for brass bands was held at Manchester in 1853, and continued annually until the 1980s.A. Baines, The Oxford Companion to Musical Instruments (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), {{ISBN|0-19-311334-1}}, p. 41. The vibrant brass band culture of the area made an important contribution to the foundation and staffing of the Hallé Orchestra from 1857, the oldest extant professional orchestra in the United Kingdom.D. Russell, Popular Music in England, 1840–1914: a Social History (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987), {{ISBN|0-7190-2361-0}}, p. 230. The same local musical tradition produced eminent figures such as Sir William Walton (1902–88), son of an Oldham choirmaster and music teacher,D. Clark and J. Staines, Rough Guide to Classical Music (Rough Guides, 3rd edn., 2001), {{ISBN|1-85828-721-9}}, p. 568. Sir Thomas Beecham (1879–1961), born in St. Helens, who began his career by conducting local orchestrasL. Jenkins, While Spring and Summer Sang: Thomas Beecham and the Music of Frederick Delius (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2005), {{ISBN|0-7546-0721-6}}, p. 1. and Alan Rawsthorne (1905–71) born in Haslingden.J. McCabe, Alan Rawsthorne: Portrait of a Composer (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), {{ISBN|0-19-816693-1}}. The conductor David Atherton, co-founder of the London Sinfonietta, was born in Blackpool in 1944.WEB,weblink Biography of David Atherton (1944-VVVV), thebiography.us, 26 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150226232715weblink">weblink 26 February 2015, no, dmy-all, Lancashire also produced more populist figures, such as early musical theatre composer Leslie Stuart (1863–1928), born in Southport, who began his musical career as organist of Salford Cathedral.A. Lamb, Leslie Stuart: Composer of Floradora (London: Routledge, 2002), {{ISBN|0-415-93747-7}}.More recent Lancashire-born composers include Hugh Wood (1932– Parbold),WEB,weblink Hugh Wood, 13 November 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141113134237weblink">weblink 13 November 2014, no, dmy-all, Sir Peter Maxwell Davies (1934–2016, Salford),WEB,weblink Profile: Peter Maxwell Davies, Stephen Moss, The Guardian, 15 December 2016,weblink 5 March 2017, no, dmy-all, Sir Harrison Birtwistle (1934–, Accrington),WEB,weblink Harrison Birtwistle, 13 November 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141113132757weblink">weblink 13 November 2014, no, dmy-all, Gordon Crosse (1937–, Bury),WEB,weblink Crosse, Gordon - NMC Recordings, 13 November 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141113141511weblink">weblink 13 November 2014, no, dmy-all, John McCabe (1939–2015, Huyton),WEB,weblink John McCabe - biography, 13 November 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150115113314weblink">weblink 15 January 2015, no, dmy-all, Roger Smalley (1943–2015, Swinton), Nigel Osborne (1948–, Manchester), Steve Martland (1954–2013, Liverpool),WEB,weblink Schott Music - Steve Martland - Profile, 13 November 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151120071913weblink">weblink 20 November 2015, yes, dmy-all, Simon Holt (1958–, Bolton)WEB,weblink Simon Holt, musicsalesclassical.com, 8 January 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150206081945weblink">weblink 6 February 2015, no, dmy-all, and Philip Cashian (1963–, Manchester).WEB,weblink Philip Cashian - Biography, 13 November 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141113123738weblink">weblink 13 November 2014, no, dmy-all, The Royal Manchester College of Music was founded in 1893 to provide a northern counterpart to the London musical colleges. It merged with the Northern College of Music (formed in 1920) to form the Royal Northern College of Music in 1972.M. Kennedy, The History of the Royal Manchester College of Music, 1893–1972 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1971), {{ISBN|0-7190-0435-7}}.

