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Kentucky
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{{About|the U.S. state}}{{use American English|date=August 2019}}{{short description|American state}}{{Use mdy dates|date=June 2018}}







factoids
Louisville, Kentucky>LouisvilleLouisville metropolitan area>Kentuckiana Matt Bevin (R)}}Jenean Hampton (R)}}| Legislature = Kentucky General AssemblyKentucky Senate>SenateKentucky House of Representatives>House of RepresentativesMitch McConnell (R)}}{{nowrap|Rand Paul (R)}}| Representative = 5 Republicans1 Democrat| postal_code = KY| TradAbbreviation = Ky| area_rank = 37th| area_total_sq_mi = 40,408| area_total_km2 = 104,659| area_land_sq_mi = 39,729| area_land_km2 = 102,895| area_water_sq_mi = 681| area_water_km2 = 1,764| area_water_percent = 1.7| population_rank = 26th| 2010Pop = 4,468,402 (2018)| population_density_rank = 22ndMedianHouseholdIncome = $48,375 HTTP://KFF.ORG/OTHER/STATE-INDICATOR/MEDIAN-ANNUAL-INCOME/?CURRENTTIMEFRAME=0>WEBSITE=THE HENRY J. KAISER FAMILY FOUNDATIONACCESSDATE=MAY 14, 2019, | IncomeRank = 45th| 2000DensityUS = 110| 2000Density = 42.5| AdmittanceOrder = 15th| AdmittanceDate = June 1, 1792Eastern Time Zone (North America)>Eastern| utc_offset1 = -05:00Eastern Daylight Time>EDT| utc_offset1_DST = -04:00| timezone1_location = eastern halfCentral Time Zone (North America)>Central| utc_offset2 = -06:00Central Daylight Time>CDT| utc_offset2_DST = -05:00| timezone2_location = western half| Latitude = 36° 30′ N to 39° 09′ N| Longitude = 81° 58′ W to 89° 34′ W| width_mi = 170| width_km = 250| length_mi = 379| length_km = 610Black Mountain (Kentucky)>Black MountainHTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML >TITLE = ELEVATIONS AND DISTANCES IN THE UNITED STATES UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY >YEAR=2001 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 15, 2011, {{NoteTagNorth American Vertical Datum of 1988.>name=NAVD88}}| elevation_max_ft = 4,145| elevation_max_m = 1265| elevation_ft = 750| elevation_m = 230Mississippi River at {{nobreak>Kentucky Bend}}{{NoteTag|name=NAVD88}}| elevation_min_ft = 250| elevation_min_m = 78| iso_code = US-KY| website = Kentucky.gov}}



















factoids
Name Kentucky|Flag = Flag of Kentucky.svg|Seal = Seal of Kentucky.svg
Bird Cardinal
|Butterfly= Viceroy butterfly
|Wildlife animal = Gray squirrel
|Horse = Thoroughbred
|Fish= Kentucky spotted bass
|Flower= Goldenrod
|Insect= Western honeybee
|Tree= Tulip poplar
|Beverage= Milk
|Dance= Clogging
|Food= Blackberry
|Fossil= Brachiopod
|Gemstone= Freshwater pearl
|Mineral= Coal
|Rock= Kentucky agate
|Slogan= Kentucky Unbridled Spirit
|Soil= Crider Soil Series
|Other= Chevrolet Corvette (state sports car)
|Route Marker= Elongated circle 3.svg
|Quarter= 2001 KY Proof.png
|QuarterReleaseDate= 2001
Kentucky ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Kentucky.ogg|k|ə|n|ˈ|t|ʌ|k|i}} {{respell|kən|TUK|ee}}), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it,WEB,weblink Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America, United States Congress, Statutes at Large: 1st Congress, 189, June 4, 2017, (because in Kentucky's first constitution, the term "state" was used), Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth (the others being Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts). Originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky split from it and became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States.Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass, a species of grass found in many of its pastures. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities, Louisville and Lexington. It is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, one of the greatest lengths of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, and the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River.Kentucky is also known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, moonshine, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, tobacco, bluegrass music, college basketball, and Kentucky Fried Chicken.File:My Old Kentucky Home Mansion.png|thumb|My Old Kentucky Home, a widely known historic mansion for which Kentucky's state song, "My Old Kentucky Home" was written in 1852 by Stephen FosterStephen FosterFile:Country road in Kentucky.jpg|thumb|Narrow country roads bounded by stone and wood plank fences are a feature in the Kentucky Bluegrass regionBluegrass region

Etymology

In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County,WEB, About Kentucky, Ezilon Search,weblink November 29, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061110134726weblink">weblink November 10, 2006, dead, named for the Kentucky River.WEB,weblink Kentucky River Development: The Commonwealth's Waterways, Johnson and Parrish, The precise etymology of the name is uncertain,{{OEtymD|Kentucky|accessdate=February 25, 2007}}WEB,weblink Kentucky, February 25, 2007, Oxford English Dictionary, {{dead link|date=May 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning "(on) the meadow" or "(on) the prairie"Mithun, Marianne. 1999. Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pg. 312ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Kentucky, February 25, 2007, Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091030052538weblink">weblink October 30, 2009, dead, (cf. Mohawk kenhtà:ke, Seneca gëdá'geh (phonemic {{IPA|/kẽtaʔkeh/}}), "at the field").BOOK,weblink Native American Place Names of Indiana, University of Illinois Press, McCafferty, Michael, 2008, 250, 9780252032684, Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would absolutely come from Algonquian language and, therefore, would probably have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers". The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe (N. Michigan) translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers".Nichols, John & Nyholm, Earl "Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe" 1994. In any case, the word aki comes out as land in practically all Algonquian languages.

Geography

(File:Map of Kentucky NA (cropped).png|thumb|A map of Kentucky){{See also|List of Kentucky counties|Coal mining in Kentucky}}Kentucky is situated in the Upland South.BOOK, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Merriam–Webster, 2003, 11th, 978-0-87779-809-5,weblink 1562, ed. in chief Frederick C. Mish, January 17, 2013, BOOK, The North American Midwest: A Regional Geography, Wiley Publishers, New York, 1955, A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia.Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west, Illinois and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast. Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more.Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U.S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about {{convert|2|mi|km|spell=in}}. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Indiana and Kentucky.WEB,weblink Map of [1494–1557] Waterworks Rd Evansville, IN, January 1, 2009, Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, and is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River (populated by only 18 people {{as of|2010|lc=y}})JOURNAL, October 1, 2013, Exclaves, Virginia Quarterly Review, 89, 4, 22–23, 0042-675X, requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, even causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the (small number of) inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.WEB, Life on the Mississippi, Kentucky Educational Television, January 28, 2002,weblink November 29, 2006,

Regions

(File:KYphysiography.jpg|thumb|upright=1.6|Kentucky's regions (click on image for color-coding information))Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau (also known as the Pennyrile or Mississippi Plateau), the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase.The Bluegrass region is commonly divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling {{convert|90|mi|km}} around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short, steep, and very narrow hills.File:View from Pine Mountain (Kentucky).jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|The Eastern Kentucky CoalfieldEastern Kentucky CoalfieldFile:Kentucky horse farm.JPEG|thumb|right|upright=0.9|Kentucky's Inner Bluegrass regionBluegrass region(File:Metropolis Lake.jpg|thumb|Metropolis Lake)The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps.

