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Kerala
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{{About|the Indian state}}{{good article}}{{Short description|State in southern India}}{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2019}}{{Use Indian English|date=June 2016}}







factoids
| image_map = IN-KL.svg| map_caption = Location of Kerala| map_caption1 = Map of Kerala8.5region:IN-KL|display=inline,title}}| coor_pinpoint = Thiruvananthapuram| nickname = God's Own Country, Spice Garden of India, Land of Coconuts, Land of Trees| subdivision_type = CountryIndia}}| established_title = StatehoodThiruvananthapuramList of Indian districts>Districts| parts_style = paraList of districts in Kerala>14| governing_body = Government of KeralaGovernors of Kerala>GovernorP. SathasivamTHE HINDU TITLE=SATHASIVAM SWORN IN AS KERALA GOVERNOR ACCESSDATE=5 SEPTEMBER 2014 FIRST1=GIREESH, Chief Ministers of Kerala>Chief MinisterPinarayi Vijayan (Communist Party of India (Marxist)>CPI (M))Legislature of Kerala>LegislatureUnicameral (List of constituencies of Kerala Legislative Assembly>141 seats)Lok Sabha>Parliamentary constituencies| leader_name3 = Rajya Sabha 9Lok Sabha 20High Courts of India>High Court| leader_name4 = Kerala High Court Kochi| unit_pref = Metric| area_total_km2 = 38863List of states and union territories of India by area>23rd| elevation_footnotes =| elevation_m =| elevation_max_m = 2695| elevation_max_point = Anamudi| elevation_min_m = −2.2| elevation_min_point = Kuttanad| population_total = 33387677| population_as_of = 2011WEBSITE=CENSUS 2011, 12 November 2015, | population_density_km2 = autoList of states and union territories of India by population>13th| population_demonym = Keralite, Malayali| population_note =Indian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset1 = +05:30IN-KL)List of RTO districts in Kerala>KL(2017–18)}}PUBLISHER=DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS, GOVERNMENT OF KERALAWEBSITE=ESOPB.GOV.IN ACCESSDATE=24 JUNE 2018, List of Indian states and union territories by GDP>Total6.86|t}}List of Indian states and union territories by GDP per capita>Per capita179523}}Human Development Index>HDI {{nobold|(2018)}}greenList of Indian states and territories by Human Development Index>1stLiteracy in India>Literacy {{nobold|(2011)}}WEBSITE=PLANNINGCOMMISSION.GOV.IN ACCESSDATE=3 OCTOBER 2018, Human sex ratio>Sex ratio {{nobold|(2011)}}females>♀/1000 ♂| demographics_type2 = Languages| demographics2_title1 = OfficialMalayalamHTTP://NCLM.NIC.IN/SHARED/LINKIMAGES/NCLM52NDREPORT.PDF PAGE=132 WORK=MINISTRY OF MINORITY AFFAIRS (GOVERNMENT OF INDIA) ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170525141614/HTTP://NCLM.NIC.IN/SHARED/LINKIMAGES/NCLM52NDREPORT.PDF, 25 May 2017, | demographics2_title2 = Additional officialEnglish language>EnglishHTTP://ENGLISH.MATHRUBHUMI.COM/NEWS/KERALA/MALAYALAM-TO-BE-ONLY-OFFICIAL-LANGUAGE-IN-STATE-ENGLISH-NEWS-1.699293 >TITLE=MALAYALAM TO BE ONLY OFFICIAL LANGUAGE IN STATE LAST=JACOB DATE=27 NOVEMBER 2015, weblink}}States and union territories of India>State| footnotes =







factoids
50pxJackfruit JACKFRUIT TO BE KERALA'S STATE FRUIT; DECLARATION ON MARCH 21 DATE=17 MARCH 2018 THE INDIAN EXPRESS >AGENCY=PRESS TRUST OF INDIA >ACCESS-DATE=22 MARCH 2018, 50pxPapilio buddhaJACOB TITLE='BUDHA MAYOORI' TO BE NAMED KERALA'S STATE BUTTERFLY WORK=MATHRUBHUMI, en, }}| official_name =}}Kerala ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|É›|r|É™|l|É™}}) is a state on the southwestern Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over {{convert|38863|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}, Kerala is the twenty-third largest Indian state by area. It is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep SeaWEB,weblink Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition, 1953, International Hydrographic Organization, 7 February 2010, to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.WEB,weblink Kerala – Principal Language, 27 November 2018, Government of India, The Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era (CE or AD). The region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, and paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin. They united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala, had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which later became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State (excluding Gudalur taluk of Nilgiris district, Topslip, the Attappadi Forest east of Anakatti), the state of Thiru-Kochi (excluding four southern taluks of Kanyakumari district, Shenkottai and Tenkasi taluks), and the taluk of Kasaragod (now Kasaragod District) in South Canara (Tulunad) which was a part of Madras State.The economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with {{INRConvert|6.86|t}} in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of {{INRConvert|179|k}}. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%; the highest Human Development Index (HDI), 0.712 in 2015 (0.784 in 2018); the highest literacy rate, 93.91% in the 2011 census; the highest life expectancy, 77 years; and the highest sex ratio, 1,084 women per 1,000 men. The state has witnessed significant emigration, especially to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, and its economy depends significantly on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community. Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian, Arab, and European cultures,BOOK,weblink A Survey Of Kerala History, Menon, A. Sreedhara, 1 January 2007, DC Books, 9788126415786, 55, en, harv, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad.The production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew and spices are important. The state's coastline extends for {{convert|595|km|mi}}, and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions.

Etymology

The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from Malayali {{transl|ml|ISO|kera}} 'coconut tree' and {{transl|ml|ISO|alam}} 'land'; thus, 'land of coconuts',BOOK,weblink A Social History of India, 1 January 2000, APH Publishing, 978-81-7648-170-0, 101, S. N. Sadasivan, which is a nickname for the state used by locals due to the abundance of coconut trees.BOOK,weblink Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention, 31 March 2011, Academic Press, 978-0-12-375689-3, 400, Victor R. Preedy, Ronald Ross Watson, Vinood B. Patel, The word Kerala is first recorded as {{transl|sa|ISO|Keralaputra}} in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka (274–237 BCE), one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.WEB,weblink Kerala, Encyclopædia Britannica, 24 January 2019, William A., Noble, The inscription refers to the local ruler as {{transl|sa|ISO|Keralaputra}} (Sanskrit for 'son of Kerala' or 'son of Chera[s]'). This contradicts the theory that {{transl|ml|ISO|kera}} is from 'coconut tree'.BOOK,weblink Political History of Modern Kerala, D C Books, 1987, 978-81-264-2156-5, 13–23, A. Sreedhara Menon, 1 August 2012, At that time, one of three states in the region was called {{transl|ta|ISO|Cheralam}} in Classical Tamil: {{transl|ta|ISO|Chera}} and {{transl|ta|ISO|Kera}} are variants of the same word.BOOK,weblink Cuba y la Casa de Austria, Ediciones Universal, 1972, 120, Nicasio Silverio Sainz, 6 January 2013, The word {{transl|ta|ISO|Cheral}} refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for 'lake'.BOOK, John R. Marr, The Eight Anthologies: A Study in Early Tamil Literature,weblink 1985, Institute of Asian Studies, 263, The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is also mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics. The Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal who is referred to as {{transl|ml|ISO|Manikkam Keralar}}, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple.See Sahyadri Kanda Chapter 7 in Skanda Purana. Rocher, Ludo (1986). The Puranas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. {{ISBN|978-3447025225}}.Who's Who in Madras 1934 {{transl|ta|ISO|Keralam}} may stem from the Classical Tamil {{transl|ta|ISO|cherive-alam}} 'declivity of a hill or a mountain slope'BOOK,weblink Culture and Media: Ecocritical Explorations, 19 June 2014, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 978-1-4438-6190-8, 226, Rayson K. Alex, S. Susan Deborah, Sachindev P.S., or {{transl|ta|ISO|chera alam}} 'land of the Cheras'. The Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Keralaputra as Celobotra.BOOK,weblink A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Or South-Indian Family of Languages, 1 December 1998, Asian Educational Services, 978-81-206-0117-8, 92, Robert Caldwell, 1 August 2012,

History

Mythology

File:Parashurama with axe.jpg|alt=|thumb|left|220px| Portrait of Parashurama by Raja Ravi Varma relating to KeralolpathiKeralolpathiAccording to the Tamil classic Purananuru, the Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas.BOOK, Kerala History and its Makers, Menon, A. Sreedhara, D C Books, 1987, 978-81-264-2199-2, 24, Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it.P. 204 Ancient Indian History By Madhavan Arjunan Pillai According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu (hence, Kerala is also called Parasurama Kshetram 'The Land of Parasurama'S. C. Bhatt, Gopal K. Bhargava (2006) "Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: Volume 14.", p.18). Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari.BOOK, Aiya VN, The Travancore State Manual, Travancore Government Press, 210–212, 1906, 12 November 2007,weblink The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation; so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, who spat holy poison and converted the soil into fertile lush green land. Out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar theorised, that Senguttuvan may have been inspired by the Parasurama legend, which was brought by early Aryan settlers.BOOK, History of the Tamils: From the Earliest Times to 600 A.D., Srinivisa Iyengar, P. T., Asian Educational Services, 1929, 978-81-206-0145-1, Madras, 515, Another much earlier Puranic character associated with Kerala is Mahabali, an Asura and a prototypical just king, who ruled the earth from Kerala. He won the war against the Devas, driving them into exile. The Devas pleaded before Lord Vishnu, who took his fifth incarnation as Vamana and pushed Mahabali down to netherworld to placate the Devas. There is a belief that, once a year during the Onam festival, Mahabali returns to Kerala.BOOK, Robin Rinehart, Contemporary Hinduism: Ritual, Culture, and Practice,weblink 28 July 2012, 2004, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-57607-905-8, 146, The Matsya Purana, among the oldest of the 18 Puranas,BOOK, Goldberg, Ellen, The Lord who is Half Woman: Ardhanārīśvara in Indian and Feminist Perspective,weblink 2002, SUNY Press, 978-0-7914-5325-4, 20, 30 May 2015, BOOK, Kemmerer, Lisa, Animals and World Religions,weblink 2011, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-991255-1, 78, 30 May 2015, uses the Malaya Mountains of Kerala (and Tamil Nadu) as the setting for the story of Matsya, the first incarnation of Vishnu, and Manu, the first man and the king of the region.BOOK, Dalal, Roshen, Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide,weblink 2011, Penguin Books India, 978-0-14-341421-6, 250, 30 May 2015, BOOK, Ragozin, Zenaide A., Vedic India As Embodied Principally in the Rig-veda,weblink 2005, Kessinger Publishing, 978-1-4179-4463-7, 341, 21 March 2013,

Pre-history

{{multiple image|perrow=2|total_width=300|caption_align=centercaption1=A dolmen erected by Neolithic people in Marayur, Kerala, India.caption2=Stone age (6,000 BCE) writings of Edakkal Caves in Kerala.}}A substantial portion of Kerala may have been under the sea in ancient times. Marine fossils have been found in an area near Changanacherry, thus supporting the hypothesis.BOOK, A Sreedhara Menon, A Survey Of Kerala History,weblink 27 July 2012, 1 January 2007, DC Books, 978-81-264-1578-6, 20–21, Pre-historical archaeological findings include dolmens of the Neolithic era in the Marayur area of the Idukki district. They are locally known as "muniyara", derived from muni (hermit or sage) and ara (dolmen).NEWS,weblink Chennai, India, The Hindu, Unlocking the secrets of history, 6 December 2004, 12 November 2015, Rock engravings in the Edakkal Caves, in Wayanad date back to the Neolithic era around 6000 BCE.BOOK, Subodh Kapoor, The Indian Encyclopaedia,weblink 1 August 2012, 1 July 2002, Cosmo Publications, 978-81-7755-257-7, 2184, WEB, Wayanad,weblink kerala.gov.in, Government of Kerala, 12 November 2015, Archaeological studies have identified Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic sites in Kerala.BOOK, Udai Prakash Arora, A. K. Singh, Currents in Indian History, Art, and Archaeology,weblink 6 October 2012, 1 January 1999, Anamika Publishers & Distributors, 978-81-86565-44-5, 116, The studies point to the development of ancient Kerala society and its culture beginning from the Paleolithic Age, through the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic Ages.BOOK, Udai Prakash Arora, A. K. Singh, Currents in Indian History, Art, and Archaeology,weblink 6 October 2012, 1 January 1999, Anamika Publishers & Distributors, 978-81-86565-44-5, 118, 123, Foreign cultural contacts have assisted this cultural formation;BOOK, Udai Prakash Arora, A. K. Singh, Currents in Indian History, Art, and Archaeology,weblink 6 October 2012, 1 January 1999, Anamika Publishers & Distributors, 978-81-86565-44-5, 123, historians suggest a possible relationship with Indus Valley Civilization during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age.NEWS,weblink The Hindu, Symbols akin to Indus valley culture discovered in Kerala, 29 September 2009, 12 November 2015,

Ancient period

{{multiple image| perrow = 2| total_width = 300| caption_align = center| image1 = Travancore Chuckram 1JS.jpg| caption1 = Travancore Fanam| image2 = Padmanabhapuram Palace 5.jpg| caption2 = Padmanabhapuram Palace, presently a World Heritage Site.| align =| direction =| alt1 =}}Kerala has been a major spice exporter since 3000 BCE, according to Sumerian records and it is still referred to as the "Garden of Spices" or as the "Spice Garden of India".NEWS,weblink Kaavya, Pradeep Kumar, The Hindu, Of Kerala, Egypt, and the Spice link, 28 January 2014, 12 November 2015, {{rp|79}} Kerala's spices attracted ancient Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians to the Malabar Coast in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE. Phoenicians established trade with Kerala during this period.BOOK, A Sreedhara Menon, A Survey Of Kerala History,weblink 10 October 2012, 1 January 2007, DC Books, 978-81-264-1578-6, 57–58, The Land of Keralaputra was one of the four independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka's time, the others being Chola, Pandya, and Satiyaputra.BOOK, Vincent A. Smith, A. V. Williams Jackson, History of India, in Nine Volumes: Vol. II – From the Sixth Century BCE to the Mohammedan Conquest, Including the Invasion of Alexander the Great,weblink 1 August 2012, 30 November 2008, Cosimo, Inc., 978-1-60520-492-5, 166, Scholars hold that Keralaputra is an alternate name of the Cheras, the first dominant dynasty based in Kerala.BOOK, The Cambridge Shorter History of India,weblink 10 October 2012, CUP Archive, 193, GGKEY:2W0QHXZ7K40, BOOK, Bhanwar Lal Dwivedi, Evolution of Education Thought in India,weblink 10 October 2012, 1 January 1994, Northern Book Centre, 978-81-7211-059-8, 164, These territories once shared a common language and culture, within an area known as Tamilakam.BOOK, Kanakasabhai, V., The Tamils Eighteen Hundred Years Ago,weblink 1997, Asian Educational Services, 978-81-206-0150-5, 16 June 2009, Along with the Ay kingdom in the south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north, the Cheras formed the ruling kingdoms of Kerala in the early years of the Common Era (CE).{{sfn|Menon|2007|p=65}} It is noted in Sangam literature that the Chera king Uthiyan Cheralathan ruled most of modern Kerala from his capital in Kuttanad,BOOK, Singh, Upinder, A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century,weblink 10 October 2012, 2008, Pearson Education India, 978-81-317-1677-9, 384, harv, BOOK, Sen, Sailendra, A Textbook of Medieval Indian History, Primus Books, 2013, 978-9-38060-734-4, 60–61, and controlled the port of Muziris, but its southern tip was in the kingdom of Pandyas,{{sfn|Singh|2008|p=385}} which had a trading port sometimes identified in ancient Western sources as Nelcynda (or Neacyndi) in Quilon.BOOK,weblink History of ancient geography – Google Books, James Oliver Thomson, Biblo & Tannen Publishers, 1948, 30 July 2009, 978-0-8196-0143-8, 1948, The lesser known Ays and Mushikas kingdoms lay to the south and north of the Chera regions respectively.BOOK, S. S. Shashi, Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh,weblink 10 October 2012, 1996, Anmol Publications, 978-81-7041-859-7, 1207, BOOK, Murkot Ramunny, Ezhimala: The Abode of the Naval Academy,weblink 10 October 2012, 1 January 1993, Northern Book Centre, 978-81-7211-052-9, 3, In the last centuries BCE the coast became important to the Greeks and Romans for its spices, especially black pepper. The Cheras had trading links with China, West Asia, Egypt, Greece, and the Roman Empire.Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161227045308weblink |date=27 December 2016 }} Ed. by Edward Balfour (1871), Second Edition. Volume 2. p. 584. In foreign-trade circles the region was known as Male or Malabar.WEB,weblink Malaya: What's in the name, siamese-heritage.org, 7 August 2012, Joseph Minattur, 1, Muziris, Berkarai, and Nelcynda were among the principal ports at that time.BOOK, K. K. Kusuman, A History of Trade & Commerce in Travancore, Mittal Publications, 1987, 978-81-7099-026-0,weblink 1–2, 30 May 2015, The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces;According to Pliny the Elder, goods from India were sold in the Empire at 100 times their original purchase price. See weblink" title="https:/-/web.archive.org/web/20131106031753weblink">weblink contemporary Sangam literature describes Roman ships coming to Muziris in Kerala, laden with gold to exchange for pepper. One of the earliest western traders to use the monsoon winds to reach Kerala was Eudoxus of Cyzicus, around 118 or 166 BCE, under the patronage of Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. Roman establishments in the port cities of the region, such as a temple of Augustus and barracks for garrisoned Roman soldiers, are marked in the Tabula Peutingeriana, the only surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus.BOOK, Abraham Eraly, The First Spring: The Golden Age of India,weblink 7 August 2012, 1 December 2011, Penguin Books India, 978-0-670-08478-4, 246–, BOOK, Iyengar PTS, 2001, History Of The Tamils: From the Earliest Times to 600 A.D., Asian Educational Services, 978-81-206-0145-1,weblink 29 December 2008, Merchants from West Asia and Southern Europe established coastal posts and settlements in Kerala.BOOK, Iyengar PTS, 2001, History Of The Tamils: From the Earliest Times to 600 A.D., Asian Educational Services, 978-81-206-0145-1,weblink 192–195, 29 December 2008, The Israeli (Jewish) connection with Kerala started in 573 BCE.The Israelis (Jews) of India: A Story of Three Communities {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161226115854weblink |date=26 December 2016 }} by Orpa Slapak. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. 2003. p. 27. {{ISBN|965–278–179–7}}.BOOK, David D'Beth Hillel, The Travels of Rabbi David D'Beth Hillel: From Jerusalem, Through Arabia, Koordistan, Part of Persia, and Indudasam (India) to Madras,weblink 1832, author, 135, BOOK, The Jews in India and the Far East,weblink 1976, Greenwood Press, 24–26, 9780837126159, Arabs also had trade links with Kerala, starting before the 4th century BCE, as Herodotus (484–413 BCE) noted that goods brought by Arabs from Kerala were sold to the Israelis [Hebrew (Jews)] at Eden. In the 4th century, the Knanaya or Southist Christians also migrated from Persia and lived along side the early Syriac Christian community known as the St. Thomas Christians who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 5 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161226115908weblink |date=26 December 2016 }} by Erwin Fahlbusch. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing – 2008. p. 285. {{ISBN|978-0-8028-2417-2}}.BOOK, Geoffrey Wainwright, The Oxford History Of Christian Worship, Oxford University Press, 2006, 978-0-19-513886-3,weblink 666, 30 May 2015, Mappila was an honorific title that had been assigned to respected visitors from abroad; Israelite (Jewish), Syrian Christian, and Muslim immigration account for later names of the respective communities: Juda Mappilas, Nasrani Mappilas and Muslim Mappilas.* Bindu Malieckal (2005) Muslims, Matriliny, and A Midsummer Night's Dream: European Encounters with the Mappilas of Malabar, India; The Muslim World Volume 95 Issue 2BOOK, Milton J, Skeat WW, Pollard AW, Brown L, The Indian Christians of St Thomas, Cambridge University Press, 31 August 1982, 978-0-521-21258-8, 171, The earliest Saint Thomas Christian Churches,BOOK, Susan Bayly, Saints, Goddesses and Kings, Cambridge University Press, 2004, 978-0-521-89103-5,weblink 40, 30 May 2015, Cheraman Jumu'ah Masjid (traditionally dated to "629 CE" by the Mappilas)—regarded as "the first mosque of India"BOOK, Jonathan Goldstein, The Jews of China, M.E. Sharpe, 1999, 978-0-7656-0104-9,weblink 123, 30 May 2015, —and Paradesi Synagogue (1568 CE)—the oldest active synagogue in the Commonwealth of NationsBOOK, Nathan Katz, Who Are the Jews of India?, University of California Press, 2000, 978-0-520-21323-4,weblink 245, 30 May 2015, —were built in Kerala.BOOK, Rolland E. Miller, Hindu-Christian Dialogue: Perspectives and Encounters, Motilal Banarsidass Publications, 1993, 978-81-208-1158-4,weblink 50,