Popular music

File:The Fabs.JPG|thumb|right|The BeatlesThe BeatlesLiverpool produced a number of nationally and internationally successful popular singers in the 1950s, including traditional pop stars Frankie Vaughan and Lita Roza, and one of the most successful British rock and roll stars in Billy Fury.P. Frame, Pete Frame's Rockin' Around Britain: Rock'n'Roll Landmarks of the UK and Ireland (London: Music Sales Group, 1999), {{ISBN|0-7119-6973-6}}, pp. 72–6. Many Lancashire towns had vibrant skiffle scenes in the late 1950s, out of which by the early 1960s a flourishing culture of beat groups began to emerge, particularly around Liverpool and Manchester. It has been estimated that there were around 350 bands active in and around Liverpool in this era, often playing ballrooms, concert halls and clubs, among them the Beatles.A. H. Goldman, The Lives of John Lennon (A Capella, 2001), {{ISBN|1-55652-399-8}}, p. 92. After their national success from 1962, a number of Liverpool performers were able to follow them into the charts, including Gerry & the Pacemakers, the Searchers and Cilla Black. The first act to break through in the UK who were not from Liverpool, or managed by Brian Epstein, were Freddie and the Dreamers, who were based in Manchester,"'Dreamers' star Freddie Garrity dies" Daily Telegraph, 20 May 2006. Retrieved 1 August 2007. as were Herman's Hermits and the Hollies.V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), {{ISBN|0-87930-653-X}}, p. 532. Led by the Beatles, beat groups from the region spearheaded the British Invasion of the US, which made a major contribution to the development of rock music.V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), {{ISBN|0-87930-653-X}}, pp. 1316–7. After the decline of beat groups in the late 1960s the centre of rock culture shifted to London and there were relatively few local bands who achieved national prominence until the growth of a disco funk scene and the punk rock revolution in the mid and late 1970s.S. Cohen, Rock Culture in Liverpool: Popular Music in the Making (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), {{ISBN|0-19-816178-6}}, p. 14.

Cuisine

File:Lancashire hotpot.jpg|thumb|right|Lancashire hotpotLancashire hotpotFile:Lancashire cheese.jpg|thumb|right|Lancashire cheeseLancashire cheeseLancashire is the origin of the Lancashire hotpot, a casserole dish traditionally made with lamb. Other traditional foods from the area include:
  • Black peas, also known as parched peas: popular in Darwen, Bolton and Preston.
  • Bury black pudding has long been associated with the county. The most notable brand, Chadwick's Original Bury Black Puddings, are still sold on Bury Market,NEWS,weblink Food detective: Bury black pudding, Sheila, Keating, The Times, 11 June 2005, 14 October 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110614235443weblink">weblink 14 June 2011, no, dmy-all, and are manufactured in Rossendale.
  • Butter cake: slice of bread and butter.
  • Butter pie: a savoury pie containing potatoes, onion and butter. Usually associated with Preston.
  • Clapbread: a thin oatcake made from unleavened dough cooked on a griddle.
  • Chorley cakes: from the town of Chorley.
  • Eccles cakes are small, round cakes filled with currants and made from flaky pastry with butter, originally made in Eccles.
  • Faggot: savoury duck
  • Fag pie: pie made from chopped dried figs, sugar and lard. Associated with Blackburn and Burnley, where it was the highlight of Fag Pie Sunday (Mid-Lent Sunday).
  • Fish and chips: the first fish and chip shop in northern England opened in Mossley, near Oldham, around 1863.History of fish and chips {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100327221624weblink |date=27 March 2010 }}
  • Frog-i'-th'-'ole pudding: now known as "toad in the hole"
  • Frumenty: sweet porridge. Once a popular dish at Lancashire festivals, such as Christmas and Easter Monday.
  • Goosnargh cakes: small flat shortbread biscuits with coriander or caraway seeds pressed into the biscuit before baking.Sudi Pigott (30 May 2013), Goosnagh cake, sea lavender honey, medlar butter - forgotten foods making a comeback {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180504011507weblink |date=4 May 2018 }}, The Independent, accessed 3 May 2018 Traditionally baked on feast days like Shrove Tuesday.
  • Jannock: cake or small loaf of oatmeal. Allegedly introduced to Lancashire (possibly Bolton) by weavers of Flemish origin.
  • Lancashire cheese has been made in the county for several centuries.WEB,weblink Lancashire Cheese Makers, Lancashire Cheese History, 14 October 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090828155652weblink">weblink 28 August 2009, yes, dmy-all, Beacon Fell Traditional Lancashire Cheese has been awarded EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status.WEB,weblink Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, EU Protected Food Names Scheme: Beacon Fell traditional Lancashire cheese, 14 October 2009, yes,weblink 6 November 2009, dmy-all,
  • Lancashire Flat Cake: A lemon flavoured sponge cake, traditionally made with a couple too many eggs, best eaten after being chilled.
  • Lancashire oatcake, resembling a large oval pancake, eaten either moist or dried
  • "Stew and hard": a beef and cowheel stew with dried Lancashire oatcake
  • Nettle porridge: a common starvation diet in Lancashire in the early 19th century. Made from boiled stinging nettles and sometimes a handful of meal.
  • Ormskirk gingerbread: local delicacy that was sold throughout South Lancashire.
  • Parkin: a ginger cake with oatmeal.
  • Pobs or pobbies: bread and milk.
  • Potato hotpot: a variation of the Lancashire Hotpot without meat that is also known as fatherless pie.
  • Ran Dan: barley bread. A last resort for the poor at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century.
  • Rag pudding: traditional suet pudding filled with minced meat and onions.
  • Sad cake: a traditional cake that may be a variation of the more widely known Chorley cake that was once common around Burnley.
  • Throdkins: a traditional breakfast food of the Fylde.
  • Uncle Joe's Mint Balls: traditional mints produced by William Santus & Co. Ltd. in Wigan.WEB, Uncle Joe's Mint Balls,weblink Uncle Joe's Favourites, Wm Santus & Co. Ltd, 14 August 2013, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130827034529weblink">weblink 27 August 2013, no, dmy-all,