Climate

(File:Kentucky Köppen.svg|thumb|Köppen climate types of Kentucky)Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa), only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate (Cfb) influenced by the Appalachians.{{Citation|last=Peterson|first=Adam|title=English: Köppen climate types of the United States|date=2016-08-18|url=https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:US_50_states_K%C3%B6ppen.svg|access-date=2019-03-04}} Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of {{convert|87|°F}} to the winter low of {{convert|23|°F}}. The average precipitation is {{convert|46|in}} a year.WEB, The Geography of Kentucky â€” Climate, June 15, 2006, NetState.com,weblink November 29, 2006, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter.BOOK, Encyclopedia of Kentucky, Geographical Configuration, Somerset Publishers, New York, 1987, 978-0-403-09981-8, The highest recorded temperature was {{convert|114|F|C}} at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was {{convert|-37|F|C}} at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994. It has four distinct seasons, but rarely experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures extremely seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are also big variations in climate within the state. The northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwealth go from the low 30s in January to the high 70s in mid-July. The annual average temperature varies from {{convert|55|to|60|°F}}: of {{convert|55|°F}} in the far north as an average annual temperature and of {{convert|60|°F}} in the extreme southwest.Klotter, James C. and Freda C. (2015). Faces of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky. Page 53. {{ISBN|9780813160528}}.AV2 by Weigl. (2008). Discover America: Kentucky: The Bluegrass State. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Page 8. {{ISBN|9781593397630}}.In general, Kentucky has relatively humid warm rainy summers, and moderately cold and snowy winters. Mean maximum temperatures in July vary from {{convert|83|to|90|°F}}; the mean minimum July temperatures are {{convert|61|to|69|°F}}. In January the mean maximum temperatures range from {{convert|36|to|44|°F}}; the mean minimum temperatures range from {{convert|36|to|44|°F}}. Temperature means vary with northern and far-eastern mountain-regions averaging five degrees cooler year-round, compared to the relatively warmer areas of the southern- and western region of the state. Precipitation also varies north to south with the north averaging of {{convert|38|to|40|in}}, and the south averaging of {{convert|50|in}}. Days per year below the freezing point vary from about sixty days in the southwest to more than a hundred days in the far-north and far-east.Jones, Ronald (2005). Plant Life of Kentucky: An Illustrated Guide to the Vascular Flora. University Press of Kentucky. Page 11. {{ISBN|9780813123318}}.{| class="wikitable" "text-align:center;font-size:90%;"|Monthly average high and low temperatures for various Kentucky cities ( °F)! style="background:#e5afaa; color:Black; height:17px;"| City! style="background:#e5afaa; color:Black;"| Jan! style="background:#e5afaa; color:Black;"| Feb! style="background:#e5afaa; color:Black;"| Mar! style="background:#e5afaa; color:Black;"| Apr! style="background:#e5afaa; color:Black;"| May! style="background:#e5afaa; color:Black;"| Jun! style="background:#e5afaa; color:Black;"| Jul! style="background:#e5afaa; color:Black;"| Aug! style="background:#e5afaa; color:Black;"| Sep! style="background:#e5afaa; color:Black;"| Oct! style="background:#e5afaa; color:Black;"| Nov! style="background:#e5afaa; color:Black;"| Dec! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:Black; height:16px;"| Lexington 40/24 45/28 55/36 65/44 74/54 82/62 86/66 85/65 78/58 67/46 54/37 44/28! style="background:#c5dfe1; color:Black; height:16px;"| Louisville 41/25 47/28 57/37 67/46 75/56 83/65 87/70 86/68 79/61 68/48 56/39 45/30! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:Black; height:16px;"| Owensboro 42/25 47/28 57/36 69/45 78/55 86/64 88/68 88/65 81/58 70/46 57/37 45/28! style="background:#c5dfe1; color:Black; height:16px;"| Paducah 42/24 48/28 58/37 68/46 77/55 85/64 89/68 87/65 81/57 71/45 57/36 46/28! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:Black; height:16px;"| Pikeville 46/23 50/25 60/32 69/39 77/49 84/58 87/63 86/62 80/56 71/42 60/33 49/26! style="background:#c5dfe1; color:Black; height:16px;"| Ashland 42/19 47/21 57/29 68/37 77/47 84/56 88/61 87/59 80/52 69/40 57/31 46/23! style="background:#c5dfe1; color:Black; height:16px;"| Bowling Green 45/26 50/30 60/37 70/46 78/55 86/64 89/68 89/66 82/58 71/46 59/38 48/29">

Natural disasters{| class"wikitable"

! Deadliest weather events in Kentucky history! Date! Death Toll! Affected RegionsMarch 1890 middle Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak >| Louisville, W KY1974 Super Outbreak>April 3, 1974 tornado outbreak April 3, 1974 72 StatewideMay–June 1917 tornado outbreak sequence >| Fulton areaEarly-May 1933 tornado outbreak sequence >| South Central KYJanuary 2009 Central Plains and Midwest ice storm >| StatewideTornado outbreak of March 2–3, 2012 >| StatewideOhio River flood of 1937 >| StatewideGradyville flood >| Gradyville| StatewideDecember 21–24, 2004 North American Winter Storm US DEPT OF COMMERCE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE TITLE=DECEMBER 22, 2004 SNOW STORM ACCESSDATE=JULY 16, 2018, December 21–24, 2004 unknown StatewideTornado Outbreak Sequence of May 2004 JOHN DENMAN TITLE=2004 IN REVIEW FOR CENTRAL KENTUCKY AND SOUTH-CENTRAL INDIANA ACCESSDATE=JULY 16, 2018, May 30, 2004 0 Jefferson County KY PUBLISHER=WEATHER.GOV | StatewideJanuary 2009 North American Ice Storm US DEPT OF COMMERCE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE TITLE=ICE AND SNOW STORM OF JANUARY 28–29, 2009 ACCESSDATE=JULY 16, 2018, January 26–28, 2009 35 Statewide2009 Kentuckiana Flash Flood US DEPT OF COMMERCE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE TITLE=FLASH FLOOD OF AUGUST 4, 2009 ACCESSDATE=JULY 16, 2018, August 4, 2009 36 Kentuckiana