Early medieval period

File:3rd Tiruvalla Copper Plate.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Tharisapalli plates granted to Saint Thomas Christians by South Indian Chera ruler Sthanu Ravi Varma testify that merchant guilds and trade corporations played a very significant role in the economy and social life during the Kulasekhara period of Kerala, IndiaKerala, IndiaA second Chera Kingdom (c. 800–1102), also known as Kulasekhara dynasty of Mahodayapuram (present-day Kodungallur), was established by Kulasekhara Varman, which ruled over a territory comprising the whole of modern Kerala and a smaller part of modern Tamil Nadu. During the early part of the Kulasekara period, the southern region from Nagercoil to Thiruvalla was ruled by Ay kings, who lost their power in the 10th century, making the region a part of the Kulasekara empire.BOOK, K. Balachandran Nayar, In quest of Kerala,weblink 8 August 2012, 1974, Accent Publications, 86, BOOK, A Sreedhara Menon, A Survey Of Kerala History,weblink 8 August 2012, 1 January 2007, DC Books, 978-81-264-1578-6, 97, Under Kulasekhara rule, Kerala witnessed a developing period of art, literature, trade and the Bhakti movement of Hinduism.BOOK, A Sreedhara Menon, A Survey Of Kerala History,weblink 8 August 2012, 1 January 2007, DC Books, 978-81-264-1578-6, 123–131, A Keralite identity, distinct from the Tamils, became linguistically separate during this period around the seventh century.BOOK, R Asher, Malayalam,weblink 11 October 2013, Routledge, 978-1-136-10084-0, Introduction p.xxiv, For local administration, the empire was divided into provinces under the rule of Naduvazhis, with each province comprising a number of Desams under the control of chieftains, called as Desavazhis.The inhibitions, caused by a series of Chera-Chola wars in the 11th century, resulted in the decline of foreign trade in Kerala ports. In addition, Portuguese invasions in the 15th century caused two major religions, Buddhism and Jainism, to disappear from the land. It is known that the Menons in the Malabar region of Kerala were originally strong believers of Jainism.WEB,weblink The Buddhist History of Kerala, Kerala.cc, 25 September 2013, The social system became fractured with divisions on caste lines.BOOK, A Sreedhara Menon, A Survey Of Kerala History,weblink 9 August 2012, 1 January 2007, DC Books, 978-81-264-1578-6, 138, Finally, the Kulasekhara dynasty was subjugated in 1102 by the combined attack of Later Pandyas and Later Cholas. However, in the 14th century, Ravi Varma Kulashekhara (1299–1314) of the southern Venad kingdom was able to establish a short-lived supremacy over southern India. After his death, in the absence of a strong central power, the state was divided into thirty small warring principalities; the most powerful of them were the kingdom of Samuthiri in the north, Venad in the south and Kochi in the middle. In the 18th Century, Travancore King Sree Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma annexed all the kingdoms up to Northern Kerala through military conquests, resulting in the rise of Travancore to pre-eminence in Kerala. The Kochi ruler sued for peace with Anizham Thirunal and Malabar came under direct British rule until India became independent.BOOK, Educational Britannica Educational, The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places,weblink 15 September 2012, 15 August 2010, The Rosen Publishing Group, 978-1-61530-202-4, 311, WEB, The Territories and States of India,weblink Europa, 14 April 2012, 2002, 144–146,

Colonial era

The maritime spice trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean (Indu Maha Samundr) stayed with the Arabs during the High and Late Middle Ages. However, the dominance of Middle East traders was challenged in the European Age of Discovery. After Vasco Da Gama's arrival in Kappad Kozhikode in 1498, the Portuguese began to dominate eastern shipping, and the spice-trade in particular.BOOK, Charles Corn, 1999, First published 1998, The Scents of Eden: A History of the Spice Trade, Kodansha America, 4–5, 978-1-56836-249-6, BOOK, PN Ravindran, 2000, Black Pepper: Piper Nigrum, CRC Press,weblink 3, 978-90-5702-453-5, 11 November 2007, BOOK, Philip D. Curtin, 1984, Cross-Cultural Trade in World History,weblink Cambridge University Press, 144, 978-0-521-26931-5, The Zamorin of Kozhikode permitted the new visitors to trade with his subjects such that Portuguese trade in Kozhikode prospered with the establishment of a factory and a fort. However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Zamorin and led to conflicts between them. The Portuguese took advantage of the rivalry between the Zamorin and the King of Kochi allied with Kochi. When Francisco de Almeida was appointed as Viceroy of Portuguese India in 1505, his headquarters was established at Fort Kochi (Fort Emmanuel) rather than in Kozhikode. During his reign, the Portuguese managed to dominate relations with Kochi and established a few fortresses on the Malabar Coast.BOOK, J. L. Mehta, 2005, Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707–1813,weblink 9 August 2012, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 978-1-932705-54-6, 324–327, Fort St Angelo or St. Angelo Fort was built in 1505 by the Portuguese in Kannur. However, the Portuguese suffered setbacks from attacks by Zamorin forces; especially from naval attacks under the leadership Kozhikode admirals known as Kunjali Marakkars, which compelled them to seek a treaty. In 1571, the Portuguese were defeated by the Zamorin forces in the battle at Chaliyam fort.BOOK, K. K. N. Kurup, 1997, India's Naval Traditions: The Role of Kunhali Marakkars,weblink 9 August 2012, Northern Book Centre, 978-81-7211-083-3, 37–38, {{multiple image| align = left| image1 = Gama route 1.svg| width1 = 200| alt1 =| caption1 = The route followed in Vasco da Gama's first voyage (1497–1499).| image2 = De Lannoy Surrender.JPG| width2 = 215| alt2 =| caption2 = Eustachius De Lannoy of the Dutch East India Company surrenders to Maharaja Marthanda Varma of the Kingdom of Travancore after the Battle of Colachel. (Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace)| footer =}}The Portuguese were ousted by the Dutch East India Company, who during the conflicts between the Kozhikode and the Kochi, gained control of the trade.BOOK, South Asia 2006,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 December 2005, Taylor & Francis, 289, The Dutch in turn were weakened by constant battles with Marthanda Varma of the Travancore Royal Family, and were defeated at the Battle of Colachel in 1741.BOOK, Murkot Ramunny, 1993, Ezhimala: The Abode of the Naval Academy,weblink 18 November 2012, Northern Book Centre, 978-81-7211-052-9, 57–70, An agreement, known as "Treaty of Mavelikkara", was signed by the Dutch and Travancore in 1753, according to which the Dutch were compelled to detach from all political involvement in the region.BOOK, Anjana Singh, Fort Kochi in Kerala, 1750–1830: The Social Condition of a Dutch Community in an Indian Milieu,weblink 18 November 2012, 30 April 2010, BRILL, 978-90-04-16816-9, 22–52, BOOK, S. Krishna Iyer, Travancore Dutch relations, 1729–1741,weblink 18 November 2012, 1995, CBH Publications, 978-81-85381-42-8, 49, BOOK, Mark de Lannoy, The Kulasekhara Perumals of Travancore: history and state formation in Travancore from 1671 to 1758,weblink 18 November 2012, 1997, Leiden University, 978-90-73782-92-1, 190, Marthanda Varma annexed northern kingdoms through military conquests, resulting in the rise of Travancore to a position of preeminence in Kerala.BOOK, A. Sreedhara Menon, Political History of Modern Kerala,weblink 10 August 2012, 1987, D C Books, 978-81-264-2156-5, 140, File:Palace of Trivandrum.jpg|alt=|thumb|220x220px|Kowdiar PalaceKowdiar PalaceIn 1766, Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore invaded northern Kerala.BOOK, Raghunath Rai, History,weblink 18 November 2012, FK Publications, 978-81-87139-69-0, 14–, His son and successor, Tipu Sultan, launched campaigns against the expanding British East India Company, resulting in two of the four Anglo-Mysore Wars.BOOK, British Museum, Anna Libera Dallapiccola, South Indian Paintings: A Catalogue of the British Museum Collection,weblink 18 November 2012, 22 June 2010, Mapin Publishing Pvt Ltd, 978-0-7141-2424-7, 12–, BOOK, Edgar Thorpe, Showick Thorpe, Thorpe Edgar, The Pearson CSAT Manual 2011,weblink 18 November 2012, Pearson Education India, 978-81-317-5830-4, 99, Tipu ultimately ceded the Malabar District and South Kanara to the company in the 1790s; both were annexed to the Madras Presidency of British India in 1792.BOOK, The Edinburgh Gazetteer,weblink 18 November 2012, 1827, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 63–, BOOK, Dharma Kumar, Land and Caste in South India: Agricultural Labor in the Madras Presidency During the Nineteenth Century,weblink 18 November 2012, 1965, CUP Archive, 87–, GGKEY:T72DPF9AZDK, BOOK, K.P. Ittaman, History of Mughal Architecture Volume Ii,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 June 2003, Abhinav Publications, 978-81-7017-034-1, 30–, The company forged tributary alliances with Kochi in 1791 and Travancore in 1795.BOOK, Superintendent of Government Printing, Imperial Gazetteer of India (Provincial Series): Madras, Government of India, Calcutta, 1908, 11 November 2007,weblink 22, By the end of 18th century, the whole of Kerala fell under the control of the British, either administered directly or under suzerainty.BOOK, Kakkadan Nandanath Raj, Michael Tharakan, Rural Employment Policy Research Programme, Agrarian reform in Kerala and its impact on the rural economy: a preliminary assessment,weblink 18 November 2012, 1981, International Labour Office, 2–3, There were major revolts in Kerala during the independence movement in the 20th century; most notable among them is the 1921 Malabar Rebellion and the social struggles in Travancore. In the Malabar Rebellion, Mappila Muslims of Malabar rioted against Hindu zamindars and the British Raj.BOOK, M. Naeem Qureshi, Pan-Islam in British Indian Politics: A Study of the Khilafat Movement, 1918–1924,weblink 1999, BRILL, 978-90-04-11371-8, 445–447, Some social struggles against caste inequalities also erupted in the early decades of 20th century, leading to the 1936 Temple Entry Proclamation that opened Hindu temples in Travancore to all castes.BOOK, Bardwell L. Smith, Religion and Social Conflict in South Asia,weblink 31 July 2012, 1976, BRILL, 978-90-04-04510-1, 35–42,

Post-colonial period

After India was partitioned in 1947 into India and Pakistan, Travancore and Kochi, part of the Union of India were merged on 1 July 1949 to form Travancore-Cochin.BOOK, Gopa Sabharwal, India Since 1947: The Independent Years,weblink 18 November 2012, 2007, Penguin Books India, 978-0-14-310274-8, 23–, On 1 November 1956, the taluk of Kasargod in the South Kanara district of Madras, the Malabar district of Madras, and Travancore-Cochin, without four southern taluks (which joined Tamil Nadu), merged to form the state of Kerala under the States Reorganisation Act.BOOK, Nossiter, Thomas Johnson, Communism in Kerala: A Study in Political Adaptation, 1982, University of California Press, 9780520046672, 12,weblink en, BOOK, Sarina Singh, Amy Karafin, Anirban Mahapatra, South India,weblink 6 January 2013, 1 September 2009, Lonely Planet, 978-1-74179-155-6, A Communist-led government under E. M. S. Namboodiripad resulted from the first elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1957. It was one of the earliest elected Communist governments, after Communist success in the 1945 elections in the Republic of San Marino.NEWS, 50 years of development,weblink 30 August 2013, The Hindu, 12 April 2007, K.G. Kumar, BOOK, Manali Desai, State Formation and Radical Democracy in India,weblink 31 August 2013, 27 November 2006, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-203-96774-4, 142, BOOK, Madan Gopal Chitkara, Baṃśī Rāma Śarmā, Indian Republic: Issues and Perspective,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 January 1997, APH Publishing, 978-81-7024-836-1, 134–, His government helped distribute land and implement educational reforms.

Geography

{{Multiple image
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|image1 = Anamudi from Munnar Gundumalai road.jpg
|caption1 = Anamudi, on the right, as seen from the Munnar-Udumalpettai highway
|image2 = Kettuvellam vembanad lake.JPG
|caption2 = Vembanad, the largest lake in Kerala
}}The state is wedged between the Lakshadweep Sea and the Western Ghats. Lying between northern latitudes 8°18' and 12°48' and eastern longitudes 74°52' and 77°22',WEB, PHYSICAL AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF WOOD OF SOME LESS-KNOWN TREE SPECIES OF KERALA,weblink KERALA FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE, Government of Kerala, 18 November 2012, Kerala experiences humid tropical rainforest climate with some cyclones. The state has a coast of {{convert|590|km|mi|abbr=on}}WEB, Marine Fisheries,weblink fisheries.kerala.gov.in, Department of Fisheries, Government of Kerala, 13 November 2015, and the width of the state varies between {{convert|11|and|121|km|mi|0}}.BOOK, V. Balakrishnan Nair, Social Development and Demographic Changes in South India: Focus on Kerala,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 January 1994, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd., 978-81-85880-50-1, 15, Geographically, Kerala can be divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands; rugged and cool mountainous terrain, the central mid-lands; rolling hills, and the western lowlands; coastal plains.BOOK, Srikumar Chattopadhyay, Richard W. Franke, Striving for Sustainability: Environmental Stress and Democratic Initiatives in Kerala,weblink 19 March 2019, 2006, 978-81-8069-294-9, {{rp|110}} Pre-Cambrian and Pleistocene geological formations compose the bulk of Kerala's terrain.BOOK, Geological Survey Water-supply Paper,weblink 19 March 2019, 1961, U.S. Government Printing Office, 4, BOOK, Pradeep Sharma, Y. Dharnai Kumari, Tirunagaram Lakshmamma, Status Of Women And Family Planning,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 January 2008, Discovery Publishing House, 978-81-8356-326-0, 217, A catastrophic flood in Kerala in 1341 CE drastically modified its terrain and consequently affected its history; it also created a natural harbour for spice transport.BOOK, Murdoch Books Pty Limited, Murdoch Books Test Kitchen, India,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 July 2010, Murdoch Books, 978-1-74196-438-7, 100, The eastern region of Kerala consists of high mountains, gorges and deep-cut valleys immediately west of the Western Ghats' rain shadow.{{rp|110}} 41 of Kerala's west-flowing rivers,BOOK, S. N. Sadasivan, River Disputes in India: Kerala Rivers Under Siege,weblink 18 November 2012, 2003, Mittal Publications, 978-81-7099-913-3, 223, and 3 of its east-flowing ones originate in this region.BOOK, Pratiyogita Darpan, Pratiyogita Darpan,weblink 18 November 2012, September 2006, Pratiyogita Darpan, 72, BOOK, Motilal (UK) Books of India, Tourist Guide Kerala,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 February 2008, Sura Books, 978-81-7478-164-2, 11, The Western Ghats form a wall of mountains interrupted only near Palakkad; hence also known Palghat, where the Palakkad Gap breaks.WEB, Chandran Nair, Dr.S.Sathis, INDIA – SILENT VALLEY RAINFOREST UNDER THREAT ONCE MORE,weblink rainforestinfo.org.au, 12 November 2015, The Western Ghats rise on average to {{convert|1,500|m|ft|lk=out|abbr=off}} above sea level,BOOK, M.R. Biju, Sustainable Dimensions Of Tourism Management,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 January 2006, Mittal Publications, 978-81-8324-129-8, 63, while the highest peaks reach around {{convert|2,500|m|ft|abbr=off}}.BOOK, Hussain, Geography Of India For Civil Ser Exam,weblink 18 November 2012, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 978-0-07-066772-3, 2, Anamudi in the Idukki district is the highest peak in south India, is at an elevation of {{convert|2,695|m|abbr=on}}.BOOK, Hunter, William Wilson, James Sutherland Cotton, Richard Burn, William Stevenson Meyer, Great Britain India Office,weblink The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 11, Clarendon Press, 1909, 16 May 2015, imp,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081216124143weblink">weblink 16 December 2008, no, The Western Ghats mountain chain is recognised as one of the world's eight "hottest hotspots" of biological diversity and is listed among UNESCO World Heritage Sites.NEWS,weblink UN designates Western Ghats as world heritage site, Times of India, 2 July 2012, 27 November 2018, The chain's forests are considered to be older than the Himalaya mountains.Kerala's western coastal belt is relatively flat compared to the eastern region,{{rp|33}} and is criss-crossed by a network of interconnected brackish canals, lakes, estuaries,BOOK, Danny Moss, Public Relations Cases: International Perspectives,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 September 2010, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-415-77336-2, 41, and rivers known as the Kerala Backwaters.BOOK, Edgar Thorpe, The Pearson CSAT Manual 2012,weblink 18 November 2012, 2012, Pearson Education India, 978-81-317-6734-4, 3, The state's largest lake Vembanad, dominates the backwaters; it lies between Alappuzha and Kochi and is about {{convert|200|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} in area.BOOK, Majid Husain, Understanding: Geographical: Map Entries: for Civil Services Examinations: Second Edition,weblink 18 November 2012, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 978-0-07-070288-2, 9, 2011, Around eight percent of India's waterways are found in Kerala.JOURNAL, Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI—Ministry of Shipping), 2005, Introduction to Inland Water Transport, IWAI (Ministry of Shipping),weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20050204175110weblink">weblink yes, 4 February 2005, 19 January 2006, Kerala's 44 rivers include the Periyar; {{convert|244|km|mi|0}}, Bharathapuzha; {{convert|209|km|mi|0}}, Pamba; {{convert|176|km|mi|0}}, Chaliyar; {{convert|169|km|mi|0}}, Kadalundipuzha; {{convert|130|km|mi|0}}, Chalakudipuzha; {{convert|130|km|mi|0}}, Valapattanam; {{convert|129|km|mi|0}} and the Achankovil River; {{convert|128|km|mi|0}}. The average length of the rivers is {{convert|64|km|mi|0}}. Many of the rivers are small and entirely fed by monsoon rain.BOOK, India., Planning Commission, Kerala Development Report, 2008, Academic Foundation, 978-81-7188-594-7, 224,weblink As Kerala's rivers are small and lacking in delta, they are more prone to environmental effects. The rivers face problems such as sand mining and pollution.Padmalal D, Maya K, Sreebha S & Sreeja R, 2007, Environmental effects of river sand mining: a case from the river catchments of Vembanad lake, Southwest coast of India, Environmental Geology 54(4), 879–889. weblink" title="archive.today/20130111085817weblink">springerlink.com. Retrieved 17 July 2009. The state experiences several natural hazards like landslides, floods and droughts. The state was also affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami,BOOK, M.K. Jha, Natural and Anthropogenic Disasters: Vulnerability, Preparedness and Mitigation,weblink 18 November 2012, 24 November 2010, Springer, 978-90-481-2497-8, 81, and in 2018 received the worst flooding in nearly a century.NEWS,weblink Worst floods in nearly a century kill 44 in India's Kerala state amid torrential monsoon rains, Baynes, Chris, 15 August 2018, The Independent, 16 August 2018,

