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Lady Justice
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{{short description|Personification of justice}}{{for|the British judicial office whose holders are sometimes referred to as "Lady Justice"|Lord Justice of Appeal}}{{redirect|Justitia}}{{pp-move-indef}}File:HK Central Statue Square Legislative Council Building n Themis s.jpg|thumb|alt=blindfolded lady with sword in right hand held vertically down to floor, and a set of balance scales in her left hand held neck high|Justitia blindfolded and holding balance scales and a sword. Court of Final Appeal, Hong KongHong KongLady Justice (Latin: Iustitia) is an allegorical personification of the moral force in judicial systems.Hamilton, Marci. God vs. the Gavel, page 296 (Cambridge University Press 2005): "The symbol of the judicial system, seen in courtrooms throughout the United States, is blindfolded Lady Justice."Fabri, The challenge of change for judicial systems, page 137 (IOS Press 2000): "the judicial system is intended to be apolitical, its symbol being that of a blindfolded Lady Justice holding balanced scales." Her attributes are a blindfold, a balance, and a sword. She often appears as a pair with Prudentia, who holds a mirror and a snake. Lady Justice originates from the personification of Justice in Ancient Roman art known as Iustitia or Justitia after ,WEB,weblink'-Arte-Antica)/, IUSTITIA, treccani.it, who is equivalent to the Greek goddesses Themis and Dike.

The goddess Iustitia

The origin of Lady Justice was Iustitia, the goddess of Justice within Roman mythology. Iustitia was introduced by emperor Augustus, and was thus not a very old deity in the Roman pantheon. Justice was one of the virtues celebrated by emperor Augustus in his clipeus virtutis, and a temple of Iustitia was established in Rome on 8 January 13 BC by emperor Tiberius. Iustitia became a symbol for the virtue of justice with which every emperor wished to associate his regime; emperor Vespasian minted coins with the image of the goddess seated on a throne called Iustitia Augusta, and many emperors after him used the image of the goddess to proclaim themselves protectors of justice. Though formally called a goddess with her own temple and cult shrine in Rome, it appears that she was from the onset viewed more as an artistic symbolic personification rather than as an actual deity with religious significance.

Depiction

{{refimprove section|date=March 2015}}File:El pesado del corazón en el Papiro de Hunefer.jpg|thumb|The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead depicts a scene in which a deceased person's heart is weighed against the feather of truth.]]The personification of justice balancing the scales dates back to the goddess Maat,BOOK,weblink The Guide to American Law : Everyone's Legal Encyclopedia., 1983, West Pub. Co, West Publishing Company., 1983, 0314732241, 11, St. Paul [Minn.], 687, Apendix D: Legal Symbols of the Anglo-American Legal Tradition, 9196541, live, and later Isis, of ancient Egypt. The Hellenic deities Themis and Dike were later goddesses of justice. Themis was the embodiment of divine order, law, and custom, in her aspect as the personification of the divine rightness of law.

Scales

Lady Justice is most often depicted with a set of scales typically suspended from one hand, upon which she measures the strengths of a case's support and opposition.The Greek goddess Dike is depicted holding a set of scales. Bacchylides, Fragment 5 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (Greek lyric c. 5th B.C.):If some god had been holding level the balance of Dike (Justice).The scales represent the weighing of evidence, and the scales lack a foundation in order to signify that evidence should stand on its own.

Blindfold

File:Lady_Justice_at_Castallania,_Malta.jpeg|thumb|right|18th-century Lady Justice at the Castellania ]]Since the 16th century, Lady Justice has often been depicted wearing a blindfold. The blindfold represents impartiality, the ideal that justice should be applied without regard to wealth, power, or other status. The earliest Roman coins d as "blind" since the middle of the 16th century. The first known representation of blind Justice is Hans Gieng's 1543 statue on the Gerechtigkeitsbrunnen (Fountain of Justice) in Berne.(:File:Berner Iustitia.jpg|Image of Lady Justice in Berne).Instead of using the Janus approach, many sculptures simply leave out the blindfold altogether. For example, atop the Old Bailey courthouse in London, a statue of Lady Justice stands without a blindfold;(:File:Statue of Justice, Central Criminal Court, London, UK - 20030311.jpg|Image of Lady Justice in London). the courthouse brochures explain that this is because Lady Justice was originally not blindfolded, and because her "maidenly form" is supposed to guarantee her impartiality which renders the blindfold redundant.Colomb, Gregory. Designs on Truth, p. 50 (Penn State Press, 1992). Another variation is to depict a blindfolded Lady Justice as a human scale, weighing competing claims in each hand. An example of this can be seen at the Shelby County Courthouse in Memphis, Tennessee.(:File:JMR-Memphis1.jpg|Image of Lady Justice in Memphis).