Lakes and rivers

{{See also|List of lakes in Kentucky|List of rivers of Kentucky|List of dams and reservoirs in Kentucky}}File:Wolf Creek Dam and Lake Cumberland, KY.jpg|thumb|Lake Cumberland is the largest artificial American lake east of the Mississippi RiverMississippi RiverKentucky has more navigable miles of water than any other state in the union, other than Alaska.WEB, Corbin, Kentucky: A Fisherman's Paradise, Corbin, Kentucky Economic Development,weblink November 29, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060626140323weblink">weblink June 26, 2006, Kentucky is the only U.S. state to have a continuous border of rivers running along three of its sides—the Mississippi River to the west, the Ohio River to the north, and the Big Sandy River and Tug Fork to the east.BOOK, Kleber, John E., Associate editors: Thomas D. Clark, Lowell H. Harrison, and James C. Klotter, The Kentucky Encyclopedia, 1992, The University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, 978-0-8131-1772-0, Rivers, 774,weblink February 18, 2015, Its major internal rivers include the Kentucky River, Tennessee River, Cumberland River, Green River and Licking River.Though it has only three major natural lakes,BOOK, Kleber, John E., Associate editors: Thomas D. Clark, Lowell H. Harrison, and James C. Klotter, The Kentucky Encyclopedia, 1992, The University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, 978-0-8131-1772-0, Lakes, 531,weblink February 18, 2015, Kentucky is home to many artificial lakes. Kentucky has both the largest artificial lake east of the Mississippi in water volume (Lake Cumberland) and surface area (Kentucky Lake). Kentucky Lake's {{convert|2,064|mi|km}} of shoreline, {{convert|160,300|acre|ha|abbr=off}} of water surface, and 4,008,000 acre feet (4,944 Gl) of flood storage are the most of any lake in the TVA system.Tennessee Valley Authority, The Kentucky Project: A Comprehensive Report on the Planning, Design, Construction, and Initial Operations of the Kentucky Project, Technical Report No. 13 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1951), pp. 1–12, 68, 115–116, 509.Kentucky's {{convert|90000|mi|km|-4}} of streams provides one of the most expansive and complex stream systems in the nation.BOOK,weblink You Live Where?: Interesting and Unusual Facts about where We Live, iUniverse, Thompson, George E., 2009, 39, 9781440134210,

Natural environment and conservation

File:WaterfrontPkDwnt.jpg|thumb|Once an industrial Kentucky has an expansive park system, which includes one national park, two National Recreation areas, two National Historic Parks, two national forests, two National Wildlife Refuges, 45 state parks, {{convert|37896|acre|km2|0}} of state forest, and 82 Wildlife Management Areas.Kentucky has been part of two of the most successful wildlife reintroduction projects in United States history. In the winter of 1997, the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources began to re-stock elk in the state's eastern counties, which had been extinct from the area for over 150 years. {{as of|2009}}, the herd had reached the project goal of 10,000 animals, making it the largest herd east of the Mississippi River.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060926064155weblink">weblink September 26, 2006, Elk Restoration Update and Hunting Information, Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, December 9, 2006, The state also stocked wild turkeys in the 1950s. There were reported to be less than 900 at one point. Once nearly extinct here, wild turkeys thrive throughout today's Kentucky.NEWS, Pearce, Tom, Once nearly extinct, turkeys gobbling throughout state,weblink May 15, 2016, Bowling Green Daily News, March 27, 1994, Hunters officially reported a record 29,006 birds taken during the 23-day season in Spring 2009.WEB,weblink Hunters Take Record Number of Spring Turkey, Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Service, January 17, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130117104812weblink">weblink January 17, 2013, A female gray wolf shot in 2013 in Hart County, Kentucky by a hunter was the first verified sighting of the species in Kentucky in modern times.NEWS, Wild Wolf in Kentucky, First in 150 Years, Killed by Hunter,weblink September 4, 2013, Earth First! News, August 19, 2013, Russ McSpadden, {{see also|List of taxa described from Kentucky}}

Natural attractions

File:Half Moon, Kentucky.JPG|thumb|Red River GorgeRed River GorgeFile:Otter Creek Park 2.jpg|thumb|Forest at Otter Creek Outdoor Recreation AreaOtter Creek Outdoor Recreation Area publisher=Kentucky Department of Parks,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061005015537weblink">weblink October 5, 2006, November 29, 2006,

History

{{See also|History of slavery in Kentucky|Kentucky Historical Society|Hatfield-McCoy feud}}File:LincolnBirthplaceJBM82908.jpg|thumb|Abraham Lincoln Birthplace near Hodgenville ]]

Native American settlement

It is not known exactly when the first humans arrived in what is now Kentucky. Based on evidence in other regions, humans were likely living in Kentucky prior to 10,000 BCE, but "archaeological evidence of their occupation has yet to be documented".REPORT, Pollack, David, M. May, Stottman, Archaeological Investigation of the State Monument, Frankfort, Kentucky, August 2005, Kentucky Archaeological Survey, KAS Report No. 104,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150413194143weblink">weblink April 13, 2015, mdy-all, Around 1800 BCE, a gradual transition began from a hunter-gatherer economy to agriculturalism. Around 900 CE, a Mississippian culture took root in western and central Kentucky; by contrast, a Fort Ancient culture appeared in eastern Kentucky. While the two had many similarities, the distinctive ceremonial earthwork mounds constructed in the former's centers were not part of the culture of the latter.In about the 10th century, the Kentucky native people's variety of corn became highly productive, supplanting the Eastern Agricultural Complex, and replaced it with a maize-based agriculture in the Mississippian era. French explorers in the 17th century documented numerous tribes living in Kentucky until the Beaver Wars in the 1670s. However, by the time that European colonial explorers and settlers began entering Kentucky in greater numbers in the mid-18th century, there were no major Native American settlements in the region.As of the 16th century, the area known as Kentucky was home to tribes from five different culture groups—Iroquoian, Hokan Sioux, Algonquian, Muskogean & Yuchi. Around the Bluestone River was the Siouan Tutelo. North of the Tennessee River was the Yuchi & south of it was the Cherokee. Much of the interior of the state was controlled by the Algonquian Cisca louis, franquelin, jean baptiste. "Franquelin's map of Louisiana.". LOC.gov. Retrieved August 17, 2017. & the confluence region of the Mississippi & Ohio was home to the Chickasaw. During a period known as the Beaver Wars, 1640–1680, another Algonquian tribe called the Maumee, or Mascouten was chased out of southern Michigan."EARLY INDIAN MIGRATION IN OHIO". GenealogyTrails.com. Retrieved August 17, 2017. The vast majority of them moved to Kentucky, pushing the Kispoko east and war broke out with the Tutelo that pushed them deeper into Appalachia, where they merged with the Saponi & Moneton. The Maumee were closely related to the Miami of Indiana. Later, the Kispoko merged with the Shawnee (who broke off from the Powhatan on the east coast) & the Thawikila of Ohio to form the larger Shawnee nation that inhabited the Ohio River Valley into the 19th century.The Shawnee from the northwest and Cherokee from the south also sent parties into the area regularly for hunting.Today there are two state recognized tribes in Kentucky, the Southern Cherokee Nation of Kentucky and the Ridgetop Shawnee.Metts, Tara.The-Caring-Difference-Newsletter"National Indian Child Welfare Association (NICWA) and its implications in Kentucky", Summer 2010, Vol. 9, No. 2, p. 4, www.scibd.com. Retrieved September 2013Cooper, Sara. Indian Welfare Act Compliance Desk Aid May 2010, www.scribd.com. Retrieved September 2013

French claim and exploration

{{see also|History of Kentucky#First Europeans in Kentucky}}Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle was a French explorer who claimed all of the land along the Mississippi River Valley, including Kentucky, for France. In July 1669, Robert de la Salle organized twenty four men and six canoes for his expedition. During this venture, he met Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette, the first white men to explore and map the Mississippi River, in Hamilton, Ontario.WEB, Briney, Amanda, Robert Cavelier de la Salle: A Biography of Explorer Robert Cavelier de la Salle, History of Geography, About.com,weblink October 27, 2015, The expedition eventually reached the Ohio River, allegedly, which it followed as far as Louisville, Kentucky.