Climate

With around 120–140 rainy days per year,JOURNAL, Chacko, T., Renuka, G., 2002, Temperature mapping, thermal diffusivity and subsoil heat flux at Kariavattom, Kerala, Proc Indian Acad Sci (Earth Planet Sci), 111, 1, 79, harv, Kariavattom, 2002InEPS.111...79T, 10.1007/BF02702224, {{rp|80}} Kerala has a wet and maritime tropical climate influenced by the seasonal heavy rains of the southwest summer monsoon and northeast winter monsoon.BOOK, Planning Commission, India, Kerala Development Report,weblink Academic Foundation, 2007, 978-81-7188-594-7, 223, 30 May 2015, Around 65% of the rainfall occurs from June to August corresponding to the Southwest monsoon, and the rest from September to December corresponding to Northeast monsoon. The moisture-laden winds of the Southwest monsoon, on reaching the southernmost point of the Indian Peninsula, because of its topography, divides into two branches; the "Arabian Sea Branch" and the "Bay of Bengal Branch".BOOK, RK Jain, Geography 10,weblink 18 November 2012, Ratna Sagar, 978-81-8332-081-8, 110, The "Arabian Sea Branch" of the Southwest monsoon first hits the Western Ghats,BOOK, Together with Social Science Term II,weblink 18 November 2012, Rachna Sagar, 978-81-8137-399-1, 112, making Kerala the first state in India to receive rain from the Southwest monsoon.BOOK, Edgar Thorpe, Showick Thorpe, Thorpe Edgar, The Pearson CSAT Manual 2011,weblink 18 November 2012, Pearson Education India, 978-81-317-5830-4, 7, BOOK, N.N. Kher, Jaideep Aggarwal, A Text Book of Social Sciences,weblink 18 November 2012, Pitambar Publishing, 978-81-209-1466-7, 5, The distribution of pressure patterns is reversed in the Northeast monsoon, during this season the cold winds from North India pick up moisture from the Bay of Bengal and precipitate it on the east coast of peninsular India.BOOK, Sarina Singh, Amy Karafin, Anirban Mahapatra, South India,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 September 2009, Lonely Planet, 978-1-74179-155-6, 15, BOOK, S.V. Jeevananda Reddy, Climate Change: Myths and Realities,weblink 18 November 2012, Jeevananda Reddy, 71, GGKEY:WDFHBL1XHK3, In Kerala, the influence of the Northeast monsoon is seen in southern districts only.BOOK, Rao, Agricultural Meteorology,weblink PHI Learning, 2008, 978-81-203-3338-3, 173–174, 30 May 2015, Kerala's rainfall averages 2,923 mm (115 in) annually.WEB,weblink Hydromet Division Updated/Real Time Maps, India Meteorological Department, 21 October 2014, Some of Kerala's drier lowland regions average only 1,250 mm (49 in); the mountains of the eastern Idukki district receive more than 5,000 mm (197 in) of orographic precipitation: the highest in the state. In eastern Kerala, a drier tropical wet and dry climate prevails. During the summer, the state is prone to gale-force winds, storm surges, cyclone-related torrential downpours, occasional droughts, and rises in sea level.JOURNAL, Brenkert, A., Malone, E., 2003, Vulnerability and resilience of India and Indian states to climate change: a first-order approximation, Joint Global Change Research Institute, harv, {{rp|26, 46, 52}} The mean daily temperature ranges from 19.8 Â°C to 36.7 Â°C.WEB, Sudha, T. M., Opportunities in participatory planning to Evolve a Landuse Policy for Western Ghats Region in Kerala,weblink Department of Town and Country Planning, Kerala, 14, 18 January 2015, Mean annual temperatures range from 25.0–27.5 Â°C in the coastal lowlands to 20.0–22.5 Â°C in the eastern highlands.{{rp|65}}{{Weather box|location = Kerala|metric first = Yes|single line = Yes|Jan high C = 30|Feb high C = 31|Mar high C = 32|Apr high C = 34|May high C = 34|Jun high C = 30|Jul high C = 29|Aug high C = 29|Sep high C = 29|Oct high C = 30|Nov high C = 30|Dec high C = 31|year high C = 34|Jan low C = 22|Feb low C = 23|Mar low C = 24|Apr low C = 25|May low C = 25|Jun low C = 24|Jul low C = 23|Aug low C = 23|Sep low C = 23|Oct low C = 23|Nov low C = 23|Dec low C = 22|year low C = 22|rain colour=|Jan rain mm = 8.7|Feb rain mm = 14.7|Mar rain mm = 30.4|Apr rain mm = 109.5|May rain mm = 239.8|Jun rain mm = 649.8|Jul rain mm = 726.1|Aug rain mm = 419.5|Sep rain mm = 244.2|Oct rain mm = 292.3|Nov rain mm = 150.9|Dec rain mm = 37.5|source 1 =|date=May 2012}}

Flora and fauna

Most of the biodiversity is concentrated and protected in the Western Ghats. Three quarters of the land area of Kerala was under thick forest up to 18th century.WEB,weblink History, 12 August 2015, Kerala forests and wildlife department, {{As of|2004}}, over 25% of India's 15,000 plant species are in Kerala. Out of the 4,000 flowering plant species; 1,272 of which are endemic to Kerala, 900 are medicinal, and 159 are threatened.JOURNAL, Sreedharan TP, 2004, Biological Diversity of Kerala: A survey of Kalliasseri panchayat, Kannur district, Centre for Development Studies,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090326054155weblink">weblink 26 March 2009, 28 December 2008, harv, {{rp|11}} Its 9,400 km2 of forests include tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests (lower and middle elevations—3,470 km2), tropical moist and dry deciduous forests (mid-elevations—4,100 km2 and 100 km2, respectively), and montane subtropical and temperate (shola) forests (highest elevations—100 km2). Altogether, 24% of Kerala is forested.{{rp|12}} Three of the world's Ramsar Convention listed wetlands—Lake Sasthamkotta, Ashtamudi Lake and the Vembanad-Kol wetlands—are in Kerala, as well as 1455.4 km2 of the vast Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Subjected to extensive clearing for cultivation in the 20th century,JOURNAL, Jayarajan M, 2004, Sacred Groves of North Malabar, Centre for Development Studies,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090326054142weblink">weblink 26 March 2009, 28 December 2008, harv, {{rp|6–7}} much of the remaining forest cover is now protected from clearfelling.BOOK, Julian Evans, The Forests Handbook, Applying Forest Science for Sustainable Management,weblink 18 November 2012, 13 June 2008, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-470-75683-6, 235, Eastern Kerala's windward mountains shelter tropical moist forests and tropical dry forests, which are common in the Western Ghats.BOOK, R. P. Singh, Zubairul Islam, Environmental Studies,weblink 18 November 2012, Concept Publishing Company, 978-81-8069-774-6, 172, 2012, BOOK, Alexandra Anna Enrica van der Geer, Animals in Stone: Indian Mammals Sculptured Through Time,weblink 18 November 2012, 2008, BRILL, 978-90-04-16819-0, 7, The world's oldest teak plantation 'Conolly's Plot' is in Nilambur.World's oldest teak trees dying in KeralaKerala's fauna are notable for their diversity and high rates of endemism: it includes 118 species of mammals (1 endemic), 500 species of birds, 189 species of freshwater fish, 173 species of reptiles (10 of them endemic), and 151 species of amphibians (36 endemic).A checklist of the vertebrates of Kerala State, India | Nameer | Journal of Threatened Taxa {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161007224232weblink |date=7 October 2016 }} These are threatened by extensive habitat destruction, including soil erosion, landslides, salinisation, and resource extraction. In the forests, sonokeling, Dalbergia latifolia, anjili, mullumurikku, Erythrina, and Cassia number among the more than 1,000 species of trees in Kerala. Other plants include bamboo, wild black pepper, wild cardamom, the calamus rattan palm, and aromatic vetiver grass, Vetiveria zizanioides.{{rp|12}} Indian elephant, Bengal tiger, Indian leopard, Nilgiri tahr, common palm civet, and grizzled giant squirrels are also found in the forests.{{rp|12, 174–175}} Reptiles include the king cobra, viper, python, and mugger crocodile. Kerala's birds include the Malabar trogon, the great hornbill, Kerala laughingthrush, darter and southern hill myna. In the lakes, wetlands, and waterways, fish such as Kadu, Red Line Torpedo Barb and choottachi; orange chromide—Etroplus maculatus are found.BOOK, Institute, Kerala Forest Research, Biodiversity Documentation for Kerala: Freshwater fishes, 2003, Kerala Forest Research Institute, 9788185041544,weblink en, {{rp|163–165}}{{clear}}File:Periyar Thekkady.jpg|Elephants at ThekkadyFile:Nilgiri Tahr Mountain Goat.jpg|Nilgiri tahrHaliastur indus -Cherai Beach, Kochi, Kerala, India-8.jpg|Brahminy kiteFile:Rhacophorus malabaricus.jpg|Rhacophorus malabaricusFile:Pdenisonii.jpg|Miss Kerala barbFile:Neelakurinji (Strobilanthes Kunthiana).jpg|Neelakurinji

Subdivisions

(File:Kerala density map1.PNG|thumb|230px|District population densities){{See also|History of local governance in Kerala}}The state's 14 districts are distributed among six regions: North Malabar (far-north Kerala), South Malabar (northern Kerala), Kochi (central Kerala), Northern Travancore, Central Travancore (southern Kerala) and Southern Travancore (far-south Kerala). The districts which serve as administrative regions for taxation purposes are further subdivided into 75 taluks, which have fiscal and administrative powers over settlements within their borders, including maintenance of local land records. Kerala's taluks are further sub-divided into 1,453 revenue villages.Since the 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution of India, the local government institutions function as the third tier of government, which constitutes 14 District Panchayats, 152 Block Panchayats, 978 Grama Panchayats, 60 Municipalities, six Corporations and one Township.WEB, Local Self Governance in Kerala,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110209052547weblink">weblink yes, 9 February 2011, Government of Kerala, 30 May 2015, Mahé, a part of the Indian union territory of Puducherry,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040616075334weblink">weblink 16 June 2004, Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional), 1 November 2008, Census Commission of India, though {{convert|647|km}} away from it,BOOK, Dezan Shira, Associates., Doing Business in India,weblink 18 November 2012, 30 April 2012, Springer, 978-3-642-27618-7, 313–, is a coastal exclave surrounded by Kerala on all of its landward approaches. The Kannur District surrounds Mahé on three sides with the Kozhikode District on the fourth.BOOK, D Banerjea, N. R. Madhava Menon, Criminal Justice India Series, Vol. 20,weblink 18 November 2012, 2002, Allied Publishers, 978-81-7764-871-3, 9–, There are six Municipal corporations in Kerala that govern Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Kochi, Thrissur, Kozhikode and Kannur.WEB, Kerala Sustainable Urban Development Project,weblink Local Self Government Department, The Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation is the largest corporation in Kerala while Kochi metropolitan area named Kochi UA is the largest urban agglomeration.WEB, CITY INFORMATION,weblink Cochin International Airport, Government of Kerala, 18 November 2012, According to a survey by economics research firm Indicus Analytics in 2007, Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Kozhikode, Thrissur, Kochi and Kannur are among the "best cities in India to live"; the survey used parameters such as health, education, environment, safety, public facilities and entertainment to rank the cities.NEWS, Cities best to earn a living are not the best to live: Survey,weblink The Times of India, 26 November 2007,

Government and administration

{{See also|Political activism in Kerala|Political parties in Kerala}}{{Multiple image
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|image1 = High Court of Kerala Building.jpg
|caption1 = The Kerala High Court complex in Kochi.
|image2 = Kerala Government Secretariat.jpg
|caption2 = The Kerala Secretariat in Thiruvananthapuram – seat of executive administration of Kerala, and formerly of the legislative assembly
|image3 = Kerala Legislative Assembly, Thiruvananthapuram.jpg
|caption3 = The Kerala Legislative Assembly Building in Thiruvananthapuram
}}Kerala hosts two major political alliances: the United Democratic Front (UDF), led by the Indian National Congress; and the Left Democratic Front (LDF), led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)). {{As of|2016}}, the LDF is the ruling coalition; Pinarayi Vijayan of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) is the Chief Minister, while Ramesh Chennithala of the UDF is the Leader of Opposition. Strikes, protests and marches are ubiquitous in Kerala because of the comparatively strong presence of labour unions.NEWS, Protest against frequent strikes, The Hindu, 5 July 2005, 26 November 2007,weblink Chennai, India, Trade Associations in Kerala: Their functioning and implications, S. Muralidharan, Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, 2004 According to the Constitution of India, Kerala has a parliamentary system of representative democracy; universal suffrage is granted to residents.WEB,weblink Kerala Government – Legislature, Government of kerala, 19 November 2012, The government is organised into the three branches:
  1. Legislature: The unicameral legislature, the Kerala Legislative Assembly popularly known as Niyamasabha, comprises elected members and special office bearers; the Speaker and Deputy Speaker elected by the members from among themselves. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker and in the Speaker's absence, by the Deputy Speaker. The state has 140 assembly constituencies.WEB, History of Kerala Legislature,weblink Government of Kerala, 17 November 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120619040353weblink">weblink 19 June 2012, yes, The state elects 20 and 9 members for representation in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha respectively.WEB,weblink Our Parliament, Parliamentofindia.nic.in, 25 February 2010,
  2. Executive: The Governor of Kerala is the constitutional head of state, and is appointed by the President of India.WEB,weblink Responsibilities, 13 November 2015, Kerala Rajbhavan, P Sathasivam is the Governor of Kerala.WEB,weblink Legislative Assembly of Kerala: Official Website, niyamasabha.org, 30 July 2009, The executive authority is headed by the Chief Minister of Kerala, who is the head of government and is vested with extensive executive powers; the head of the majority party in the Legislative Assembly is appointed to the post by the Governor. The Council of Ministers has its members appointed by the Governor, taking the advice of the Chief Minister. The executive administration is based in Thiruvananthapuram at State Secretariat complex. Each district has a district administrator appointed by government called District collector for executive administration. Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs.BOOK, Shyam Nandan Chaudhary, Tribal Development Since Independence,weblink 18 November 2012, 2009, Concept Publishing Company, 978-81-8069-622-0, 235,
  3. Judiciary: The judiciary consists of the Kerala High Court and a system of lower courts.WEB, History of Judiciary,weblink All-India Judges Association, 29 April 2015, The High Court, located in Kochi,BOOK, U S Congress, Congress (U.S.), Congressional Record, V. 153, Pt. 1, January 4, 2007 to January 17, 2007,weblink 18 November 2012, 28 October 2010, Government Printing Office, 978-0-16-086824-5, 1198, has a Chief Justice along with 23 permanent and seven additional pro tempore justices {{As of|2012|lc=y}}.WEB, High Court of Kerala Profile,weblink High Court of Kerala, 18 November 2012, The high court also hears cases from the Union Territory of Lakshadweep.BOOK, D. Banerjea, Criminal Justice India Series, Vol. 21,weblink 18 November 2012, 2002, Allied Publishers, 978-81-7764-872-0, 80, BOOK, Sharma, Sharma B.k., Intro. to the Constitution of India, 4/e,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 August 2007, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., 978-81-203-3246-1, 261,
The local government bodies; Panchayat, Municipalities and Corporations have existed in Kerala since 1959, however, the major initiative to decentralise the governance was started in 1993, conforming to the constitutional amendments of central government in this direction.WEB,weblink An Introduction to local self governments in Kerala, SDC CAPDECK, 17 November 2012, Mariamma Sanu George, 17–20, With the enactment of Kerala Panchayati Raj Act and Kerala Municipality Act in 1994, the state implemented reforms in local self-governance.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130513015050weblink">weblink 13 May 2013, Kerala – A Case Study of Classical Democratic Decentralisation, Kerala Institute of Local Administration, April 2009, 17 November 2012, S M Vijayanand, 12, The Kerala Panchayati Raj Act envisages a 3-tier system of local government with Gram panchayat, Block panchayat and District Panchayat forming a hierarchy.BOOK, Rajesh Tandon, Ranjita Mohanty, Participatory Citizenship: Identity, Exclusion, Inclusion,weblink 17 November 2012, 29 March 2006, SAGE, 978-0-7619-3467-7, 199, The acts ensure a clear demarcation of power among these institutions. However, the Kerala Municipality Act envisages a single-tier system for urban areas, with the institution of municipality designed to par with the Gram panchayat of the former system. Substantial administrative, legal and financial powers are delegated to these bodies to ensure efficient decentralisation.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130513015050weblink">weblink 13 May 2013, Kerala – A Case Study of Classical Democratic Decentralisation, Kerala Institute of Local Administration, April 2009, 17 November 2012, S M Vijayanand, 13, As per the present norms, the state government devolves about 40 per cent of the state plan outlay to the local government.BOOK, T. M. Thomas Isaac, Richard W. Franke, Local Democracy and Development: The Kerala People's Campaign for Decentralized Planning,weblink 1 January 2002, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-7425-1607-6, 13,

