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Kylix
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{{Other uses}}File:Kylix61.7.png|thumb|Silver kylix with Helen and Hermes, ca. 420 BC, part of the Vassil Bojkov collection, Sofia, 281x281pxFile:Dancing woman krotala BM 1920,0613.1.jpg|thumb|right|Kylix by Euergides (circa 500 BC) in the British MuseumBritish Museum(File:2014-01-26 Symposium Tableware with erotic motif Inv. 1964.4 Altes Museum anagoria.JPG|thumb|Kylix from below)In the pottery of ancient Greece, a kylix ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|aɪ|l|ɪ|k|s}} {{Respell|KY|liks}}, {{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|ɪ|l|ɪ|k|s}} {{Respell|KIL|iks}}; ; also spelled cylix; pl.: kylikes {{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|aɪ|l|ɪ|ˌ|k|iː|z}} {{Respell|KY|li|keez}}, {{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|ɪ|l|ɪ|ˌ|k|iː|z}} {{Respell|KIL|i|keez}}) is the most common type of wine-drinking cup. It has a broad, relatively shallow, body raised on a stem from a foot and usually two horizontal handles disposed symmetrically. The main alternative wine-cup shape was the kantharos, with a narrower and deeper cup and high vertical handles.The almost flat interior circle of the base of the cup, called the tondo, was generally the primary surface for painted decoration in the black-figure or red-figure pottery styles of the 6th and 5th century BC, and the outside was also often painted. As the representations would be covered with wine, the scenes would only be revealed in stages as the wine was drained. They were often designed with this in mind, with scenes created so that they would surprise or titillate the drinker as they were revealed.The word comes from the Greek kylix "cup," which is cognate with Latin calix, the source of the English word "chalice" but not related to the similar Greek word calyx which means "husk" or "pod". The term seems to have been rather more generally used in ancient Greece. Individual examples and the many named sub-varieties of kylix are often called names just using "cup". Like all other types of Greek pottery vessels, they are also covered by the general term of "vase".

Purpose

The primary use for the kylix was drinking wine (usually mixed with water, and sometimes other flavourings) at a symposium or male "drinking party" in the ancient Greek world, so they are often decorated with scenes of a humorous, light-hearted, or sexual nature that would only become visible when the cup was drained. Dionysos, the god of wine, and his satyrs or related komastic scenes, are common subjects. On the external surface sometimes, large eyes were depicted, probably also with humorous purposes (Eye-cup). Other humorous purposes would include designs on the base of the cup, such as the male genitals on the Bomford Cup, a late 6th century kylix.BOOK,weblink Archaic and classical Greek art, Osborn, Robin, 1998, Oxford University Press, 9780192842022, Oxford, 133-134, 40162410, The shape of the kylix enabled the drinker to drink whilst recumbent, as was the case in the symposia. It also enabled them to play kottabos, a game played by flinging wine lees at targets.A typical bowl held roughly 8 oz/250ml of fluid, though this varied greatly with size and shape.weblink

Sub-types

There are many sub-types of kylix, variously defined by their basic shape, the location or subject of their painting, or their main place of production, or often a combination of these. Several of these are grouped under the term of Little-Master cup. The sub-types include:(File:Black-figure terracotta kylix (wine cup), Greece. late 6th century BCE, Honolulu Academy of Arts.jpg|thumb|Double view of a late 6th-century cup)Image:Type A kylix MOS 1983 1157.JPG|Kylix type A, no turned or "offset" lip; a "fillet" at the top of the short stem. Image:Triptolemos Painter MOS 1887 213.JPG|Kylix type B, no turned or "offset" lip, nor a "fillet", so the profile runs smoothly from lip to foot Image:Band cup Louvre F75.jpg|Band cup, with the main painting in a band low on the body. Image:Droop_cup_Louvre_CA2512.jpg|Droop CupImage:Eye-cup kantharos Louvre F144.jpg|Eye-cup, painted with eyesImage:Kassel_cup_Louvre_E673.jpg|Kassel CupImage:Komast_cup_Louvre_E742.jpg|Komast cup, Athenian black-figure, with short stem, angled "offset" lip.Beazley, CupsImage:Lakonian cup BM GR 1968.2-13.1.jpg|Lakonian cupFile:Lip-Cup sexual intercourse Ialysos black background.jpg|Lip cup, with the main painting just below the lip; the stem and footr are lost in this exampleImage:Siana_cup_Louvre_F67.jpg|Siana cup, Similar to Komast, with slightly longer stem, and painted on the inside.File:Merrythought Cup Antikensammlung Berlin.jpg|Merrythought cup, with distinctive "wishbone" handlesFile:Boeotian kantharos Louvre MNC670.jpg|For comparison, a black-glaze kantharos with Boeotian inscription (Thespiae, 450–425 BC)

Decoration

File:Colmar Painter - Running Warrior - Walters 481920 - Detail(1).jpg|thumb|Detail of a Kylix depicting a young warrior running.WEB, The Walters Art Museum The Walters Art Museum
After the kylikes were formed, an artisan drew a depiction of an event from Greek mythology or everyday life with a diluted glazeTimeline of Art History {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080302215819weblink |date=2008-03-02 }}, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Retrieved on 2008-03-18. on the outer surface of the formation.Inside the drinking bowl was often a portrait of dancing and/or festive drinking.Allen, Douglas. Attic Red-Figure Kylix, Utah Museum of Fine Arts, 2008-02-19. Unique compositional skills were necessary for the artisans to attain due to the lack of verticals and horizontals on the surface. Onesimos, Makron, and Douris were famous painters in this field, renowned for their works.Ancient Greek Pottery, Young Aggressive Sincere Organized and United, 2005-01-10.

Famous individual kylixes

Individual kylixes with articles include:

See also

References

{{reflist}}{{Commons category|Kylixes}}{{Greek drinking cups}}{{Greek vase shapes}}

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