European settlement and conflict with Native Americans

In 1774, James Harrod founded the first permanent European settlement in Kentucky at the site of present-day Harrodsburg. As more settlers entered the area, warfare broke out with the Native Americans over their traditional hunting grounds.WEB,weblink The Presence, Mercer County Online, November 29, 2006, History of Native Americans in Central Kentucky, A 1790 U.S. government report states that 1,500 Kentucky settlers had been killed by Native Americans since the end of the Revolutionary War.BOOK, James, James Alton, The Life of George Rogers Clark, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1928, 978-0-404-03549-5, In 1786, George Rogers Clark led a group of 1,200 men in actions against Shawnee towns on the Wabash River to begin the Northwest Indian War.BOOK, Lowell H. Harrison, Harrison, Lowell H, George Rogers Clark and the War in the West, Lexington, University Press of Kentucky, 2001, 1976, 978-0-8131-9014-3,

Establishment as county and then as a state

{{see also|History of Kentucky#1792 – Admission to the Union}}On December 31, 1776, the region of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains was established as Kentucky County by the Virginia General Assembly. (Kentucky County was abolished on June 30, 1780, when it was divided into Fayette, Jefferson, and Lincoln counties.) On several occasions the region's residents petitioned the General Assembly and the Confederation Congress for separation from Virginia and statehood. Ten constitutional conventions were held in Danville between 1784 and 1792.One petition, which had Virginia's assent, came before the Confederation Congress in early July 1788. Unfortunately, its consideration came up a day after word of New Hampshire's all-important ninth ratification of the proposed Constitution, thus establishing it as the new framework of governance for the United States. In light of this development, Congress thought that it would be "unadvisable" to admit Kentucky into the Union, as it could do so "under the Articles of Confederation" only, but not "under the Constitution", and so declined to take action.JOURNAL, Kesavan, Vasan, When Did the Articles of Confederation Cease to Be Law, Notre Dame Law Review, December 1, 2002, 78, 1, 70–71,weblink October 31, 2015, On December 18, 1789, Virginia again gave its consent to Kentucky statehood. The United States Congress gave its approval on February 4, 1791.{{USStat|1|189}} (This occurred two weeks before Congress approved Vermont's petition for statehood.{{USStat|1|191}}) Kentucky officially became the fifteenth state in the Union on June 1, 1792. Isaac Shelby, a military veteran from Virginia, was elected its first Governor.WEB, Constitution Square State Historic Site, Danville-Boyle County Convention and Visitors Bureau,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011230008weblink">weblink October 11, 2007, November 29, 2006, dead,

19th century

File:U.S. Marine Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky.jpg|thumb|Designed by the Washington Monument's architect Robert Mills in 1845, the U.S. Marine Hospital in Louisville is considered the best extant antebellum hospital in the country.]]Central Kentucky, the bluegrass region, was the area of the state with the most slave owners. Planters cultivated tobacco and hemp (see Hemp in Kentucky) and were noted for their quality livestock. During the 19th century, Kentucky slaveholders began to sell unneeded slaves to the Deep South, with Louisville becoming a major slave market and departure port for slaves being transported downriver.Kentucky was one of the border states during the American Civil War.WEB, Border States in the Civil War, February 15, 2002, CivilWarHome.com,weblink November 29, 2006, Although frequently described as never having seceded, representatives from 68 of 110 counties met at Russellville calling themselves the "Convention of the People of Kentucky" and passed an Ordinance of Secession on November 20, 1861.WEB, Ordinances of Secession, Historical Text Archive,weblink November 29, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101123052735weblink">weblink November 23, 2010, dead, mdy-all, They established a Confederate government of Kentucky with its capital in Bowling Green.WEB, Civil War Sites â€” Bowling Green, KY, WMTH Corporation,weblink November 29, 2006, Though Kentucky was represented by the central star on the Confederate battle flag,WEB,weblink A Concise History of the Flags of the Confederate States of America and the Sovereign State of Georgia, November 29, 2006, Irby, Jr., Richard E., About North Georgia, Golden Ink, it remained officially "neutral" throughout the war due to the Union sympathies of a majority of the Commonwealth's citizens. Some 21st-century Kentuckians observe Confederate Memorial Day on Confederate leader Jefferson Davis' birthday, June 3, and participate in Confederate battle re-enactments.WEB, KRS 2.110 Public Holidays, Kentucky General Assembly,weblink November 29, 2006, Tony Hiss, Confederates in the Attic Both Davis and U.S. president Abraham Lincoln were born in Kentucky.On January 30, 1900, Governor William Goebel, flanked by two bodyguards, was mortally wounded by an assassin while walking to the State Capitol in downtown Frankfort. Goebel was contesting the Kentucky gubernatorial election of 1899, which William S. Taylor was initially believed to have won. For several months, J. C. W. Beckham, Goebel's running mate, and Taylor fought over who was the legal governor, until the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in May in favor of Beckham. After fleeing to Indiana, Taylor was indicted as a co-conspirator in Goebel's assassination. Goebel is the only governor of a U.S. state to have been assassinated while in office.WEB, The Old State Capitol, Kentucky Historical Society,weblink September 9, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070827133601weblink">weblink August 27, 2007,

20th century

(File:William Goebel statue.png|thumb|upright|Statue of William Goebel in Frankfort)The Black Patch Tobacco Wars, a vigilante action, occurred in Western Kentucky in the early 20th century. As a result of the tobacco industry monopoly, tobacco farmers in the area were forced to sell their crops at prices that were too low. Many local farmers and activists united in a refusal to sell their crops to the major tobacco companies.An Association meeting occurred in downtown Guthrie,WEB,weblink Understanding the Black Patch Tobacco War of West Kentucky and Tennessee, WKMS, Lochte, Kate, Markgraf, Matt, September 22, 2014, May 6, 2016, where a vigilante wing of "Night Riders", formed. The riders terrorized farmers who sold their tobacco at the low prices demanded by the tobacco corporations. They burned several tobacco warehouses throughout the area, stretching as far west as Hopkinsville to Princeton. In the later period of their operation, they were known to physically assault farmers who broke the boycott. Governor Augustus E. Willson declared martial law and deployed the Kentucky National Guard to end the wars.On 15 October 1959, a B-52 carrying two nuclear weapons collided in midair with a KC-135 tanker near Hardinsburg, Kentucky. One of the nuclear bombs was damaged by fire but both weapons were recovered.Listing of B-52 crashes since 1957, KSLA News, Channel 12