Economy

After independence, the state was managed as a democratic socialist welfare economy. From the 1990s, liberalisation of the mixed economy allowed Licence Raj restrictions against capitalism and foreign direct investment to be lightened, leading to economic expansion and an increase in employment. In the fiscal year 2007–2008, the nominal gross state domestic product (GSDP) was {{INRConvert|1624|b}}. GSDP growth; 9.2% in 2004–2005 and 7.4% in 2003–2004 had been high compared to an average of 2.3% annually in the 1980s and between 5.1%JOURNAL, Mohindra KS, 2003, A report on women Self-Help Groups (SHGs) in Kerala state, India: a public health perspective, Université de Montréal Department de Medicine Social et Prévention, harv, {{rp|8}} and 5.99%WEB,weblink Economy – Kerala – States and Union Territories – Know India: National Portal of India, National Informatics Centre, 6 December 2013, in the 1990s.{{rp|8}} The state recorded 8.93% growth in enterprises from 1998 to 2005, higher than the national rate of 4.80%.WEB, Provisional results of economic census 2005,weblink Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, 21 January 2016, NEWS, Varma MS, Nap on HDI scores may land Kerala in an equilibrium trap, The Financial Express, 4 April 2005, 12 November 2007,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080617134031weblink">weblink 17 June 2008, The "Kerala phenomenon" or "Kerala model of development" of very high human development and in comparison low economic development has resulted from a strong service sector.{{rp|48}}JOURNAL, Tharamangalam J, 2005, The Perils of Social Development without Economic Growth: The Development Debacle of Kerala, India, Political Economy for Environmental Planners,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131115072025weblink">weblink 15 November 2013, 28 December 2008, harv, {{rp|1}}{{multiple image| align = | direction = vertical| width = 240| image1 = Women at work in a small scale coir spinning unit at kollam.jpg| caption1 = Women at work in a small scale coir spinning unit at Kollam.| image2 = Paddy Harvesting, Thrissur Kole Wetlands IMG 5482.JPG| caption2 = Rice Harvesting in Thrissur Kole Wetlands}}Kerala's economy depends on emigrants working in foreign countries, mainly in Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and remittances annually contribute more than a fifth of GSDP.WEB,weblink Kerala's Gulf connection: Emigration, remittances and their macroeconomic impact 1972–2000, 2002, K.P. Kannan, K.S. Hari, 30 May 2015, The state witnessed significant emigration during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s. In 2008, the Persian Gulf countries together had a Keralite population of more than 2.5 million, who sent home annually a sum of {{USD}}6.81 billion, which is the highest among Indian states and more than 15.13% of remittances to India in 2008.NEWS,weblink GCC residency cap may force lakhs to return, Biju, Govind, The Hindu, 30 May 2015, In 2012, Kerala still received the highest remittances of all states: US$11.3 billion, which was nearly 16% of the US$71 billion remittances to the country.WEB,weblink Remittances: Kerala drives dollar flows to India, Yahoo! Finance, 5 November 2013, 8 November 2013, In 2015, NRI deposits in Kerala have soared to over {{INRConvert|1|t}}, amounting to one-sixth of all the money deposited in NRI accounts, which comes to about {{INRConvert|7|t}}.NEWS,weblink NRI deposits in Kerala banks cross Rs 1 lakh crore, 22 June 2015, 13 November 2015, Times of India, However, a study commissioned by the Kerala State Planning Board, suggested that the state look for other reliable sources of income, instead of relying on remittances to finance its expenditure.BOOK, India. Planning Commission, Kerala Development Report,weblink 2008, Academic Foundation, 978-81-7188-594-7, 396, According to a study done in 2013, {{INRConvert|175|b}} was the total amount paid to migrant labourers in the state every year.NEWS,weblink Migrant worker population in Kerala touches 2.5 m, Business Line, 16 February 2013, 13 November 2015, The tertiary sector comprises services such as transport, storage, communications, tourism, banking, insurance and real estate. In 2011–2012, it contributed 63.22% of the state's GDP, agriculture and allied sectors contributed 15.73%, while manufacturing, construction and utilities contributed 21.05%.WEB,weblink 10 March 2013, ECONOMIC SURVEY 2011–12 Union Budget, Government of India, 15 November 2015, Nearly half of Kerala's people depend on agriculture alone for income.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130927185515weblink">weblink 27 September 2013, State Profile of Kerala 2010–11, 25 September 2013, Around 600 varieties{{rp|5}} of rice, which is Kerala's most used staple and cereal crop,JOURNAL, Balachandran PG, 2004, Constraints on Diffusion and Adoption of Agro-mechanical Technology in Rice Cultivation in Kerala, Centre for Development Studies,weblink 28 December 2008, harv, {{rp|5}} are harvested from 3105.21 km2; a decline from 5883.4 km2 in 1990.{{rp|5}} 688,859 tonnes of rice are produced per year. Other key crops include coconut; 899,198 ha, tea, coffee; 23% of Indian production,JOURNAL, Joy CV, 2004, Small Coffee Growers of Sulthan Bathery, Wayanad, Centre for Development Studies,weblink 28 December 2008, harv, {{rp|13}} or 57,000 tonnes,{{rp|6–7}} rubber, cashews, and spices—including pepper, cardamom, vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg.Traditional industries manufacturing items; coir, handlooms, and handicrafts employ around one million people.BOOK, S. Rajitha Kumar, University of Kerala, Traditional Industries of India in the Globalised World,weblink 1 July 2007, University of Kerala, 978-81-7708-143-5, 223, Kerala supplies 60% of the total global produce of white coir fibre. India's first coir factory was set up in Alleppey in 1859–60.WEB, Indian Coir Industry,weblink Indian Mirror, 29 April 2014, The Central Coir Research Institute was established there in 1959. As per the 2006–2007 census by SIDBI, there are 1,468,104 micro, small and medium enterprises in Kerala employing 3,031,272 people.BOOK, SIDBI Report on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Sector, 2010, Small Industries Development Bank of India, 2010, JOURNAL, A Study on the Position of Small and Medium Enterprises in Kerala vis a vis the National Scenario, N. Rajeevan, International Journal of Research in Commerce, Economics and Management, March 2012, 2, 3, The KSIDC has promoted more than 650 medium and large manufacturing firms in Kerala, creating employment for 72,500 people.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140709062837weblink">weblink 9 July 2014, Functions, KSIDC, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation, 6 December 2013, A mining sector of 0.3% of GSDP involves extraction of ilmenite, kaolin, bauxite, silica, quartz, rutile, zircon, and sillimanite.JOURNAL, Government of Kerala, 2005, Kerala at a Glance, Government of Kerala,weblink 22 January 2006, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060118031516weblink">weblink 18 January 2006, Other major sectors are tourism, manufacturing, home gardens, animal husbandry and business process outsourcing.As of March 2002, Kerala's banking sector comprised 3341 local branches: each branch served 10,000 people, lower than the national average of 16,000; the state has the third-highest bank penetration among Indian states.WEB,weblink State/Union Territory-Wise Number of Branches of Scheduled Commercial Banks and Average Population Per Bank Branch, March 2002, Reserve Bank of India, 28 December 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070810094850weblink">weblink 10 August 2007, On 1 October 2011, Kerala became the first state in the country to have at least one banking facility in every village.NEWS,weblink The Times of India, Now, you can bank on every village in Kerala, 1 October 2011, 13 November 2015, Unemployment in 2007 was estimated at 9.4%;NEWS, Kumar KG, Jobless no more?, Business Line, 8 October 2007,weblink A study by K.C. Zacharia and S. Irudaya Rajan, two economists at the Centre for Development Studies (CDS), unemployment in Kerala has dropped from 19.1[%] in 2003 to 9.4[%] in 2007., 16 November 2012, chronic issues are underemployment, low employability of youth, and a low female labour participation rate of only 13.5%,BOOK, Nair NG, Nair PR, Shaji H, Measurement of Employment, Unemployment, and Underemployment, Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, 978-81-87621-75-1,weblink 31 December 2008, {{rp|5, 13}} as was the practice of Nokku kooli, "wages for looking on".NEWS,weblink John, Mary, Men (Not) At Work, Outlook (Indian magazine), Outlook, 12 May 2008, 13 November 2015, (On 30 April 2018, the Kerala state government issued an order to abolish nokku kooli, to take effect on 1 May.NEWS, On May Day, Kerala becomes Nokkukooli-free,weblink 30 April 2018, The Hindu, 3 May 2018, ) By 1999–2000, the rural and urban poverty rates dropped to 10.0% and 9.6% respectively.JOURNAL, Deaton A, 22 August 2003, Regional poverty estimates for India, 1999–2000, 6, 12 November 2007,weblink harv, Kerala has focused more attention towards growth of Information Technology sector with formation of Technopark, Thiruvananthapuram which is one of the largest IT employer in Kerala. It was the first technology park in IndiaWEB, Official site of Kerala IT,weblink Department of IT, Government of Kerala, 22 October 2013, NEWS, Technopark aims to be among top 5 IT investment locations,weblink 22 October 2013, Economic Times, 27 July 2010, and with the inauguration of the Thejaswini complex on 22 February 2007, Technopark became the largest IT Park in India.NEWS, PI, Rajeev, God's own country to house largest IT park,weblink 22 October 2013, The Indian Express, 3 March 2007, Software giants like Infosys, Oracle, Tata Consultancy Services, Capgemini, HCL, UST Global, NeST and Suntec have offices in the state. The state has a second major IT hub, the Infopark centred in Kochi with "spokes"(it acts as the "hub") in Thrissur and Alleppy. {{As of|2014}}, Infopark generates one-third of total IT Revenues of the stateNEWS,weblink Chennai, India, The Hindu, Symbols akin to Indus valley culture discovered in Kerala, 29 September 2009, NEWS,weblink Kochi, India, Times of India, Infopark's IT exports climb 53% in FY14, 14 November 2014, with key offices of IT majors like Tata Consultancy Services, Cognizant, Wipro, UST Global, IBS Software Services etc. and Multinational corporations like KPMG, Ernst & Young, EXL Service, Etisalat DB Telecom, Nielsen Audio, Xerox ACS, Tata ELXSI etc. Kochi also has another major project SmartCity under construction, built in partnership with Dubai Government. A third major IT Hub is under construction centred around Kozhikode known as Cyberpark.The Grand Kerala Shopping Festival (GKSF) was started in 2007, covering more than 3000 outlets across the nine cities of Kerala with huge tax discounts, VAT refunds and huge array of prizes.NEWS, Shopping festival begins,weblink The Hindu, 2 December 2007, 24 January 2013, (File:Intercropping coconut n Tagetes erecta.jpg|alt=|thumb|Coconuts are an important regional cash crop.)The state's budget of 2012–2013 was {{INRConvert|481.42|b}}.WEB,weblink Budget In Brief, PDF, kerala.gov.in, Government of Kerala, 3 October 2011, The state government's tax revenues (excluding the shares from Union tax pool) amounted to {{INRConvert|217.22|b}} in 2010–2011; up from {{INRConvert|176.25|b}} in 2009–2010. Its non-tax revenues (excluding the shares from Union tax pool) of the Government of Kerala reached {{INRConvert|19.31|b}} in 2010–2011. However, Kerala's high ratio of taxation to GSDP has not alleviated chronic budget deficits and unsustainable levels of government debt, which have impacted social services.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080626195846weblink">weblink 26 June 2008, Memoranda from States: Kerala, fincomindia.nic.in, 25 September 2013, A record total of 223 hartals were observed in 2006, resulting in a revenue loss of over {{INRConvert|20|b}}.Kerala: Hartals Own Country? {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304043808weblink |date=4 March 2016 }} 6 July 2008 Kerala's 10% rise in GDP is 3% more than the national GDP. In 2013, capital expenditure rose 30% compared to the national average of 5%, owners of two-wheelers rose by 35% compared to the national rate of 15%, and the teacher-pupil ratio rose 50% from 2:100 to 4:100.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131224091613weblink">weblink yes, 24 December 2013, India Today On Cm, Keralacm.gov.in, 11 January 2014, In November 2015, the Ministry of Urban Development selected seven cities of Kerala for a comprehensive development program known as the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT).NEWS, Modi to address heads of civic bodies on urban revamp,weblink 20 June 2015, The Hindu, 25 June 2015, A package of {{INRConvert|2.5|m}} was declared for each of the cities to develop service level improvement plan (SLIP), a plan for better functioning of the local urban bodies in the cities of Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alappuzha, Kochi, Thrissur, Kozhikode, and Palakkad.NEWS, R. Ramabhadran, Pillai, AMRUT to roll out on a smaller scale,weblink 12 November 2015, The Hindu, 12 November 2015,

Agriculture

(File:Ripe jackfruit.jpg|alt=|thumb|Jackfruits are the state fruit, and are a cultural icon of Kerala.)The major change in agriculture in Kerala occurred in the 1970s when production of rice fell due to increased availability of rice all over India and decreased availability of labour.BOOK, B.R. Sinha, Encyclopaedia Of Professional Education (10 Vol.),weblink 18 November 2012, 1 January 2003, Sarup & Sons, 978-81-7625-410-6, 204–205, Consequently, investment in rice production decreased and a major portion of the land shifted to the cultivation of perennial tree crops and seasonal crops.BOOK, Babu P. Remesh, Dynamics of Rural Labour: A Study of Small Holding Rubber Tappers in Kerala,weblink 18 November 2012, 2010, Concept Publishing Company, 978-81-8069-660-2, 52–, BOOK, Government of India Planning Commission, Kerala Development Report,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 January 2008, Academic Foundation, 978-81-7188-594-7, 66–, Profitability of crops fell due to a shortage of farm labour, the high price of land, and the uneconomic size of operational holdings.BOOK, Planning Commission, India, Kerala Development Report,weblink Academic Foundation, 2007, 978-81-7188-594-7, 66, 30 May 2015, Kerala produces 97% of the national output of black pepperBOOK, Limca Book of Records,weblink 18 November 2012, 2001, Bisleri Beverages Limited, 97, and accounts for 85% of the natural rubber in the country.BOOK, South Asia 2006,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 December 2005, Taylor & Francis, 291, BOOK, Economic Affairs,weblink 18 November 2012, 1998, H. Roy, 47, Coconut, tea, coffee, cashew, and spices—including cardamom, vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg are the main agricultural products.{{rp|74}}BOOK, James Newton, Jay Rai's Kitchen – Keralan Cuisine,weblink 18 November 2012, Springwood emedia, 978-1-4761-2308-0, 3–, BOOK, Rajan, S. & B.L.Markose, Baby Lissy Markose, Propagation of Horticultural Crops: Vol.06. Horticulture Science Series,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 January 2007, New India Publishing, 978-81-89422-48-6, 212–, BOOK, Pradhan, Retailing Management 3E,weblink 18 November 2012, 2009, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 978-0-07-015256-4, 256–, BOOK, T. Pradeepkumar, Kumar, Pradeep, Management of Horticultural Crops: Vol.11 Horticulture Science Series: In 2 Parts,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 January 2008, New India Publishing, 978-81-89422-49-3, 509–, BOOK, Filippo Osella, Caroline Osella, Social Mobility In Kerala: Modernity and Identity in Conflict,weblink 18 November 2012, 20 December 2000, Pluto Press, 978-0-7453-1693-2, 235–, 80% of India's export quality cashew kernels are prepared in Kollam.NEWS,weblink Cashew sector in a tailspin, The Hindu, 24 June 2016, The key agricultural staple is rice, with varieties grown in extensive paddy fields.BOOK, C.K. Varshney, J. Rzóska, Aquatic Weeds in South East Asia,weblink 18 November 2012, 30 June 1976, Springer, 978-90-6193-556-8, 100–, Home gardens made up a significant portion of the agricultural sector.BOOK, Aline Dobbie, India the Elephants Blessing,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 October 2006, Melrose Press, 978-1-905226-85-6, 123–, Related animal husbandry is touted by proponents as a means of alleviating rural poverty and unemployment among women, the marginalised, and the landless.BOOK, Government of India Planning Commission, Kerala Development Report,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 January 2008, Academic Foundation, 978-81-7188-594-7, 420–, BOOK, Nripendra N Sarma, Consumer Cooperatives and Rural Marketing,weblink 18 November 2012, 2003, Mittal Publications, 978-81-7099-876-1, 19–, The state government promotes these activities via educational campaigns and the development of new cattle breeds such as the Sunandini.BOOK, Hemant Roy Sri, Shri Hemant Roy, Comprehensive Mcqs In Biology,weblink 18 November 2012, Golden Bells, 978-81-7968-056-8, 696–, BOOK, A. E. Nivsarkar, P. K. Vij, M. S. Tantia, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. Directorate of Information and Publications on Agriculture, Animal genetic resources of India: cattle and buffalo,weblink 18 November 2012, 2000, Directorate of Information and Publications of Agriculture, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Though the contribution of agricultural sector to the state economy was on the decline in 2012–13, through the strength of the allied livestock sector, it has picked up from 7.03% (2011–12) to 7.2%. In the 2013–14 fiscal period, the contribution has been estimated at a high of 7.75%. The total growth of the farm sector has recorded a 4.39% increase in 2012–13, over a paltry 1.3% growth in the previous fiscal year. The agricultural sector has a share of 9.34% in the sectoral distribution of Gross State Domestic Product at Constant Price, while the secondary and tertiary sectors has contributed 23.94% and 66.72% respectively.WEB,weblink Gross Domestic Product of Kerala and India From 2004–05 to 2012–13, ecostat.kerala.gov.in, Government of Kerala, 31 May 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140630191841weblink">weblink 30 June 2014, yes, There is a preference for organic products and home farming compared to synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.NEWSPAPER,weblink State to switch fully to organic farming by 2016: Mohanan, K. A. Martin, The Hindu, 30 May 2015, 19 October 2014, WEB,weblink CM: Will Get Total Organic Farming State Tag by 2016, The New Indian Express, 30 May 2015, {{Clear}}

Fisheries

File:Kochi chinese fishing-net-20080215-01a.jpg|alt=|thumb|Cheena valaCheena valaWith {{convert|590|km|mi|lk=out|abbr=off}} of coastal belt,WEB, Kerala: Natural Resources,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111218084509weblink">weblink 18 December 2011, Government of India, 18 November 2012, 400,000 hectares of inland water resourcesWEB, Kerala: April 2012,weblink Indian Brand Equity Fund, 18 November 2012, and approximately 220,000 active fishermen,BOOK, India. Planning Commission, Third five year plan,weblink 18 November 2012, 1961, Manager of Publications, 359, Kerala is one of the leading producers of fish in India.BOOK, Government of India Planning Commission, Kerala Development Report,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 January 2008, Academic Foundation, 978-81-7188-594-7, 51, According to 2003–04 reports, about 1.1 million people earn their livelihood from fishing and allied activities such as drying, processing, packaging, exporting and transporting fisheries. The annual yield of the sector was estimated as 608,000 tons in 2003–04.BOOK, Planning Commission, India, Kerala Development Report,weblink Academic Foundation, 2007, 978-81-7188-594-7, 51, 30 May 2015, This contributes to about 3% of the total economy of the state. In 2006, around 22% of the total Indian marine fishery yield was from Kerala. During the southwest monsoon, a suspended mud bank develops along the shore, which in turn leads to calm ocean water, peaking the output of the fishing industry. This phenomenon is locally called chakara.BOOK, Leela Gulati, Fisherwomen on the Kerala Coast: Demographic and Socio-Economic Impact of a Fisheries Development Project,weblink 18 November 2012, 1984, International Labour Organization, 978-92-2-103626-5, 103, BOOK, Journal of Kerala Studies,weblink 18 November 2012, 1987, University of Kerala., 201, The waters provide a large variety of fish: pelagic species; 59%, demersal species; 23%, crustaceans, molluscs and others for 18%.BOOK, Handbook of Marine Fisheries Conservation and Management, Oxford University Press, R. Quentin Grafton, Ray Hilborn, Dale Squires, 2009, 10–12, 978-0-19-537028-7, Around 1.050 million fishermen haul an annual catch of 668,000 tonnes as of a 1999–2000 estimate; 222 fishing villages are strung along the {{convert|590|km|adj=on|abbr=off}} coast. Another 113 fishing villages dot the hinterland. Kerala's coastal belt of Karunagappally is known for high background radiation from thorium-containing monazite sand. In some coastal panchayats, median outdoor radiation levels are more than 4 mGy/yr and, in certain locations on the coast, it is as high as 70 mGy/yr.NEWS, Nair RR, Rajan B, Akiba S, Jayalekshmi P, Nair MK, Gangadharan P, Koga T, Morishima H, Nakamura S, Sugahara T, Background radiation and cancer incidence in Kerala, India-Karanagappally cohort study., Health Physics, January 2009, 19066487,

