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Kiev
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{{About|the capital of Ukraine}}{{pp-semi|small = yes}}{{short description|Capital of Ukraine}}{{Use dmy dates|date = June 2014}}







factoids
|seat_type = City council|seat = Kiev City Council#Subdivisions>Raions|parts_style = |parts = List of 10|p1 = Darnytsia RaionDesna Raion, Kiev>Desna RaionDnipro Raion, Kiev>Dnipro Raion|p4 = Holosiiv Raion|p5 = Obolon Raion|p6 = Pechersk Raion|p7 = Podil RaionShevchenko Raion, Kiev>Shevchenko Raion|p9 = Solomianka Raion|p10 = Sviatoshyn Raion|leader_title = Mayor and Head of City State Administration|leader_name = Vitali Klitschko|unit_pref = Metric|area_total_km2 = 839Nominal GDP>GDP (2016)| demographics1_footnotes =weblink| demographics1_title1 = Total| demographics1_info1 = US$20 billion| demographics1_title2 = Per capita| demographics1_info2 = US$7,000|population_as_of = 1 November 2015 PUBLISHER= UKRSTAT.GOV.UA DATE=1 NOVEMBER 2015, 9 January 2016, PUBLISHER=CITYPOPULATION.DE ACCESSDATE=1 SEPTEMBER 2013, of the Kiev metropolitan area|population_density_km2 = 3299|timezone = EET|utc_offset = +2|timezone_DST = EEST|utc_offset_DST = +350003024region:UA|display=inline,title}} |elevation_m = 179|population_demonym = Kievan,kievan. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged, retrieved 29 May 2013 from Dictionary.com Kyivankyivan, Wiktionary.com (28 November 2017)|postal_code_type = Postal code|postal_code = 01xxx–04xxx|area_code = +380 44Federal Information Processing Standards>FIPS code UP12) Vehicle registration plate>License plate|blank1_info = AA (before 2004: КА, КВ, КЕ, КН, КІ, KT)|website =weblink}}Kiev or Kyiv ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|iː|É›|f|,_|-|É›|v}} {{respell|KEE|ef|,_|-ev}};"Kiev". Dictionary.com. {{IPA-uk|ˈkɪjiu̯||Uk-Київ.ogg}}; {{IPA-ru|ˈkʲi(j)ɪf|}}) is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine. It is located in the north-central part of the country along the Dnieper River. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974 (though higher estimated numbers have been cited in the press),The most recent Ukrainian census, conducted on 5 December 2001, gave the population of Kiev as 2 611 300 (weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100820175437weblink">Ukrcensus.gov.ua – Kyiv city Web address accessed on 4 August 2007). Estimates based on the amount of bakery products sold in the city (thus including temporary visitors and commuters) suggest a minimum of 3.5 million. "There are up to 1.5 mln undercounted residents in Kiev", Korrespondent, 15 June 2005{{ru icon}} making Kiev the 7th most populous city in Europe.WEB, City Mayors: The 500 largest European cities (1 to 100),weblink www.citymayors.com, Kiev is an important industrial, scientific, educational and cultural center of Eastern Europe. It is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions, and historical landmarks. The city has an extensive system of public transport and infrastructure, including the Kiev Metro.The city's name is said to derive from the name of Kyi, one of its four legendary founders. During its history, Kiev, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity. The city probably existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars,WEB,weblink Kiev, TheFreeDictionary.com, 4 July 2015, until its capture by the Varangians (Vikings) in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the Kievan Rus', the first East Slavic state. Completely destroyed during the Mongol invasions in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; first by Lithuania, followed by Poland and ultimately Russia.WEB,weblink Kiev (Ukraine) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2 June 2011, The city prospered again during the Russian Empire's Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1918, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from Soviet Russia, Kiev became its capital. From 1921 onwards Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which was proclaimed by the Red Army, and, from 1934, Kiev was its capital. During World War II, the city was almost completely ruined, but quickly recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union.Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence in 1991, Kiev remained the capital of Ukraine and experienced a steady migration influx of ethnic Ukrainians from other regions of the country.BOOK, Magocsi, Paul Robert, A History of Ukraine: The Land and Its Peoples,weblink 2nd, Revised, 2010, University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-9879-6, 481, During the country's transformation to a market economy and electoral democracy, Kiev has continued to be Ukraine's largest and wealthiest city. Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology. But new sectors of the economy such as services and finance facilitated Kiev's growth in salaries and investment, as well as providing continuous funding for the development of housing and urban infrastructure. Kiev emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine where parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections.{{uk icon}} Виборчі комісії фіксують перемогу опозиційних кандидатів у КиєвіNEWS,weblink uk:Битва за Київ: чому посада мера вже не потрібна Кличку Ñ– чи будуть вибори взагалі, 19 March 2013, Kontrakty, 19 August 2013, uk, WEB,weblink uk:У кожного киянина в голові – досвід Майдану, 20 April 2013, 19 August 2013, uk, {{uk icon}} Interactive parliamentary election 2012 result maps by Ukrayinska Pravda{{uk icon}} Election results in Ukraine since 1998, Central Election Commission of UkraineNations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview, ABC-CLIO, 2008, {{ISBN|1851099077}} (page 1629)Ukraine on its Meandering Path Between East and West by Andrej Lushnycky and Mykola Riabchuk, Peter Lang, 2009, {{ISBN|303911607X}} (page 122)After the parliamentary elections in Ukraine: a tough victory for the Party of Regions, Centre for Eastern Studies (7 November 2012)Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe by Uwe Backes and Patrick Moreau, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008, {{ISBN|978-3-525-36912-8}} (page 396)Party of Regions gets 185 seats in Ukrainian parliament, Batkivschyna 101 – CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (12 November 2012)weblink" title="archive.is/20130420221924weblink">UDAR submits to Rada resolution on Ukraine’s integration with EU, Interfax-Ukraine (8 January 2013){{uk icon}} Electronic Bulletin "Your Choice – 2012". Issue 4: Batkivshchyna {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131203020408weblink |date= 3 December 2013 }}, Ukrainian Center for Independent Political Research (24 October 2012)Ukraine's Party System in Transition? The Rise of the Radically Right-Wing All-Ukrainian Association "Svoboda" by Andreas Umland, Centre for Geopolitical Studies (1 May 2011)WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2013-08-18, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130825040209weblink">weblink 25 August 2013, dmy,

Name

File:Kiev on 1804 map.jpg|thumb|left|Fragment of the New Universal Atlas by John Cary, London, 1808. The city was situated on the borderline between the former Polish (left) and Russian (right) zones of influence, with the name being Russified to .]]Kiev is the traditional and most commonly used English name for the city.In 2008, the Oxford English Dictionary included 19 quotations with Kiev and none with any other spelling. This spelling is also given by Britannica and Columbia Encyclopedia. The Ukrainian government however uses Kyiv as the mandatory romanization where legislative and official acts are translated into English.WEB, Resolution of the ukrainian commission for legal terminology No. 5,weblink Ukrainian Commission for Legal Terminology, 15 March 2011, As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject to gradual evolution. The early English spelling was derived from Old East Slavic form (Cyrillic: ).The form () is used in old Rus' chronicles like Lavretian Chronicle (, ; , 'Kievans'), Novgorod Chronicles and others. The name is associated with that of Kyi (), the legendary eponymous founder of the city.Early English sources use various names, including Kiou, Kiow, Kiew, Kiovia. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, published by Ortelius (London, 1570) the name of the city is spelled Kiou. On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is Kiiow, and the region was named Kÿowia. In the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall (London, 1772), the city is referred to as Kiovia.BOOK, Marshall, Joseph, fl.1770, Travels through Germany, Russia, and Poland in the years 1769 and 1770., 1772, 1971, Arno Press, New York, 0-405-02763-X, 77135821, Originally published: London, J. Almon, 1773, {{LCCN|03005435}}. The form is based on Russian orthography and pronunciation {{IPA|[ˈkʲijɪf]}}, during a time when Kiev was in the Russian Empire (from 1708, being the seat of a governorate).{{citation needed|date=October 2018}}In English, was used in print as early as in 1804 in John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities" in Cary's new universal atlas published in London. The English travelogue titled New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev, by Mary Holderness was published in 1823.BOOK, Holderness, Mary, Journey from Riga to the Crimea, with some account of the manners and customs of the colonists of new Russia., 1823, Sherwood, Jones and co., London, 5073195, 316, 04024846, By 1883, the Oxford English Dictionary included Kiev in a quotation.File:Kyiv City State Administration Letter to WMF.jpg|thumb|Kiev City State Administration official request for Wikimedia FoundationWikimedia FoundationKyiv is the romanized version of the name of the city used in modern Ukrainian. Following independence in 1991, the Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration of geographic names from Ukrainian into English. According to these rules, the Ukrainian is transliterated as . This has established the use of the spelling in all official documents issued by the governmental authorities since October 1995. The spelling is used by the United Nations, the European Union,WEB,weblink Interinstitutional style guide — Annex A5 — List of countries, territories and currencies, 2018-10-30, European Union Publications Office, 2018-11-16, all English-speaking foreign diplomatic missions,Embassies of Australia {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080808010426weblink |date=8 August 2008 }}, weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100212020508weblink">Great Britain, Canada, United States   {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080808010426weblink |date=8 August 2008 }} several international organizations,The list includes NATO, OSCE, weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070403023443weblink">World Bank Encarta encyclopedia, and by some media in Ukraine.Kyiv Post, the leading English language publication in Ukraine. In October 2006, the United States Board on Geographic Names (or BGN) unanimously voted to change its standard transliteration to , effective for the entire U.S. government, although remained the BGN conventional name for this citweblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081108030640weblink">U.S. Begins to Spell Kiev as Kyiv About.com Geography, Friday 20 October 200weblink until June 2019.WEB,weblink #KyivNotKiev: U.S. To Change International Database Spelling Of Ukraine's Capital, 2019-06-13, RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty, en, 2019-06-25, The alternative romanizations Kyyiv (BGN/PCGN transliteration) and Kyjiv (scholarly) are also in use in English-language atlases. Many major English-language news sources, including The New York TimesWEB,weblink NYTimes.com Search, nytimes.com, continue to use , but others have adopted in their style guides, including The EconomistBOOK, The Economist Style Guide, Profile Books, 2005, 978-1-86197-916-2, London, 40, , The Guardian,NEWS,weblink Guardian and Observer style guide: K, 2015-11-06, The Guardian, 2019-02-13, 0261-3077, the Associated Press news service,WEB,weblink AP has changed its style for the capital of Ukraine to Kyiv, in line with the Ukrainian government’s preferred transliteration to English and increasing usage. Include a reference in stories to the former spelling of Kiev. The food dish remains chicken Kiev., Stylebook, A. P., 2019-08-14, @APStylebook, en, 2019-08-14, WEB,weblink An update on AP style on Kyiv, Daniszewski, John, 2019-08-14, The Definitive Source (blog.ap.org), live, 2019-10-16, the Wall Street Journal,WEB,weblink Vol. 32, No. 9: Kyiv, Power, Bill, 2019-10-03, WSJ, en-US, 2019-10-04, the Globe and Mail,WEB,weblink The Globe is changing its style on the capital of Ukraine from the Russian-derived "Kiev" to "Kyiv," the transliteration the Ukrainian government uses. (A style note informs us we will continue to spell "chicken Kiev" the old way), Morrow, Adrian, 2019-10-10, @adrianmorrow on Twitter, en, live, 2019-10-11, the BBC,NEWS,weblink Kyiv not Kiev: ВВС змінює написання столиці України, 2019-10-14, BBC Ukrainian, 2019-10-14, uk, Kyiv not Kiev: BBC changes the spelling of Ukraine’s capital, and the Washington Post.WEB,weblink Inbox: ”The Washington Post is changing its style on the capital of Ukraine, which we will now render as Kyiv, rather than Kiev, effective immediately... The spelling Kiev may still appear in historical contexts, the dish chicken Kiev and when quoting written material...”, Taylor, Adam, 2019-10-16, @mradamtaylor on Twitter, en, live, 2019-10-16,

