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Kyrgyz language
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{{distinguish|Fuyu Kyrgyz language}}







factoids
{{IPA-ky>qɯɾˈʁɯz tiˈli|}}|ethnicity=Kyrgyz people|states=Kyrgyzstan (official), Afghanistan, Xinjiang (China), Tajikistan, Russia, Pakistan4.33|2}} million|date=2009 census|ref=e18|familycolor=AltaicTurkic languages>TurkicCommon Turkic languages>Common TurkicKipchak languages>Kipchak|fam4=Kyrgyz–KipchakKyrgyz alphabets (Cyrillic script, Perso-Arabic script, formerly Latin script>Latin, Kyrgyz Braille)Kyrgyzstan}}{{flag|China}} {{flagicon image|Flag of the Collective Security Treaty Organization.svg}} Collective Security Treaty Organization|iso1=ky|iso2=kir|iso3=kir|lingua=44-AAB-cd|notice=IPA|glotto=kirg1245|glottorefname=Kirghiz}}(File:Kyrgyz Language Vowel Chart.jpg|thumb|This chart demonstrates how vowels shift left or right in order to abide by Kyrgyz grammar rules.)Kyrgyz {{IPAc-en|k|ɪər|ˈ|ɡ|iː|z}} (natively , , ' kyrgyzcha [qɯrʁɯzt͡ʃɑ], , , ' [qɯrʁɯz tili] ) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia. Kyrgyz is a member of the Kyrgyz–Kipchak subgroup of the Kypchak languages, and modern-day language convergence has resulted in an increasing degree of mutual intelligibility between Kyrgyz and Kazakh.Kyrgyz was originally written in the Turkic runes,Кызласов И. Л., Рунические письменности евразийских степей (Kyzlasov I.L. Runic scripts of Eurasian steppes), Восточная литература (Eastern Literature), Moscow, 1994, pp. 80 on, {{ISBN|5-02-017741-5}}, with further bibliography. gradually replaced by a Perso-Arabic alphabet (in use until 1928 in USSR, still in use in China). Between 1928 and 1940 a Latin-script alphabet, the Uniform Turkic Alphabet, was used. In 1940 due to general Soviet policy, a Cyrillic alphabet eventually became common and has remained so to this day, though some Kyrgyz still use the Arabic alphabet. When Kyrgyzstan became independent following the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991, there was a popular idea among some Kyrgyzstanis to switch to the Latin script, which is still common in some small pockets of the countryside, and make the Latin script the country’s official national script (taking in mind a version closer to the Turkish alphabet rather than the original alphabet of 1928–40). Although the plan has not yet been implemented, it remains in occasional discussion.WEB, Latin alphabet, Kyrgyzstan has to switch to Latin alphabet since 2040, MP,weblink Информационное Агентство Кабар, en,

History

{{Unreferenced section|date=November 2007}}

Pre-historic roots

The first people certainly known by the name Kyrgyz are mentioned in early medieval Chinese sources as northern neighbors and sometime subjects of the Turkic steppe empire based in the area of Mongolia. The Kyrgyz people were involved in the international trade route system popularly known as the Silk Road no later than the late eighth century. By the time of the destruction of the Uighur Empire in 840 CE, they spoke a Turkic language little different from Old Turkic, and wrote it in the same runic script. After their victory over the Uyghurs the Kyrgyz did not occupy the Mongolian steppe, and their history for several centuries after this period is little known, though they are mentioned in medieval geographical works as living not far from their present location.

Colonization

In the period of tsarist administration (1876–1917), the Kazakhs and the Kyrgyz both were called Kyrgyz, with what are now the Kyrgyz subdenominated when necessary as Kara-Kyrgyz "black Kyrgyz" (alternatively known as "The Great Kyrgyz"). The modern Kyrgyz language did not have a standard written form until 1923, at which time an Arabic alphabet was introduced. That was changed to a Latin-script alphabet, developed by Kasym Tynystanov in 1928 and to a Cyrillic alphabet in 1940. In the years immediately following independence, another change of alphabet was discussed, but the issue does not seem to generate the same passions in Kyrgyzstan that it does in other former Soviet republics, perhaps because the Kyrgyz Cyrillic alphabet is relatively simple and is particularly well-suited to the language.{{Citation needed|date=April 2010}} Josip Broz Tito learned to speak Kyrgyz perfectly.LIFE Magazine, August 14, 1944, Page 38 During the long period of Russian rule, the Kyrgyz language was strongly influenced by Russian.

