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King of Italy

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King of Italy
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{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2013}}{{Refimprove|date=March 2010}}File:Corona ferrea, Monza, Tesoro del Duomo.jpg|thumb|Iron Crown of LombardyIron Crown of LombardyKing of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The first to take the title was Odoacer, a barbarian military leader, in the late 5th century, followed by the Ostrogothic kings up to the mid-6th century. With the Frankish conquest of Italy in the 8th century, the Carolingians assumed the title, which was maintained by subsequent Holy Roman Emperors throughout the Middle Ages. The last Emperor to claim the title was Charles V in the 16th century. During this period, the holders of the title were crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.A Kingdom of Italy was restored from 1805 to 1814 with Napoleon as its only king, centered in Northern Italy. It was not until the Italian unification in the 1860s that a Kingdom of Italy covering the entire peninsula was restored. From 1861 the House of Savoy held the title of King of Italy until the last king, Umberto II, was exiled in 1946 when Italy became a republic.

History

After the deposition of the last Western Emperor in 476, Heruli leader Odoacer was appointed Dux Italiae ("Duke of Italy") by the reigning Byzantine Emperor Zeno. Later, the Germanic foederati, the Scirians and the Heruli, as well as a large segment of the Italic Roman army, proclaimed Odoacer Rex Italiae ("King of Italy").Bury, History, vol. 1 p. 406 In 493, the Ostrogothic king Theoderic the Great killed Odoacer, and set up a new dynasty of kings of Italy. Ostrogothic rule ended when Italy was reconquered by the Byzantine Empire in 552.In 568, the Lombards entered the peninsula and ventured to recreate a barbarian kingdom in opposition to the Empire, establishing their authority over much of Italy, except the Exarchate of Ravenna and the duchies of Rome, Venetia, Naples and the southernmost portions. In the 8th century, estrangement between the Italians and the Byzantines allowed the Lombards to capture the remaining Roman enclaves in northern Italy. However, in 774, they were defeated by the Franks under Charlemagne, who deposed their king and took up the title "king of the Lombards". After the death of Charles the Fat in 887, Italy fell into instability and a number of kings attempted to establish themselves as independent Italian monarchs. During this period, known as the Feudal Anarchy (888–962), the title Rex Italicorum ("King of the Italians" or "King of the Italics") was introduced. After the breakup of the Frankish empire, Otto I added Italy to the Holy Roman Empire and continued the use of the title Rex Italicorum. The last to use this title was Henry II (1004-1024). Subsequent emperors used the title "King of Italy" until Charles V. At first they were crowned in Pavia, later Milan, and Charles was crowned in Bologna.In 1805, Napoleon I was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy at the Milan Cathedral. The next year, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated his imperial title. From the deposition of Napoleon I (1814) until the Italian Unification (1861), there was no Italian monarch claiming the overarching title. The Risorgimento successfully established a dynasty, the House of Savoy, over the whole peninsula, uniting the kingdoms of Sardinia and the Two Sicilies to form the modern Kingdom of Italy. The monarchy was superseded by the Italian Republic, after a constitutional referendum was held on 2 June 1946, after World War II.Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1047 {{ISBN|978-3-8329-5609-7}} The Italian monarchy formally ended on 12 June of that year, and Umberto II left the country.

List of kings

As "Rex Italiae"



vassal of the Eastern Roman Empire.

Ostrogothic Kingdom (493 – 553)

Kingdom of the Lombards (568 – 814)

Kingdom of Italy (781 – 963)

Carolingian Dynasty (781 – 888)

Instability (888 – 962)

After 887, Italy fell into instability, with many rulers claiming the kingship simultaneously:

vassal of the German King Arnulf of Carinthia, reduced to Friuli 889-894, deposed by Arnulf in 896.


opponent of Berengar, ruled most of Italy but was deposed by Arnulf.


subking of his father Guy before 894, reduced to Spoleto 894–895.
In 896, Arnulf and Ratold lost control of Italy, which was divided between Berengar and Lambert:

seized Lambert's portion upon the latter's death in 898.


opposed Berengar 900-902 and 905.


defeated Berengar but fled Italy in 926.


elected by Berengar's partisans in 925, resigned to Provence after 945.


jointly with his son:
In 951 Otto I of Germany invaded Italy and was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy. In 952, Berengar and Adalbert became his vassals but remained kings until being deposed by Otto.