History

Kievan Rus 882–1363{{flagicon image|Herb Lytwa (Alex K).svg}} Grand Duchy of Lithuania 1363–1569{{flagicon image|Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg}} Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 1569–1649{{flagicon image|Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg}} Cossack Hetmanate 1649–1667 {{flag|Russian Empire}} 1667–1917{{flagicon image|Flag of Ukraine.svg}} Ukrainian People's Republic 1917–1921{{flagicon|Soviet Union}}{{flagicon|Ukrainian SSR}} Soviet Union 1921–1991 {{flag|Ukraine}} 1991–present
}}File:Kyi, Czech, Khoryv and Lubed in der RadziwiÅ‚Å‚chronik.jpg|thumb|Legendary Kyi, Shchek, Khoryv and Lybid in the RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ ChronicleRadziwiÅ‚Å‚ ChronicleKiev, one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe, played a pivotal role in the development of the medieval East Slavic civilization as well as in the modern Ukrainian nation.{{citation needed|date=May 2018}}Scholars debate as to period of the foundation of the city: some date the founding to the late 9th century,Rabinovich GA From the history of urban settlements in the eastern Slavs. In the book.: History, culture, folklore and ethnography of the Slavic peoples. M. 1968. 134. other historians have preferred a date of 482 AD.Kiev at Encyclopedia of BritannicaTolochko, P., Ivakin, G., Vermenych, Ya. Kiev. Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine. In 1982, the city celebrated its 1,500th anniversary. The first known humans in the territory of Kiev lived there in the late paleolithic period (Stone Age).Kiev at Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia The population around Kiev during the Bronze Age formed part of so-called Tripillian culture, as witnessed by objects found in the area.Kiev in the Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia: "Населення періоду мідного віку на тер. К. було носієм Ñ‚. з. трипільської культури; відомі й знахідки окремих предметів бронзового віку." During the early Iron Age certain tribes settled around Kiev that practiced land cultivation, husbandry and trading with the Scythians, and with ancient states of the northern Black Sea coast. Findings of Roman coins of the 2nd to the 4th centuries evidence trade relations with the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire. The carriers of Zarubintsy culture are considered the direct ancestors of the ancient Slavs who later established Kiev. Notable archaeologists of the area around Kiev include Vikentiy Khvoyka. Legendary accounts tell of the origin of the city; one legend features a founding-family, members of a Slavic tribe (Polans): the leader Kyi, the eldest, his brothers Shchek and Khoryv, and also their sister Lybid, who allegedly founded the city (See the Primary Chronicle). According to the Chronicle{{citation needed|date=January 2018}} the name Kyiv/Kiev means "belonging to Kyi". According to archaeological data, the foundation of Kiev dates to the second half of the 5th century and the first half of the 6th century. Some claim to find reference to the city in Ptolemy's 2nd-century work as Metropolity.Wilson, Andrew (2000). The Ukrainians. Unexpected Nation. Yale University Press. {{ISBN|0-300-08355-6}} Another legend states that Saint Andrew passed through the area (1st century CE), and where he erected a cross, a church was built.{{by whom|date=January 2018}} Since the Middle Ages an image of Saint Michael represented the city as well as the duchy.File:Pál Vágó (1853-1928) painter The Hungarian at Kiev (1896-99).jpg|thumb|right|The Hungarians at Kiev in 830 during the times of Rus' KhaganateRus' KhaganateThere is little historical evidence pertaining to the period when the city was founded. Scattered Slavic settlements existed in the area from the 6th century, but it is unclear whether any of them later developed into the city. The Primary Chronicle (a main source of information about the early history of the area) mentions Slavic Kievans telling Askold and Dir that they lived without a local ruler and paid a tribute to the Khazars in an entry attributed to the 9th century. At least during the 8th and 9th centuries Kiev functioned as an outpost of the Khazar empire. A hill-fortress, called Sambat (Old Turkic for "High Place") was built to defend the area. At some point during the late 9th or early 10th century Kiev fell under the rule of Varangians (see Askold and Dir, and Oleg of Novgorod) and became the nucleus of the Rus' polity. The Primary Chronicle dates Oleg's conquest of the town in 882, but some historians, such as Omeljan Pritsak and Constantine Zuckerman, dispute this and maintain that Khazar rule continued as late as the 920s (documentary evidence exists to support this assertion – see the Kievian Letter and Schechter Letter). Other historians suggest that Magyar tribes ruled the city between 840 and 878, before migrating with some Khazar tribes to Hungary. According to these scholars the building of the fortress of Kiev was finished in 840 under the leadership of KeÅ‘ (Keve), Csák and Geréb, the three brothers, possibly members of the Tarján tribe. (The three names appear in the Kiev Chronicle as Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv – none of these names are Slavic, and Russian historians have always struggled to account for their meanings and origins. Their names were put into the Kiev Chronicle in the 12th century and they were identified{{by whom|date=January 2018}} as old-Russian mythological heroes).dr. Viktor Padányi – Dentu-Magyaria p. 325, footnote 15File:Lebedev baptism.jpg|right|thumb|The Baptism of Kievans, a painting by Klavdiy LebedevKlavdiy LebedevDuring the 8th and 9th centuries Kiev functioned as an outpost of the Khazar empire. However, the site stood on the historical trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, and in the late 9th century or early 10th century a Varangian nobility started to rule Kiev, which became the nucleus of the Rus' polity, whose 'Golden Age' (11th to early 12th centuries) has from the 19th century become referred to as Kievan Rus'. In 968 the nomadic Pechenegs attacked and then besieged the city.WEB,weblink The Pechenegs, 2009-10-27, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091027115640weblink">weblink 27 October 2009, dmy, Steven, Lowe, Dmitriy V., Ryaboy, In 1000 AD the city had a population of 45,000.BOOK, Paul M. HOHENBERG, Lynn Hollen Lees, Paul M Hohenberg, The Making of Urban Europe, 1000–1994,weblink 2009, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-03873-8, 10, During 1169 Grand Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky of Vladimir-Suzdal sacked Kiev, taking many pieces of religious artwork - including the Theotokos of Vladimir icon - from nearby Vyshhorod.Janet Martin, Medieval Russia:980–1584, (Cambridge University Press, 1996), 100. In 1203 Prince Rurik Rostislavich and his Kipchak allies captured and burned Kiev. In the 1230s the city was besieged and ravaged by different Rus' princes several times. In 1240 the Mongol invasion of Rus', led by Batu Khan, completely destroyed Kiev,weblink" title="archive.is/20120530043944weblink">The Destruction of Kiev, University of Toronto Research Repository an event that had a profound effect on the future of the city and on the East Slavic civilization. At the time of the Mongol destruction, Kiev had a reputation as one of the largest cities in the world, with a population exceeding 100,000 in the beginning of the 12th century.BOOK, Orest Subtelny, Ukraine. A History. [Illustr.] (Repr.),weblink 1989, CUP Archive, 38, File:Matejko-chrobry at Kiev (Kijow).jpg|thumb|left|180px|BolesÅ‚aw I of Poland and Sviatopolk the Accursed at Kiev, in a legendary moment of hitting the Golden Gate with the Szczerbiec sword. Painting by Jan MatejkoJan MatejkoIn the early 1320s a Lithuanian army led by Grand Duke Gediminas defeated a Slavic army led by Stanislav of Kiev at the Battle on the Irpen' River and conquered the city. The Tatars, who also claimed Kiev, retaliated in 1324–1325, so while Kiev was ruled by a Lithuanian prince, it had to pay tribute to the Golden Horde. Finally, as a result of the Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, incorporated Kiev and surrounding areas into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.Jones, Michael (2000). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 6, c.1300–c.1415. Cambridge University Press. {{ISBN|978-0-521-36290-0}} In 1482 Crimean Tatars sacked and burned much of Kiev.Jerzy Lukowski, W. H. Zawadzki (2006). A concise history of Poland. Cambridge University Press. p.53. {{ISBN|0-521-61857-6}} With the 1569 (Union of Lublin), when the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was established, the Lithuanian-controlled lands of the Kiev region (Podolia, Volhynia, and Podlachia) were transferred from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and Kiev became the capital of Kiev Voivodeship.Davies, Norman (1982). God's Playground: A History of Poland, Vol. 1: The Origins to 1795. Columbia University Press. {{ISBN|978-0-231-05351-8}} The 1658 Treaty of Hadiach envisaged Kiev becoming the capital of the Grand Duchy of Rus' within the Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth,Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine, University of Washington Press. {{ISBN|0-295-97580-6}} but this provision of the treaty never went into operation.Т.Г. Таирова-Яковлева, Иван Выговский // Единорогъ. Материалы по военной истории Восточной Европы эпохи Средних веков и Раннего Нового времени, вып.1, Ðœ., 2009: Под влиянием польской общественности и сильного диктата Ватикана сейм в мае 1659 г. принял Гадячский договор в более чем урезанном виде. Идея Княжества Руського вообще была уничтожена, равно как и положение о сохранении союза с Москвой. Отменялась и ликвидация унии, равно как и целый ряд других позитивных статей. Occupied by the Russian troops since the 1654 (Treaty of Pereyaslav), Kiev became a part of the Tsardom of Russia from 1667 on (Truce of Andrusovo) and enjoyed a degree of autonomy. None of the Polish-Russian treaties concerning Kiev have ever been ratified.Eugeniusz Romer, O wschodniej granicy Polski z przed 1772 r., w: KsiÄ™ga PamiÄ…tkowa ku czci Oswalda Balzera, t. II, Lwów 1925, s. [358]. In the Russian Empire Kiev was a primary Christian centre, attracting pilgrims, and the cradle of many of the empire's most important religious figures, but until the 19th century the city's commercial importance remained marginal.File:Pic I V Ivasiuk Mykola Bohdan Khmelnytskys Entry to Kyiv.jpg|thumb|Cossack Bohdan Khmelnytsky entering captured Kiev after the Khmelnytsky UprisingKhmelnytsky UprisingIn 1834 the Russian government established Saint Vladimir University, now called the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev after the Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko (1814–1861). (Shevchenko worked as a field researcher and editor for the geography department.) The medical faculty of the Saint Vladimir University, separated into an independent institution in 1919–1921 during the Soviet period, became the Bogomolets National Medical University in 1995.During the 18th and 19th centuries the Russian military and ecclesiastical authorities dominated city life;{{citation needed|date=January 2018}} the Russian Orthodox Church had involvement in a significant part of Kiev's infrastructure and commercial activity. In the late 1840s the historian, Mykola Kostomarov (), founded a secret political society, the Brotherhood of Saint Cyril and Methodius, whose members put forward the idea of a federation of free Slavic peoples with Ukrainians as a distinct and separate group rather than a subordinate part of the Russian nation; the Russian authorities quickly suppressed the society.Following the gradual loss of Ukraine's autonomy, Kiev experienced growing Russification in the 19th century by means of Russian migration, administrative actions and social modernization. At the beginning of the 20th century the Russian-speaking part of the population dominated the city centre, while the lower classes living on the outskirts retained Ukrainian folk culture to a significant extent.{{Citation needed|date= April 2011}} However, enthusiasts among ethnic Ukrainian nobles, military and merchants made recurrent attempts to preserve native culture in Kiev (by clandestine book-printing, amateur theatre, folk studies etc.)(File:Kiev downtown.jpg|thumb|right|Kiev in the late 19th century)During the Russian industrial revolution in the late 19th century, Kiev became an important trade and transportation centre of the Russian Empire, specialising in sugar and grain export by railway and on the Dnieper river. By 1900 the city had also become a significant industrial centre, having a population of 250,000. Landmarks of that period include the railway infrastructure, the foundation of numerous educational and cultural facilities as well as notable architectural monuments (mostly merchant-oriented). In 1892 the first electric tram line of the Russian Empire started running in Kiev (the 3rd in the worldKiev prospered during the late 19th century Industrial Revolution in the Russian Empire, when it became the third most important city of the Empire and the major centre of commerce of its southwest. In the turbulent period following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Kiev became the capital of several successive Ukrainian states and was caught in the middle of several conflicts: World War I, during which German soldiers occupied it from 2 March 1918 to November 1918, the Russian Civil War of 1917 to 1922, and the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921. During the last three months of 1919, Kiev was intermittently controlled by the White Army. Kiev changed hands sixteen times from the end of 1918 to August 1920.BOOK, Walking Since Daybreak, Eksteins, Modris, 1999, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Houghton Mifflin, 0-618-08231-X, 87, (File:Kiev Radyanskaya pl approx1930.jpg|thumb|right|Kiev's council chambers in 1930)From 1921 to 1991 the city formed part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which became a founding republic of the Soviet Union in 1922. The major events that took place in Soviet Ukraine during the interwar period all affected Kiev: the 1920s Ukrainization as well as the migration of the rural Ukrainophone population made the Russophone city Ukrainian-speaking and bolstered the development of Ukrainian cultural life in the city; the Soviet Industrialization that started in the late 1920s turned the city, a former centre of commerce and religion, into a major industrial, technological and scientific centre; the 1932–1933 Great Famine devastated the part of the migrant population not registered for ration cards; and Joseph Stalin's Great Purge of 1937–1938 almost eliminated the city's intelligentsiaWEB,weblink The Great Purge under Stalin 1937–38, brama.com, 14 January 2010, Orlando Figes The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia, 2007, {{ISBN|0805074619}}, pages 227–315.Robert Gellately, Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Knopf, 2007: {{ISBN|1-4000-4005-1}}), 720 pages.In 1934 Kiev became the capital of Soviet Ukraine. The city boomed again during the years of Soviet industrialization as its population grew rapidly and many industrial giants were established, some of which exist to this day.File:Ruined Kiev in WWII.jpg|thumb|left|Ruins of Kiev during World War II ]]In World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, and Nazi Germany occupied it from 19 September 1941 to 6 November 1943. Axis forces killed or captured more than 600,000 Soviet soldiers in the great encirclement Battle of Kiev in 1941. Most of those captured never returned alive.Daniel Goldhagen, Hitler's Willing Executioners (p. 290) – "2.8 million young, healthy Soviet POWs" killed by the Germans, "mainly by starvation... in less than eight months" of 1941–42, before "the decimation of Soviet POWs... was stopped" and the Germans "began to use them as laborers". Shortly after the Wehrmacht occupied the city, a team of NKVD officers who had remained hidden dynamited most of the buildings on the Khreshchatyk, the main street of the city, where German military and civil authorities had occupied most of the buildings; the buildings burned for days and 25,000 people were left homeless.Allegedly in response to the actions of the NKVD, the Germans rounded up all the local Jews they could find, nearly 34,000,WEB, Babi Yar, Jewish Virtual Library, 2012,weblink and massacred them at Babi Yar in Kiev over the course of 29 to 30 September 1941.Andy Dougan, Dynamo: Triumph and Tragedy in Nazi-Occupied Kiev (Globe Pequot, 2004: {{ISBN|1-59228-467-1}}), p. 83. In the months that followed, thousands more were taken to Babi Yar where they were shot. It is estimated{{by whom|date=January 2018}} that the Germans murdered more than 100,000 people of various ethnic groups, mostly civilians, at Babi Yar during World War II.WEB, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum,weblink Kiev and Babi Yar, Holocaust Encyclopedia, (File:Kiev 24.7.1990 Ukrainian Flag.JPG|right|upright|thumb|The Ukrainian national flag was raised outside Kiev's City Hall for the first time on 24 July 1990.)Kiev recovered economically in the post-war years, becoming once again the third-most important city of the Soviet Union. The catastrophic accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986 occurred only {{convert|100|km|mi|abbr=on}} north of the city. However, the prevailing northward winds blew most of the radioactive debris away from Kiev.In the course of the collapse of the Soviet Union the Ukrainian parliament proclaimed the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine in the city on 24 August 1991. In 2004–2005, the city played host to the largest post-Soviet public demonstrations up to that time, in support of the Orange Revolution. From November 2013 until February 2014, central Kiev became the primary location of Euromaidan.