Places of interest

{{EngPlacesKey|align=right}}The following are places of interest in the ceremonial county:{{columns-list|colwidth=25em| }}File:Ashton Memorial upper levels.jpg|Ashton Memorial, LancasterFile:Bank Hall Daffodils.jpeg|Bank Hall, Bretherton, a Jacobean mansion house, awaiting restoration. Home to Lancashire's oldest Yew tree and one of the two fallen sequoia in the UK.File:Blackpool Tower 05082017 (cropped).jpg|Blackpool Tower, completed in 1894File:Clitheroe Castle.JPG|Clitheroe CastleFile:Rivington pike.jpg|Rivington Pike, near Horwich, atop the West Pennine Moors, is one of the most popular walking destinations in the county; on a clear day the whole of the county can be viewed from here.File:Queen Street Mill - Weaving Shed - geograph.org.uk - 528579.jpg|Queen Street Mill, the world's only surviving steam-driven cotton weaving shed, located in Burnley

Filmography

Whistle Down the Wind (1961) was directed by Bryan Forbes, set at the foot of Worsaw Hill and in Burnley, and starred local Lancashire schoolchildren.The tunnel scene was shot on the old Bacup-Rochdale railway line, location 53°41'29.65"N, 2°11'25.18"W, off the A6066 (New Line) where the line passes beneath Stack Lane. The tunnel is still there, in use as an industrial unit but the railway has long since been removed.Funny Bones (1995) was set mostly in Blackpool, after opening scenes in Las Vegas.

See also

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Notes and references

NotesReferences{{Reflist}}

Bibliography

  • Crosby, A. (1996). A History of Cheshire. (The Darwen County History Series.) Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. {{ISBN|0-85033-932-4}}.
  • Harris, B. E., and Thacker, A. T. (1987). The Victoria History of the County of Chester. (Volume 1: Physique, Prehistory, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and Domesday). Oxford: Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|0-19-722761-9}}.
  • Morgan, P. (1978). Domesday Book Cheshire: Including Lancashire, Cumbria, and North Wales. Chichester, Sussex: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. {{ISBN|0-85033-140-4}}.
  • Phillips A. D. M., and Phillips, C. B. (2002), A New Historical Atlas of Cheshire. Chester, UK: Cheshire County Council and Cheshire Community Council Publications Trust. {{ISBN|0-904532-46-1}}.
  • Sylvester, D. (1980). A History of Cheshire. (The Darwen County History Series). (2nd Edition.) London and Chichester, Sussex: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. {{ISBN|0-85033-384-9}}.

Further reading

External links

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