Law and government

{{Further|List of Governors of Kentucky|Kentucky Senate|Kentucky House of Representatives}}Kentucky is one of four U.S. states to officially use the term commonwealth. The term was used for Kentucky as it had also been used by Virginia, from which Kentucky was created. The term has no particular significance in its meaning and was chosen to emphasize the distinction from the status of royal colonies as a place governed for the general welfare of the populace.The Commonwealth of Kentucky, Kentucky Atlas & Gazetteer, University of Kentucky website.The commonwealth term was used in citizen petitions submitted between 1786 and 1792 for the creation of the state.{{citation needed|date=May 2012}} It was also used in the title of a history of the state that was published in 1834 and was used in various places within that book in references to Virginia and Kentucky.Butler, Mann, A History of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Wilcox, Dickerman & Co., 1834. The other two states officially called "commonwealths" are Massachusetts and Pennsylvania.Kentucky is one of only five states that elects its state officials in odd-numbered years (the others being Louisiana, Mississippi, New Jersey, and Virginia). Kentucky holds elections for these offices every 4 years in the years preceding Presidential election years. Thus, Kentucky held gubernatorial elections in 2011 and 2015.

Executive branch

File:KY Governors Mansion.png|thumb|right|upright=1.35|The governor's mansion in Frankfort ]]The executive branch is headed by the governor who serves as both head of state and head of government. The lieutenant governor may or may not have executive authority depending on whether the person is a member of the Governor's cabinet. Under the current Kentucky Constitution, the lieutenant governor assumes the duties of the governor only if the governor is incapacitated. (Before 1992 the lieutenant governor assumed power any time the governor was out of the state.) The governor and lieutenant governor usually run on a single ticket (also per a 1992 constitutional amendment), and are elected to four-year terms. The current governor is Republican Matt Bevin, and the lieutenant governor is Jenean Hampton.Other elected constitutional offices include the Secretary of State, Attorney General, Auditor of Public Accounts, State Treasurer and Commissioner of Agriculture. Currently, Democrat Alison Lundergan Grimes serves as the Secretary of State. The commonwealth's chief prosecutor, law enforcement officer, and law officer is the Attorney General, currently Democrat Andy Beshear. The Auditor of Public Accounts is Republican Mike Harmon. Republican Allison Ball is the current Treasurer. Republican Ryan Quarles is the current Commissioner of Agriculture.

Legislative branch

File:KY State Capitol.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.6|The Kentucky State Capitol building in Frankfort ]]Kentucky's legislative branch consists of a bicameral body known as the Kentucky General Assembly.The Senate is considered the upper house. It has 38 members, and is led by the President of the Senate, currently Robert Stivers (R).The House of Representatives has 100 members, and is led by the Speaker of the House, currently David Osborne of the Republican Party.NEWS,weblink Representative Jeff Hoover resigns as Speaker of the House, Shaw, Courtney, 2017-11-06, WLKY, 2018-09-22, en, In November 2016, Republicans won control of the House for the first time since 1922, and currently have supermajorities in both the House and Senate.WEB,weblink Jeff Hoover becomes Kentucky's first Republican House Speaker in 96 years, Boyd, Gordon, January 3, 2017, WAVE (TV), WAVE, January 21, 2017,

Judicial branch

The judicial branch of Kentucky is called the Kentucky Court of JusticeWEB,weblink Kentucky Court of Justice – Home, January 21, 2017, and comprises courts of limited jurisdiction called District Courts; courts of general jurisdiction called Circuit Courts; specialty courts such as Drug CourtWEB,weblink Adult Drug Court – Kentucky Drug Court: Saving Costs, Saving Lives, January 21, 2017, and Family Court;WEB,weblink Family Court, January 21, 2017, an intermediate appellate court, the Kentucky Court of Appeals; and a court of last resort, the Kentucky Supreme Court.The Kentucky Court of Justice is headed by the Chief Justice of the Commonwealth.Unlike federal judges, who are usually appointed, justices serving on Kentucky state courts are chosen by the state's populace in non-partisan elections.

Federal representation

File:KY-districts-108.JPG|thumb|right|upright=2.05|A map showing Kentucky's six congressional districts ]]Kentucky's two U.S. Senators are Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell and Rand Paul, both Republicans. The state is divided into six Congressional Districts, represented by Republicans James Comer (1st), Brett Guthrie (2nd), Thomas Massie (4th), Hal Rogers (5th) and Andy Barr (6th) and Democrat John Yarmuth (3rd).In the federal judiciary, Kentucky is served by two United States district courts: the Eastern District of Kentucky, with its primary seat in Lexington, and the Western District of Kentucky, with its primary seat in Louisville. Appeals are heard in the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, based in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Law

File:Kentucky schild.jpg|thumb|State sign, Interstate 65Interstate 65Kentucky's body of laws, known as the Kentucky Revised Statutes (KRS), were enacted in 1942 to better organize and clarify the whole of Kentucky law.WEB,weblink Reviser of Statutes Office â€” History and Functions, Kentucky Legislative Research Commission, December 27, 2006, The statutes are enforced by local police, sheriffs and deputy sheriffs, and constables and deputy constables. Unless they have completed a police academy elsewhere, these officers are required to complete training at the Kentucky Department of Criminal Justice Training Center on the campus of Eastern Kentucky University.WEB,weblink History of the DOCJT, Kentucky Department of Criminal Justice, December 27, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060323200601weblink">weblink March 23, 2006, Additionally, in 1948, the Kentucky General Assembly established the Kentucky State Police, making it the 38th state to create a force whose jurisdiction extends throughout the given state.WEB,weblink History of the Kentucky State Police, Kentucky State Police, December 27, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061206002358weblink">weblink December 6, 2006, dead, mdy-all, Kentucky is one of the 32 states in the United States that sanctions the death penalty for certain murders defined as heinous. Those convicted of capital crimes after March 31, 1998 are always executed by lethal injection; those convicted on or before this date may opt for the electric chair.WEB,weblink Authorized Methods of Execution by State, Death Penalty Information Center, December 28, 2006, Only three people have been executed in Kentucky since the U.S. Supreme Court re-instituted the practice in 1976. The most notable execution in Kentucky was that of Rainey Bethea on August 14, 1936. Bethea was publicly hanged in Owensboro for the rape and murder of Lischia Edwards.NEWS,weblink The Last Public Execution in America, The Kentucky Post, Long, Paul A., June 11, 2001, December 27, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060117233210weblink">weblink January 17, 2006, Irregularities with the execution led to this becoming the last public execution in the United States.WEB,weblink The Last Public Execution in America, NPR, Montagne, Renee, May 1, 2001, December 27, 2006, Kentucky has been on the front lines of the debate over displaying the Ten Commandments on public property. In the 2005 case of McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the decision of the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals that a display of the Ten Commandments in the Whitley City courthouse of McCreary County was unconstitutional.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090616194116weblink">weblink June 16, 2009, McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky, Cornell University Law School, December 27, 2006, Later that year, Judge Richard Fred Suhrheinrich, writing for the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals in the case of ACLU of Kentucky v. Mercer County, wrote that a display including the Mayflower Compact, the Declaration of Independence, the Ten Commandments, the Magna Carta, The Star-Spangled Banner, and the national motto could be erected in the Mercer County courthouse.WEB,weblink Text of decision in ACLU of Kentucky v. Mercer County, December 27, 2006, Kentucky has also been known to have unusually high political candidacy age laws, especially compared to surrounding states. The origin of this is unknown, but it has been suggested{{by whom|date=May 2014}} it has to do with the commonwealth tradition.A 2008 study found that Kentucky's Supreme Court to be the least influential high court in the nation with its decisions rarely being followed by other states.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Adam, Liptak, Around the U.S., High Courts Follow California's Lead, March 11, 2008,