Post-Soviet dynamics

In the early 1990s, the Akayev government pursued an aggressive policy of introducing Kyrgyz as the official language, forcing{{citation needed|date=January 2018}} the remaining European population to use Kyrgyz in most public situations. Public pressure to enforce this change was sufficiently strong that a Russian member of President Akayev's staff created a public scandal in 1992 by threatening to resign to dramatize the pressure for "Kyrgyzification" of the non-native population. A 1992 law called for the conduct of all public business to be converted fully to Kyrgyz by 1997. However, in March 1996, Kyrgyzstan's parliament adopted a resolution making Russian an official language alongside Kyrgyz, marking a reversal of the earlier sentiment. Substantial pressure from Russia was a strong factor in this change, which was part of a general rapprochement with Russia urged by Akayev. Nowadays, Russian remains the main language in the main cities, such as Bishkek while Kyrgyz continues losing ground, especially among the younger generations WEB,weblink Ferdinand, S. & Komlósi, F. 2016. Vitality of the Kyrgyz Language in Bishkek, IJORS 5-2, pp.210-226, 10 September 2016,

Phonology

{|class="wikitable" style="text-align:center;"Kara|2003|p=10}}! rowspan=2|!colspan=2 | Front!colspan=2 | Back style="vertical-align: center; font-size: x-small; height: 3em"!unrounded!rounded!unrounded!rounded!Closei}}y}}ɯ}}u}}!Mide̞|e}}ø̞|ø}}|o̞|o}}!Opena}})|ɑ}}|{{IPA|/a/}} appears only in borrowings from Persian or when followed by a front vowel later in the word (regressive assimilation), e.g. {{IPA|/ajdøʃ/}} 'sloping' instead of {{IPA|*/ɑjdøʃ/}}.{{Harvcoltxt|Washington|2007|p=11}} Note that in most dialects, its status as a vowel distinct from {{IPA|/ɑ/}} is questionable.{{Harvcoltxt|Washington|2006b|p=2}}{| class="wikitable"|+Vowel Harmony (Peace Corps Method)!Left Shift () !Shift Direction|а |ы|Straight Across Left-Right Shift|о |у|("y" Left-shifts up-diagonally to "a")|е |й|Straight Across Left-Right Shift|ө (э)|ү|Straight Across Left-Right ShiftThe United States Peace Corps trains its volunteers using a "Left-Right Shift" method when carrying-out language training in the Kyrgyz Republic.{|class="wikitable" style=text-align:centerKara|2003|p=11}}! colspan="2" |! Labial! Dental/alveolar! Post-alveolar! Dorsal! colspan="2" | Nasalm}}n}}|ŋ}}! rowspan="2" | Plosive! {{small|voiceless}}p}}t̪|t}}|k}}! {{small|voiced}}b}}d̪|d}}|ɡ}}! rowspan="2" |Affricate! {{small|voiceless}}|t̪͡s̪|t͡s}})t͡ʃ}}|! {{small|voiced}}|d͡ʒ}}|! rowspan="2" | Fricative! {{small|voiceless}}f}})s̪|s}}ʃ}}x}})! {{small|voiced}}v}})z̪|z}}|! colspan="2" | Approximant|l}}|j}}! colspan="2" | Trill|r}}|
  • {{IPA|/f, v, tÍ¡s, x/}} occur only in foreign borrowings.

Writing system

The Kyrgyz in Kyrgyzstan use a Cyrillic alphabet, which uses all the Russian letters plus ң, ө, and ү.In Xinjiang of China, an Arabic alphabet is used.Although the Latin script is not in official use, some Kyrgyz texts are written in the Turkish variant of the Latin alphabet which was designed by Pamukkale University, and uses Turkish spelling norms e.g. for diphthongization (ey, ay etc.) and with the addition of J corresponding to Russian Ж (/zh/). Native Kyrgyz sound values are almost identical to Turkish, the exceptions being the velar nasal /ŋ/ and the voiceless uvular stop /q/ which do not exist in Turkish. In these cases they are written as "ñ" and "q" respectively.{| class="wikitable"CyrillicArabicLatinIPAEnglishباردىق ادامدار ۅز بەدەلىندە جانا ۇقۇقتارىندا ەركىن جانا تەڭ ۇقۇقتۇۇ بولۇپ جارالات.۔ الاردىن اڭ-سەزىمى مەنەن ابئيىرى بار جانا بئرى-بئرىنە بئر تۇۇعاندىق مامئلە قىلۇۇعا تئيىش.Bardıq adamdar öz bedelinde jana uquqtarında erkin jana teñ uquqtuu bolup jaralat. Alardın añ-sezimi menen abiyiri bar jana biri-birine bir tuuğandıq mamile qıluuğa tiyiş.bɑrdɯq ɑdɑmdɑr øz bedelinde d͡ʒɑnɑ uquqtɑrɯndɑ erkin d͡ʒɑnɑ teŋ uquqtuː boɫup d͡ʒɑrɑɫɑt ‖ ɑɫɑrdɯn ɑɴsezimi menen ɑbijiri bɑr d͡ʒɑnɑ biribirine bir tuːʁɑndɯq mɑmile qɯɫuːʁɑ tijiʃAll human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Morphology and syntax