Transportation

Roads

File:Thrissur_sixlane.jpg|thumb|right|NH 544 Six lane Thrissur – VadakkencherryVadakkencherryKerala has {{convert|145704|km|mi}} of roads, which accounts for 4.2% of India's total. This translates to about {{convert|4.62|km|mi|2}} of road per thousand population, compared to an average of {{convert|2.59|km|mi|2}} in the country. Roads in Kerala include {{convert|1,524|km|mi}} of national highway; 2.6% of the nation's total, {{convert|4341.6|km|mi}} of state highway and {{convert|18900|km|mi}} of district roads.WEB,weblink Government of India, Kerala Public Works Department, About Us, 18 November 2015, Most of Kerala's west coast is accessible through the NH 66 (old NH 17 and 47); and the eastern side is accessible through state highways.WEB, National Highways in Kerala,weblink Kerala Public Works Department, Government of Kerala, New project for hill and coastal highways are announced now under KIIFB.NEWS, Coastal, Hill Highways to become a reality,weblink 12 July 2017, The Hindu, 12 February 2019, National Highway 66, with the longest stretch of road ({{convert|1622|km|mi}}) connects Kanyakumari to Mumbai; it enters Kerala via Talapady in Kasargod and passes through Kannur, Kozhikode, Malappuram, Guruvayur, Kochi, Alappuzha, Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram before entering Tamil Nadu. Palakkad district is generally referred to as the Gateway of Kerala, due to the presence of the Palakkad Gap, in the Western Ghats, through which the northern (Malabar) and southern (Travancore) parts of Kerala are connected to the rest of India via road and rail. There is the state's largest checkpoint, Walayar, in NH 544, the border town between Kerala and Tamil Nadu, through which a large amount of public and commercial transportation reaches the northern and central districts of Kerala.WEB,weblink District of Palakkad – the granary of Kerala, Silent Valley National Park, Nelliyampathy, keralatourism.org, 30 May 2015, File:Vyttila Mobility Hub BNC.jpg|thumb|700px|left|A panoramic view of Vyttila Mobility Hub integrated transit terminal in the city of KochiKochiThe Department of Public Works is responsible for maintaining and expanding the state highways system and major district roads.WEB, About us,weblink Kerala Public Works Department, Government of Kerala, 18 November 2012, The Kerala State Transport Project (KSTP), which includes the GIS-based Road Information and Management Project (RIMS), is responsible for maintaining and expanding the state highways in Kerala; it also oversees a few major district roads.NEWS, Kumar VS, Kerala State transport project second phase to be launched next month, The Hindu, 20 January 2006, 11 November 2007,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070304181402weblink">weblink 4 March 2007, WEB, Kumar VS, Institutional Strengthening Action Plan (ISAP), Kerala Public Works Department, Government of Kerala, 2003, 11 November 2007,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080512054304weblink">weblink 12 May 2008, Traffic in Kerala has been growing at a rate of 10–11% every year, resulting in high traffic and pressure on the roads. Traffic density is nearly four times the national average, reflecting the state's high population. Kerala's annual total of road accidents is among the nation's highest. The accidents are mainly the result of the narrow roads and irresponsible driving.NEWS, Kumar KG, Accidentally notorious, The Hindu, 22 September 2003, 11 November 2007,weblink National Highways in Kerala are among the narrowest in the country and will remain so for the foreseeable future, as the state government has received an exemption that allows narrow national highways. In Kerala, highways are {{convert|45|m|abbr=off}} wide. In other states National Highways are grade separated highways {{convert|60|m|abbr=off}} wide with a minimum of four lanes, as well as 6 or 8 lane access-controlled expressways.WEB,weblink Kerala parties finally toe NHAI line of 45-m wide highways, Indian Express, 18 August 2010, 25 September 2013, WEB,weblink Check out India's 13 super expressways, Rediff.com, 5 July 2011, 25 September 2013, National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) has threatened the Kerala state government that it will give high priority to other states in highway development as political commitment to better highways has been lacking.NEWSPAPER, Special Correspondent,weblink Kerala against development of five NHs, The Hindu, 28 March 2013, 25 September 2013, {{As of|2013}}, the state had the highest road accident rate in the country, with most fatal accidents taking place along the state's National Highways.NEWSPAPER,weblink State's troubled highways a shocking revelation for Centre, The Hindu, 30 June 2013, 25 September 2013, Reporter, Staff, File:Wiki-COKVolvo1.jpg|alt=|thumb|230px|KSRTC Volvo bus at KochiKochi

Kerala State Road Transport Corporation

Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) is a state-owned road transport corporation. It is one of the country's oldest state-run public bus transport services. The corporation is divided into three zones (South, Central and North, and its headquarters is in Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala's capital city). Daily scheduled service has increased from {{convert|1200000|km}} to {{convert|1422546|km}},WEB,weblink All about KSRTC, Keralartc.com, 16 June 2018, using 6,241 buses on 6,389 routes.At present the corporation has 5373 buses running on 4795 schedules.WEB, KeralaRTC Official Website - keralartc.com,weblink www.keralartc.com, BOOK, Gunaseelan, G. John, Indian Transport System: An Appraisal of Nationalised Bus Services, 1994, Mittal Publications, 9788170995562,weblink en,

Railways

File:Tvmcentral.jpg|alt=|thumb|400px|The main Portico of the Thiruvananthapuram CentralThiruvananthapuram CentralThe Indian Railways' Southern Railway line runs through the state connecting most of the major towns and cities except those in the highland districts of Idukki and Wayanad.WEB, Introduction,weblink Delhi Metro Rail Corporation, 18 November 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120906213234weblink">weblink 6 September 2012, The railway network in the state is controlled by two out of six divisions of the Southern Railway; Thiruvananthapuram Railway division and Palakkad Railway Division.WEB, The Zonal Dream Of Railway Kerala,weblink yentha.com, 18 November 2012, Thiruvananthapuram Central (TVC) is the busiest railway station in the state.NEWS,weblink Thiruvananthapuram Central to be made a world-class station, 7 March 2007, The Hindu, en-IN, 0971-751X, 8 May 2016, Kerala's major railway stations are:{hide}columns-list|colwidth=19em| {edih}Major railway transport between Beypore–Tirur began on 12 March 1861, from Shoranur–Cochin Harbour section in 1902, from Kollam–Sengottai on 1 July 1904, Kollam–Thiruvananthapuram on 4 January 1918, from Nilambur-Shoranur in 1927, from Ernakulam–Kottayam in 1956, from Kottayam–Kollam in 1958, from Thiruvananthapuram–Kanyakumari in 1979 and from the Thrissur-Guruvayur Section in 1994.WEB, RailKerala,weblink Trainweb, 18 November 2012,

Kochi Metro

File:Kochi Metro train at Palarivattom, Aug 2017.jpg|right|thumb|Kochi Metro train at PalarivattomPalarivattomKochi Metro is the metro system for the city of Kochi. It is the only metro in Kerala. Work on the circuit began in 2012, the first phase being set up at an estimated cost of {{INRConvert|51.81|b}}.NEWS,weblink Metro rail: DMRC demands prompt handing over of land, funds, 24 March 2012, The Hindu, Chennai, India, 24 March 2012, NEWS,weblink DMRC sets early deadline for Kochi Metro rail project, The Times of India, 26 May 2013, 27 June 2013, The Kochi Metro uses 65-metre long Metropolis train sets built and designed by Alstom.WEB,weblink Alstom's new Metropolis train set for Kochi Metro, The Economic Times, 21 January 2018, WEB,weblink Alstom's Metropolis for Kochi – design unveiled for the first time, www.alstom.com, 4 July 2017, WEB,weblink Metro train to ply every 5 minutes, carry 1,000 persons, The Hindu, 25 May 2013, 27 June 2013, It is the first metro system in India to use a communication-based train control (CBTC) system for signalling and telecommunication.WEB,weblink India's first CBTC metro system to be ready in March, Paul, John L., 20 February 2017, The Hindu, Kochi, 20 January 2018, On October 2017, Kochi Metro was named the "Best Urban Mobility Project" in India by the Urban Development Ministry, as part of the Urban Mobility India (UMI) International Conference hosted by the ministry every year.NEWS,weblink Kochi Metro zooms past Chennai, Nagpur to emerge best, Malayala Manorama, 31 October 2017, 3 November 2017,

Airports

File:Cochin International Airport Limited.jpg|right|thumb|Cochin International AirportCochin International AirportKerala has four international airports: {hide}Cast listing| {edih}Kerala and Tamil Nadu are the only states in India to have four international airports.NEWS, Kerala becomes only state with 4 International Airports DD News,weblink ddnews.gov.in, Kollam Airport, established under the Madras Presidency, but since closed, was the first airport in Kerala.NEWSPAPER,weblink Aviation school proposal evokes mixed response, The Hindu, 8 June 2009, 21 July 2015, Trivandrum International Airport, managed by the Airport Authority of India, is among the oldest existing airports in South India. Cochin International Airport is the busiest in the state and the seventh busiest in the country. It is also the first airport in the world to be fully powered by solar energyWEB, Menon, Supriya,weblink How is the world's first solar powered airport faring? – BBC News, Bbc.com, 21 December 2018, and has won the coveted Champion of the Earth award, the highest environmental honour instituted by the United Nations.WEB,weblink CIAL chosen for UN environmental honour, The New Indian Express, 26 July 2018, Cochin International Airport is also the first Indian airport to be incorporated as a public limited company; it was funded by nearly 10,000 non-resident Indians from 30 countries.NEWS, The three airports in Kerala can be in business without affecting each other, Rediff.com, Rediff, 6 December 1999, 11 November 2007,weblink Other than civilian airports, Kochi has a naval airport named INS Garuda. Thiruvananthapuram airport shares civilian facilities with the Southern Air Command of the Indian Air Force. These facilities are used mostly by central government VIPs visiting Kerala.

Water transport

File:Vallarpadam Container Terminal at night.JPG|alt=|thumb|230px|VallarpadamVallarpadamKerala has one major port, 17 minor ports and a few mini ports. The state has numerous backwaters, which are used for commercial inland navigation. Transport services are mainly provided by country craft and passenger vessels. There are 67 navigable rivers in the state while the total length of inland waterways is {{convert|1687|km}}.BOOK, Government of India Planning Commission, Kerala Development Report,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 January 2008, Academic Foundation, 978-81-7188-594-7, 207, The main constraints to the expansion of inland navigation are; lack of depth in waterways caused by silting, lack of maintenance of navigation systems and bank protection, accelerated growth of the water hyacinth, lack of modern inland craft terminals, and lack of a cargo handling system. A canal {{convert|205|km}} long, National Waterway 3, runs between Kottapuram and Kollam, which is included in the East-Coast Canal.NEWS,weblink National Waterway III to be opened today, John, Paul, The Hindu, 14 November 2015, 20 November 2007,

Demographics

{{See also|Ethnic groups in Kerala}}{{India census population|title = Population trend|region =|1951= 13549000|1961= 16904000|1971= 21347000|1981= 25454000|1991= 29099000|2001= 31841000|2011= 33388000|footnote = Source: Decadal Variation In Population Since 19011911=71476731931=9507050|1941=11031541}}Kerala is home to 2.76% of India's population; with a density of 859 persons per km2, its land is nearly three times as densely settled as the Indian national average of 370 persons per km2.WEB, Size, Growth Rate and Distribution of Population,weblink Census 2011, Government of India, 13 November 2015, {{As of|2011}}, Thiruvananthapuram is the most populous city in Kerala. In the state, the rate of population growth is India's lowest, and the decadal growth of 4.9% in 2011 is less than one third of the all-India average of 17.64%. Kerala's population more than doubled between 1951 and 1991 by adding 15.6 million people to reach 29.1 million residents in 1991; the population stood at 33.3 million by 2011. Kerala's coastal regions are the most densely settled with population of 2022 persons per km2, 2.5 times the overall population density of the state, 859 persons per km2, leaving the eastern hills and mountains comparatively sparsely populated.BOOK,weblink Shoreline change assessment for Kerala coast, National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management, Ministry of Environment and Forests, R Ramesh, R Purvaja, A Senthil Vel, 30 May 2015, Around 31.8 million Keralites are predominantly Malayali. The state's 321,000 indigenous tribal Adivasis, 1.10% of the population, are concentrated in the east.BOOK, Kalathil MJ, 2004, Nair PR, Shaji H, Withering Valli: Alienation, Degradation, and Enslavement of Tribal Women in Attappady, Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, 978-81-87621-69-0,weblink 29 December 2008, {{rp|10–12}}{{Major cities in Kerala}}

Gender

There is the tradition of matrilineal inheritance in Kerala, where the mother is the head of the household. As a result, women in Kerala have had a much higher standing and influence in the society. This was common among certain influential castes and is a factor in the value placed on daughters. Christian missionaries also influenced Malayali women in that they started schools for girls from poor families.JOURNAL, Lankina, Tomila V., Getachew, Lullit, 2013,weblink Competitive religious entrepreneurs: Christian missionaries and female education in colonial and post-colonial India, British Journal of Political Science, 43, 103–131, 10.1017/s0007123412000178, Opportunities for women such as education and gainful employment often translate into a lower birth rate, which in turn, make education and employment more likely to be accessible and more beneficial for women. This creates an upward spiral for both the women and children of the community that is passed on to future generations. According to the Human Development Report of 1996, Kerala's Gender Development Index was 597; higher than any other state of India. Factors, such as high rates of female literacy, education, work participation and life expectancy, along with favourable sex ratio, contributed to it.BOOK, Ammu Joseph, Oommen M.A., 1999, Rethinking Development: Kerala's Development Experience, Concept Publishing Company, 978-81-7022-765-6,weblink 479–486, 30 May 2015, Kerala's sex ratio of 1.084 (females to males) is higher than that of the rest of India and is the only state where women outnumber men.{{rp|2}} While having the opportunities that education affords them, such as political participation, keeping up to date with current events, reading religious texts etc., these tools have still not translated into full, equal rights for the women of Kerala. There is a general attitude that women must be restricted for their own benefit. In the state, despite the social progress, gender still influences social mobility.Brenda Maddox mentions in: Maddox, Brenda. "A Marxist Paradise For Women?" New Statesman. (London, England: 1996) 128 no4440 30 January 14, 1999.Antherjanam, Lalithambika. Cast Me Out If You Will. New York: The Feminist Press, 1997.JOURNAL, Jeffrey, Robin, 1987, Governments and Culture: How Women Made Kerala Literate, Pacific Affairs, 60, 3, 447–472, 10.2307/2758883, 2758883, In June 2019, The Kerala government passed a new order that members of the transgender community should not be referred to as the "third gender" or "other gender" in government communications. Instead, the term "transgender" should be used. Previously, the gender preferences provided in government forms and documents included male, female, and other/third gender.WEB,weblink www.thenewsminute.com, 2019-07-08, NEWS,weblink Only 'transgender' in official communication, Roshni, R. k, 2019-06-30, The Hindu, 2019-07-08, en-IN, 0971-751X,

Human Development Index

{{See also|Kerala Model}}{{As of|2015}}, Kerala has a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.770, which is in the "high" category, ranking it first in the country.WEB, Sub-national HDI – Area Database,weblink Global Data Lab, Institute for Management Research, Radboud University, 25 September 2018, en, It was 0.790 in 2007–08WEB, India Human Development Report 2011: Towards Social Inclusion,weblink Institute of Applied Manpower Research, Planning Commission (India), Planning Commission, Government of India, 24 October 2014, and it had a consumption-based HDI of 0.920, which is better than that of many developed countries. Comparatively higher spending by the government on primary level education, health care and the elimination of poverty from the 19th century onward has helped the state maintain an exceptionally high HDI;WEB, Kerala HDR 2005,weblink Human Development Report, United Nations, Asia and the Pacific, 30 May 2015, WEB, Human Development Report 2005,weblink Human Development Report, United Nations, Asia and the Pacific, 14 November 2015, the report was prepared by the central government's Institute of Applied Manpower Research.WEB,weblink Human Development Index rose 21 per cent; Kerala tops chart, 21 October 2011, CNBC, 14 November 2015, NEWSPAPER,weblink Growth, reforms lift living standards in India: Human development Index, 22 October 2011, 14 November 2015, Economic Times, However, the Human Development Report 2005, prepared by Centre for Development Studies envisages a virtuous phase of inclusive development for the state since the advancement in human development had already started aiding the economic development of the state. Kerala is also widely regarded as the cleanest and healthiest state in India.BOOK, Sunil Mani, Anjini Kochar, Kerala's Economy: Crouching Tiger, Sacred Cows,weblink 24 September 2012, 1 January 2006, D.C. Books, 978-81-264-1359-1, 121, According to the 2011 census, Kerala has the highest literacy rate (94%) among Indian states. In 2018, the literacy rate was calculated to be 96%. In the Kottayam district, the literacy rate was 97%.weblink The life expectancy in Kerala is 74 years, among the highest in India {{As of|2011|lc=y}}.NEWS,weblink Chennai, India, The Hindu, Kerala tops in literacy rate, health services, 22 October 2011, J., Balaji, 30 May 2015, Kerala's rural poverty rate fell from 59% (1973–1974) to 12% (1999–2010); the overall (urban and rural) rate fell 47% between the 1970s and 2000s against the 29% fall in overall poverty rate in India.BOOK, Human Development Report 2005 Kerala, State Planning Board, Centre for Development Studies Thiruvananthapuram, 2006, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, By 1999–2000, the rural and urban poverty rates dropped to 10.0% and 9.6% respectively. The 2013 Tendulkar Committee Report on poverty estimated that the percentages of the population living below the poverty line in rural and urban Kerala are 9.14% and 4.97%, respectively.WEB, Press Note on Poverty Estimates, 2011–12,weblink planningcommission.gov.in, Planning Commission, Government of India, 27 November 2018, These changes stem largely from efforts begun in the late 19th century by the kingdoms of Cochin and Travancore to boost social welfare.JOURNAL, EFA (Education for All) Global Monitoring Report, 2003, UNESCO, 156, 12 November 2007,weblink harv, JOURNAL, Kutty VR, 2000, Historical analysis of the development of health care facilities in Kerala State, India, Health Policy and Planning, 15, 1, 103–109, 12 November 2007,weblink 10.1093/heapol/15.1.103, 10731241, harv, This focus was maintained by Kerala's post-independence government.{{rp|48}}Kerala has undergone a "demographic transition" characteristic of such developed nations as Canada, Japan, and Norway;.{{rp|1}} as 11.2% of people are over the age of 60, and due to the low birthrate of 18 per 1,000.BOOK, Kutty VR, Nair PR, Shaji H, 2004, Why low birth weight (LBW) is still a problem in Kerala: A preliminary exploration, Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, 978-81-87621-60-7, 12 November 2007,weblink 6, In 1991, Kerala's total fertility rate (TFR) was the lowest in India. Hindus had a TFR of 1.66, Christians; 1.78, and Muslims; 2.97.JOURNAL, Alagarajan M, December 2003, An analysis of fertility differentials by religion in Kerala: A test of the interaction hypothesis, Population Research and Policy Review, 10.1023/B:POPU.0000020963.63244.8c, 22, 557, harv, 5/6, The state also is regarded as the "least corrupt Indian state" according to the surveys conducted by Transparency International (2005)WEB, India Corruption Study â€” 2005, Transparency International, June 2005, 11 November 2007,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130413044112weblink">weblink yes, 13 April 2013, and India Today (1997).BOOK, Jean Dreze, Amartya Sen, India: Development and Participation,weblink 24 September 2012, 28 November 2002, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-925749-2, 368, Kerala has the lowest homicide rate among Indian states, with 1.1 per 100,000 in 2011.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130928024506weblink">weblink yes, 28 September 2013, 21 June 2012, TABLE-3.1 Incidence And Rate Of Violent Crimes During 2011, 24 September 2014, In respect of female empowerment, some negative factors such as higher suicide rate, lower share of earned income, child marriage,NEWS, Child marriages remain Kerala's secret shame,weblink The Hindu, 4 September 2015, 4 September 2015, 0971-751X, complaints of sexual harassment and limited freedom are reported.In 2015, Kerala had the highest conviction rate of any state, over 77%.NEWS,weblink New Delhi, India, The Times of India, Conviction rate up, Kerala tops with over 77% link, 9 August 2015, 14 November 2015, Kerala has the lowest proportion of homeless people in rural India – 0.04%,NEWS,weblink India, The Times of India, Population of homeless in rural India dips, 7 December 2013, 14 November 2015, and the state is attempting to reach the goal of becoming the first "Zero Homeless State", in addition to its acclaimed "Zero landless project", with private organisations and the expatriate Malayali community funding projects for building homes for the homeless.NEWS,weblink PATHANAMTHITTA, India, The Hindu, CM told to pursue Zero Homeless Kerala project link, 3 November 2013, The state was also among the lowest in the India State Hunger Index next only to Punjab. In 2015 Kerala became the first "complete digital state" by implementing e-governance initiatives.NEWS,weblink New Delhi, India, The Times of India, Kerala-becomes-Indias-first-complete-digital-state link, 15 August 2015,