Politics

{{further|Political party strength in Kentucky}}{| class="wikitable sortable" style="float:right; margin:2em; font-size:90%;"Presidential elections resultsHTTP://USELECTIONATLAS.ORG/RESULTS/COMPARE.PHP?YEAR=2008&FIPS=21&F=1&OFF=0&ELECT=0&TYPE=STATE, Presidential General Election Results Comparison â€” Kentucky, US Election Atlas, December 31, 2009, Leip, David, style="background:lightpink;"!Year!Republican!Democrat201662.54% 1,202,94232.69% 628,834201260.49% 1,087,19037.80% 679,370200857.37% 1,048,46241.15% 751,985200459.55% 1,069,43939.69% 712,733200056.50% 872,49241.37% 638,898199644.88% 623,28345.84% 636,614199241.34% 617,17844.55% 665,104198855.52% 734,28143.88% 580,368198460.04% 822,78239.37% 539,589198049.07% 635,27447.61% 616,417197645.57% 531,85252.75% 615,717197263.37% 676,44634.77% 371,159196843.79% 462,41137.65% 397,541196435.65% 372,97764.01% 669,659196053.59% 602,60746.41% 521,855File:United States presidential election in Kentucky, 2016.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.3|TreemapTreemapWhere politics are concerned, Kentucky historically has been very competitive. It leaned slightly toward the Democratic Party since 1860, when the Whig Party dissolved. The state was not included as among the "Solid South" that prevailed in the former Confederacy after states disenfranchised blacks at the turn of the century. The southeastern section had aligned with the Union during the war and tended to support Republican candidates.In a reversal of the demographics of party alignment in the post-Civil War nineteenth century, in the 21st century state, Democrats include liberal whites, African Americans, and other minorities. As of August 2019, 49.06% of the state's voters were officially registered as Democrats, 42.39% were registered Republican, who tend to be conservative whites. Some 8.55% were registered with some other political party or as Independents.WEB,weblink Election Statistics Registration Statistics, elect.ky.gov, August 28, 2019, Despite this, the majority of persons who vote in the state have generally elected Republican candidates for federal office since around the turn of the 21st century.From 1964 through 2004, Kentucky voted for the eventual winner of the election for President of the United States. In the 2008 election, however, the state lost its bellwether status. Republican John McCain won Kentucky, but he lost the national popular and electoral vote to Democrat Barack Obama (McCain carried Kentucky 57% to 41%). 116 of Kentucky's 120 counties supported former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney in the 2012 election while he lost to Barack Obama nationwide.WEB,weblink 2012 Kentucky Presidential Results, POLITICO, June 25, 2016, WEB,weblink 2012 Election Results Map by State – Live Voting Updates, POLITICO, POLITICO, June 25, 2016, Voters in the Commonwealth supported the previous three Democratic candidates elected to the White House in the late 20th century, all from Southern states: Lyndon B. Johnson (Texas) in 1964, Jimmy Carter (Georgia) in 1976, and Bill Clinton (Arkansas) in 1992 and 1996. In 21st-century presidential elections, the state has become a Republican stronghold, supporting that party's presidential candidates by double-digit margins from 2000 through 2016. At the same time, voters have continued to elect Democratic candidates to state and local offices in many jurisdictions.{| class=wikitable! colspan = 6 | Voter registration and party enrollment as of August 2019! colspan = 2 | Party! Number of voters! Percentage{{party color|Democratic Party (United States)}}Democratic Party (United States)>Democratic 1,599,003 49.06%{{party color|Republican Party (United States)}}Republican Party (United States)>Republican 1,381,487 42.39%{{party color|Libertarian Party (United States)}}| Other 278,792 8.55%! colspan = 2 | Total! style="text-align:center;"| 3,259,282! style="text-align:center;"| 100%

Demographics

(File:Kentucky population map.png|thumb|upright=1.6|Kentucky Population Density Map){{US Census population|1790= 73677|1800= 220955|1810= 406511|1820= 564317|1830= 687917|1840= 779828|1850= 982405|1860= 1155684|1870= 1321011|1880= 1648690|1890= 1858635|1900= 2147174|1910= 2289905|1920= 2416630|1930= 2614589|1940= 2845627|1950= 2944806|1960= 3038156|1970= 3218706|1980= 3660777|1990= 3685296|2000= 4041769|2010= 4339367|estimate= 4468402|estyear= 2018|align-fn=centerACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 7, 2011, 1910–2010RESIDENT POPULATION DATA >URL=HTTP://2010.CENSUS.GOV/2010CENSUS/DATA/APPORTIONMENT-POP-TEXT.PHP PUBLISHER=2010.CENSUS.GOV URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=NOVEMBER 18, 2011, 2018 EstimateHTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/QUICKFACTS/FACT/TABLE/KY,US/PST045218>TITLE=QUICKFACTS KENTUCKY; UNITED STATESWEBSITE=2018 POPULATION ESTIMATESUNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, POPULATION DIVISION>DATE=FEBRUARY 21, 2019, February 21, 2019, }}The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Kentucky was 4,468,402 on July 1, 2018, a 2.97 increase since the 2010 United States Census.As of July 1, 2016, Kentucky had an estimated population of 4,436,974, which is an increase of 12,363 from the prior year and an increase of 97,607, or 2.2%, since the year 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 73,541 people (that is 346,968 births minus 273,427 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 26,135 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 40,051 people, and migration within the country produced a net decrease of 13,916 people. {{as of|2015}}, Kentucky's population included about 149,016 foreign-born persons (3.4%). In 2016, the population density of the state was 110 people per square mile (42.5/km²).Kentucky's total population has grown during every decade since records have been kept. But, during most decades of the 20th century, there was also net out-migration from Kentucky. Since 1900, rural Kentucky counties have had a net loss of more than 1 million people from migration, while urban areas have experienced a slight net gain.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090327130302weblink">weblink March 27, 2009, Migration in Kentucky: Will the Circle Be Unbroken?, April 30, 2007, Price, Michael, Exploring the Frontier of the Future: How Kentucky Will Live, Learn and Work, University of Louisville, 5–10, The center of population of Kentucky is located in Washington County, in the city of Willisburg.WEB,weblink TXT, Population and Population Centers by State: 2000, U.S. Census Bureau, December 27, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100223204810weblink">weblink February 23, 2010,