Environment

{{see also|Kiev Mountains}}

Geography

File:Kiev L7 20010914.jpg|thumb|left|Landsat 7 image of Kiev and the DnieperDnieperGeographically, Kiev is located on a border of the Polesia (woodland) ecological zone (a part of the European mixed woods) and forest steppe biome. However, the city's unique landscape distinguishes it from the surrounding region. Kiev is completely surrounded by Kiev Oblast.Originated on the right bank, today Kiev is located on both sides of the Dnieper, which flows southward through the city towards the Black Sea. The older and higher right-bank (western) part of the city is represented by numerous woody hills (Kiev Hills), ravines and small rivers. The Kiev's relief contributed to the city's toponyms such as Podil (means lower), Pechersk (caves), uzviz (a steep street, "descent"). Kiev is a part of the larger Dnieper Upland adjoining the western bank of the Dnieper in its mid-flow. Dnieper Upland contributes to the city's elevation change. The north outskirts of the city border the Polesian Lowland. Kiev expanded to the Dnieper's lowland on left bank (to the east) only in the 20th century. The whole portion of Kiev on the left bank of Dnieper is generally referred as Left bank (, Livyi bereh). Significant areas of the left-bank Dnieper valley were artificially sand-deposited, and are protected by dams.Within the city the Dnieper River forms a branching system of tributaries, isles, and harbors within the city limits. The city is adjoined by the mouth of the Desna River and the Kiev Reservoir in the north, and the Kaniv Reservoir in the south. Both the Dnieper and Desna rivers are navigable at Kiev, although regulated by the reservoir shipping locks and limited by winter freeze-over.In total, there are 448 bodies of open water within the boundaries of Kiev, which include Dnieper itself, its reservoirs, and several small rivers, dozens of lakes and artificially created ponds. They occupy 7949 hectares of territory. Additionally, the city boasts of 16 developed beaches (totalling 140 hectares) and 35 near-water recreational areas (covering more than 1000 hectares). Many are used for pleasure and recreation, although some of the bodies of water are not suitable for swimming.WEB, Design by Maxim Tkachuk, web-architecture by Volkova Dasha, templated by Alexey Kovtanets, programming by Irina Batvina, Maxim Bielushkin, Sergey Bogatyrchuk, Vitaliy Galkin, Victor Lushkin, Dmitry Medun, Igor Sitnikov, Vladimir Tarasov, Alexander Filippov, Sergei Koshelev,weblink Где в Киеве лучше не купаться " Новости в Киеве – Корреспондент, Korrespondent.net, 23 June 2009, According to the UN 2011 evaluation, there were no risks of natural disasters in Kiev and its metropolitan areaWEB,weblink Urban agglomerations with 750,000 inhabitants or more in 2011 and types of natural risks, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, April 2012, 1 September 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141006152606weblink">weblink 6 October 2014,

