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LAMP (software bundle)

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LAMP (software bundle)
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{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2016}}File:LAMP software bundle.svg|thumb|400px|A high-level overview of LAMP's building blocks and overall system environment, displayed here in combination with optionally used web cacheweb cacheLAMP is an archetypal model of web service stacks, named as an acronym of the names of its original four open-source components: the Gnu/Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL relational database management system (RDBMS), and the PHP programming language. The LAMP components are largely interchangeable and not limited to the original selection. As a solution stack, LAMP is suitable for building dynamic web sites and web applications.WEB, LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP),weblink SearchEnterpriseLinux, 28 August 2014, Since its creation, the LAMP model has been adapted to other componentry, though typically consisting of free and open-source software. For example, an equivalent installation on the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems is known as WAMP and an equivalent installation on macOS is known as MAMP.

Overview

{{Unreferenced|section|date=July 2014}}Originally popularized from the phrase "Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP", the acronym "LAMP" now refers to a generic software stack model. The modularity of a LAMP stack may vary, but this particular software combination has become popular because it is sufficient to host Wordpress. The components of the LAMP stack are present in the software repositories of most Linux distributions. WEB,weblink Wikimedia servers - Meta, meta.wikimedia.org, en, 2018-02-17, The LAMP bundle can be combined with many other free and open-source software packages, such as the following: As another example, the software which Pseudopedia and other Wikimedia Foundation projects use for their (meta:Wikimedia servers|underlying infrastructure) is a customized LAMP stack with additions such as Linux Virtual Server (LVS) for load balancing and Ceph and Swift for distributed object storages.{{citation needed|date=July 2014}}

{{Anchor|WAMP}}Variants

{{redirect|WAMP}}{{See also|Comparison of web frameworks}}With the growing use of the archetypal LAMP, variations and retronyms appeared for other combinations of operating system, web server, database, and software language. For example, an equivalent installation on the Microsoft Windows operating system family is known as WAMP. An alternative running IIS in place of Apache is called WIMP. Variants involving other operating systems include MAMP (macOS), SAMP (Solaris), FAMP (FreeBSD), iAMP (iSeries) and XAMPP (cross-platform).The web server or database management system also varies. LEMP is a version where Apache has been replaced with the more lightweight web server Nginx.WEB,weblink LEMP Stack (Linux, Nginx, MySQL, PHP), lemp.io, 2014-10-15, A version where MySQL has been replaced by PostgreSQL is called LAPP, or sometimes by keeping the original acronym, LAMP (Linux / Apache / Middleware (Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby) / PostgreSQL).WEB,weblink Featured Users, PostgreSQL, 2014-01-22,

Software components

(File:LAMPP Architecture.png|thumb|300px|right|A high-level overview of LAMP's determining components (Firefox serves just as a browser example))

Linux

Linux is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open source software development and distribution. Most Linux distributions, as collections of software based around the Linux kernel and often around a package management system, provide complete LAMP setups through their packages. According to W3Techs in October 2013, 58.5% of web server market share was shared between Debian and Ubuntu, while RHEL, Fedora and CentOS together shared 37.3%.WEB,weblink Debian/Ubuntu extend the dominance in the Linux web server market, W³Techs, 2013-10-21,

Apache

The role of LAMP's web server has been traditionally supplied by Apache, and has since included other web servers such as Nginx.The Apache HTTP Server has been the most popular on the public Internet. In June 2013, Netcraft estimated that Apache served 54.2% of all active websites and 53.3% of the top servers across all domains.WEB,weblink June 2013 Web Server Survey, Netcraft, 2014-06-27, In June 2014, Apache was estimated to serve 52.27% of all active websites, followed by nginx with 14.36%.WEB,weblink June 2014 Web Server Survey, Netcraft, 2014-06-27, Apache is developed and maintained by an open community of developers under the auspices of the Apache Software Foundation. Released under the Apache License, Apache is open-source software. A wide variety of features are supported, and many of them are implemented as compiled modules which extend the core functionality of Apache. These can range from server-side programming language support to authentication schemes.