Sword

The sword represented authority in ancient times, and conveys the idea that justice can be swift and final.WEB,weblink Symbolism of Lady tongue Justice, Brent T. Edwards, 24 February 2017,

Toga

The Greco-Roman garment symbolizes the status of the philosophical attitude that embodies justice.{{rs|date=February 2017}}

In art

Image:Berner Iustitia.jpg|Lady Justice with sword, scales and blindfold on the Gerechtigkeitsbrunnen in Berne, Switzerland—1543Image:A Justica Alfredo Ceschiatti Brasilia Brasil.jpg|The Justice, in front of the Supreme Court of BrazilImage:Pediment courthouse, Rome, Italy.jpg|Lady Justice seated at the entrance of The Palace of Justice, Rome, ItalyImage:Justitia1.jpg|Sculpture of Lady Justice on the {{Interlanguage link multi|Gerechtigkeitsbrunnen (Frankfurt)|de|3=Gerechtigkeitsbrunnen (Frankfurt am Main)}} in Frankfurt, GermanyFile:Justicia Ottawa.jpg|Justitia, outside the Supreme Court of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaImage:Statue of Justice, Central Criminal Court, London, UK - 20030311.jpg|The Central Criminal Court or Old Bailey, London, UKImage:Itojyuku themis.jpg|Themis, Itojyuku, Shibuya-ku, JapanImage:Justice statue.jpg|19th-century sculpture of the Power of Law at Olomouc, Czech Republic—lacks the blindfold and scales of Justice, replacing the latter with a bookImage:Statue_of_Themis.jpg|Themis, Chuo University, Tama-shi, JapanImage:Chuo highschool themis.jpg|Themis, Chuo University Suginami high school, Suginami-ku, JapanImage:Law place du Palais-Bourbon Paris.jpg|The Law, by Jean FeuchèreImage:JMR-Memphis1.jpg|Shelby County Courthouse, Memphis, Tennessee, United StatesImage:Goddess of justice.jpg|Themis, outside the Supreme Court of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaFile:NewarkJustice1.jpg|Justice by Diana Moore, Government Center, Newark, New JerseyFile:Justitia szobra a Kúria épületében.jpg|Justitia in the Superior Courts Building in Budapest, HungaryFile: Fronton oud gerechtsgebouw, Gent.jpg|Themis, Old courthouse, Ghent, BelgiumFile:Justice Statue Iran.jpg|Justitia, Tehran courthouse, Tehran, IranFile:Campinas, detalhe do Palácio da Justiça.jpg|Justiça, high-relief in front of Justice Palace, Campinas, BrazilFile:Sala di costantino, giustizia.jpg|Fresco in the {{Interlanguage link multi|Sala di Costantino|it}}, Raphael Rooms, Raphael, c. 1520Gerechtigkeit-1537.jpg|Gerechtigkeit, Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1537Luca Giordano 013.jpg|Luca Giordano, Palazzo Medici Riccardi in Florence, 1684–1686File:Spitzweg-justitia.jpg|{{Interlanguage link multi|Justitia (Spitzweg)|de}}, Carl Spitzweg, c. 1857Lady Justice and her symbols are used in heraldry, especially in the arms of legal government agencies.DEU Ilshofen COA.svg|Justitia in arms of Ilshofen in Baden-WürttembergSvea hovrätt vapen.svg|Scales and sword in the arms of a Swedish court of lawHörby kommunvapen - Riksarkivet Sverige.png|Scales balanced on a sword in the arms of HörbyLandskrona fulla vapen.svg|Prudentia and Justitia as supporters in the armorial achievement of LandskronaFile:US-Fractional (3rd Issue)-$0.50-Fr.1355.jpg|Justice holding scales, $0.50 U.S. fractional currency.

See also

References

{{reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Commons category|Iustitia}} {{Authority control}}{{Roman religion}}

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