Climate

Kiev has a warm-summer humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb).JOURNAL, Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, F. Rubel, World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated, Meteorol. Z., 15, 259–263,weblink 10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130, 24 August 2012, 2006, 3, 2006MetZe..15..259K, The warmest months are June, July, and August, with mean temperatures of {{convert|13.8|to|24.8|C|F}}. The coldest are December, January, and February, with mean temperatures of {{convert|-4.6|to|-1.1|C|F}}. The highest ever temperature recorded in the city was {{convert|39.4|°C|°F|abbr=on}} on 30 July 1936.WEB,weblink uk:Кліматичні дані по м.Києву, Central Observatory for Geophysics, Ukrainian, 4 August 2016, WEB,weblink uk:Кліматичні рекорди, Central Observatory for Geophysics, Ukrainian, 4 August 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160804044852weblink">weblink 4 August 2016, dead, dmy-all, The coldest temperature ever recorded in the city was {{convert|-32.9|°C|°F|abbr=on}} on 11 January 1951. Snow cover usually lies from mid-November to the end of March, with the frost-free period lasting 180 days on average, but surpassing 200 days in recent years.WEB,weblink Kiev (Ukraine), Encyclopædia Britannica, 28 December 2012, {{Weather box| location = Kiev (1981–2010, extremes 1881–present)| metric first = Yes| single line = Yes| Jan record high C = 11.1| Feb record high C = 17.3| Mar record high C = 22.4| Apr record high C = 30.2| May record high C = 33.6| Jun record high C = 35.0| Jul record high C = 39.4| Aug record high C = 39.3| Sep record high C = 33.8| Oct record high C = 28.0| Nov record high C = 23.2| Dec record high C = 14.7|year record high C = 39.4| Jan high C = -0.9| Feb high C = 0.0| Mar high C = 5.6| Apr high C = 14.0| May high C = 20.7| Jun high C = 23.5| Jul high C = 25.6| Aug high C = 24.9| Sep high C = 19.0| Oct high C = 12.5| Nov high C = 4.9| Dec high C = 0.0|year high C = 12.5| Jan mean C = −3.5| Feb mean C = −3.0| Mar mean C = 1.8| Apr mean C = 9.3| May mean C = 15.5| Jun mean C = 18.5| Jul mean C = 20.5| Aug mean C = 19.7| Sep mean C = 14.2| Oct mean C = 8.4| Nov mean C = 1.9| Dec mean C = -2.3|year mean C = 8.4| Jan low C = -5.8| Feb low C = -5.7| Mar low C = -1.4| Apr low C = 5.1| May low C = 10.8| Jun low C = 14.2| Jul low C = 16.1| Aug low C = 15.2| Sep low C = 10.2| Oct low C = 4.9| Nov low C = 0.0| Dec low C = -4.6|year low C = 4.9| Jan record low C = -32.9| Feb record low C = -32.2| Mar record low C = -24.9| Apr record low C = -10.4| May record low C = -2.4| Jun record low C = 2.4| Jul record low C = 5.8| Aug record low C = 3.3| Sep record low C = -2.9| Oct record low C = -17.8| Nov record low C = -21.9| Dec record low C = -30.0|year record low C = -32.9| precipitation colour = green| Jan precipitation mm = 36| Feb precipitation mm = 39| Mar precipitation mm = 37| Apr precipitation mm = 46| May precipitation mm = 57| Jun precipitation mm = 82| Jul precipitation mm = 71| Aug precipitation mm = 60| Sep precipitation mm = 57| Oct precipitation mm = 41| Nov precipitation mm = 50| Dec precipitation mm = 45|year precipitation mm = 621| Jan rain days = 8| Feb rain days = 7| Mar rain days = 9| Apr rain days = 13| May rain days = 14| Jun rain days = 15| Jul rain days = 14| Aug rain days = 11| Sep rain days = 14| Oct rain days = 12| Nov rain days = 12| Dec rain days = 9|year rain days = 138| Jan snow days = 17| Feb snow days = 17| Mar snow days = 10| Apr snow days = 2| May snow days = 0.2| Jun snow days = 0| Jul snow days = 0| Aug snow days = 0| Sep snow days = 0.03| Oct snow days = 2| Nov snow days = 9| Dec snow days = 16|year snow days = 73| Jan humidity = 83| Feb humidity = 80| Mar humidity = 74| Apr humidity = 64| May humidity = 62| Jun humidity = 67| Jul humidity = 68| Aug humidity = 67| Sep humidity = 74| Oct humidity = 77| Nov humidity = 85| Dec humidity = 86|year humidity = 74| Jan sun = 42| Feb sun = 64| Mar sun = 112| Apr sun = 162| May sun = 257| Jun sun = 273| Jul sun = 287| Aug sun = 252| Sep sun = 189| Oct sun = 123| Nov sun = 51| Dec sun = 31|year sun = | Jan uv =1| Feb uv =1| Mar uv =2| Apr uv =4| May uv =6| Jun uv =7| Jul uv =6| Aug uv =6| Sep uv =4| Oct uv =2| Nov uv =1| Dec uv =1|source 1 = Pogoda.ru.net,WEB,weblink Weather and Climate – The Climate of Kiev, Weather and Climate (Погода и климат), 1 March 2013, Russian, Central Observatory for Geophysics (extremes)Danish Meteorological Institute (sun, 1931–1960)CAPPELEN LAST2 = JENSEN ARCHIVEURL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130427173827/HTTP://WWW.DMI.DK/DMI/TR01-17.PDF URL = HTTP://WWW.DMI.DK/DMI/TR01-17.PDF TITLE = UKRAINE – KIEV PUBLISHER = DANISH METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE ACCESSDATE = 1 APRIL 2016, and Weather AtlasHTTPS://WWW.WEATHER-ATLAS.COM/EN/UKRAINE/KIEV-CLIMATE>TITLE=KIEV, UKRAINE - DETAILED CLIMATE INFORMATION AND MONTHLY WEATHER FORECASTFIRST=YU MEDIA GROUPLANGUAGE=EN, 2019-07-03, |date=August 2010}}

Legal status, local government and politics

Legal status and local government

The municipality of the city of Kiev has a special legal status within Ukraine compared to the other administrative subdivisions of the country. The most significant difference is that the city is considered as a region of Ukraine (see Regions of Ukraine). It is the only city that has double jurisdiction. The Head of City State Administration — the city's governor, is appointed by the President of Ukraine, while the Head of the City Council — the Mayor of Kiev, is elected by a local popular vote.The current Mayor of Kiev is Vitali Klitschko who was sworn in on 5 June 2014;Vitali Klitschko sworn in as mayor of Kiev, Interfax-Ukraine (5 June 2014) after he had won the 25 May 2014 Kiev mayoral elections with almost 57% of the votes.Klitschko officially announced as winner of Kiev mayor election, Interfax-Ukraine (4 June 2014) Since 25 June 2014 Klitschko is also Head of Kiev City Administration.Poroshenko appoints Klitschko head of Kyiv city administration – decree, Interfax-Ukraine (25 June 2014)Poroshenko orders Klitschko to bring title of best European capital back to Kyiv, Interfax-Ukraine (25 June 2014)Most important buildings of the national government (Cabinet of Ukraine, Verkhovna Rada, others) are located along vulytsia Mykhaila Hrushevskoho (Mykhailo Hrushevsky Street) and vulytsia Instytutska (Institute Street). Hrushevskoho Street is named after the Ukrainian academician, politician, historian, and statesman Mykhailo Hrushevskyi, who wrote an academic book titled: "Bar Starostvo: Historical Notes: XV-XVIII" about the history of Bar, Ukraine.Hrushevsky, M., Bar Starostvo: Historical Notes: XV-XVIII, St. Vladimir University Publishing House, Bol'shaya-Vasil'kovskaya, Building no. 29-31, Kiev, Ukraine, 1894; Lviv, Ukraine, {{ISBN|5-12-004335-6}}, pp. 1 – 623, 1996. That portion of the city is also unofficially known as the government quarter (). The city also has a great number of buildings for various embassies, ministerial and other important buildings.The city state administration and council is located in the Kiev City's council building on Khreshchatyk Street. The oblast state administration and council is located in the Kiev Oblast council building on ploshcha Lesi Ukrayinky (Lesya Ukrayinka Square). The Kiev-Sviatoshyn Raion state administration is located near Kiltseva doroha (Ring Road) on prospekt Peremohy (Victory Parkway), while the Kiev-Svyatoshyn Raion local council is located on vulytsia Yantarna (Yantarnaya Street).{{Gallery|title=Government buildings in Kiev|width=170|height=120|lines=3|align=centerThe Verkhovna Rada building.The seat of the Cabinet of Ministers of UkraineThe presidential administration's buildingThe Ministry of Foreign AffairsThe seat of Kiev City State Administration and Kiev City Council>City Council on Khreshchatyk Street}}

Politics

{{expand section|date=August 2013}}The growing political and economic role of the city, combined with its international relations, as well as extensive internet and social network penetration,NEWS,weblink Київ: стратегічна позиція чи "чемодан" без ручки?, 22 May 2012, Ukrayinska Pravda, 19 August 2013, Сюмар, Вікторія, have made Kiev the most pro-Western and pro-democracy region of Ukraine; (so called) National Democratic parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union receive most votes during elections in Kiev. In a poll conducted by the Kiev International Institute of Sociology in the first half of February 2014, 5.3% of those polled in Kiev believed "Ukraine and Russia must unite into a single state", nationwide this percentage was 12.5.How relations between Ukraine and Russia should look like? Public opinion polls’ results, Kyiv International Institute of Sociology (4 March 2014)

Subdivisions

(File:View to Kiev.jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|View to left bank neighbourhoods of Kiev){{See also|:Category:Neighborhoods and raions of Kiev}}

Traditional subdivision

The Dnieper River naturally divides Kiev into the Right Bank and the Left Bank areas. Historically located on the western right bank of the river, the city expanded into the left bank only in the 20th century. Most of Kiev's attractions as well as the majority of business and governmental institutions are located on the right bank. The eastern 'Left Bank' is predominantly residential. There are large industrial and green areas in both the Right Bank and the Left Bank.Kiev is further informally divided into historical or territorial neighbourhoods, each housing from about 5,000 to 100,000 inhabitants.{{Panorama|image=File:Панорама Правого берега.jpg|fullwidth=14570|fullheight=2000Panorama>panoramic view of Right-Bank Kiev, where the city centre is located (May 2011)|alt=|height=210}}

Formal subdivision

{|class="infobox bordered" style="font-size:88%;"110%|The ten raions (districts) of Kiev}}
Г â€” Holosiiv Raion О â€” Obolon Raion Печ â€” Pechersk Raion Под â€” Podil Raion Ш â€” Shevchenko Raion Св â€” Sviatoshyn Raion Сол â€” Solomianka Raion
Left-bank districts
Дар â€” Darnytsia Raion Дес â€” Desna Raion Дн â€” Dnipro Raion
280px)The first known formal subdivision of Kiev dates to 1810 when the city was subdivided into 4 parts: Pechersk, Starokyiv, and the first and the second parts of Podil. In 1833–1834 according to Tsar Nicholas I's decree, Kiev was subdivided into 6 police raions (districts); later being increased to 10. In 1917, there were 8 Raion Councils (Duma), which were reorganised by bolsheviks into 6 Party-Territory Raions.During the Soviet era, as the city was expanding, the number of raions also gradually increased. These newer districts of the city, along with some older areas were then named in honour of prominent communists and socialist-revolutionary figures; however, due to the way in which many communist party members eventually, after a certain period of time, fell out of favour and so were replaced with new, fresher minds, so too did the names of Kiev's districts change accordingly.The last raion reform took place in 2001 when the number of raions has been decreased from 14 to 10.Under Oleksandr Omelchenko (mayor from 1999 to 2006), there were further plans for the merger of some raions and revision of their boundaries, and the total number of raions had been planned to be decreased from 10 to 7. With the election of the new mayor-elect (Leonid Chernovetsky) in 2006, these plans were shelved.Each raion has its own locally elected government with jurisdiction over a limited scope of affairs.