Holy Roman Empire (962 – 1556)

{{see|Holy Roman Emperors|King of the Romans|List_of_German_monarchs#Holy_Roman_Empire,_962–1806}}

Ottonian dynasty (962 – 1024){| width90% class"wikitable"

! width=8% | Image! width=15% | Name! width=8% | Life! width=8% | Coronation! width=8% | Ceased to be King
100px|center) Otto I 23 November 912-7 May 973 962Lodovico Antonio Muratori, Giuseppe Oggeri Vincenti, Annali d'Italia, 1788, pp. 78-81. 7 May 973
100px|center) Otto II 955-7 December 983 c. October 980According to Sismondi, History of the Italian Republics in the Middle Ages (pg. 29), although Otto II was crowned King of the Romans in 961 and Holy Roman Emperor in 967, he only obtained the Iron Crown at Pavia in late 980, during his descent into Italy, and prior to his celebrating Christmas at Ravenna. 7 December 983
100px|center) Otto III 980-23 January 1002 c. February 996Although Otto III was crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rome on 21 May 996, he was crowned King of Italy at Milan prior to the death of Pope John XV in early March 996 - see Comyn, History of the Western Empire, Vol. 1, pg. 123 23 January 1002
100px|center) Arduin 955-1015 1002 1014
100px|center) Henry II, Holy Roman Emperorenumerated as successor of Henry I the Fowler>Henry I who was German King 919–936 but not Emperor. 6 May 973-13 July 1024 1004 13 July 1024

Salian dynasty (1027 – 1125){| width90% class"wikitable"

! width=8% | Image! width=15% | Name! width=8% | Life! width=8% | Coronation! width=8% | Ceased to be King
100px|center) Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperorenumerated as successor of Conrad I of Germany>Conrad I who was German King 911–918 but not Emperor 990-4 June 1039 1026 4 June 1039
100px|center) Henry III 29 October 1017-5 October 1056 1039 5 October 1056
100px|center) Henry IV 11 November 1050-7 August 1106 1056 December 1105
100px|center) Conrad II of Italy 1074-1101 1093 1101
100px|center) Henry VHTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=RY6VMGUAACKC&PG=>TITLE=THE ORIGINS OF MODERN GERMANY, Geoffrey, Barraclough, W. W. Norton & Company, 1984, 0-393-30153-2, 8 November 1086-23 May 1125 1106 23 May 1125

Süpplingenburg dynasty (1125 – 1137){| width90% class"wikitable"

! width=8% | Image! width=15% | Name! width=8% | Life! width=8% | Coronation! width=8% | Ceased to be King
(File:Siegel Lothar III.jpgcenter) Lothair III 9 June 1075-4 December 1137 1125 4 December 1137

Hauteville dynasty (1130 – 1154)

Roger II used the title King of Sicily and Italy until at least 1135; later he used only the title King of Sicily, Apulia and Calabria. Although his realm included the southern Italian mainland, he never exerted any control over the official Kingdom of Italy, and none of his successors claimed the title King of Italy.{| width=90% class="wikitable"! width=8% | Image! width=15% | Name! width=8% | Life! width=8% | Coronation! width=8% | Ceased to be King
(File:Roger II. Sicilsky (cropped1).jpgcenter) Roger II 22 December 1095-26 February 1154 25 December 1130 26 February 1154

House of Hohenstaufen (1128 – 1197){| width90% class"wikitable"

! width=8% | Image! width=15% | Name! width=8% | Life! width=8% | Coronation! width=8% | Ceased to be King
100px|center) Conrad III 1093-15 February 1152 1138(Also crowned in 1128 in opposition to LothairComyn, Robert. History of the Western Empire, from its Restoration by Charlemagne to the Accession of Charles V, Vol. I. 1851, p. 191.) 1152
100px|center) Frederick I 1122-10 June 1190 1154 1186
100px|center) Henry VI November 1165-28 September 1197 1186 28 September 1197

House of Welf (1208 – 1212){| width90% class"wikitable"

! width=8% | Image! width=15% | Name! width=8% | Life! width=8% | Coronation! width=8% | Ceased to be King
center|100px) Otto IV 1175 or 1176-19 May 1218 1209 1212

House of Hohenstaufen (1212 – 1254){| width90% class"wikitable"

! width=8% | Image! width=8% | Coat of Arms! width=15% | Name! width=8% | Life! width=8% | Coronation! width=8% | Ceased to be King
100px|center)100px|center)Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor>Frederick II(Friedrich II) 26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250 5 December 1212 13 December 1250
100px|center)100px|center)Henry (VII) of Germany>Henry(Heinrich (VII)) 1211 – 12 February 1242 23 April 1220 12 February 1242
100px|center)100px|center)Conrad IV of Germany>Conrad IV(Konrad IV) 25 April 1228 – 21 May 1254 May 1237 21 May 1254

House of Luxembourg (1311 – 1313){| width90% class"wikitable"

! width=8% | Image! width=8% | Coat of Arms! width=15% | Name! width=8% | Life! width=8% | Coronation! width=8% | Ceased to be King
100px|center)100px|center) Henry VII 1275Kleinhenz, Christopher, Medieval Italy: an encyclopedia, Volume 1, Routledge, 2004, pg. 494-24 August 1313 6 January 1311Jones, Michael, The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. VI: c. 1300-c. 1415, Cambridge University Press, 2000, pg. 533 24 August 1313

