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Kipchaks
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{{redirect|Qipchaq|the village in Iran|Qipchaq, Iran}}
File:Baba 010.jpg|thumb|Kipchak portrait in a 12th-century balbal in LuhanskLuhansk
The Kipchaks, also known as Qipchaq or Polovtsians, were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe. First mentioned in the 8th century as part of the Turkic Khaganate, they most likely inhabited the Altai region from where they expanded over the following centuries, first as part of the Kimek Khanate and later as part of a confederation with the Cumans. There were groups of Kipchaks in the Pontic–Caspian steppe, Syr Darya and Siberia. The Cuman–Kipchak confederation was conquered by the Mongols in the early 13th century.

Terminology

The Kipchaks described their name as meaning 'hollow tree'; according to them, inside a hollow tree, their original human ancestress gave birth to her son.Julian Baldick, Animal and Shaman: Ancient Religions of Central Asia, p.55. Németh points to the Siberian qıpčaq "angry, quick-tempered" attested only in the Siberian Sağay dialect.Golden, Peter B. (1992). An Introduction to the History of the Turkic People. Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden. p. 271 Klyashtorny links Kipchak to qovı, qovuq "unfortunate, unlucky"; yet Golden sees a better match in qıv "good fortune" and adjectival suffix -čāq. Regardless, Golden notes that the ethnonym's original form and etymology "remain a matter of contention and speculation"Golden, Peter, B. The Turkic world of Mahmud al-Kashgari, p. 522Their name appears occasionally transliterated in other languages, such as ; ; ; ; , ; , Қипчоқ/قىپچاق; /Қипчақ; ; ; ; Nogai: Кыпчак; {{zh|欽察/钦察|translit=Qīnchá}}; and . Other English transliteration include Kypchaks and Qipchaks.

Anthropology

In the Kipchak steppe, a complex ethnic assimilation and consolidation process took place between the 11th and 13th centuries.{{sfn|Agajanov|1992|p=74}} The western Kipchak tribes absorbed people of Oghuz, Pecheneg, ancient Bashkir, Bulgar and other origin; the eastern Kipchak merged with the Oghuz-Kimek, Karluk, Kara-Khitai and others. They were all identified by the ethnonym Kipchak.{{sfn|Agajanov|1992|p=74}}According to Ukrainian anthropologists, Kipchaks had racial characteristics of Caucasians and Mongoloids, namely a broad flat face and protruding nose. Researcher E. P. Alekseeva drew attention to the fact that European Kipchak stone images have both Mongoloid and Caucasoid faces. However, in her opinion, most Kipchaks, who settled in Georgia in the first half of the 12th century, were predominantly Caucasoid with some admixture of Mongoloid traits. They were already joined by Cumans. In the course of the Turkic expansion they migrated into Siberia and further into the Trans-Volga region.BOOK, Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, Encyclopedia of European Peoples,weblink 2006, Infobase Publishing, 978-1-4381-2918-1, 475–,