Demographics

{{See also|Kiev metropolitan area}}According to the official registration statistics, there were 2,847,200 residents within the city limits of Kiev in July 2013.

Historical population

{{Historical populations|state=collapsed|shading=on1000001500010000420001900036500500005600071300127500154500247700450000468000442000626300430500544000366000413000513000578000930000180000991000110430013672001632000194700021915002461000259340026379002615300259640027865182890432LAST2=YATSUKTITLE=KYIV STATISTICAL YEARBOOK FOR 2008PUBLISHER=VYDAVNYTSTVO KONSULTANT LLCPAGE=213TITLE=KIEV ENTSIKLOPEDICHESKIY SPRAVOCHNIKPUBLISHER=GLAVNAYA REDAKTSIA UKRAINSKOY SOVETSKOY ENTSIKLOPEDIIPAGE=30, }}According to the All-Ukrainian Census, the population of Kiev in 2001 was 2,611,300. The historic changes in population are shown in the side table. According to the census, some 1,393,000 (53.3%) were female and 1,219,000 (46.7%) were male. Comparing the results with the previous census (1989) shows the trend of population ageing which, while prevalent throughout the country, is partly offset in Kiev by the inflow of working age migrants. Some 1,069,700 people had higher or completed secondary education, a significant increase of 21.7% since 1989.The June 2007 unofficial population estimate based on amount of bakery products sold in the city (thus including temporary visitors and commuters) gave a number of at least 3.5 million people.NEWS,weblink There are up to 1.5 mln undercounted residents in Kiev, Korrespondent, 15 June 2007, 2 September 2013, ru,

Ethnic composition

According to the 2001 census data, more than 130 nationalities and ethnic groups reside within the territory of Kiev. Ukrainians constitute the largest ethnic group in Kiev, and they account for 2,110,800 people, or 82.2% of the population. Russians comprise 337,300 (13.1%), Jews 17,900 (0.7%), Belarusians 16,500 (0.6%), Poles 6,900 (0.3%), Armenians 4,900 (0.2%), Azerbaijanis 2,600 (0.1%), Tatars 2,500 (0.1%), Georgians 2,400 (0.1%), Moldovans 1,900 (0.1%).Both Ukrainian and Russian are commonly spoken in the city; approximately 75% of Kiev's population responded "Ukrainian" to the 2001 census question on their native language, roughly 25% responded "Russian".According to the official 2001 census data: WEB,weblink Всеукраїнський перепис населення 2001 {{!, Результати {{!}} Основні підсумки {{!}} Національний склад населення {{!}} місто Киів: |publisher=ukrcensus.gov.ua |accessdate=14 January 2010 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20091214013239weblink |archivedate=14 December 2009 |df=dmy-all }} & WEB,weblink Всеукраїнський перепис населення 2001 {{!, Результати {{!}} Основні підсумки {{!}} Мовний склад населення {{!}} місто Київ: |publisher=ukrcensus.gov.ua |accessdate=14 January 2010 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100125152423weblink |archivedate=25 January 2010 |df=dmy-all }} According to a 2006 survey, Ukrainian is used at home by 23% of Kievans, 52% use Russian and 24% switch between both."Kiev: the city, its residents, problems of today, wishes for tomorrow.", Zerkalo Nedeli, 29 April – 12 May 2006. in Russian {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070217114918weblink |date=17 February 2007 }}, in Ukrainian {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070217114918weblink |date=17 February 2007 }} In the 2003 sociological survey, when the question 'What language do you use in everyday life?' was asked, 52% said 'mostly Russian', 32% 'both Russian and Ukrainian in equal measure', 14% 'mostly Ukrainian', and 4.3% 'exclusively Ukrainian'.NEWS,weblink What language is spoken in Ukraine?, Welcome to Ukraine, 2016-02-12, According to the census of 1897, of Kiev's approximately 240,000 people approximately 56% of the population spoke the Russian language, 23% spoke the Ukrainian language, 13% spoke Yiddish, 7% spoke Polish and 1% spoke the Belarusian language.Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Распределение населения по родному языку и уездам. г. Киев weblinkMost of the city's non-Slav population comprises Tatars, Caucasians and other people from the former Soviet Union.A 2015 study by the International Republican Institute found that 94% of Kiev was ethnic Ukrainian, and 5% ethnic Russian. The languages spoken at home were Ukrainian (27%), Russian (32%), and an equal combination of Ukrainian and Russian (40%).JOURNAL, Ukrainian Municipal Survey, March 2–20 2015, IRI,weblink

Jews

The Jews of Kiev are first mentioned in a 10th century letter, but the Jewish population remained relatively small until the nineteenth century.WEB,weblink Kiev, www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org, 2019-05-24, A series of pogroms was carried out in 1882, and another in 1905. On the eve of World War I, the city's Jewish population was over 81,000,WEB, The Jewish Community of Kiev,weblink The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot, and by 1939 there were approximately 224,000 Jews in Kiev, some of whom fled the city ahead of the German invasion of the Soviet Union that began in June of 1941. On September 29 and 30, 1941, nearly 34,000 Kievan Jews were massacred at Babi Yar by the German Wehrmacht, SS, Ukrainian Auxiliary Police, and local collaborators.WEB,weblink Kiev and Babi Yar, Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070103133722weblink">weblink 2007-01-03, BOOK, Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, vol. 1, Gutman, Israel, Macmillan, 1990, 133-6, Jews began returning to Kiev at the end of the war, where they experienced a further pogrom in September, 1945.WEB,weblink State-sponsored Anti-Semitism in Postwar USSR. Studies and Research Perspectives; Antonella Salomoni, Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History / Questioni di storia ebraica contemporanea, 2012-07-26, Kiev's Jewish community in the early twenty-first century numbers about 20,000. There are two major synagogues in the city: the Great Choral Synagogue and the Brodsky Choral Synagogue.WEB,weblinkweblink 29 June 2013, Jewish People Around the World, alla levy, 4 July 2015, dead,

Cityscape

{{See also|Category:Buildings and structures in Kiev}}{{Panorama|image=File:Panorama of Podil.jpg|fullwidth=5178|fullheight=982Panorama>panoramic view of Podil, one of Kiev's central neighborhoods|alt=|height=250}}Modern Kiev is a mix of the old (Kiev preserved about 70 percent of more than 1,000 buildings built during 1907–1914Forgotten Soviet Plans For Kyiv {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120204003123weblink |date=4 February 2012 }}, Kyiv Post (28 July 2011)) and the new, seen in everything from the architecture to the stores and to the people themselves. When the capital of the Ukrainian SSR was moved from Kharkiv to Kiev many new buildings were commissioned to give the city "the gloss and polish of a capital". In the discussions centered on how to create a showcase city center the current city center of Khreshchatyk and Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square) were not the obvious choices. Some of the early, ultimately not materialised, ideas included a part of Pechersk, Lypky, European Square and Mykhailivska Square. The plans of building massive monuments (of Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin) were also abandoned; due to lack of money (in the 1930s–1950s) and because of Kiev's hilly landscape. Experiencing rapid population growth between the 1970s and the mid-1990s, the city has continued its consistent growth after the turn of the millennium. As a result, Kiev's central districts provide a dotted contrast of new, modern buildings among the pale yellows, blues and greys of older apartments. Urban sprawl has gradually reduced, while population densities of suburbs has increased. The most expensive properties are located in the Pechersk, and Khreshchatyk areas. It is also prestigious to own a property in newly constructed buildings in the Kharkivskyi Raion or Obolon along the Dnieper.File:Esc 2005 concert on maidan.jpg|thumb|right|A public concert held on Maidan NezalezhnostiMaidan NezalezhnostiUkrainian independence at the turn of the millennium has heralded other changes. Western-style residential complexes, modern nightclubs, classy restaurants and prestigious hotels opened in the centre. And most importantly, with the easing of the visa rules in 2005,Workpermit.com. Retrieved 30 July 2006. Ukraine is positioning itself as a prime tourist attraction, with Kiev, among the other large cities, looking to profit from new opportunities. The centre of Kiev has been cleaned up and buildings have been restored and redecorated, especially Khreshchatyk and Maidan Nezalezhnosti. Many historic areas of Kiev, such as Andriyivskyy Descent, have become popular street vendor locations, where one can find traditional Ukrainian art, religious items, books, game sets (most commonly chess) as well as jewellery for sale.Kiev.info. Retrieved 20 June 2006.At the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009 Kiev was the only Commonwealth of Independent States city to have been inscribed into the TOP30 European Green City Index (placed 30th).weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121013202330weblink">Kyiv found among greenest cities in Europe, Emirates News Agency (10 December 2009)Kiev's most famous historical architecture complexes are the St. Sophia Cathedral and the Kiev Pechersk Lavra (Monastery of the Caves), which are recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Noteworthy historical architectural landmarks also include the Mariyinsky Palace (designed and constructed from 1745 to 1752, then reconstructed in 1870), several Orthodox churches such as St. Michael's Cathedral, St. Andrew's, St. Vladimir's, the reconstructed Golden Gate and others.One of Kiev's widely recognized modern landmarks is the highly visible giant Mother Motherland statue made of titanium standing at the Museum of The History of Ukraine in World War II on the Right bank of the Dnieper River. Other notable sites is the cylindrical Salut hotel, located across from Glory Square and the eternal flame at the World War Two memorial Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, and the House with Chimaeras.Among Kiev's best-known monuments are Mikhail Mikeshin's statue of Bohdan Khmelnytsky astride his horse located near St. Sophia Cathedral, the venerated Vladimir the Great (St. Vladimir), the baptizer of Rus', overlooking the river above Podil from Volodymyrska Hill, the monument to Kyi, Schek and Khoryv and Lybid, the legendary founders of the city located at the Dnieper embankment. On Independence Square in the city centre, two monuments elevate two of the city protectors; the historic protector of Kiev Michael Archangel atop a reconstruction of one of the old city's gates and a modern invention, the goddess-protector Berehynia atop a tall column.{{Gallery|title=Architecturally important and historically significant sites and monuments in Kiev|width=170|height=120|lines=2|align=centerGolden GateHoly Dormition CathedralSt. Sophia CathedralSt. Volodymyr's CathedralSt. Michael's Golden-Domed MonasterySt Andrew's Church and the Andriyivskyy DescentSaint Andrew's ChurchIntercession ConventSt. Nicholas Roman Catholic CathedralMariyinsky PalaceNational Bank of Ukraine"House With Chimaeras"Brodsky Choral SynagogueBohdan Khmelnytskyi statueMonument of IndependenceSaint Vladimir MonumentMonument to Mother, the Motherland}}