Race and ancestry{| class"wikitable" style"margin:0.0em; border:none;"

! colspan="2" style="background:#ccf;"|Race/Ethnicity (2010)|White, non-Hispanic86.3%|Black or African American7.8%|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)3.1%|Asian1.1%|American Indian or Alaska Native 0.2%|Pacific Islander0.1%{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible"|+ Kentucky racial breakdown of population! Racial composition !! 1990WEB, Campbell Gibson and Kay Jung, Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States,weblink census.gov,weblink" title="archive.today/20141224151538weblink">weblink December 24, 2014, September 2002, dead, !! 2000WEB, Office, US Census Bureau Public Information, Census 2000 data for Kentucky,weblink www.census.gov, January 14, 2017, EN-US,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170118074958weblink">weblink January 18, 2017, dead, WEB,weblink 2010 Census Data, Census.gov, February 24, 2015, !2015 (Est.)WEB,weblink Population estimates, July 1, 2015, (V2015), www.census.gov, June 25, 2016, White American>White 92.0% 90.1% 87.8%|88.1%African American>Black 7.1% 7.3% 7.8%|8.3%Asian American>Asian 0.5% 0.7% 1.1%|1.4%Native Americans in the United States>Native American andAlaska Natives >| 0.2%|0.3%Native Hawaiian andPacific Islands American>other Pacific Islander – – 0.1%|0.1%Race and ethnicity in the United States Census>Other race 0.2% 0.6% 1.3%| –Multiracial American>Two or more races – 1.0% 1.7%|1.8%According to U.S. Census Bureau official statistics, the largest ancestry in 2013 was American totalling 20.2%.WEB,weblink American FactFinder – Results, Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS), census.gov, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141214162235weblink">weblink December 14, 2014, In 1980, before the status of ethnic American was an available option on the official census, the largest claimed ancestries in the commonwealth were English (49.6%), Irish (26.3%), and German (24.2%).WEB,weblink Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 – Table 3, Census.gov, July 25, 2015, Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera.Reynolds Farley, 'The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?', Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, 'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns', Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44–6.JOURNAL, Stanley, Lieberson, yes, Mary C., Waters, Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 487, 79, 1986, 82–86, 10.1177/0002716286487001004, WEB,weblink American FactFinder, U.S. Census, August 7, 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141015075130weblink">weblink October 15, 2014, WEB,weblink American FactFinder, U.S. Census, August 7, 2014, In the state's most urban counties of Jefferson, Oldham, Fayette, Boone, Kenton, and Campbell, German is the largest reported ancestry. Americans of Scots-Irish and English stock are present throughout the entire state. Many residents claim Irish ancestry because of known "Scots-Irish" among their ancestors, who immigrated from Ireland, where their ancestors had moved for a period from Scotland during the plantation period. Southeastern Kentucky was populated in the early 19th century by a large group of multi-racial settlers, sometimes called Melungeons, who practiced endogamy until about 1900. They also resided in Hancock County, Tennessee and nearby areas.As of the 1980s, the only counties in the United States where over half of the population cited "English" as their only ancestry group were in the hills of eastern Kentucky (virtually every county in this region had a majority of residents identifying as exclusively English in ancestry).James Paul Allen and Eugene James Turner, We the People: An Atlas of America's Ethnic Diversity (Macmillan, 1988), 41.The Ridgetop Shawnee organized in the early 21st century as a non-profit to gain structure for their community and increase awareness of Native Americans in Kentucky. In the 2000 census, some 20,000 people in the state identified as Native American (0.49%). In June 2011, Jerry "2 Feather" Thornton, a Cherokee, led a team in the Voyage of Native American Awareness 2011 canoe journey, to begin on the Green River in Rochester, Kentucky and travel through to the Ohio River at Henderson.Vincent Schilling, "A Canoe Voyage to Increase Cultural Understanding" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130117104801weblink |date=January 17, 2013 }}, Indian Country Today, May 19, 2011, accessed January 16, 2012African Americans, who were mostly enslaved at the time, made up 25% of Kentucky's population before the Civil War; they were held and worked primarily in the central Bluegrass region, an area of hemp and tobacco cultivation, as well as raising blooded livestock. The number of African Americans living in Kentucky declined during the 20th century. Many migrated during the early part of the century to the industrial North and Midwest during the Great Migration for jobs and the chance to leave segregated, oppressive societies. Today, less than 9% of the state's total population is African-American.{{citation needed|date=April 2017}}The state's African-American population is highly urbanized and 52% of them live in the Louisville metropolitan area; 44.2% of them reside in Jefferson County. The county's population is 20% African American. Other areas with high concentrations, beside Christian and Fulton counties and the Bluegrass region, are the cities of Paducah and Lexington. Some mining communities in far Southeastern Kentucky have populations that are between five and 10 percent African-American.{{citation needed|date=April 2017}}

Language

In 2000, 96.1% of all residents five years old and older spoke only English at home, a decrease from 97.5% in 1990.WEB,weblink Kentucky – Languages, city-data.com, February 24, 2015, File:Ky-butler.ogg|thumb|Pronunciation of "Butler County, Kentucky" by Dorothy Murphy, lifelong resident of Central City, KentuckyCentral City, KentuckySpeech patterns in the state generally reflect the first settlers' Virginia and Kentucky backgrounds. South Midland features are best preserved in the mountains, but some common to Midland and Southern are widespread. After a vowel, the /r/ may be weak or missing. For instance, Coop has the vowel of put, but the root rhymes with boot. In southern Kentucky, earthworms are called redworms, a burlap bag is known as a tow sack or the Southern grass sack, and green beans are called snap beans. In Kentucky English, a young man may carry, not escort, his girlfriend to a party.Spanish is the second-most-spoken language in Kentucky, after English.

Religion

{{See also|Religion in Louisville, Kentucky}}File:CollegeoftheBible-LexKY.JPG|thumb|Lexington Theological SeminaryLexington Theological Seminary{{bar boxFIRST1=1615 L. STFIRST2=SUITE 800FIRST3=DC 20036 USA202-419-4300 | MAIN202-419-4349 | FAX202-419-4372 | MEDIA, Inquiries, |titlebar=|left1=religion|right1=percent|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Protestant|DarkViolet|65}}{{bar percent|No religion|black|22}}{{bar percent|Catholic|DodgerBlue|10}}{{bar percent|Other faith|green|2}}}}{{as of|2010}}, the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA)WEB,weblink The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report, www.thearda.com, November 15, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140113203617weblink">weblink January 13, 2014, dead, reported the following groupings of Kentucky's 4,339,367 residents: Kentucky is home to several seminaries. Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville is the principal seminary for the Southern Baptist Convention. Louisville is also the home of the Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, an institution of the Presbyterian Church (USA). Lexington has one seminary, Lexington Theological Seminary (affiliated with the Disciples of Christ). The Baptist Seminary of Kentucky is located on the campus of Georgetown College in Georgetown. Asbury Theological Seminary, a multi-denominational seminary in the Methodist tradition, is located in nearby Wilmore.In addition to seminaries, there are several colleges affiliated with denominations: Louisville is home to the headquarters of the Presbyterian Church (USA) and their printing press. Louisville also has Muslim,WEB,weblink Muslims in Louisville, Irfi.org, December 7, 2011, Jewish, and Hindu communities.The Christian creationist apologetics group Answers in Genesis, along with its Creation Museum, is headquartered in Petersburg, Kentucky.