MySQL and alternatives

MySQL's original role as the LAMP's relational database management system (RDBMS) has since been alternately provisioned by other RDBMSs such as MariaDB or PostgreSQL, or even NoSQL databases such as MongoDB.MySQL is a multithreaded, multi-user, SQL database management system (DBMS),WEB,weblink Top Reasons for Product Managers to Embed, MySQL, 2014-07-27, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140702100433weblink">weblink 2 July 2014, dmy-all, acquired by Sun Microsystems in 2008, which was then acquired by Oracle Corporation in 2010.WEB, Category: Computer Articles,weblink Dispelling the Myths, GrnLight.net, 2014-05-21, 2014-07-27, WEB,weblink Sun Locks Up MySQL, Looks To Future Web Development, InformationWeek, 2014-07-27, Since its early years, the MySQL team has made its source code available under the terms of the GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary agreements.MariaDB is a community-developed fork of MySQL, led by its original developers. PostgreSQL is also an ACID-compliant relational database, unrelated to MySQL.MongoDB is a web-scale open-source NoSQL database that eschews the traditional table-based relational database structure in favor of JSON-like documents with dynamic schemas (calling the format BSON), making the integration of data in certain types of applications easier and faster.

PHP and alternatives

PHP's role as the LAMP's application programming language has also been performed by other languages such as Perl and Python.PHP is a server-side scripting language designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. PHP code is interpreted by a web server via a PHP processor module, which generates the resulting web page. PHP commands can optionally be embedded directly into an HTML source document rather than calling an external file to process data. It has also evolved to include a command-line interface capability and can be used in standalone graphical applications.WEB,weblink PHP Manual, Introduction: What can PHP do?, 2009-03-05, PHP is free software released under the terms of PHP License, which is incompatible with the GNU General Public License (GPL) due to the restrictions PHP License places on the usage of the term PHP.WEB, GPL-Incompatible, Free Software Licenses,weblink Various Licenses and Comments about Them, Free Software Foundation, 2012-03-11, Perl is a family of high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages. The languages in this family include Perl 5 and Perl 6.WEB,weblink About Perl, 2013-04-20, perl.org, "Perl" is a family of languages, "Perl 6" is part of the family, but it is a separate language which has its own development team. Its existence has no significant impact on the continuing development of "Perl 5"., They provide advanced text processing facilities without the arbitrary data-length limits of many contemporary Unix commandline tools,BOOK, Programming Perl, Third Edition, Larry Wall, Wall, Larry, Tom Christiansen and Jon Orwant, O'Reilly Media, July 2000, 0-596-00027-8, facilitating manipulation of text files. Perl 5 gained widespread popularity in the late 1990s as a CGI scripting language for the Web, in part due to its parsing abilities.BOOK, Smith, Roderick W., Advanced Linux Networking, Addison-Wesley Professional, 21 Jun 2002, 594, 978-0-201-77423-8, Python is a widely used general-purpose high-level programming language.WEB,weblink Programming Language Trends – O'Reilly Radar, Radar.oreilly.com, 2006-08-02, 2013-07-17, Python supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative, functional and procedural paradigms. It features a dynamic type system, automatic memory management, a standard library, and strict use of whitespace.WEB,weblink About Python, Python Software Foundation, 24 April 2012, Like other dynamic languages, Python is often used as a scripting language, but is also used in a wide range of non-scripting contexts.

High availability and load balancing

Specific solutions are required for websites that serve large numbers of requests, or provide services that demand high uptime. High-availability approaches for the LAMP stack may involve multiple web and database servers, combined with additional components that perform logical aggregation of resources provided by each of the servers, as well as distribution of the workload across multiple servers. The aggregation of web servers may be provided by placing a load balancer in front of them, for example by using Linux Virtual Server (LVS). For the aggregation of database servers, MySQL provides internal replication mechanisms that implement a master/slave relationship between the original database (master) and its copies (slaves).WEB
,weblink
, Measurement of the Achieved Performance Levels of the WEB Applications With Distributed Relational Database
, Electronics and Energetics
, 20, 1, 31{hide}ndash, 43
| date = April 2007 | accessdate = 30 January 2014
| first1 = Dragan | last1 = Simic | first2 = Srecko | last2 = Ristic | first3 = Slobodan | last3 = Obradovic
| publisher = Facta Universitatis | format = PDF
{edih}Such high-availability setups may also improve the availability of LAMP instances by providing various forms of redundancy, making it possible for a certain number of components (separate servers) to experience downtime without interrupting the users of services provided by a LAMP instance as a whole. Such redundant setups may also handle hardware failures resulting in data loss on individual servers in a way that prevents collectively stored data from actually becoming lost. Beside higher availability, such LAMP setups are capable of providing almost linear improvements in performance for services having the number of internal database read operations much higher than the number of write/update operations.

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Linux}}{{FLOSS}}

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