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Khwarazmian dynasty
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{{Use American English|date = January 2019}}{{Short description|Dynasty of greater Iran}}{{Use dmy dates|date = June 2019}}{{Other uses|Khwarezmian (disambiguation)}}{{pp-semi-indef}}







factoids
orstat_year2=1218 est.SEPTEMBER 1997>TITLE=EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION PATTERNS OF LARGE POLITIES: CONTEXT FOR RUSSIAINTERNATIONAL STUDIES QUARTERLY>VOLUME=41PAGE=497AUTHOR=REIN TAAGEPERAJSTOR=2600793,weblink }}The Khwarazmian (English: {{IPAc-en|k|w|ə|ˈ|r|æ|z|m|i|ən}}WEB,weblink Merriam Webster, n.d., 21 October 2010, Khwarazmian: definition, ) dynasty was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth: Khwarazmshahs i. Descendants of the line of Anuštigin. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian."Homa Katouzian, "Iranian history and politics", Published by Routledge, 2003. pg 128: "Indeed, since the formation of the Ghaznavids state in the tenth century until the fall of Qajars at the beginning of the twentieth century, most parts of the Iranian cultural regions were ruled by Turkic-speaking dynasties most of the time. At the same time, the official language was Persian, the court literature was in Persian, and most of the chancellors, ministers, and mandarins were Persian speakers of the highest learning and ability""Persian Prose Literature." World Eras. 2002. HighBeam Research. (September 3, 2012);"Princes, although they were often tutored in Arabic and religious subjects, frequently did not feel as comfortable with the Arabic language and preferred literature in Persian, which was either their mother tongue—as in the case of dynasties such as the Saffarids (861–1003), Samanids (873–1005), and Buyids (945–1055)—or was a preferred lingua franca for them—as with the later Turkish dynasties such as the Ghaznawids (977–1187) and Saljuks (1037–1194)". weblink" title="https:/-/web.archive.org/web/20130502180821weblink">weblink Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin.Bosworth in Camb. Hist. of Iran, Vol. V, pp. 66 & 93; B.G. Gafurov & D. Kaushik, "Central Asia: Pre-Historic to Pre-Modern Times"; Delhi, 2005; {{ISBN|81-7541-246-1}}C. E. Bosworth, "Chorasmia ii. In Islamic times" in: Encyclopaedia Iranica (reference to Turkish scholar Kafesoğlu), v, p. 140, Online Edition: "The governors were often Turkish slave commanders of the Saljuqs; one of them was Anūštigin Ḡaṛčaʾī, whose son Qoṭb-al-Dīn Moḥammad began in 490/1097 what became in effect a hereditary and largely independent line of ḵǰᵛārazmšāhs." (LINK) The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the SeljuqsRene Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes:A History of Central Asia, Transl. Naomi Walford, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 159. and the Qara-Khitan,Biran, Michel, The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian history, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 44. and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty spanned 2.3JOURNAL, Turchin, Peter, Adams, Jonathan M., Hall, Thomas D, East-West Orientation of Historical Empires, Journal of World-systems Research, December 2006, 12, 2, 222,weblink 12 September 2016, 1076-156X, (or 3.6JOURNAL, September 1997, Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia, International Studies Quarterly, 41, 3, 497, 10.1111/0020-8833.00053, Rein Taagepera, Rein Taagepera, 2600793,weblink ) million square kilometers.The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkic slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty", (LINK)

Names

It was also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants. It is derived from "Kings of Khwarazm".{{History of the Turks pre-14th century}}{{History of Afghanistan}}{{History of Greater Iran}}