Healthcare

Kerala is a pioneer in implementing the universal health care program.NEWS, Maya, C, The road to universal health care in State,weblink 14 November 2015, The Hindu, 12 December 2013, The sub-replacement fertility level and infant mortality rate are lower compared to those of other states, estimated from 12{{rp|49}} to 14BOOK, Krishnaswami P, Neelakantan S, Nair PR, Shaji H, 2004, Morbidity Study: Incidence, Prevalence, Consequences, and Associates, Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, 978-81-87621-66-9,weblink 31 December 2008, {{rp|5}} deaths per 1,000 live births; as per the National Family Health Survey 2015-16, it has dropped to 6.NEWS,weblink Kerala as good as US, OECD in saving newborn children – Times of India, The Times of India, 9 March 2017, However, Kerala's morbidity rate is higher than that of any other Indian state—118 (rural) and 88 (urban) per 1,000 people. The corresponding figures for all India were 55 and 54 per 1,000 respectively {{As of|2005|lc=y}}.{{rp|5}} Kerala's 13.3% prevalence of low birth weight is higher than that of many first world nations. Outbreaks of water-borne diseases such as diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatitis, and typhoid among the more than 50% of people who rely on 3 million water wells is an issue worsened by the lack of sewers.JOURNAL, Roy MKP, 2004, Water quality and health status in Kollam Municipality, Centre for Development Studies,weblink 28 December 2008, {{rp|5–7}} According to a study commissioned by Lien Foundation, a Singapore-based philanthropic organisation, Kerala is considered to be the best place to die in India based on the state's provision of palliative care for patients with serious illnesses.WEB, Why Kerala is the best place to die in India – The Economic Times,weblink The Economic Times, 17 October 2015, 22 October 2015, The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization designated Kerala the world's first "baby-friendly state" because of its effective promotion of breast-feeding over formulas.WEB, August 2002, Kerala Named World's First WHO-UNICEF "Baby-Friendly State", United Nations Foundation,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100306205352weblink">weblink 6 March 2010, 14 March 2009, NEWS,weblink Kochi, India, BBC News, Indian state wins 'baby-friendly' award, 1 August 2002, Over 95% of Keralite births are hospital delivered and the state also has the lowest Infant mortality rate in the country. The third National Family Health Survey ranks Kerala first in "Institutional Delivery" with 100% births in medical facilities.BOOK,weblink National Family Health 2005–06 Survey (NFHS-3) Kerala, International Institute for Population Sciences, 2008, Deonar, Mumbai, 30 May 2015, Ayurveda,JOURNAL, Unnikrishnan, E, 2004, Materia Medica of the Local Health Traditions of Payyannur, Centre for Development Studies,weblink 22 January 2006, harv, {{rp|13}} siddha, and endangered and endemic modes of traditional medicine, including kalari, marmachikitsa and vishavaidyam, are practised. Some occupational communities such as Kaniyar were known as native medicine men in relation to the practice of such streams of medical systems, apart from their traditional vocation.Angus Stewart, woodburn The Religious attitude: A psychological study of its differentiation, 1927 These propagate via gurukula discipleship,{{rp|5–6}} and comprise a fusion of both medicinal and alternative treatments.{{rp|15}}In 2014, Kerala became the first state in India to offer free cancer treatment to the poor, via a program called Sukrutham.WEB,weblink Kerala becomes first state to provide free cancer treatment – Free Press Journal, www.freepressjournal.in, 18 May 2016, 11 October 2014, People in Kerala experience elevated incidence of cancers, liver and kidney diseases. In April 2016, the Economic Times reported that 250,000 residents undergo treatment for cancer. It also reported that approximately 150 to 200 liver transplants are conducted in the region's hospitals annually. Approximately 42,000 cancer cases are reported in the region annually. This is believed to be an underestimate due as private hospitals may not be reporting their figures. Long waiting lists for kidney donations has stimulated illegal trade in human kidneys, and prompted the establishment of the Kidney Federation of India which aims to support financially disadvantaged patients.NEWSPAPER,weblink Health crisis in Kerala: The increase in cancer, kidney and liver diseases – The Economic Times, The Economic Times, 18 May 2016, 23 April 2016, Krishnakumar, P. K., Sanandakumar, S.,

Religion

{{Pie chart|thumb = rightPUBLISHER=OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR GENERAL & CENSUS COMMISSIONER 2011 CENSUS OF INDIA >ACCESSDATE=25 AUGUST 2015 ARCHIVEDATE=25 AUGUST 2015, |label1 = Hinduism|value1 = 54.73|color1 = #ff9933|label2 = Islam|value2 = 26.56|color2 = #009000|label3 = Christianity|value3 = 18.38|color3 = Lavender|label4 = Other or none|value4 = 0.32|color4 = #40d1c7}}{{multiple image|direction = vertical|total_width=170|caption_align=left|align=leftcaption1=Jain Temple at Sultan Bathery.caption2=Thrichittatt Maha Vishnu Temple.caption3=St. Thomas Syro-Malabar Church, Palayoor.caption4=Structure of Cheraman Juma Mosque.caption5=Paradesi Synagogue.}}Hinduism is the most widely professed faith in Kerala, with significant Muslim and Christian minorities. In comparison with the rest of India, Kerala experiences relatively little sectarianism.JOURNAL, Heller P, Social capital as a product of class mobilization and state intervention: Industrial workers in Kerala, India, University of California, 49–50, 4 May 2003, 25 February 2007,weblink harv, According to 2011 Census of India figures, 54.73% of Kerala's residents were Hindus, 26.56% are Muslims, 18.38% are Christians, and the remaining 0.32% follow another religion or have no religious affiliation.WEB, Population by religious communities, Census of India,weblink Government of India, 26 August 2015, Hindus represent the biggest religious group in all districts except Malappuram, where they are outnumbered by Muslims.NEWS,weblink Chennai, India, The Hindu, Increase in Muslim population in the State, 23 September 2004, 13 November 2015, Kerala has the largest population of Christians in India.WEB,weblink Kerala, not Goa, has maximum no. of Christians, The Times of India, The Times Group, As of 2016, Hindus, Muslims, Christians and others account for 41.88%, 42.55%, 15.35% and 0.22% of the total child births in the state, respectively.WEB,weblink Vital Statistics 2016, Ecostat, Kerala Government., 7 June 2019, The mythological legends regarding the origin of Kerala are Hindu in nature. Kerala produced several saints and movements. Adi Shankara was a religious philosopher who contributed to Hinduism and propagated the philosophy of Advaita. He was instrumental in establishing four mathas at Sringeri, Dwarka, Puri and Jyotirmath. Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri was another religious figure who composed Narayaniyam, a collection of verses in praise of the Hindu God Krishna.Historians do not rule out the possibility of Islam being introduced to Kerala as early as the seventh century CE.WEB,weblink Trade, not invasion brought Islam to India, Sethi, Atul, 24 June 2007, Times of India, 24 September 2014, Katz 2000; Koder 1973; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; David de Beth Hillel, 1832; Lord, James Henry 1977. Kerala Muslims are generally referred to as the Mappilas. Mappilas are but one among the many communities that forms the Muslim population of Kerala.Kunhali, V. "Muslim Communities in Kerala to 1798" PhD Dissertation Aligarh Muslim University (1986) weblinkBOOK,weblink The Palace of Illusions, Chitra Divakaruni, 16 February 2011, Pan Macmillan, 978-0-330-47865-6, 18 November 2012, According to some scholars, the Mappilas are the oldest settled Muslim community in South Asia.Miller, E. Roland. "Mappila Muslim Culture" State University of New York Press, Albany (2015); p. xi.Miller, R. E. "Mappila" in The Encyclopedia of Islam Volume VI. Leiden E. J. Brill 1988 p. 458-66 weblink Most of the Muslims in Kerala follow the ShāfiÊ¿Ä« school of religious law while a large minority follow movements that developed within Sunni Islam. The latter section consists of majority Salafists (the Mudjahids) and the minority Islamists.Miller, Roland. E., "Mappila" in "The Encyclopedia of Islam". Volume VI. E. J. Brill, Leiden. 1987 pp. 458–56.BOOK,weblink Educational Empowerment of Kerala Muslims: A Socio-historical Perspective, Prof. U. Mohammed, Other Books, 2007, 978-81-903887-3-3, 146–, 18 November 2012, Ancient Christian tradition says that Christianity reached the shores of Kerala in AD 52 with the arrival of Thomas the Apostle, one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ.BOOK,weblink The Jews of India: A Story of Three Communities, Orpa, Slapak, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, 2003, 27, 965-278-179-7, The Cochin Jews Of Kerala, Barbara C., Johnson, WEB,weblink Saint Thomas, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1 January 2019, Menachery G; 1973, 1998; Mundalan, A. M; 1984; Podipara, Placid J. 1970; Leslie Brown, 1956 Saint Thomas Christians include Syro-Malabar Catholic,BOOK, Selvister Ponnumuthan, Authentic Interpretation in Canon Law: Reflections on a Distinctively Canonical Institution,weblink 18 November 2012, 1996, Gregorian&Biblical BookShop, 978-88-7652-721-0, 103–, Syro-Malankara Catholic,BOOK, Raymond Brady Williams, Christian Pluralism in the United States: The Indian Immigrant Experience,weblink 18 November 2012, 13 November 1996, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-57016-9, 144–, Jacobite Syrian,BOOK, Allan Anderson, Edmond Tang, Asian and Pentecostal: The Charismatic Face of Christianity in Asia,weblink 18 November 2012, 2005, OCMS, 978-1-870345-43-9, 248–, Malankara Marthoma Syrian BOOK, John Anthony McGuckin (15 December 2010). The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity. pp. 377–. Retrieved 18 November 2012., John Wiley & Sons., ISBN 978-1-4443-9254-8., , Malankara Orthodox Syrian,BOOK, Thomas Arthur Russell, Comparative Christianity: A Student's Guide to a Religion and Its Diverse Traditions,weblink 18 November 2012, June 2010, Universal-Publishers, 978-1-59942-877-2, 40–, the Syrian Anglicans of the CSIBOOK, Stephen Neill, A History of Christianity in India: 1707–1858,weblink 31 August 2012, 2 May 2002, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-89332-9, 247–249, and several Pentecostal and evangelicalJOURNAL, Burgess M., Stanley, PENTECOSTALISM IN INDIA: AN OVERVIEW, Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies, January 2001, 4, 1, 95–96,weblink 3 March 2014, denominations. The origin of the Latin Catholic Christians in Kerala is the result of the missionary endeavours of the Portuguese Padroado in the 16th century.BOOK, A Sreedhara Menon, A Survey Of Kerala History,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 January 2007, DC Books, 978-81-264-1578-6, 192–, BOOK, Knut A. Jacobsen, Selva J. Rak, Selva J. Raj, South Asian Christian Diaspora: Invisible Diaspora in Europe and North America,weblink 18 November 2012, 2008, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 978-0-7546-6261-7, 172–, BOOK, Ajantha Subramanian, Shorelines: Space and Rights in South India,weblink 18 November 2012, 21 April 2009, Stanford University Press, 978-0-8047-8685-0, 95–, As a consequence of centuries of miscegenation beginning with the Portuguese, Dutch, French, British and other Europeans, there is a community of Anglo-Indians in Kerala of mixed European and Indian parentage or ancestry. Kerala has the highest population of Christians among all the states of India.Singh, Anjana. "Fort Cochin in Kerala 1750–1830 The Social Condition of a Dutch Community in an Indian Milieu." Brill, Leiden Boston: 2010, 3: 92.Judaism reached Kerala in the 10th century BC during the time of King Solomon.Weil, Shalva. "Jews in India." in M.Avrum Erlich (ed.) Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora, Santa Barbara, USA: ABC CLIO. 2008, 3: 1204–1212. They are called Cochin Jews or Malabar Jews and are the oldest group of Jews in India.Weil, Shalva. India's Jewish Heritage: Ritual, Art and Life-Cycle, Mumbai: Marg Publications, 2009. [first published in 2002; 3rd edn.]. Katz 200/* Religion */ 0; Koder 1973; Menachery 1998 There was a significant Jewish community which existed in Kerala until the 20th century, when most of them migrated to Israel.BOOK, Joan G. Roland, The Jewish Communities of India: Identity in a Colonial Era,weblink 18 November 2012, 1998, Transaction Publishers, 978-0-7658-0439-6, 283–, The Paradesi Synagogue at Kochi is the oldest synagogue in the Commonwealth.WEB, Paradesi Synagogue - tourist attractions at Mattancherry, Ernakulam Kerala Tourism,weblink www.keralatourism.org, Jainism has a considerable following in the Wayanad district.BOOK, Stewart Lockie, David Carpenter, Agriculture, Biodiversity and Markets: Livelihoods and Agroecology in Comparative Perspective,weblink 18 November 2012, 4 May 2012, Routledge, 978-1-136-54649-5, 258, BOOK, George Mathew, B S Baviskar, Inclusion and Exclusion in Local Governance: Field Studies from Rural India,weblink 18 November 2012, 6 January 2009, SAGE Publications, 978-81-7829-860-3, 204, Buddhism was popular in the time of AshokaBOOK, Malayalam Literary Survey,weblink 1984, Kerala Sahitya Akademi, 121, but vanished by the 12th century CE.BOOK, Manakkadan Manicoth Anand Ram, Influx: Crete to Kerala,weblink 1999, Keerthi Publishing House, 5, Certain Hindu communities such as the Samantan Kshatriyas, Ambalavasis, Nairs, Thiyyas and some Muslims around North Malabar used to follow a traditional matrilineal system known as marumakkathayam,BOOK, R. Raman Nair, L. Sulochana Devi, Chattampi Swami: An Intellectual Biography,weblink 18 November 2012, 2010, South Indian Studies, 978-81-905928-2-6, 33–, BOOK, Monika Böck, Aparna Rao, Aparna Rao, Culture, Creation, and Procreation: Concepts of Kinship in South Asian Practice,weblink 18 November 2012, 2000, Berghahn Books, 978-1-57181-911-6, 180–, although this practice ended in the years after Indian independence.BOOK, M. Mohan Mathews, India, Facts & Figures,weblink 18 November 2012, 2001, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 978-81-207-2285-9, 133–, Other Muslims, Christians, and some Hindu castes such as the Namboothiris, most of the Ambalavasi castes and the Ezhavas followed makkathayam, a patrilineal system.BOOK, A Sreedhara Menon, A Survey Of Kerala History,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 January 2007, DC Books, 978-81-264-1578-6, 219–, JOURNAL, Government of Kerala, 2002, Marumakkathayam, Department of Public Relations (Government of Kerala),weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060521080409weblink">weblink 21 May 2006, 29 January 2006, Owing to the former matrilineal system, women in Kerala enjoy a high social status."Kerala." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 8 June 2008 However, gender inequality among low caste men and women is reportedly higher compared to that in other castes.JOURNAL, Lindberg A, July 2004, Modernization and Effeminization in India: Kerala Cashew Workers since 1930, 18th European Conference on Modern South Asian Studies (EASAS), harv, 10.1.1.456.2192, {{rp|1}}{{clear}}