History

The Kipchaks appear in the 8th-century Moyun Chur inscription as Türk-Qïbchaq, mentioned as having been part of the Turkic Khaganate for fifty years.{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=278}} It is unclear if the Kipchaks could be identified as the Chueh-Yueh Shih (厥越失; pinyin: juéyuèshī) in Chinese sources{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=278}} or, according to Klyashtorny, the Syr in the Orkhon inscriptions (薛延陀; pinyin: Xuè-Yántuó in Chinese sources).{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=271}} The relationship between the Kipchaks and Cumans is unclear.{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=278}}While part of the Turkic Khaganate, they most likely inhabited the Altai region.{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=278}} When the Khaganate collapsed, they became part of the Kimek confederation, with which they expanded to the Irtysh, Ishim and Tobol rivers.{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=278}} They then appeared in Islamic sources.{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=278}} In the 9th century Ibn Khordadbeh indicated that they held autonomy within the Kimek confederation.{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=278}} They entered the Kimek in the 8th- or beginning of 9th century, and were one of seven original tribes.{{sfn|Agajanov|1992|p=69}} In the 10th-century Hudud al-'Alam it is said that the Kimek appointed the Kipchak king.{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=278}} The Kimek confederation, probably spearheaded by the Kipchaks, moved into Oghuz lands, and Sighnaq in Syr Darya became the Kipchak urban centre.{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=278}} Kipchak remnants remained in Siberia, while others pushed westwards in the Qun migration.{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=278}} As a result, three Kipchak groups emerged:{{sfn|Golden|1990|pp=278–279}} The early 11th century saw a massive Turkic nomadic migration towards the Islamic world.{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=279}} The first waves were recorded in the Kara-Khanid Khanate in 1017–18.{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=279}} It is unknown whether the Cumans conquered the Kipchaks or were simply the leaders of the Kipchak–Turkic tribes.{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=279}} By the 12th century, the two separate confederations of Cumans and Kipchaks merged.{{sfn|Vásáry|2005|p=6}}
File:Cumania (1200) eng.png|thumb|CumaniaCumania
The Mongols defeated the Alans after convincing the Kipchaks to desert them through pointing at their likeness in language and culture.{{sfn|May|2016|p=96}} Nonetheless, the Kipchaks were defeated next.{{sfn|May|2016|p=96}} Under khan Köten, Kipchaks fled to the Grand Principality of Kiev (the Ruthenians), where the Kipchaks had several marriage relations, one of which was Köten's son-in-law Mstislav Mstislavich of Galicia.{{sfn|May|2016|p=96}} The Ruthenians and Kipchaks forged an alliance against the Mongols, and met at the Dnieper to locate them.{{sfn|May|2016|p=96}} After an eight-day pursuit, they met at the Kalka River (1223).{{sfn|May|2016|p=96}} The Kipchaks, who were horse archers like the Mongols, served as the vanguard and scouts.{{sfn|May|2016|p=96}} The Mongols, who appeared to retreat, tricked the Ruthenian–Kipchak force into a trap after suddenly emerging behind the hills and surrounding them.{{sfn|May|2016|p=96}} The fleeing Kipchaks were closely pursued, and the Ruthenian camp was massacred.{{sfn|May|2016|p=96}}The nomadic Kipchaks were the main targets of the Mongols when they crossed the Volga in 1236.{{sfn|May|2016|p=103}} The defeated Kipchaks mainly entered the Mongol ranks, while others fled westward.{{sfn|May|2016|p=103}} Köten led 40,000 families into Hungary, where King Bela IV granted them refuge in return for their Christianization.{{sfn|May|2016|p=103}} The refugee Kipchaks fled Hungary after Köten was murdered.{{sfn|May|2016|p=103}}After their fall, Kipchaks and Cumans were known to have become mercenaries in Europe and taken as slave warriors. In Egypt, the Mamluks were in part drawn from Kipchaks and Cumans.

Language

The Kipchak–Cuman confederation spoke a Turkic language.{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=279}} Mongolian ethno-linguistic elements in the Kipchak–Kimek remain unproven.{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=279}}Kipchaks and Cumans spoke a Turkic language (Kipchak language, Cuman language) whose most important surviving record is the Codex Cumanicus, a late 13th-century dictionary of words in Kipchak, Cuman, and Latin. The presence in Egypt of Turkic-speaking Mamluks also stimulated the compilation of Kipchak/Cuman-Arabic dictionaries and grammars that are important in the study of several old Turkic languages.When members of the Armenian diaspora moved from the Crimean peninsula to the Polish-Ukrainian borderland, at the end of the 13th century, they brought Kipchak, their adopted Turkic language, with them.An Armeno-Kipchak Chronicle on the Polish-Turkish Wars in 1620-1621, Robert Dankoff, p. 388 During the 16th and the 17th centuries, the Turkic language among the Armenian communities of the Kipchak people was Armeno-Kipchak. They were settled in the Lviv and Kamianets-Podilskyi areas of what is now Ukraine.Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, p. 85, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and IrelandThe Cuman language became extinct in the 18th century in the region of Cumania in Hungary, which was its last stronghold.