History

{{See also|Timeline of the Turkic peoples (500–1300)}}The date of the founding of the Khwarazmian dynasty remains debatable. During a revolt in 1017, Khwarezmian rebels murdered Abu'l-Abbas Ma'mun and his wife, Hurra-ji, sister of the Ghaznavid sultan Mahmud.C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids:994-1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 237.
In response, Mahmud invaded and occupied the region of Khwarezm, which included Nasa and the ribat of Farawa.C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids:994-1040, 237.
As a result, Khwarezm became a province of the Ghaznavid Empire from 1017 to 1034. In 1077 the governorship of the province, which since 1042/1043 belonged to the Seljuqs, fell into the hands of Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkic slave of the Seljuq sultan. In 1141, the Seljuq Sultan Ahmed Sanjar was defeated by the Qara Khitai at the battle of Qatwan, and Anush Tigin's grandson Ala ad-Din Atsiz became a vassal to Yelü Dashi of the Qara Khitan.Biran, Michel, The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 44.
Sultan Ahmed Sanjar died in 1156. As the Seljuk state fell into chaos, the Khwarezm-Shahs expanded their territories southward. In 1194, the last Sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire, Toghrul III, was defeated and killed by the Khwarezm ruler Ala ad-Din Tekish, who conquered parts of Khorasan and western Iran. In 1200, Tekish died and was succeeded by his son, Ala ad-Din Muhammad, who initiated a conflict with the Ghurids and was defeated by them at Amu Darya (1204).Rene, Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes:A History of Central Asia, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 168. Following the sack of Khwarizm, Muhammad appealed for aid from his suzerain, the Qara Khitai who sent him an army.Rene, Grousset, 168. With this reinforcement, Muhammad won a victory over the Ghorids at Hezarasp (1204) and forced them out of Khwarizm.Ala ad-Din Muhammad's alliance with his suzerain was short-lived. He again initiated a conflict, this time with the aid of the Kara-Khanids, and defeated a Qara-Khitai army at Talas (1210),Rene, Grousset, 169. but allowed Samarkand (1210) to be occupied by the Qara-Khitai.Rene, Grousset, 234. He overthrew the Karakhanids (1212)Rene, Grousset, 237. and Ghurids (1215). In 1212, he shifted his capital from Gurganj to Samarkand. Thus incorporating nearly the whole of Transoxania{{citation needed|date=July 2011}} and present-day Afghanistan into his empire, which after further conquests in western Persia (by 1217) stretched from the Syr Darya to the Zagros Mountains, and from the northern parts of the Hindu Kush to the Caspian Sea. By 1218, the empire had a population of 5 million people.John Man, "Genghis Khan: Life, Death, and Resurrection", Feb. 6 2007. Page 180.

Mongol invasion and collapse of Khwarezmia

In 1218, Genghis Khan sent a trade mission to the state, but at the town of Otrar the governor, suspecting the Khan's ambassadors to be spies, confiscated their goods and executed them. Genghis Khan demanded reparations, which the Shah refused to pay. Genghis retaliated with a force of 200,000 men, launching a multi-pronged invasion. In February 1220 the Mongolian army crossed the Syr Darya. The Mongols stormed Bukhara, Gurganj and the Khwarezmid capital Samarkand. The Shah fled and died some weeks later on an island in the Caspian Sea.The son of Ala ad-Din Muhammad, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu became the new Sultan (he rejected the title Shah). He attempted to flee to India, but the Mongols caught up with him before he got there, and he was defeated at the Battle of Indus. He escaped and sought asylum in the Sultanate of Delhi. Iltumish however denied this to him in deference to the relationship with the Abbasid caliphs. Returning to Persia, he gathered an army and re-established a kingdom. He never consolidated his power, however, spending the rest of his days struggling against the Mongols, the Seljuks of Rum, and pretenders to his own throne. He lost his power over Persia in a battle against the Mongols in the Alborz Mountains. Escaping to the Caucasus, he captured Azerbaijan in 1225, setting up his capital at Tabriz. In 1226 he attacked Georgia and sacked Tbilisi. Following on through the Armenian highlands he clashed with the Ayyubids, capturing the town Ahlat along the western shores of the Lake Van, who sought the aid of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. Sultan Kayqubad I defeated him at Arzinjan on the Upper Euphrates at the Battle of Yassıçemen in 1230. He escaped to Diyarbakir, while the Mongols conquered Azerbaijan in the ensuing confusion. He was murdered in 1231 by Kurdish highwaymenweblink