Education

File:Kumaran Ashan.jpg|thumb|The University of KeralaUniversity of KeralaThe Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries. In attempting to solve astronomical problems, the Kerala school independently created a number of important mathematics concepts, including series expansion for trigonometric functions.JOURNAL, Roy, Ranjan, 1990, Discovery of the Series Formula for Ï€ by Leibniz, Gregory, and Nilakantha, Mathematics Magazine, 63, 5, 291–306, 10.2307/2690896, 2690896, {{Citation |last=Pingree |first=David |authorlink=David Pingree |title=Hellenophilia versus the History of Science |year=1992 |journal=Isis |volume=83 |issue=4 |pages=554–563 |jstor=234257 |doi=10.1086/356288 |quote=One example I can give you relates to the Indian Mādhava's demonstration, in about 1400 A.D., of the infinite power series of trigonometrical functions using geometrical and algebraic arguments. When this was first described in English by Charles Whish, in the 1830s, it was heralded as the Indians' discovery of the calculus. This claim and Mādhava's achievements were ignored by Western historians, presumably at first because they could not admit that an Indian discovered the calculus, but later because no one read any more the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, in which Whish's article was published. The matter resurfaced in the 1950s, and now we have the Sanskrit texts properly edited, and we understand the clever way that Mādhava derived the series without the calculus; but many historians still find it impossible to conceive of the problem and its solution in terms of anything other than the calculus and proclaim that the calculus is what Mādhava found. In this case the elegance and brilliance of Mādhava's mathematics are being distorted as they are buried under the current mathematical solution to a problem to which he discovered an alternate and powerful solution. |bibcode=1992Isis...83..554P}} In the early decades of the 19th century, the modern educational transformation of Kerala was triggered by the efforts of the Church Mission Society missionaries to promote mass education.JOURNAL, Missionaries led State to renaissance: Pinarayi,weblink Inaugurating on Saturday the valedictory of the bicentenary celebration of the arrival of Church Mission Society (CMS) missionaries to the shores of Kerala, Mr. Vijayan said it was their pioneering work in the fields of education, literature, printing, publishing, women’s education, education of the differently abled and, in general, a new social approach through the inclusion of marginalised sections into the mainstream which brought the idea of ‘equality’ into the realm of public consciousness. This had raised the standard of public consciousness and paved the way for the emergence of the renaissance movements in the State., JOURNAL, Kerala to celebrate CMS mission,weblink Indian President Pranab Mukherjee, visited CMS College in Kerala, the oldest college in India, and laid the foundation stone of the bicentenary block. He said, “CMS college is a pioneer of modern education in Kerala. It has been the source of strong currents of knowledge and critical inquiry that have moulded the scholastic and socio-cultural landscape of Kerala and propelled the State to the forefront of social development.”, JOURNAL, Growth of Literacy in Kerala,weblink JOURNAL, District Handbooks of Kerala,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090319183020weblink">weblink yes, 2009-03-19, DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION & PUBLIC RELATIONS GOVERNMENT OF KERALA, BOOK, Menon, Sreedhara, A survey of Kerala History, 1996, S.Viswanathan Printers and Publishers, Madras, 339, 348, 349, 9788126415786,weblink Following the recommendations of the Wood's despatch of 1854, the princely states of Travancore and Cochin launched mass education drives mainly based on castes and communities, and introduced a system of grant-in-aid to attract more private initiatives. The efforts by leaders such as Vaikunda Swami, Narayana Guru, Ayyankali, and Kuriakose Elias Chavara in aiding the socially discriminated castes in the state—with the help of community-based organisations like Nair Service Society, SNDP, Muslim Mahajana Sabha, Yoga Kshema Sabha (of Nambudiris) and congregations of Christian churches—led to the further development of mass education in Kerala.BOOK, Planning Commission, India, Kerala Development Report,weblink Academic Foundation, 2007, 978-81-7188-594-7, 53–58, 30 May 2015, According to the first economic census, conducted in 1977, 99.7% of the villages in Kerala had a primary school within {{convert|2|km|mi}}, 98.6% had a middle school within {{convert|2|km|mi}} and 96.7% had a high school or higher secondary school within {{convert|5|km|mi}}.{{rp|62}} In 1991, Kerala became the first state in India to be recognised as completely literate, although the effective literacy rate at that time was only 90%.BOOK, Mookkiah Soundarapandian, Literacy Campaign in India,weblink 1 January 2000, Discovery Publishing House, 978-81-7141-553-3, 21, In 2006–2007, the state topped the Education Development Index (EDI) of the 21 major states in India.NEWS, D Suresh Kumar,weblink Kerala tops primary education index, The Times of India, 13 October 2008, 30 July 2009, {{As of|2007}}, enrolment in elementary education was almost 100%; and, unlike other states in India, educational opportunity was almost equally distributed among sexes, social groups, and regions.BOOK, Planning Commission, India, Kerala Development Report,weblink Academic Foundation, 2007, 978-81-7188-594-7, 255–258, 30 May 2015, According to the 2011 census, Kerala has a 93.91% literacy, compared to the national literacy rate of 74.04%.NEWS, Tripura tops literacy rate with 94.65 per cent, leaves behind Kerala,weblink 12 February 2015, IBNLive, 9 September 2013, In January 2016, Kerala became the first Indian state to achieve 100% primary education through its Athulyam literacy programme.NEWS,weblink Kerala becomes 1st Indian state to achieve 100% primary education, 12 January 2016, 14 January 2016, International Business Times, The educational system prevailing in the state's schools specifies an initial 10-year course of study, which is divided three stages—lower primary, upper primary, and secondary school—known as 4+3+3, which signifies the number of years for each stage. After the first 10 years of schooling, students typically enroll in Higher Secondary Schooling in one of the three major streams—liberal arts, commerce, or science. Upon completing the required coursework, students can enroll in general or professional undergraduate (UG) degree-college programmes. The majority of public schools are affiliated with the Kerala State Education Board. Other educational boards are the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), and the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). English is the language of instruction in most self-financing schools, while government and government-aided schools offer instruction in English or Malayalam.WEB, Education in Kerala,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111218082340weblink">weblink 18 December 2011, Government of India, 30 May 2015, Though the cost of education is generally considered low in Kerala,Najith Kumar, K.K. George, "Kerala's education system: from inclusion to exclusion", Economic and Political Weekly, 10 October 2009, VOL XLIV, NO 41, page 55 according to the 61st round of the National Sample Survey (2004–2005), per capita spending on education by the rural households was reported to be {{INRConvert|41}} for Kerala, more than twice the national average. The survey also revealed that the rural-urban difference in household expenditure on education was much less in Kerala than in the rest of India.Najith Kumar, K.K. George, "Kerala's education system: from inclusion to exclusion", Economic and Political Weekly, 10 October 2009, VOL XLIV, NO 41, page 56The Indian Naval Academy, located at Ezhimala, Kannur, is Asia's largest, and the world's third-largest, naval academy.NEWS, Navy-Training Academy-proposed Expansion,weblink Deccan Herald, 11 August 2017, en, NEWS, Asia's largest naval academy opened,weblink Arab News, 10 January 2009, en, {{clear}}

Culture

{{bar box|float=rightLanguages of Kerala (2011)LANGUAGE – INDIA, STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES WORK=CENSUS OF INDIA 2011 PAGES=13–14, |width=300px|bars={{bar percent|Malayalam| #53C4C9|97.03}}{{bar percent|Tamil|blue|1.50}}{{bar percent|Others|#103642|1.47}}}}{{Multiple image
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|alt5 = Thrissur Pooram festival
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|thumb
|alt6 = Mohiniattam
|caption6 = A mohiniattam performance|image7 = Portrait of Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan,the father of the Malayalam language.jpg
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|caption7 = Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan, 17-century poet|image8 = sadhya DSW.jpg
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}}The culture of Kerala is composite and cosmopolitan in nature and it is an integral part of Indian culture.BOOK, Cultural Heritage of Kerala, A. Sreedhara Menon, D C Books, 2008, 978-81-264-1903-6, 13–15,weblink 30 May 2015, It is synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures,BOOK, A. Sreedhara Menon, Cultural Heritage of Kerala: An Introduction,weblink 1978, East-West Publications, 10, defined by its antiquity and the organic continuity sustained by the Malayali people.BOOK, Contribution of Travancore to Karnatic Music,weblink 2004, Information & Public Relations Department, Government of Kerala, 7–37, It has been elaborated through centuries of contact with neighbouring and overseas cultures.BOOK, S. Bhagyalekshmy, Contribution of Travancore to Karnatic Music,weblink 6 January 2013, 2004, Information & Public Relations Department, Government of Kerala, However, the geographical insularity of Kerala from the rest of the country has resulted in the development of a distinctive lifestyle, art, architecture, language, literature and social institutions. Over 10,000 festivals are celebrated in the state every year. The Malayalam calendar, a solar calendar started from 825 CE in Kerala,BOOK, J. Devika, Her-self: Early Writings on Gender by Malayalee Women, 1898–1938,weblink 17 November 2012, 2005, Popular Prakashan, 978-81-85604-74-9, 5, finds common usage in planning agricultural and religious activities.BOOK, Kumar Suresh Singh, People of India: Maharashtra,weblink 17 November 2012, 2004, Popular Prakashan, 978-81-7991-102-0, 1524, Malayalam, one of the classical languages in India, is Kerala's official language.BOOK, Thomas Benedikter, Language Policy and Linguistic Minorities in India: An Appraisal of the Linguistic Rights of Minorities in India,weblink 18 November 2012, 2009, LIT Verlag Münster, 978-3-643-10231-7, 90, Over a dozen other scheduled and unscheduled languages are also spoken.

Festivals

Many of the temples in Kerala hold festivals on specific days of the year.BOOK, Cultural Heritage of Kerala,weblink 2008, D.C. Books, 978-81-264-1903-6, 76, A common characteristic of these festivals is the hoisting of a holy flag which is brought down on the final day of the festival after immersing the deity.BOOK, The Legacy of Kerala,weblink 1982, Department of Public Relations, Government of Kerala, 978-81-264-3798-6, 34, Some festivals include Poorams, the best known of these being the Thrissur Pooram.BOOK, World Encyclopaedia of Interfaith Studies: World religions,weblink 2009, Jnanada Prakashan, 978-81-7139-280-3, 704–710, "Elephants, firework displays and huge crowds" are the major attractions of Thrissur Pooram.NEWS, The stars of Pooram show are jumbos, The Hindu, 26 May 2006, 11 November 2007,weblink Chennai, India, Other known festivals are Makaravilakku,BOOK, Infokerala Communications Pvt. Ltd., Pilgrimage to Temple Heritage,weblink 1 September 2013, Biju Mathew, 978-81-921284-4-3, 433, Chinakkathoor Pooram, Attukal Pongala and Nenmara Vallangi VelaBOOK, David Stott, Kerala Footprint Focus Guide: Includes Kochi, Alappuzha, Thrissur, Periyar, River Nila,weblink 10 April 2014, Footprint Travel Guides, 978-1-909268-79-1, 94, Other than these, festivals locally known as utsavams are conducted by many temples mostly on annual basis. Temples that can afford it will usually involve at least one richly caparisoned elephant as part of the festivities. The idol in the temple is taken out on a procession around the countryside atop this elephant. When the procession visits homes around the temple, people will usually present rice, coconuts, and other offerings to it.BOOK, M. G. S. Narayanan, K. K. N. Kurup, Historical Studies in Kerala,weblink 1976, Department of History, University of Calicut, 68–81, Processions often include traditional music such as Panchari melam or Panchavadyam.BOOK, Rolf Killius, Ritual Music and Hindu Rituals of Kerala,weblink 2006, B.R. Rhythms, 978-81-88827-07-7, 61,

Onam

Onam is a harvest festival celebrated by the people of Kerala and is reminiscent of the state's agrarian past.BOOK, Chummar Choondal, Kerala Folk Literature, 1980,weblink Kerala Folklore Academy, BOOK, A Sreedhara Menon, A Survey Of Kerala History,weblink 1 January 2007, DC Books, 978-81-264-1578-6, 80–, It is a local festival of KeralaBOOK, Pratiyogita Darpan, Pratiyogita Darpan,weblink October 2006, Pratiyogita Darpan, 624, consisting of a four-day public holidays; from Onam Eve (Uthradam) to the fourth Onam Day.BOOK, Purāṇam,weblink 2004, All-India Kasiraja Trust., 17, Onam falls in the Malayalam month of Chingam (August–September)BOOK, Cultural Heritage of Kerala,weblink 2008, D.C. Books, 978-81-264-1903-6, 66, and marks the commemoration of the Vamana avatara of Vishnu and the subsequent homecoming of King Mahabali.NEWS, Praveen, M. P., Myth, mystique, and traditions of Onam,weblink 12 November 2015, The Hindu, 8 September 2011, The total duration of Onam is 10 days and it is celebrated all across Kerala. It is one of the festivals celebrated with cultural elements such as Vallam Kali,BOOK, IBP USA, India Country Study Guide Volume 1 Strategic Information and Developments,weblink 3 March 2012, Lulu.com, 978-1-4387-7460-2, 110, Pulikali,BOOK, Infokerala Communications Pvt. Ltd., Pilgrimage to Temple Heritage,weblink 1 September 2013, Biju Mathew, 978-81-921284-4-3, 535, Pookkalam,BOOK, A Biblical Approach to Indian Traditions and Beliefs,weblink 2008, Armour Publishing Pte Ltd, 978-981-4222-39-6, 90, Thumbi ThullalBOOK, J Mohapatra, Wellness In Indian Festivals & Rituals,weblink December 2013, Partridge Pub, 978-1-4828-1690-7, 142, and Onavillu.BOOK, Gouri Lakshmi Bayi (Princess.), Thulasi garland,weblink 1998, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan,

Dance

Kerala is home to a number of performance arts. These include five classical dance forms: Kathakali, Mohiniyattam, Koodiyattom, Thullal and Krishnanattam, which originated and developed in the temple theatres during the classical period under the patronage of royal houses.JOURNAL,weblink Classical Dance Art Forms of Kerala, Kala Menon, Sruti Ranjini, November 2004, 14, 1, 11, Kerala natanam, Thirayattam,"Thirayattam" (Folklore Text-Malayalam), State Institute of language, Kerala {{ISBN|978-81-200-4294-0}} Kaliyattam, Theyyam, Koothu and Padayani are other dance forms associated with the temple culture of the region.BOOK, A Sreedhara Menon, Cultural heritage of Kerala,weblink 17 November 2012, 2008, D C Books, 978-81-264-1903-6, 106, Some traditional dance forms such as Margamkali and Parichamuttukali are popular among the Syrian Christians and Chavittu nadakom is popular among the Latin Christians,BOOK, Kāvālaṃ Nārāyaṇappaṇikkar, Folklore of Kerala,weblink 17 November 2012, 1991, National Book Trust, India, 146, BOOK, Asha Kasbekar, Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts, And Lifestyle,weblink 17 November 2012, 2006, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-85109-636-7, 43–44, while Oppana and Duffmuttu were popular among the Muslims of the state.BOOK, Motilal (UK) Books of India, Tourist Guide Kerala,weblink 17 November 2012, 1 February 2008, Sura Books, 978-81-7478-164-2, 8,

Music

The development of classical music in Kerala is attributed to the contributions it received from the traditional performance arts associated with the temple culture of Kerala.BOOK, The Legacy of Kerala, A. Sreedhara Menon, D C Books, 1982, 978-81-264-2157-2, 48–51,weblink 30 May 2015, The development of the indigenous classical music form, Sopana Sangeetham, illustrates the rich contribution that temple culture has made to the arts of Kerala. Carnatic music dominates Keralite traditional music. This was the result of Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma's popularisation of the genre in the 19th century. Raga-based renditions known as sopanam accompany kathakali performances.BOOK, Richard Schechner, Willa Appel, By Means of Performance: Intercultural Studies of Theatre and Ritual,weblink 18 November 2012, 25 May 1990, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-33915-5, 145, Melam; including the paandi and panchari variants, is a more percussive style of music:BOOK, Simon Broughton, Mark Ellingham, Richard Trillo, World Music Volumn 2 Latin and North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific: The Rough Guide,weblink 18 November 2012, 2000, Rough Guides, 978-1-85828-636-5, 97, it is performed at Kshetram-centered festivals using the chenda. Panchavadyam is a form of percussion ensemble, in which artists use five types of percussion instrument. Kerala's visual arts range from traditional murals to the works of Raja Ravi Varma, the state's most renowned painter. Most of the castes and communities in Kerala have rich collections of folk songs and ballads associated with a variety of themes; Vadakkan Pattukal (Northern Ballads), Thekkan pattukal (Southern Ballads), Vanchi pattukal (Boat Songs), Mappila Pattukal (Muslim songs) and Pallipattukal (Church songs) are a few of them.BOOK, The Legacy of Kerala, A. Sreedhara Menon, D C Books, 1982, 978-81-264-2157-2, 41,weblink 30 May 2015,

Cinema

Malayalam films carved a niche for themselves in the Indian film industry with the presentation of social themes.BOOK, Cultural Heritage of Kerala, Sreedhara, Menon, D C Books, 2008,weblink 978-81-264-1903-6, 128–129, 30 May 2015, BOOK, Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature, Amaresh, Datta, Sahitya Akademi, 1987,weblink 978-81-260-1803-1, 751–753, Directors from Kerala, like Adoor Gopalakrishnan, G. Aravindan, Bharathan, P. Padmarajan, M.T.Vasudevan Nair, K.G. George, Priyadarshan, John Abraham, Ramu Karyat, K S Sethumadhavan, A. Vincent and Shaji N Karun have made a considerable contribution to the Indian parallel cinema. Kerala has also given birth to numerous actors, such as Satyan, Prem Nazir, Madhu, Sheela, Sharada, Miss Kumari, Jayan, Adoor Bhasi, Seema, Bharath Gopi, Thilakan, Mohanlal, MammoottyMammootty, Vijaya Raghavan, Kalabhavan Mani, Indrans, Shobana, Nivin Pauly, Sreenivasan, Urvashi, Manju Warrier, Suresh Gopi, Jayaram, Murali, Shankaradi, Kavya Madhavan, Bhavana Menon, Prithviraj, Parvathy (actress), Jayasurya, Dulquer Salmaan, Oduvil Unnikrishnan, Jagathy Sreekumar, Nedumudi Venu, KPAC Lalitha and Fahad Fazil. Late Malayalam actor Prem Nazir holds the world record for having acted as the protagonist of over 720 movies.NEWS, Gangadhar, V., Magic of Sophia Loren,weblink 2 October 2003, Sunday Magazine, The Hindu, Chennai, India, 18 January 2015, Since the 1980s, actors Mohanlal and Mammootty have dominated the movie industry; Mohanlal has won five National Film Awards (four for acting), while Mammootty has three National Film Awards for acting.BOOK, Sura's Year Book 2006, Subburaj V.V.K, 620, 978-81-7254-124-8,weblink Sura Books, 30 May 2015, Malayalam Cinema has produced a few more notable personalities such as K.J. Yesudas, K.S. Chitra, Vayalar Rama Varma, M.T. Vasudevan Nair, V. Madhusoodanan Nair and O.N.V. Kurup,NEWS,weblink 24 September 2014, Jnanpith Awards for ONV Kurup, Akhlaq Khan Shahryar, The Times of India, 24 September 2014, the last two mentioned being recipients of Jnanpith award, the highest literary award in India.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121219193030weblink">weblink yes, 19 December 2012, Jnanpith Award Winners | UPSC Guide, upscguide.com, 24 September 2014, Resul Pookutty, who is from Kerala, is only the second Indian to win an academy award for sound design, for the breakthrough film Slumdog Millionaire.

Literature

Malayalam literature starts from the late medieval period and includes such notable writers as the 14th-century Niranam poets (Madhava Panikkar, Sankara Panikkar and Rama Panikkar),BOOK, P. K. Parameswaran Nair, History of Malayalam literature,weblink 18 November 2012, 1967, Sahitya Akademi, 296, BOOK, Sigfried J. de Laet, History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century,weblink 18 November 2012, 1994, UNESCO, 978-92-3-102813-7, 407, and the 17th-century poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan, whose works mark the dawn of both the modern Malayalam language and its poetry.BOOK, K. M. George, Eng when Poetry Comes,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 January 1998, Sahitya Akademi, 978-81-260-0413-3, 58, Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar and Kerala Varma Valiakoi Thampuran are noted for their contribution to Malayalam prose.BOOK, P. K. Parameswaran Nair, History of Malayalam literature,weblink 18 November 2012, 1967, Sahitya Akademi, 118–121, BOOK, Madhubālā Sinhā, Encyclopaedia of South Indian literature,weblink 18 November 2012, 2009, Anmol Publ., 978-81-261-3740-4, 97, BOOK, John V. Vilanilam, Religious communication in India,weblink 18 November 2012, 1987, Kairali Books International, 66, The "triumvirate of poets" (Kavithrayam): Kumaran Asan, Vallathol Narayana Menon, and Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer, are recognised for moving Keralite poetry away from archaic sophistry and metaphysics, and towards a more lyrical mode.BOOK, Sukumār Al̲ikkōṭȧ, Mahakavi Ulloor,weblink 18 November 2012, 1979, Sahitya Akademi, 52, BOOK, Indian and Foreign Review,weblink 18 November 2012, 1983, Publications Division of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, 25, BOOK, Ke. Eṃ Tarakan, A brief survey of Malayalam literature: history of literature,weblink 18 November 2012, 1990, K.M. Tharakan, 41–52, In the second half of the 20th century, Jnanpith winning poets and writers like G. Sankara Kurup, S. K. Pottekkatt, Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, M. T. Vasudevan Nair and O. N. V. Kurup had made valuable contributions to the modern Malayalam literature.BOOK, Subodh Kapoor, The Indian Encyclopaedia: Biographical, Historical, Religious, Administrative, Ethnological, Commercial and Scientific. Mahi-Mewat,weblink 18 November 2012, 2002, Cosmo, 978-81-7755-272-0, 4542, BOOK, Accessions List, South Asia,weblink 18 November 2012, July 1994, E.G. Smith for the U.S. Library of Congress Office, New Delhi, 21, BOOK, Indian Writing Today,weblink 18 November 2012, 1967, Nirmala Sadanand Publishers, 21, BOOK, Amaresh Datta, Sahitya Akademi, Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: K to Navalram,weblink 18 November 2012, 1987, Sahitya Akademi, 2394, BOOK, Malayalam Literary Survey,weblink 18 November 2012, 1993, Kerala Sahitya Akademi, 19, Later, writers like O. V. Vijayan, Kamaladas, M. Mukundan, Arundhati Roy, Vaikom Muhammed Basheer, have gained international recognition.BOOK, Eṃ Mukundan, C. Gopinathan Pillai, Eng Adityan Radha And Others,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 January 2004, Sahitya Akademi, 978-81-260-1883-3, 3, BOOK, Ed. Vinod Kumar Maheshwari, Perspectives On Indian English Literature,weblink 18 November 2012, 1 January 2002, Atlantic Publishers & Dist, 978-81-269-0093-0, 126, BOOK, Amit Chaudhuri, Clearing a Space: Reflections On India, Literature, and Culture,weblink 18 November 2012, 2008, Peter Lang, 978-1-906165-01-7, 44–45, NEWS, Indian's First Novel Wins Booker Prize in Britain, New York Times, 15 October 1997, 11 November 2007,weblink Sarah, Lyall,