{{Unreferenced section|date=January 2008}}

Case

Nouns in Kyrgyz take a number of case endings that change based on vowel harmony and the sort of consonant they follow (see the section on phonology).{|class="wikitable"!Case!Underlying form!Possible forms!"boat"||"air"||"bucket"||"hand"||"head"||"salt"||"eye"!Nominative —|көз!Genitive| -NIn| -нын, -нин, -дын, -дин, -тын, -тин, -нун, -нүн, -дун, -дүн, -тун, -түннин >нын >тин >дун >тын >дун >|көздүн!Dative| -GA| -га, -ка, -ге, -ке, -го, -ко, -гө, -көге >га >ке >го >ка >га >|көзгө!Accusative| -NI| -ны, -ни, -ды, -ди, -ты, -ти, -ну, -нү, -ду, -дү, -ту, -түни >ны >ти >ду >ты >ду >|көздү!Locative| -DA| -да, -де, -та, -те, -до, -дө, -то, -төде >да >те >до >та >да >|көздө!Ablative| -DAn| -дан, -ден, -тан, -тен, -дон, -дөн, -тон, -төнден >дан >тен >дон >тан >дан >|көздөнNormally the decision between the velar ({{IPA|[ɡ ~ ɣ]}}, {{IPA|[k]}}) and uvular ({{IPA|[ɢ ~ ʁ]}} and {{IPA|[χ ~ q]}}) pronunciation of {{angle bracket|г}} and {{angle bracket|к}} is based on the backness of the following vowel—i.e. back vowels imply a uvular rendering and front vowels imply a velar rendering—and the vowel in suffixes is decided based on the preceding vowel in the word. However, with the dative suffix in Kyrgyz, the vowel is decided normally, but the decision between velars and uvulars can be decided based on a contacting consonant, for example банк /bank/ 'bank' + GA yields банкка {{IPA|/bankka/}}, not {{IPA|/bankqa/}} as predicted by the following vowel.

Pronouns

Kyrgyz has eight personal pronouns:{|class="wikitable"|+Personal pronouns!colspan="2"|Singular!colspan="2"|Plural!Kyrgyz (transliteration)||English||Kyrgyz (transliteration)||English|We(singular informal)>|You (plural informal)(singular formal)>|You (plural formal)|TheyThe declension of the pronouns is outlined in the following chart. Singular pronouns (with the exception of сиз, which used to be plural) exhibit irregularities, while plural pronouns don't. Irregular forms are highlighted in bold.{|class="wikitable"|+Declension of pronouns!|!colspan="4"|Singular!colspan="4"|Plural!||1st||2nd inf||2nd frm||3rd||1st||2nd inf||2nd frm||3rd!Nom|алар!Accмени>сени>аны>|аларды!Genменин>сенин>анын>|алардын!Datмага>сага>ага>|аларга!Loc|аларда!Abl|аларданIn addition to the pronouns, there are several more sets of morphemes dealing with person.{|class="wikitable"|+Morphemes indicating person!||pronouns||copulas||present tense||possessive endings||past/conditional||imperative!1st sg|-AyIN!2nd sg|—, -GIn!2nd formal sg|-GIlA!3rd sg|-sIn!1st pl|-AyIK!2nd pl|!2nd formal pl|!3rd pl|-sIn, -IşsIn

Verbs

Verbs are conjugated by analyzing the root verb: 1) determine whether the end letter is a vowel or consonant 2) add appropriate suffix while following vowel-harmony/shift rules.{| class="wikitable"|+Simple-Present Tense Conjugations (Peace Corps)!!Per. Pronoun!Vowel !Consonant!1st sg|Мен| -м| -м!2nd sg|Сен| -йс

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