Religion

The Kipchaks practiced Shamanism.{{sfn|May|2016|p=221}} Muslim conversion occurred near Islamic centres.{{sfn|May|2016|p=221}}Some Kipchaks and Cumans were known to have converted to Christianity around the 11th century, at the suggestion of the Georgians, as they allied in their conflicts against the Muslims. A great number were baptized at the request of Georgian King David IV, who also married a daughter of Kipchak Khan Otrok. From 1120, there was a Kipchak national Christian church and an important clergy.{{harv|Roux|1997|p=242}} Following the Mongol conquest, Islam rose in popularity among the Kipchaks of the Golden Horde.Islamic Civilization {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080512013502weblink |date=2008-05-12 }}

Culture

Kurgan stelae

Confederations

Kimek

The confederation or tribal union which Kipchaks entered in the 8th- or beginning of 9th century as one of seven original tribes is known in historiography as that of the Kimek (or Kimäk).{{sfn|Agajanov|1992|p=69}} Turkic inscriptions do not mention the state with that name.BOOK, Central Asiatic Journal,weblink 1998, O. Harrassowitz, 10th-century Hudud al-'Alam mentions the "country of Kīmāk", ruled by a khagan (king) who has eleven lieutenants that hold hereditary fiefs.Hudud al-'Alam, ch. 18 Furthermore, Andar Az Khifchāq is mentioned as a country (nāḥiyat) of the Kīmāk, 'of which inhabitants resemble the Ghūz in some customs'.
In the 9th century Ibn Khordadbeh indicated that they held autonomy within the Kimek confederation.{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=278}} They entered the Kimek in the 8th- or beginning of 9th century, and were one of seven original tribes.{{sfn|Agajanov|1992|p=69}} In the 10th-century Hudud al-'Alam it is said that the Kimek appointed the Kipchak king.{{sfn|Golden|1990|p=278}}

Legacy

Kipchak peoples and languages

The modern Northwestern branch of the Turkic language is often referred to as the Kipchak branch. The languages in this branch are mostly considered to be descendants of the Kipchak language, and the people who speak them may likewise be referred to as Kipchak peoples. Some of the groups traditionally included are the Karachays, Siberian Tatars, Nogays, Bashkirs, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Volga Tatars, and Crimean Tatars. There is also a village named Kipchak in Crimea. Qypshaq, which is a development of "Kipchak" in the Kazakh language, is one of the constituent tribes of the Middle Horde confederation of the Kazakh people. The name Kipchak also occurs as a surname in Kazakhstan. Some of the descendants of the Kipchaks are the Bashkirian clan Qipsaq.Муратов Б.А., Суюнов Р.Р. ДНК-генеалогия башкирских родов из сако-динлинской подветви R1a+Z2123//Суюнов Р.Р. Гены наших предков (2-е издание). Том 3, серия «Этногеномика и ДНК-генеалогия», ЭИ Проект «Суюн». Vila do Conde, Lidergraf, 2014, — 250 c., илл., Португалия (Portugal), С.15-77

Notable people

Kipchak confederations
  • Ayyub Khan ({{floruit}} 1117), Kipchak leader.
  • Bačman ({{floruit}} 1229–36), Kipchak leader in the Lower Volga.
  • Qačir-üküle ({{floruit}} 1236), Kipchak leader in the Lower Volga.
  • Köten ({{floruit}} 1223–39), Kipchak leader.