Culture

{{See also|:Category:Culture in Kiev}}File:Kiev Opera.jpg|thumb|right|Kiev National Opera House ]]Kiev was the historic cultural centre of the East Slavic civilization and a major cradle for the Christianization of Kievan Rus'. Kiev retained through centuries its cultural importance and even at times of relative decay, it remained the centre of primary importance of Eastern Orthodox Christianity . Its sacred sites, which include the Kiev Pechersk Lavra (the Monastery of the Caves) and the Saint Sophia Cathedral are probably the most famous, attracted pilgrims for centuries and now recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site remain the primary religious centres as well as the major tourist attraction. The above-mentioned sites are also part of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine collection.Kiev's theatres include, the Kiev Opera House, Ivan Franko National Academic Drama Theater, Lesya Ukrainka National Academic Theater of Russian Drama, the Kiev Puppet Theater, October Palace and National Philharmonic of Ukraine and others. In 1946 Kiev had four theatres, one opera house and one concert hall,The Ukraine, Life, 28 October 1946 but most tickets then were allocated to "privileged groups".File:Kiev Academic Puppet Theatre.jpg|thumb|right|Kiev Academic Puppet TheatreKiev Academic Puppet TheatreOther significant cultural centres include the Dovzhenko Film Studios, and the Kiev Circus. The most important of the (:Category:Museums in Kiev|city's many museums) are the Kiev State Historical Museum, Museum of The History of Ukraine in World War II, the National Art Museum, the Museum of Western and Oriental Art, the Pinchuk Art Centre and the National Museum of Russian art.In 2005 Kiev hosted the 50th annual Eurovision Song Contest and in 2017 the 62nd annual Eurovision Song ContestNumerous songs and paintings were dedicated to the city. Some songs became part of Russian, Ukrainian, and Polish folklore, less known are German and Jewish. The most popular songs are "How not to love you, Kiev of mine?" and "Kiev Valtz". Renowned Ukrainian composer Oleksandr Bilash wrote an operetta called "Legend of Kiev".

Attractions

It is said that one can walk from one end of Kiev to the other in the summertime without leaving the shade of its many trees. Most characteristic are the horse-chestnuts (, ).Kiev is known as a green city with two botanical gardens and numerous large and small parks. The Museum of The History of Ukraine in World War II is located here, which offers both indoor and outdoor displays of military history and equipment surrounded by verdant hills overlooking the Dnieper river.
{{multiple image
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Among the numerous islands, Venetsianskyi (or Hydropark) is the most developed. It is accessible by metro or by car, and includes an amusement park, swimming beaches, boat rentals, and night clubs. The Victory Park (Park Peremohy) located near Darnytsia subway station is a popular destination for strollers, joggers, and cyclists. Boating, fishing, and water sports are popular pastimes in Kiev. The area lakes and rivers freeze over in the winter and ice fishermen are a frequent sight, as are children with their ice skates. However, the peak of summer draws out a greater mass of people to the shores for swimming or sunbathing, with daytime high temperatures sometimes reaching {{convert|30|to|34|C|F}}.{{Citation needed|date=April 2010}}File:Vydubychi Monastery 2008(Kiev).JPG|thumb|right|Lilacs in the National Botanical Garden, with the Vydubychi MonasteryVydubychi MonasteryThe centre of Kiev (Independence Square and Khreschatyk Street) becomes a large outdoor party place at night during summer months, with thousands of people having a good time in nearby restaurants, clubs and outdoor cafes. The central streets are closed for auto traffic on weekends and holidays. Andriyivskyy Descent is one of the best known historic streets and a major tourist attraction in Kiev. The hill is the site of the Castle of Richard the Lionheart; the baroque-style St Andrew's Church; the home of Kiev born writer, Mikhail Bulgakov; the monument to Yaroslav the Wise, the Grand Prince of Kiev and of Novgorod; and numerous other monuments.WEB,weblink Andreyevskiy Spusk, 20 June 2006, Hotels-Kiev.com, Optima Tours, WEB,weblink Andreevsky spusk, 20 June 2006, Kyiv Guide, Russian, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070312052631weblink">weblink 12 March 2007, A wide variety of farm produce is available in many of Kiev's farmer markets with the Besarabsky Market located in the very centre of the city being most famous. Each residential region has its own market, or rynok. Here one will find table after table of individuals hawking everything imaginable: vegetables, fresh and smoked meats, fish, cheese, honey, dairy products such as milk and home-made smetana (sour cream), caviar, cut flowers, housewares, tools and hardware, and clothing. Each of the markets has its own unique mix of products with some markets devoted solely to specific wares such as automobiles, car parts, pets, clothing, flowers, and other things.At the city's southern outskirts, near the historic Pyrohiv village, there is an outdoor museum, officially called the Museum of Folk Architecture and Life of Ukraine It has an area of {{convert|1.5|km2|sqmi|0}}. This territory houses several "mini-villages" that represent by region the traditional rural architecture of Ukraine.Kiev also has numerous recreational attractions like bowling alleys, go-cart tracks, paintball venues, billiard halls and even shooting ranges. The 100-year-old Kiev Zoo is located on 40 hectares and according to CBC "the zoo has 2,600 animals from 328 species".NEWS, Kiev zoo a 'concentration camp for animals',weblink 27 April 2011, CBC news, 23 March 2011, Associated Press, {{Panorama|image=File:Panorama golden domed St Michael's Kiev.jpg|fullwidth=10215|fullheight=1816Panorama>panoramic view of Mykhailiv Square (central Kiev). From left to right: the Diplomatic Academy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (behind the monument to Princess Olga) and St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery|alt=|height=243}}

Museums and galleries

{{See also|Museums in Kiev}}File:Будинок Київської художньої школи.jpg|right|thumb|The National Historical Museum of UkraineNational Historical Museum of UkraineKiev is home to some 40 different museums.WEB,weblink Culture and Arts, Kyiv Statistics Office, Ukrainian, 23 February 2011, In 2009 they recorded a total of 4.3 million visits.The Museum of The History of Ukraine in World War II is a memorial complex commemorating the Eastern Front of World War II located in the hills on the right-bank of the Dnieper River in Pechersk. Kiev fortress is the 19th-century fortification buildings situated in Ukrainian capital Kiev, that once belonged to western Russian fortresses. These structures (once a united complex) were built in the Pechersk and neighbourhoods by the Russian army. Now some of the buildings are restored and turned into a museum called the Kiev Fortress, while others are in use in various military and commercial installations. The National Art Museum of Ukraine is a museum dedicated to Ukrainian art. The Golden Gate is a historic gateway in the ancient city's walls. The name Zoloti Vorota is also used for a nearby theatre and a station of the Kiev Metro. The small Ukrainian National Chernobyl Museum acts as both a memorial and historical center devoted to the events surrounding the 1986 Chernobyl disaster and its effect on the Ukrainian people, the environment, and subsequent attitudes toward the safety of nuclear power as a whole.

Sports

{{See also|Category:Sport in Kiev}}(File:Пробіг під каштанами (2011). Старт..jpg|right|thumb|The annual {{convert|5.5|km|mi|1|adj=mid|abbr=off}} 'Run under the Chestnuts' is a popular Kiev public sporting event, with hundreds taking part every year.)Kiev has many professional and amateur football clubs, including Dynamo Kyiv, Arsenal Kyiv and FC Obolon Kyiv which play in the Ukrainian Premier League. Of these three, Dynamo Kyiv has had the most success over the course of its history. For example, up until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the club won 13 USSR Championships, 9 USSR Cups, and 3 USSR Super Cups, thus making Dynamo the most successful club in the history of the Soviet Top League.Trophies of Dynamo {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111018191534weblink |date=18 October 2011 }} – Official website of Dynamo KyivOther prominent non-football sport clubs in the city include: the Sokil Kiev ice hockey club and BC Budivelnyk basketball club. Both of these teams play in the highest Ukrainian leagues for their respective sports. Budivelnyk was founded in 1945, Sokil was founded in 1963, during the existence of the Soviet Union. Both these teams play their home games at the Kiev Palace of Sports.During the 1980 Summer Olympics held in the Soviet Union, Kiev held the preliminary matches and the quarter-finals of the football tournament at its Olympic Stadium, which was reconstructed specially for the event. From 1 December 2008 stadium the stadium underwent a full-scale reconstruction in order to satisfy standards put in place by UEFA for hosting the Euro 2012 football tournament; the opening ceremony took place in the presence of president Viktor Yanukovich on 8 October 2011,NEWS, Kyiv opens host stadium for Euro 2012 final,weblink Kyiv Post, 9 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111022164516weblink">weblink 22 October 2011, with the first major event being a Shakira concert which was specially planned to coincide with the stadium's re-opening during Euro 2012. Other notable sport stadiums/sport complexes in Kiev include the Lobanovsky Dynamo Stadium, the Palace of Sports, among many others.Most Ukrainian national teams play their home international matches in Kiev. The Ukraine national football team, for example, will play matches at the re-constructed Olympic Stadium from 2011.

Tourism

{{See also|:Category:Tourist attractions in Kiev}}Since introducing a visa-free regime for EU-member states and Switzerland in 2005, Ukraine has seen a steady increase in the number of foreign tourists visiting the country.WEB,weblink Туристичні потоки, Ukrstat.gov.ua, 16 September 2011, Prior to the 2008–2009 recession the average annual growth in the number of foreign visits in Kiev was 23% over a three-year period.WEB,weblink Головне управління статистики м.Києва – Туристичні потоки, Gorstat.kiev.ua, 16 September 2011, In 2009 a total of 1.6 million tourists stayed in Kiev hotels of which almost 259,000 (ca. 16%) were foreigners.