Mercenaries

File:Premongol.png|thumb|left|180px|EurasiaEurasiaThough the Mongols had destroyed the Khwarezmian Empire in 1220, many Khwarezmians survived by working as mercenaries in northern Iraq. Sultan Jalal ad-Din's followers remained loyal to him even after his death in 1231, and raided the Seljuk lands of Jazira and Syria for the next several years, calling themselves the Khwarezmiyya. Ayyubid Sultan as-Salih Ayyub, in Egypt, later hired their services against his uncle as-Salih Ismail. The Khwarezmiyya, heading south from Iraq towards Egypt, invaded Crusader-held Jerusalem along the way, on 11 July 1244. The city's citadel, the Tower of David, surrendered on August 23, and the Christian population of the city was expelled. This triggered a call from Europe for the Seventh Crusade, but the Crusaders would never again be successful in retaking Jerusalem. After being conquered by the Khwarezmian forces, the city stayed under Muslim control until 1917, when it was taken from the Ottomans by the British.After taking Jerusalem, the Khwarezmian forces continued south, and on October 17 fought on the side of the Ayyubids at the Battle of La Forbie, as the Crusaders used to call Harbiyah, a village northeast of Gaza, destroying the remains of the Crusader army there, with some 1,200 knights killed. It was the largest battle involving the Crusaders since the Battle of the Horns of Hattin in 1187.Riley-Smith The Crusades, p. 191The remains of the Muslim Khwarezmians served in Egypt as Mamluk mercenaries until they were finally beaten by al-Mansur Ibrahim some years later.{{citation needed|date=June 2018}}Khwarizmi war captives assimilated into the Mongols, forming the modern Mongolian clan Sartuul.{{citation needed|date=June 2018}}

Rulers of Khwarezm

Mamunid Governors of Khwarezm{|class"wikitable"

! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=27% | Titular Name! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=25% | Personal Name! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=25% | Reign style="background:lightblue" Amir {{Nastaliq| امیر}} Ma'mun I ibn Muhammad {{Nastaliq> ابو علی المأمون ابن محمد}} 995–997 C.E. Amir {{Nastaliq| امیر}} Abu al-Hasan Ali {{Nastaliq> ابو الحسن علی ابن المأمون}} 997–1008/9 C.E. style="background:lightgreen" Amir {{Nastaliq| امیر}} Ma'mun II {{Nastaliq> ابو العباس مأمون ابن المأمون}} 1008/9–1017 C.E. style="background:lightgreen" Amir {{Nastaliq| امیر}} Abu'l-Harith Muhammad {{Nastaliq> ابو الحارث محمد ابن علی}} 1017 C.E. Absorbed into the Ghaznavids by Mahmud of Ghazni>Mahmud ibn Sebuktigin;he made Altun Tash its governor.

Altun-Tashid Governors of Khwarezm{|class"wikitable"

! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=27% | Titular Name! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=25% | Personal Name! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=25% | Reign style="background:lightgreen" Amir {{Nastaliq| امیر}} Altun Tash {{Nastaliq> ابو سعید التون طاش}} 1017–1032 C.E. Amir {{Nastaliq| امیر}} Harun, Ghaznavid Governor of Khwarezm {{Nastaliq> ہارون ابن التون طاش}} 1032–1034 C.E. Amir {{Nastaliq| امیر}} Ismail Khandan {{Nastaliq> اسماعیل خاندان ابن التون طاش}} 1034–1041 C.E. Re-conquest by Ghaznavids under Mas'ud I of Ghazni>Mas'ud ibn Mahmud ibn Sebuktigin who sent his general Shah Malik, the Oghuz Turk

Non-dynastic Governor{|class"wikitable"

! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=27% | Titular Name! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=25% | Personal Name! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=25% | Reign style="background:lightgreen" Amir {{NastaliqAbul-Fawaris {{Nastaliq> أبو الفوارس}} Shah Malik {{Nastaliq> شاہ ملک ابن علی}} 1041–1042 C.E. Conquest of Khwarezm by Tughril and Chaghri>Chaghri Beg of the Seljuq Empire.