House of Wittelsbach (1327 – 1347){| width90% class"wikitable"

! width=8% | Image! width=8% | Coat of Arms! width=15% | Name! width=8% | Life! width=8% | Coronation! width=8% | Ceased to be King
100px|center)100px|center) Louis IV 1 April 1282-11 October 1347 1327 11 October 1347

House of Luxembourg (1355 – 1437){| width90% class"wikitable"

! width=8% | Image! width=8% | Coat of Arms! width=15% | Name! width=8% | Life! width=8% | Coronation! width=8% | Ceased to be King
100px|center)100px|center) Charles IV 14 May 1316-29 November 1378 1355 29 November 1378
100px|center)100px|center) Sigismund 14 February 1368-9 December 1437 1431 9 December 1437

House of Habsburg (1437 – 1556){| width90% class"wikitable"

! width=8% | Image! width=8% | Coat of Arms! width=15% | Name! width=8% | Life! width=8% | Coronation! width=8% | Ceased to be King
100px|center)100px|center) Frederick III 21 September 1415-19 August 1493 16 March 1452 19 August 1493
100px|center)100px|center) Charles V 24 February 1500-21 September 1558 24 February 1530Philip Pandely Argenti, Chius Vincta, 1941, p. xvii. 16 January 1556
Charles V was the last emperor to be crowned king of Italy, or to use the title. The Peace of Westphalia, in 1648, formally ended the rule of the Holy Roman Emperors in Italy. However, the empire continued to include some territory in northern Italy, including Tyrol, until its dissolution in 1806.House of Bonaparte{| width90% class"wikitable"">

Kingdom of Italy (1805–1814), House of Bonaparte{| width90% class"wikitable"

! width=8% | Image! width=8% | Coat of Arms! width=15% | Name! width=8% | Life! width=8% | Coronation! width=8% | Ceased to be King
100px|centre) 100px|centre) Napoleon I 15 August 1769-5 May 1821 17 March 1805 11 April 1814

Full title

This title is present on Italian laws proclaimed by Napoleon I:[Name], by the Grace of God and the Constitutions, Emperor of the French and King of Italy.

Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946), House of Savoy{| width90% class"wikitable"

! width=8% | Image! width=8% | Coat of Arms! width=15% | Name! width=8% | Life! width=8% | Became King! width=8% | Ceased to be King
100px|centre) 100px|centre) Victor Emmanuel II 14 March 1820 -9 January 1878 17 March 1861 9 January 1878
100px|centre) 100px|centre) Umberto I 14 March 1844-29 July 1900 9 January 1878 29 July 1900
100px|centre) 100px|centre) Victor Emmanuel III 11 November 1869 -28 December 1947 29 July 1900 9 May 1946
100px|centre)100px|centre) Umberto II 15 September 1904-18 March 1983 9 May 1946 12 June 1946

Full title

Up until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1946, the full titles of the Kings of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) were:[Name], by the Grace of God and the will of the Nation, King of Italy, King of Sardinia, Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia, Duke of Savoy, count of Maurienne, Marquis (of the Holy Roman Empire) in Italy; Prince of Piedmont, Carignano, Oneglia, Poirino, Trino; Prince and Perpetual Vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; Prince of Carmagnola, Montmellian with Arbin and Francin, Prince bailiff of the Duchy of Aosta, Prince of Chieri, Dronero, Crescentino, Riva di Chieri and Banna, Busca, Bene, Bra, Duke of Genoa, Monferrat, Aosta, Duke of Chablais, Genevois, Duke of Piacenza, Marquis of Saluzzo (Saluces), Ivrea, Susa, of Maro, Oristano, Cesana, Savona, Tarantasia, Borgomanero and Cureggio, Caselle, Rivoli, Pianezza, Govone, Salussola, Racconigi over Tegerone, Migliabruna and Motturone, Cavallermaggiore, Marene, Modane and Lanslebourg, Livorno Ferraris, Santhià, Agliè, Centallo and Demonte, Desana, Ghemme, Vigone, Count of Barge, Villafranca, Ginevra, Nizza, Tenda, Romont, Asti, Alessandria, of Goceano, Novara, Tortona, Bobbio, Soissons, Sant'Antioco, Pollenzo, Roccabruna, Tricerro, Bairo, Ozegna, delle Apertole, Baron of Vaud and of Faucigni, Lord of Vercelli, Pinerolo, of Lomellina, of Valle Sesia, of the Marquisate of Ceva, Overlord of Monaco, Roccabruna and eleven-twelfths of Menton, Noble Patrician of Venice, Patrician of Ferrara.The king of Italy was the monarch with the largest number of titles.

See also

Notes

{{Reflist}}{{Antique Kings of Italy}}{{Kings of Italy (1861–1946)}}{{Former monarchies Italian peninsula}}{{Italian royal titles}}

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