Cuisine

Kerala cuisine includes a wide variety of vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes prepared using fish, poultry, and meat. Culinary spices have been cultivated in Kerala for millennia and they are characteristic of its cuisine.BOOK, Murdoch Books Pty Limited, Murdoch Books Test Kitchen, India,weblink 17 November 2012, 1 July 2010, Murdoch Books, 978-1-74196-438-7, 10, Rice is a dominant staple that is eaten at all times of day.BOOK, Majumdar, Consumer Behaviour: Insights From Indian Market,weblink 17 November 2012, 2010, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., 978-81-203-3963-7, 181, A majority of the breakfast foods in Kerala are made out of rice, in one form or the other (idli, dosa, puttu, appam, or idiyappam), tapioca preparations, or pulse-based vada.BOOK, Rachel Muthachen, Regional Indian Recipes,weblink 17 November 2012, 1 January 1970, Jaico Publishing House, 978-81-7224-035-6, 1, These may be accompanied by chutney, kadala, payasam, payar pappadam, appam, chicken curry, beef fry, egg masala and fish curry. Porotta and Biryani are also often found in restaurants in Kerala. Lunch dishes include rice and curry along with rasam, pulisherry and sambar.BOOK, James Newton, Jay Rai's Kitchen – Keralan Cuisine,weblink 17 November 2012, Springwood emedia, 978-1-4761-2308-0, 4–, Sadhya is a vegetarian meal, which is served on a banana leaf and followed with a cup of payasam.BOOK, Vijayan Kannampilly, Essential Kerala Cook Book,weblink 17 November 2012, 30 May 2003, Penguin Books India, 978-0-14-302950-2, 10–11, Popular snacks include banana chips, yam crisps, tapioca chips, Achappam, Unni appam and kuzhalappam.BOOK, Kerala with Lakshadweep,weblink 17 November 2012, 1 January 2005, Outlook Publishing, 27, BOOK, George Koilparampil, Caste in the Catholic community in Kerala: a study of caste elements in the inter rite relationships of Syrians and Latins,weblink 17 November 2012, 1982, Dept. of Sociology, St. Teresa's College, 233, BOOK, Paramatmananda (Swami.), Talks,weblink 17 November 2012, 2000, Mata Amritanandamayi Center, 978-1-879410-79-4, 24, Seafood specialties include karimeen, prawns, shrimp and other crustacean dishes.WEB, Kerala Cuisine,weblink Ecotours, 30 May 2015,

Elephants

Elephants have been an integral part of the culture of the state. Almost all of the local festivals in kerala include at least one richly caparisoned elephant. Kerala is home to the largest domesticated population of elephants in India—about 700 Indian elephants, owned by temples as well as individuals.BOOK, Theresa Varghese, Stark World Kerala,weblink 17 November 2012, 2006, Stark World Pub., 978-81-902505-1-1, 224, These elephants are mainly employed for the processions and displays associated with festivals celebrated all around the state. More than 10,000 festivals are celebrated in the state annually and some animal lovers have sometimes raised concerns regarding the overwork of domesticated elephants during them.NEWS, India's overworked elephants,weblink BBC, 4 March 2010, 30 May 2015, In Malayalam literature, elephants are referred to as the 'sons of the sahya '.BOOK, K. Satchidanandan, Indian Poetry: Modernism and After,weblink 17 November 2012, 2001, Sahitya Akademi, 978-81-260-1092-9, 14–, The elephant is the state animal of Kerala and is featured on the emblem of the Government of Kerala.WEB, About Kerala,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111218081930weblink">weblink 18 December 2011, Government of Kerala, 17 November 2012,

Media

The media, telecommunications, broadcasting and cable services are regulated by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI).BOOK, The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997,weblink Georg Thieme Verlag, 112, GGKEY:BJ6HEPE0NRE, The National Family Health Survey – 4, conducted in 2015–16, ranked Kerala as the state with the highest media exposure in India.WEB, National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4),weblink International Institute for Population SciencesDeonar, Dozens of newspapers are published in Kerala, in nine major languages,WEB,weblinkweblink 27 September 2007, yes, General Review, 1 September 2006, Registrar of Newspapers for India, but principally Malayalam and English.BOOK, K. M. George, Eng when Poetry Comes,weblink 17 November 2012, 1 January 1998, Sahitya Akademi, 978-81-260-0413-3, 186, The most widely circulated Malayalam-language newspapers are Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Madhyamam, Deshabhimani, Mangalam, Kerala Kaumudi, Chandrika, Suprabhaatham, Janayugam, Janmabhumi, Deepika and Siraj Daily. Major Malayalam periodicals include Mathrubhumi, India Today Malayalam, Madhyamam Weekly, Grihalakshmi, Vanitha, Dhanam, Chithrabhumi, and Bhashaposhini. The Hindu is the most read English language newspaper in the state, followed by The New Indian Express.WEB,weblink IRS 2010 Q1: Dailies in Kerala lose readers after gaining in the last round, Sangeeta Tanwar, Indian Readership Survey, afaqs.com, New Delhi, India, 10 May 2010, 29 May 2013, Other dailies include Deccan Chronicle, The Times of India, DNA, The Economic Times, and The Financial Express.File:Malayala Manorama New Press in Kollam-3, Apr 2016.jpg|right|thumb|Malayala Manorama new office in Kottiyam, KollamKollamDoordarshan is the state-owned television broadcaster. Multi system operators provide a mix of Malayalam, English and international channels via cable television. Some of the popular Malayalam television channels are Media One TV, Asianet, Asianet News, Asianet Plus, Asianet Movies, Surya TV, Kiran TV, Mazhavil Manorama, Manorama News, Kairali TV, Kairali WE, Kairali People, Flowers, Kappa TV, Amrita TV, Reporter TV, Jaihind, Jeevan TV, Mathrubhumi News, Kaumudy TV, Shalom TV, and Janam TV. Television serials, reality shows and the Internet have become major sources of entertainment and information for the people of Kerala. A Malayalam version of Google News was launched in September 2008.WEB,weblink Google Malayalam News, A sizeable People's science movement has taken root in the state, and such activities as writer's cooperatives are becoming increasingly common.BOOK, Ranjith KS, Nair PR, Shaji H, 2004, Rural Libraries of Kerala, Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, 978-81-87621-81-2, 20–21,weblink 28 December 2008, BSNL, Airtel, Vodafone, Idea, Jio, Tata Docomo are the major cell phone service providers.WEB, Highlights ofTelecom Subscription Data as on 28thFebruary, 2019,weblink Broadband Internet services are widely available throughout the state; some of the major ISPs are BSNL, Asianet Satellite Communications, Reliance Communications, Airtel, Vodafone Idea Limited, MTS, RailWire and VSNL. According to a TRAI report, as of June 2018 the total number of wireless phone subscribers in Kerala is about 43.1 million and the wireline subscriber base is at 1.9 million, accounting for the telephone density of 124.15.WEB, Highlights of Telecom Subscription Data as on 30th June, 2018,weblink TELECOM REGULATORYAUTHORITY OF INDIA, Unlike in many other states, the urban-rural divide is not visible in Kerala with respect to mobile phone penetration.WEB, Tele-density in Kerala, The Hindu,weblink 2011, 15 November 2015,

Sports

File:Kerala boatrace.jpg|thumb|The annual snake boat race is performed during Onam on the Pamba RiverPamba RiverBy the 21st century, almost all of the native sports and games from Kerala have either disappeared or become just an art form performed during local festivals; including Poorakkali, Padayani, Thalappandukali, Onathallu, Parichamuttukali, Velakali, and Kilithattukali.WEB,weblink Sports and Games in Kerala, Public Relations Dept, Kerala, 2002, 9 June 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060428081830weblink">weblink 28 April 2006, However, Kalaripayattu, regarded as "the mother of all martial arts in the world", is an exception and is practised as the indigenous martial sport.BOOK, Muay Thai, Meyer & Meyer Verlag, Arnaud Van Der Veere, 2012, 8, 978-1-84126-328-1, Another traditional sport of Kerala is the boat race, especially the race of Snake boats.Cricket and football became popular in the state; both were introduced in Malabar during the British colonial period in the 19th century. Cricketers, like Tinu Yohannan, Abey Kuruvilla, Sreesanth, Sanju Samson and Basil Thampi found places in the national cricket team. A cricket club from Kerala, the Kochi Tuskers, played in the Indian Premier League's fourth season. However, the team was disbanded after the season because of conflicts of interest among its franchises.NEWS, India Wins World Twenty20 Thriller, The Hindu, 25 September 2007, 11 November 2007,weblink Chennai, India, Kerala has only performed well recently in the Ranji Trophy cricket competition, in 2017–18 reaching the quarterfinals for the first time in history.NEWS, Ranji Trophy: In historic first, Kerala join defending champions Gujarat in quarter-finals,weblink 28 November 2017, The Times of India, 19 December 2017, Football is one of the most widely played and watched sports with huge support for club and district level matches. Kochi hosts Kerala Blasters FC in the Indian Super League and Kozhikode hosts Gokulam Kerala FC in the I-League. Kozhikode also hosts the Sait Nagjee Football Tournament. Kerala is one of the major footballing states in India along with West Bengal and Goa and has produced national players like I. M. Vijayan, C. V. Pappachan, V. P. Sathyan, Jo Paul Ancheri, Pappachen Pradeep, C.K. Vineeth, Anas Edathodika and Rino Anto.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090217141248weblink">weblink 17 February 2009, AIFF Award Player of the Year, All India Football Federation, 15 November 2015, yes, WEB, James Wray, Ulf Stabe,weblink Viva marks the resurgence of Kerala football, Monstersandcritics.com, 15 September 2007, 30 July 2009, The Kerala state football team has won the Santhosh Trophy six times; in 1973, 1992, 1993, 2001, 2004, and 2018. They were also the runners-up eight times.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120524035900weblink">weblink 24 May 2012, Past Winners, All India Football Federation, 9 June 2012, Among the prominent athletes hailing from the state are P. T. Usha, Shiny Wilson and M.D. Valsamma, all three of whom are recipients of the Padma Shri as well as Arjuna Award, while K. M. Beenamol and Anju Bobby George are Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and Arjuna Award winners. T. C. Yohannan, Suresh Babu, Sinimol Paulose, Angel Mary Joseph, Mercy Kuttan, K. Saramma, K. C. Rosakutty, Padmini Selvan and Tintu Luka are the other Arjuna Award winners from Kerala.WEB,weblink Kerala State Athletics Association: History, Kerala State Athletics Association, 12 June 2012, Volleyball is another popular sport and is often played on makeshift courts on sandy beaches along the coast.BOOK, The Rough Guide to South India, David Abram, Nick Edwards, Rough Guides, 2004, 978-1-84353-103-6, 64, Jimmy George was a notable Indian volleyball player, rated in his prime as among the world's ten best players.WEB, Jimmy George, Sports Portal, Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, 11 November 2007,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080514040141weblink">weblink 14 May 2008, yes, Other popular sports include badminton, basketball and kabaddi.BOOK, P.A. Reddy, Sports Promotion In India,weblink 17 November 2012, 1 January 2005, Discovery Publishing House, 978-81-7141-927-2, 31–42, The Indian Hockey team captain P. R. Shreejesh, ace goalkeeper hails from Kerala.For the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup in India, the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium (Kochi), was chosen as one of the six venues where the game would be hosted in India.WEB,weblink FIFA Event at Kochi: Time is Ticking Away, The New Indian Express, 3 April 2016, Greenfield International Stadium at located at Kariavattom in Thiruvananthapuram city, is India's first DBOT (design, build, operate and transfer) model outdoor stadium and it has hosted international cricket matches and international football matches including 2015 SAFF Championship.

Tourism

Kerala's culture and traditions, coupled with its varied demographics, have made the state one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. In 2012, National Geographic's Traveller magazine named Kerala as one of the "ten paradises of the world"WEB, Kerala Tourism: Paradises in the world,weblink The Hindu, 20 February 2012, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141108151228weblink">weblink 8 November 2014, Pravasi KairaLi Home, Pravasikairali.com, 11 January 2014, and "50 must see destinations of a lifetime".WEB, Kerala – The Gateway of India,weblink Forbes, 3 January 2012, Travel and Leisure also described Kerala as "One of the 100 great trips for the 21st century".NEWS, Kerala : National Geographic Traveler selects Kerala as 'one of the 50 must-see destinations of a lifetime', Travel Portal of India, 27 January 2009, 11 June 2011,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110904030433weblink">weblink 4 September 2011, In 2012, it overtook the Taj Mahal to be the number one travel destination in Google's search trends for India.NEWS, Kerala beats Taj in Google Search Trends for 2012, Indian Express, 28 December 2012, 11 January 2012,weblink . CNN Travel listed Kerala amongst its '19 best places to visit in 2019'WEB,weblink CNN Travel's 19 places to visit in 2019, editors, CNN Travel, 2019-01-02, CNN Travel, en, 2019-08-15, . Kerala's beaches, backwaters, lakes, mountain ranges, waterfalls, ancient ports, palaces, religious institutionsBOOK, Infokerala Communications Pvt. Ltd., Kerala Tradition & Fascinating Destinations,weblink 2012, Biju Mathew {{!, Info Kerala Communications Pvt Ltd |isbn=978-81-921284-8-1 |page=314}} and wildlife sanctuaries are major attractions for both domestic and international tourists.WEB,weblink 6 August 2011, Kerala Family Tour Packages, Admin, 2 July 2019, The city of Kochi ranks first in the total number of international and domestic tourists in Kerala.WEB,weblink 6 August 2011, DESTINATION WISE NUMBER OF FOREIGN TOURISTS VISITED KERALA DURING 2010, Saju, 24 September 2014, WEB, Government of Kerala, Tourism Department,weblink Tourist statistics – 2008, 22 October 2010, Until the early 1980s, Kerala was a relatively unknown destination compared to other states in the country.NEWS, Santhanam K, An ideal getaway, The Hindu Magazine, 27 January 2002, 11 November 2007,weblink Chennai, India, In 1986 the government of Kerala declared tourism an important industry and it was the first state in India to do so.NEWS, Tourism beckons, The Hindu, 11 May 2004, 9 August 2006,weblink Chennai, India, Marketing campaigns launched by the Kerala Tourism Development Corporation, the government agency that oversees the tourism prospects of the state, resulted in the growth of the tourism industry.BOOK, Tourism Marketing, Dasgupta Devashish, Pearson Education India, 2011, 978-81-317-3182-6, 203,weblink 30 May 2015, Many advertisements branded Kerala with the tagline Kerala, God's Own Country. Kerala tourism is a global brand and regarded as one of the destinations with highest recall. In 2006, Kerala attracted 8.5 million tourists, an increase of 23.68% over the previous year, making the state one of the fastest-growing popular destinations in the world.WEB, Tourist Statistics â€” 2006, Department of Tourism, Government of Kerala, 2006, 11 November 2007,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080626195845weblink">weblink 26 June 2008, In 2011, tourist inflow to Kerala crossed the 10-million mark.NEWSPAPER, Tourist inflow to Kerala crosses 10 million mark, Business-Standard, 15 November 2015,weblink 16 May 2012, Joseph, George, {{Panorama|image = File:Panoramic View of Mattupetty Dam, Munnar, Kerala, India.jpg|height = 230|alt = A panoramic view of Mattupetty Dam, Munnar|caption = A panoramic view of Mattupetty Dam, Munnar}}Ayurvedic tourism has become very popular since the 1990s, and private agencies have played a notable role in tandem with the initiatives of the Tourism Department. Kerala is known for its ecotourism initiatives which include mountaineering, trekking and bird-watching programmes in the Western Ghats as the major activities.BOOK, Planning Commission, India, Kerala Development Report,weblink Academic Foundation, 2007, 978-81-7188-594-7, 47, 30 May 2015, The state's tourism industry is a major contributor to the state's economy, growing at the rate of 13.31%.WEB, Tourist Statistics â€” 2005 (Provisional), Department of Tourism, Government of Kerala, 2005, 11 November 2007,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080626195846weblink">weblink 26 June 2008, The revenue from tourism increased five-fold between 2001 and 2011 and crossed the {{INR}} 190 billion mark in 2011. According to the Economic TimesNEWS,weblink Kerala records 6% rise in tourist arrivals despite floods and Nipah virus scare, 2019-02-14, The Economic Times, 2019-08-14, Kerala netted a record revenue of INR 36,528.01 crore from the tourism sector in 2018, clocking an increase of Rs 2,874.33 crore from the previous year. Over 16.7 million tourists visited Kerala in 2018 as against 15.76 million the previous year, recording an increase of 5.93 per cent. The industry provides employment to approximately 1.2 million people.The state's only drive-in beach, Muzhappilangad in Kannur, which stretches across four kilometres of sand, was chosen by the BBC as one of the top six drive-in beachesWEB,weblink The best beaches for driving, David K., Gibson, BBC Autos, in the world in 2016. Idukki Dam, the world's second arch dam, and Asia's first is at Idukki. The major beaches are at Kovalam, Varkala, Kozhikode, Fort Kochi, Cherai, Alappuzha, Payyambalam, Kappad, Muzhappilangad and Bekal. Popular hill stations are at Ponmudi, Wayanad, Wagamon, Munnar, Peermade, Ramakkalmedu, Paithalmala of Kannur district and Nelliampathi.BOOK, Tapan K Panda, Tourism Marketing, ICFAI Books, 2007, 978-81-314-0469-0,weblink 173–177, 30 May 2015, Munnar is 4,500 feet above sea level and is known for tea plantations, and a variety of flora and fauna.WEB, Kerala: Spellbound by this natural beauty, The Free Press Journal,weblink 2 August 2015, 27 November 2015, Kerala's ecotourism destinations include 12 wildlife sanctuaries and two national parks: Periyar Tiger Reserve, Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Muthanga Wildlife Sanctuary, Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Eravikulam National Park, and Silent Valley National Park are the most popular among them.BOOK, M.R. Biju, Sustainable Dimensions Of Tourism Management, Mittal Publications, 2006, 978-81-8324-129-8,weblink 151–165, 30 May 2015, The Kerala backwaters are an extensive network of interlocking rivers (41 west-flowing rivers), lakes, and canals that centre around Alleppey, Kumarakom and Punnamada (where the annual Nehru Trophy Boat Race is held in August), Pathiramanal a small island in Muhamma . Padmanabhapuram Palace and the Mattancherry Palace are two nearby heritage sites.WEB,weblink Padmanabhapuram Palace, Kerala Tourism, 2 December 2016, WEB,weblink Mattancherry Palace, Kerala Tourism, 2 December 2016, Padmanabhaswamy Temple in the state capital of Thiruvananthapuram holds the record as the wealthiest place of worship in the world, with assets of at least {{INRConvert|1.2|t|0|year=2011}}.File:Misty Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Muthanga Range - panoramio (4).jpg|Wayanad Wildlife SanctuaryFile:Beautiful Alappuzha.jpg|KuttanadFile:Varkala Beach Paragliding.jpg|Varkala BeachFile:Illikkal Kallu (ഇല്ലിക്കൽ കല്ല് ).jpg|Illickal Kallu

See also

References

{{reflist}}

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Kerala|Kerala}}Government General information
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