Kipchak ancestry

See also

{{commons}}
{{History of the Turks pre-14th century}}

References

{{Reflist|2}}

Sources

  • BOOK, Agajanov, S. G., History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume IV: The Age of Achievement AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, The States of the Oghuz, the Kimek and the Kipchak,weblink 1992, Motilal Banarsidass, 978-81-208-1595-7, 61–76,
  • BOOK, Golden, Peter B., Sinor, Denis, The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, The peoples of the south Russian steppes,weblink 1990, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-24304-9, 256–284, harv,
  • BOOK, Golden, Peter B., An Introduction to the History of the Turkic People, 1992, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden,
  • BOOK, Grousset, René, The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia,weblink 1970, Rutgers University Press, 978-0-8135-1304-1,
  • BOOK, Howorth, Henry Hoyle, History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century, Part 2: The So-Called Tartars of Russia and Central Asia,weblink 2008, 1880, Cosimo, Inc., 978-1-60520-134-4,
  • BOOK, Timothy May, The Mongol Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia &91;2 volumes&93;: A Historical Encyclopedia,weblink 7 November 2016, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-61069-340-0, 221–,
  • Hildinger, Erik. Warriors of the Steppe: Military History of Central Asia, 500 BC To 1700 AD. Da Capo Press, 1997.
  • Galip Güner (2013), Kıpçak Türkçesi Grameri, Kesit Yayınları, Ä°stanbul.
  • Mustafa ArgunÅŸah, Galip Güner (2015), Codex Cumanicus, Kesit Yayınları, Ä°stanbul.
  • {{citation|authorlink=Jean-Paul Roux|last=Roux|first=Jean-Paul|year=1997|title=L'Asie Centrale, Histoire et Civilization|publisher=Librairie Arthème-Fayard|isbn=978-2-213-59894-9}}
  • "Kipchak" Encyclopædia Britannica, Academic Edition. 2006.
  • "Polovtsi" The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05.

Further reading

  • Boswell, A. Bruce. "The Kipchak Turks." The Slavonic Review 6.16 (1927): 68-85.
  • GyÅ‘rfi, Dávid. "Khwarezmian: Mapping the Kipchak component of Pre-Chagatai Turkic." Acta Orientalia 67.4 (2014): 383-406.
  • Shanijazov, K. "Early Elements in the Ethnogenesis of the Uzbeks." The Nomadic Alternative: Modes and Models of Interaction in the African-Asian Deserts and Steppes (1978): 147.
  • Ushntskiy, Vasiliy V. "KIPCHAK COMPONENT IN THE SAKHA ETHNOGENESIS." VESTNIK TOMSKOGO GOSUDARSTVENNOGO UNIVERSITETA-ISTORIYA 3 (2015): 97-101.
  • Mukhajanova, T. N., and A. M. Asetilla. "KIPCHAK" ETHNONYM AND THE HISTORY OF ITS ORIGIN." International Scientific and Practical Conference World science. Vol. 3. No. 12. ROST, 2016.
  • Baski, Imre. "On the ethnic names of the Cumans of Hungary." Kinship in the Altaic World. Proccedings of the 48th PIAC (2006): 43-54.
  • Róna-Tas, András. "The reconstruction of Proto-Turkic and the genetic question." (1998).
  • Biro, M. B. "The «Kipchaks» in the Georgian Martyrdom of David and Constantin." Annales. Sectio linguistics 4 (1973).
  • Kadyrbaev, Aleksandr. "Turks (Uighurs, Kipchaks and Kanglis) in the history of the Mongols." Acta Orientalia 58.3 (2005): 249-253.
  • Halperin, Charles J. "The Kipchak Connection: The Ilkhans, the Mamluks and Ayn Jalut." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 63.2 (2000): 229-245.
  • Eckmann, János. "The Mamluk-Kipchak Literature." Central Asiatic Journal (1963): 304-319.
  • Csáki, E. (2006). Middle Mongolian loan words in Volga Kipchak languages. Turcologica, Bd. 67. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. {{ISBN|3-447-05381-X}}

External links

{{commons category|Kipchaks}} {{Turkic peoples}}{{Crimea topics}}{{Turkic topics}}

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