Governor Anushtigin{| class"wikitable"

! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=27% | Title! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=25% | Personal Name! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=25% | Reign bgcolor="#D8BFD8" Shihna {{Nastaliq| ؟}} Anush Tigin Gharchai {{Nastaliq| أنوش طگین غارچائی}} 1077–1097 C.E.

Non-dynastic Governor{| class"wikitable"

! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=27% | Title! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=25% | Personal Name! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=25% | Reign bgcolor="#D8BFD8" Shihna {{Nastaliq| ؟}} Ekinchi (Khwarazm Shah) {{Nastaliq> ایکینچی بن قوچار}} 1097 C.E.

Anushtiginid Shahs{| class"wikitable"

! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=27% | Titular Name! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=25% | Personal Name! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=25% | Reign bgcolor="#D8BFD8" Shah {{NastaliqQutb ad-Din Abul-Fath {{Nastaliq> قطب الدین ابو الفتح}} Muhammad I of Khwarazm {{Nastaliq> ارسلان طگین محمد ابن أنوش طگین }} 1097–1127/28 C.E. style="background:lightpink" Shah {{NastaliqAla al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Muzaffar {{Nastaliq> علاء الدنیا و الدین، ابو المظفر}} Atsiz {{Nastaliq> قزل ارسلان أتسز بن محمد}} 1127 - 1156 C.E. style="background:orange" Shah {{NastaliqTaj al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Fath {{Nastaliq> تاج الدنیا و الدین، ابو الفتح}} Il-Arslan {{Nastaliq>ایل ارسلان بن قزل ارسلان أتسز }} 1156–1172 C.E. style="background:orange" Shah {{NastaliqAla al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Muzaffar {{Nastaliq> علاء الدنیا و الدین، ابو المظفر}} Ala ad-Din Tekish {{Nastaliq> تکش بن ایل ارسلان }} 1172–1200 C.E. style="background:orange" Shah {{NastaliqJalal al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Qasim {{Nastaliq> جلال الدنیا و الدین، ابو القاسم}} Sultan Shah of Khwarezm {{Nastaliq> محمود سلطان شاہ ابن ایل ارسلان}} Initially under regency of Turkan Khatun, his mother. He was a younger half-brother and rival of Tekish in Upper Khurasan1172–1193 C.E. Shah {{NastaliqAla al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Fath {{Nastaliq> علاء الدنیا و الدین، ابو الفتح}} Muhammad II of Khwarezm {{Nastaliq>محمد بن تکش}} 1200–1220 C.E. bgcolor="#F5DEB3"Genghis Khan {{NastaliqMongol invasion of Khwarezmia>Genghis Khan invades Khwarezmia forcing Muhammad ibn Tekish to flee along with his son to an island in the Caspian Sea where he would die of pleurisy. Jalal al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Muzaffar {{Nastaliq| جلال الدنیا و الدین، ابو المظفر}} Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu {{Nastaliq> مِنکُبِرنی ابن محمد}} 1220–1231 C.E. Establishment of Mongol Ilkhanate

Family tree of Anushtiginid Dynasty

{{Family tree of Anushtiginid Dynasty}}

See also

Notes and references

{{Reflist|30em}}{{Empires}}

Further reading

  • M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, with a foreword by Professor Clifford Edmund Bosworth, member of the British Academy, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, {{ISBN|9971-77-488-7}}.


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