Kiev city anthem

In 2014 the Kiev city's council established the city's anthem.The Kiev council approved the Kiev city anthem (Київрада затвердила гімн Києва). Ukrayinska Pravda. 13 November 2014 It became a 1962 song "Yak tebe ne lyubyty, Kyieve miy!" (, rough translation "How one cannot love you, Kyiv, my dear!").

Economy

See also: (:Category:Economy of Kiev), Economy of UkraineFile:Крещатик 38 дробь 2 Киев 2012 01.JPG|thumb|right|TsUM department storedepartment storeAs with most capital cities, Kiev is a major administrative, cultural and scientific centre of the country. It is the largest city in Ukraine in terms of both population and area and enjoys the highest levels of business activity. On 1 January 2010 there were around 238,000 business entities registered in Kiev.BOOK, Vilenchuk, R. G., Mashkova, L. O. (eds.), Kyiv Statistical Yearbook for 2009, Kiev, Vydavnytstvo Konsultant LLC, 2010, 58, 978-966-8459-28-3, Official figures show that between 2004 and 2008 Kiev's economy outstripped the rest of the country's, growing by an annual average of 11.5%.WEB,weblink Gross Regional Product, Kyiv Statistics Office, Ukrainian, 19 November 2010, WEB,weblink Gross Domestic Product, State Statistics Committee, Ukrainian, 19 November 2010, Following the global financial crisis that began in 2007, Kiev's economy suffered a severe setback in 2009 with gross regional product contracting by 13.5% in real terms. Although a record high, the decline in activity was 1.6 percentage points smaller than that for the country as a whole. The economy in Kiev, as in the rest of Ukraine, recovered somewhat in 2010 and 2011. Kiev is a middle-income city, with prices currently comparable to many mid-size American cities (i.e., considerably lower than Western Europe).Because the city boasts a large and diverse economic base and is not dependent on any single industry and/or company, its unemployment rate has historically been relatively low – only 3.75% over 2005–2008.WEB,weblink Labour Market, Kyiv Statistics Office, Ukrainian, 23 November 2010, Indeed, even as the rate of joblessness jumped to 7.1% in 2009, it remained far below the national average of 9.6%.WEB,weblink Labour Market, Kyiv Statistics Office, Ukrainian, 23 November 2010, The average monthly net salary in Kiev reached €340(US$400) as of August 2018weblinkweblink" title="uteka.ua/calculator/salary-calculatoweblink">weblink is the undisputed center of business and commerce of Ukraine and home to the country's largest companies, such as Naftogaz Ukrainy, Energorynok and Kyivstar. In 2010 the city accounted for 18% of national retail sales and 24% of all construction activity.WEB,weblink Retail Sales, Kyiv Statistics Office, Ukrainian, 22 January 2010, WEB,weblink Retail Sales, State Statistics Committee, Ukrainian, 22 January 2011, WEB,weblink Construction Works, Kyiv Statistics Office, Ukrainian, 22 January 2011, WEB,weblink Construction Works, State Statistics Committee, Ukrainian, 22 January 2011, Indeed, real estate is one of the major forces in Kiev's economy. Average prices of apartments are the highest in the country and among the highest in eastern Europe.WEB,weblink Square Metre Prices in Ukraine, Global Property Guide, 2 June 2011, Kiev also ranks high in terms of commercial real estate for it is here where the country's tallest office buildings (such as Gulliver and Parus) and some of Ukraine's biggest shopping malls (such as Dream Town and Ocean Plaza) are located.(File:Parus Kyiv.jpg|right|thumb|Kiev is home to many of Ukraine's largest businesses.)In May 2011 Kiev authorities presented a 15-year development strategy which calls for attracting as much as EUR82 billion of foreign investment by 2025 to modernize the city's transport and utilities infrastructure and make it more attractive for tourists.WEB, Santarovich, Andrey, Kiev Development Strategy Calls for EUR82 billion in foreign investment, Business Information Network, 27 May 2011, Russian,weblink 28 May 2011, {|class="wikitable"|+Historical economic data!! 2004 !! 2005 !! 2006 !! 2007 !! 2008 !! 2009 !! 2010 !! 2011 !! 2012 !! 2013Nominal GDP>Nominal Gross Regional Product (UAH 1000000000 (number)>bn) 61.4 77.1 95.3 135.9 169.6 169.5 196.6 223.8 275.7PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BANK OF UKRAINEACCESSDATE=3 JULY 2012, 11.5 15.0 18.9 26.9 32.2 21.8 24.8 28.0 34.5|12,192PUBLISHER=KYIV STATISTICS OFFICEACCESSDATE=16 APRIL 2011, 182 259 342 455 584 406 432 504 577Unemployment rate (%)***HTTP://WWW.GORSTAT.KIEV.UA/P.PHP3?C=512&LANG=1PUBLISHER=KYIV STATISTICS OFFICEACCESSDATE=24 JANUARY 2011, n/a 4.6 3.8 3.3 3.3 7.1 6.4 6.1 6.0 5.7|77.14|9.65PUBLISHER=KYIV STATISTICS OFFICEACCESSDATE=24 FEBRUARY 2011, 2.1 3.0 4.8 7.0 11.7 16.8 19.2 21.8 24.9 27.3
  • – data not available;
    • – calculated at annual average official exchange rate;

Industry

Primary industries in Kiev include utilities – i.e., electricity, gas and water supply (26% of total industrial output), manufacture of food, beverages and tobacco products (22%), chemical (17%), mechanical engineering (13%) and manufacture of paper and paper products, including publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media (11%).WEB,weblink Industrial Production by Economic Activity, Kyiv Statistics Office, Ukrainian, 26 January 2011, The Institute of Oil Transportation is headquartered here.

Manufacture

File:Antonov An-124-100M Ruslan, Antonov Design Bureau AN2177099.jpg|thumb|An-124, the largest aircraft ever mass-produced, designed by AntonovAntonov

Education and science

{{See also|:Category:Education in Kiev}}File:Владимирская 54 Киев 2010 01.JPG|thumb|right|The Ukrainian Academy of Sciences is based in Kiev.]]

Scientific research

Scientific research is conducted in many institutes of higher education and, additionally, in many research institutes affiliated with the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Kiev is home to Ukraine's ministry of education and science, and is also noted for its contributions to medical and computer science research.

University education

File:Universidad Roja de Kiev.jpg|thumb|right|National Taras Shevchenko University ]]Kiev hosts many universities, the major ones being Kiev National Taras Shevchenko University,See also:Kiev University official website. Retrieved 28 July 2006. the National Technical University "Kiev Polytechnic Institute",See also: KPI official website {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060716063346weblink |date=16 July 2006 }}. Retrieved 28 July 2006. Kyiv-Mohyla AcademySee also: Kyiv-Mohyla Academy official website {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131013092226weblink |date=13 October 2013 }} WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2006-12-05, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131013092226weblink">weblink 13 October 2013, . Retrieved 28 July 2006. and the Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics. Of these, the Mohyla Academy is the oldest outright, having been founded as a theological school in 1632, however the Shevchenko University, which was founded in 1834, is the oldest in continuous operation. The total number of institutions of higher education in Kiev currently approaches 200,See also: Osvita.org URL accessed on 20 June 2006 allowing young people to pursue almost any line of study. While education traditionally remains largely in the hands of the state there are several accredited private institutions in the city.

Secondary education

There are about 530 general secondary schools and ca. 680 nursery schools and kindergartens in Kiev.BOOK, Vilenchuk, S. R., Yatsuk, T.B. (eds.), Kyiv Statistical Yearbook for 2008, Kiev, Vydavnytstvo Konsultant LLC, 2009, 283, 978-966-8459-28-3, Additionally, there are evening schools for adults, specialist technical schools and the Evangel Theological Seminary.

Public libraries

There are many libraries in the city with the Vernadsky National Library, which is Ukraine's main academic library and scientific information centre, as well as one of the world's largest national libraries, being the largest and most important one.WEB,weblink The Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, Nbuv.gov.ua, 27 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100330162634weblink">weblink 30 March 2010, The National Library is affiliated with the Academy of Sciences in so far as it is a deposit library and thus serves as the academy's archives' store. The national library is the world's foremost repository of Jewish folk music recorded on Edison wax cylinders. Their Collection of Jewish Musical Folklore (1912–1947) was inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2005.WEB, Collection of Jewish Musical Folklore (1912–1947),weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080623175517weblink">weblink dead, 23 June 2008, 16 May 2008, UNESCO Memory of the World Programme, 14 December 2009, dmy-all,

Transportation

Local public transport

File:Kiev metro Dnipro.jpeg|thumb|left|A Kiev Metro train at Dnipro station ]]Local public transportation in Kiev includes the Metro (underground), buses and minibuses, trolleybuses, trams, taxi and funicular. There is also an intra-city ring railway service.(File:Kiev Funicular.jpeg|thumb|Kiev funicular)The publicly owned and operated Kiev Metro is the fastest, the most convenient and affordable network that covers most, but not all, of the city. The Metro is continuously expanding towards the city limits to meet growing demand, currently having three lines with a total length of {{convert|66.1|km|abbr=off}} and 51 stations (some of which are renowned architectural landmarks). The Metro carries around 1.422 million passengers daily{{uk icon}} Kyiv General Department of Statistics, 2011 accounting for 38% of the Kiev's public transport load. In 2011, the total number of trips exceeded 519 million.The historic Kiev tram system was the first electric tramway in the former Russian Empire and the third one in Europe after the Berlin Straßenbahn and the Budapest tramway. The tram system currently consists of {{convert|139.9|km|mi|abbr=on}} of track,For a 2004 plan of the Kiev tram, please see mashke.org including {{convert|14|km|mi|abbr=on}} two Rapid Tram lines, served by 21 routes with the use of 523 tram cars. Once a well maintained and widely used method of transport, the system is now gradually being phased out in favor of buses and trolleybuses.(File:ЕлектроЛАЗ-301 фото 2.jpg|thumb|left|Trolleybus ElektroLAZ-301 at Sofia Square, passing by the statue of Bohdan Khmelnytsky)The Kiev funicular was constructed during 1902–1905. It connects the historic Uppertown, and the lower commercial neighborhood of Podil through the steep Volodymyrska Hill overseeing the Dnieper River. The line consists of only two stations.All public road transport (except for some minibuses) is operated by the united Kyivpastrans municipal company. It is heavily subsidized by the city.The Kiev public transport system, except for taxi, uses a simple flat rate tariff system regardless of distance traveled: tickets or tokens must be purchased each time a vehicle is boarded. Digital ticket system is already established in Kiev Metro, with plans for other transport modes. Discount passes are available for grade school and higher education students. Pensioners use public transportation free. There are monthly passes in all combinations of public transportation. Ticket prices are regulated by the city government, and the cost of one ride is far lower than in Western Europe.The taxi market in Kiev is expansive but not regulated. In particular, the taxi fare per kilometer is not regulated. There is a fierce competition between private taxi companies.

Roads and bridges

File:Дарницький міст2.jpg|thumb|The Novo-Darnytskyi Bridge over the Dnieper river]]Kiev represents the focal point of Ukraine's "national roads" system, thus linked by road to all cities of the country. European routes (File:Tabliczka E40.svg|35px|link=European route E40), (File:Tabliczka E95.svg|35px|link=European route E95) and (File:Tabliczka E373.svg|35px|link=European route E373) intersect in Kiev.There are 8 over-Dnieper bridges and dozens of grade-separated intersections in the city. Several new intersections are under construction. There are plans to build a full-size, fully grade-separated ring road around Kiev.WEB,weblink Азаров дал добро на строительство кольцевой дороги вокруг Киева – Газета "ФАКТЫ и комментарии", Fakty.ua, 12 March 2013, WEB,weblink Вторая кольцевая дорога вокруг Киева обойдется в $5-5,5 млрд. – Последние новости Киева – Однако в направлении окружной дороги уже вся земля выкуплена | СЕГОДНЯ, Segodnya.ua, 27 June 2007, 12 March 2013, WEB,weblink Азаров прогнозирует начало строительства второй кольцевой дороги вокруг Киева в 2012 году | Новости Киева, Korrespondent.net, 12 March 2013, Overall, Kiev roads are in poor technical condition and maintained inadequately.Kyiv Administration: Roads Are In Poor Technical State Because They Have Reached End Of Their Service Lives And Annual Maintenance Volume Is Low {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090616154750weblink |date=16 June 2009 }}, Ukrainian News Agency (12 June 2009)Traffic jams and lack of parking space are growing problems for all road transport services in Kiev.

Air transport

Kiev is served by two international passenger airports: the Boryspil Airport located {{convert|30|km|0|abbr=off}} away, and the smaller, municipally owned Zhulyany Airport on the southern outskirts of the city. There are also the Gostomel cargo airport and additional three operating airfields facilitating the Antonov aircraft manufacturing company and general aviation.

Railways

Railways are Kiev's main mode of intracity and suburban transportation. The city has a developed railroad infrastructure including a long-distance passenger station, 6 cargo stations, depots, and repairing facilities. However, this system still fails to meet the demand for passenger service. Particularly, the Kiev Passenger Railway Station is the city's only long-distance passenger terminal (vokzal).Construction is underway for turning the large Darnytsia Railway Station on the left-bank part of Kiev into a long-distance passenger hub, which may ease traffic at the central station.{{ru icon}} Archunion.com.ua {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070206120010weblink |date=6 February 2007 }}. Retrieved 20 June 2006. Bridges over the Dnieper River are another problem restricting the development of city's railway system. Presently, only one rail bridge out of two is available for intense train traffic. A new combined rail-auto bridge is under construction, as a part of Darnytsia project.In 2011 the Kiev city administration established a new 'Urban Train' for Kiev. This service runs at standard 4- to 10-minute intervals throughout the day and follows a circular route around the city centre, which allows it to serve many of Kiev's inner suburbs. Interchanges between the Kiev Metro and Fast Tram exist at many of the urban train's station stops.WEB,weblink Азаров запустил в Киеве городскую электричку | Экономика | РИА Новости – Украина, Ua.rian.ru, 13 August 2012, 12 March 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120425083357weblink">weblink 25 April 2012, dmy, Suburban 'Elektrichka' trains are serviced by the publicly owned Ukrainian Railways. The suburban train service is fast, and unbeatably safe in terms of traffic accidents. But the trains are not reliable, as they may fall significantly behind schedule, may not be safe in terms of crime, and the elektrichka cars are poorly maintained and are overcrowded in rush hours.There are 5 elektrichka directions from Kiev: More than a dozen of elektrichka stops are located within the city allowing residents of different neighborhoods to use the suburban trains.

International relations

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Ukraine}}

Twin towns and sister cities

Kiev is twinned with:{{div col|colwidth=22em}}
  • {{flagicon|TUR}} Ankara, Turkey (since 1993)WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090114033014weblink">weblink KardeÅŸ Kentleri Listesi ve 5 Mayıs Avrupa Günü Kutlaması [via WaybackMachine.com], Ankara BüyükÅŸehir Belediyesi – Tüm Hakları Saklıdır, 14 January 2009, 21 July 2013, Turkish, dead, dmy,
  • {{flagicon|AZE}} Baku, AzerbaijanWEB,weblink Executive Power of the Baku City, Azerbaijan.az, 8 April 2008, ru,
  • {{flagicon|PRC}} Beijing, China (since 1993)WEB,weblink Sister Cities, Beijing Municipal Government, 23 September 2008,
  • {{flagicon|SVK}} Bratislava, SlovakiaWEB,weblink Bratislava City – Twin Towns, 2003–2009 Bratislava-City.sk, 7 July 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130728183628weblink">weblink 28 July 2013, dmy,
  • {{flagicon|USA}} Chicago, Illinois, United StatesWEB, Chicago Sister Cities,weblink 2009, Chicago Sister Cities International, 22 July 2009,
  • {{flagicon|MDA}} ChiÈ™inău, Moldova (since 1999)WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120903122220weblink">weblink OraÈ™e înfrățite (Twin cities of ChiÈ™inău) [via WaybackMachine.com], Primăria Municipiului ChiÈ™inău, 3 September 2012, 2013-07-21, Romanian, dead, dmy,
  • {{flagicon|UK}} Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (since 1989)WEB,weblink Twin and Partner Cities, The City of Edinburgh Council,
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Florence, ItalyWEB,weblink Gemellaggi, Patti di amicizia e di fratellanza, Comune di Firenze, Italian, 19 January 2016,
  • {{flagicon|GRE}} Kastoria, Greece (since 1998)WEB,weblink Twinnings, 25 August 2013, Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece,
  • {{flagicon|POL}} Kraków, Poland (since 1993)WEB,weblink Kraków – Miasta Bliźniacze, 10 August 2013, Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków, Polish, Kraków – Twin Cities,
  • {{flagicon|JPN}} Kyoto, JapanWEB,weblink Sister and Other Associated Cities, 6 August 2013, Kyoto General Affairs Bureau, City of Kyoto,
  • {{flagicon|GER}} Leipzig, Germany (since 1961)WEB,weblink Leipzig – International Relations, Referat Internationale Zusammenarbeit, City of Leipzig, 2015-01-29,
  • {{flagicon|GER}} Munich, GermanyWEB, Partnerstädte,weblink Landeshauptstadt München, official website, Muenchen.de, German, 2014-11-17,
  • {{flagicon|DEN}} Odense, DenmarkWEB, Twin Cities,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140715023751weblink">weblink dead, 15 July 2014, Odense Municipality, 19 January 2016,
  • {{flagicon|LVA}} Riga, Latvia (since 1998)WEB, Sister cities of Riga: Kiev (Ukraine),weblink Riga municipality, 19 January 2016,
  • {{flagicon|BRA}} Rio de Janeiro, BrazilWEB, LEI Nº 5.919, DE 17 DE JULHO DE 2015 (Art. 2º: § 2º Na Europa: XlV- a Cidade de Kiev, na Ucrânia,weblink Câmara Municipal do Rio de Janeiro, Portuguese, 19 January 2016,
  • {{flagicon|GEO}} Tbilisi, Georgia (since 1999)WEB,weblink Tbilisi Sister Cities, 5 August 2013, Tbilisi City Hall, Tbilisi Municipal Portal,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130724120155weblink">weblink 24 July 2013,
  • {{flagicon|AUT}} Vienna, AustriaWEB,weblink City-to-city cooperation activities of the City of Vienna, Vienna City Administration, 20 October 2015,
  • {{flagicon|LTU}} Vilnius, LithuaniaWEB, International Relations,weblink Vilnius Municipality, 19 January 2016,
  • {{flagicon|POL}} Warsaw, Poland (since 1994)WEB, Miasta partnerskie Warszawy – Strona 6,weblink City of Warsaw, Polish, 19 January 2016,
{{div col end}}In February 2016 the Kiev city council terminated its twinned relations with the Russian cities of Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Volgograd, Ulan-Ude, Makhachkala, and the Komi Republic due to the Russian military intervention in Ukraine.{{uk icon}} City council has put an end to the "fraternal" relations with Moscow, The Ukrainian Week (1 February 2016)NEWS, Kyiv breaks twinning relationship with Moscow,weblink Day, "the decision taken due to "military aggression of Russia against Ukraine, Crimea annexation and occupation of the territory of Donetsk and Lugansk regions.",

Other cooperation agreements

  • {{flagicon|SRB}} Belgrade, SerbiaWEB,weblink International Cooperation, Official website, 10 July 2007,
  • {{flagicon|POR}} Lisbon, PortugalWEB,weblink Acordos de Geminação, de Cooperação e/ou Amizade da Cidade de Lisboa, 23 August 2013, Camara Municipal de Lisboa, Portuguese, Lisbon – Twinning Agreements, Cooperation and Friendship, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131031202617weblink">weblink 31 October 2013, dmy,
  • {{flagicon|CAN}} Toronto, Ontario, CanadaWEB,weblink Toronto's International Alliance Program, Toronto.ca, 23 October 2000, 19 January 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160129232944weblink">weblink 29 January 2016, dead, dmy-all,
  • {{flagicon|ARM}} Yerevan, ArmeniaWEB,weblink Yerevan – Partner Cities, 2013-11-04, Yerevan Municipality Official Website, © 2005—2013 www.yerevan.am, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131105220142weblink">weblink 5 November 2013,

Notable people from Kiev

File:Vladimir Horowitz 1986.jpg|right|thumb|upright=0.8|Pianist Vladimir HorowitzVladimir Horowitz

Honour

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{Sister project links| voy=Kiev}} {{Seven Wonders of Ukraine}}{{Subdivisions of Kiev}}{{Administrative divisions of Ukraine}}{{Cities in Ukraine}}{{Eurovision Song Contest}}{{Hero Cities}}{{Capitals of Ukraine}}{{List of European capitals by region}}{{Authority control}}

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