Economy

{{See also|Economy of Louisville, Kentucky|Economy of Lexington, Kentucky|Kentucky locations by per capita income}}File:2012 Toyota Camry SE -- 02-29-2012.JPG|thumb|right|The best selling car in the United States, the Toyota Camry, is manufactured in Georgetown, KentuckyGeorgetown, KentuckyFile:Ford F-150 XL SuperCrew -- 03-10-2010.jpg|thumb|right|The best selling truck in the United States, the Ford F-Series, is manufactured in Louisville, KentuckyLouisville, KentuckyEarly in its history, Kentucky gained recognition for its excellent farming conditions. It was the site of the first commercial winery in the United States (started in present-day Jessamine County in 1799) and due to the high calcium content of the soil in the Bluegrass region quickly became a major horse breeding (and later racing) area. Today Kentucky ranks 5th nationally in goat farming, 8th in beef cattle production,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060504170140weblink">weblink May 4, 2006, 2007 Rankings of States and Counties publisher = bamabeef.org, and 14th in corn production.HTTP://WWW.ECONEDLINK.ORG/LESSONS/EM453/DOCS/EM453_CORN_PRODUCTION_DET_ANSWERS.PDF >ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20070605025350/HTTP://WWW.ECONEDLINK.ORG/LESSONS/EM453/DOCS/EM453_CORN_PRODUCTION_DET_ANSWERS.PDF TITLE=CORN PRODUCTION DETECTIVE ACCESSDATE=MAY 3, 2007, Kentucky has also been a long-standing major center of the tobacco industry – both as a center of business and tobacco farming.Today Kentucky's economy has expanded to importance in non agricultural terms as well, especially in auto manufacturing, energy fuel production, and medical facilities.JOURNAL, Are Kentucky Farmers Prepared for Farm-Related Emergencies?, Journal of Agromedicine, 24, 1, 9–14, Hunt, Matthew, 2019, 10.1080/1059924x.2018.1536571, 30317936, Kentucky ranks 4th among U.S. states in the number of automobiles and trucks assembled.WEB,weblink Kentucky | Trade and Industry Development, Tradeandindustrydev.com, November 28, 2012, The Chevrolet Corvette, Cadillac XLR (2004–2009), Ford Escape, Ford Super Duty trucks, Ford Expedition, Lincoln Navigator, Toyota Camry, Toyota Avalon, Toyota Solara, Toyota Venza, and Lexus ES 350 are assembled in Kentucky.Kentucky has historically been a major coal producer, but employment by "King Coal" has been in a 30-year decline there, and the number of people employed in the coal industry there dropped by more than half between 2011 and 2015.{{as of|2010}}, 24% of electricity produced in the U.S. depended on either enriched uranium rods coming from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (the only domestic site of low grade uranium enrichment), or from the 107,336 tons of coal extracted from the state's two coal fields (which combined produce 4% percent of the electricity in the United States).WEB,weblink Utah Geological Survey â€“ U.S. Coal Production by State, 1994–2009, December 7, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101103115412weblink">weblink November 3, 2010, Kentucky produces 95% of the world's supply of bourbon whiskey, and the number of barrels of bourbon being aged in Kentucky (more than 5.7 million) exceeds the state's population.NEWS, Tom, Eblin,weblink Year in Kentucky business saw Toyota expand, bourbon boom, coal decline, Lexington Herald-Leader, December 27, 2015, January 3, 2016, Associated Press, Bourbon, Tennessee Whiskey Sales Up in US; Exports Top $1B (February 3, 2015). Bourbon has been a growing market – with production of Kentucky bourbon rising 170 percent between 1999 and 2015. In 2019 the state had over 50 distilleries for bourbon production.NEWS,weblink Best Driving Vacations: Kentucky Bourbon Trail, Mar 19, 2019, Kentucky exports reached a record $22.1 billion in 2012, with products and services going to 199 countries.WEB, Snchez, Francisco J.,weblink Ky. one of fastest-growing states in exporting products | Op-Ed, Kentucky.com, March 15, 2013, July 10, 2013, According to the Kentucky Cabinet for Economic Development, the primary state agency in Kentucky responsible for creating new jobs and new investment in the state, new business investment in Kentucky in 2012 totaled nearly $2.7 billion, with the creation of more than 14,000 new jobs. One such investment was L'Oréal in Northern Kentucky, which added 200 jobs on top of the 280 already in existing facilities in Florence and Walton.MAGAZINE,weblink Maker of hair care products to expand in Kentucky, Businessweek, July 10, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130603095042weblink">weblink June 3, 2013, Fort Knox, a United States Army post best known as the site of the United States Bullion Depository, which is used to house a large portion of the United States official gold reserves, is located in Kentucky between Louisville and Elizabethtown. In May 2010, the Army Human Resource Center of Excellence, the largest office building in the state at nearly {{convert|900,000|sqft}} opened at Fort Knox. The new complex employs nearly 4,300 soldiers and civilians.NEWS, Business First,weblink Human resource center opens at Fort Knox, Louisville.bizjournals.com, May 27, 2010, November 28, 2012, Kentucky contains two of the twenty U.S. Federal Penitentiaries – USP Big Sandy (in the east in Martin County near Inez) and USP McCreary (in the south in McCreary County in the Daniel Boone National Forest).The total gross state product for 2019 Q1 was $213.313 billion.WEB,weblink Table 3. Current-Dollar Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State and Region, 2018:Q1-2019:Q1, live, September 22, 2019, Its per-capita income was US$25,888 in 2017.WEB,weblink QuickFacts Kentucky, live, September 22, 2019, An organization called the Institute for Truth in Accounting estimated that the state government's debts exceeded its available assets by {{US$|26,300}} per taxpayer {{as of|2011|lc=y}}, ranking the state as having the 5th highest such debt burden in the nation.WEB,weblink State Data Lab "Snapshot By The Numbers: Kentucky, January 2013, April 3, 2013, As of August 2019, the state's unemployment rate is 4.4%.WEB,weblink Kentucky Employment: August 2019, Kentucky Office of Employment and Training, October 10, 2019, In 2014, Kentucky was found to be the most affordable U.S. state in which to live.WEB, CNBC,weblink America's cheapest states to live in 2014, CNBC.com, November 19, 2015,

Taxation

There are six income tax brackets, ranging from 2% to 6% of personal income.WEB,weblink Kentucky Income Tax Rates publisher = salary. com, The sales tax rate in Kentucky is 6%.WEB
,weblink
, Sales & Use Tax
, May 1, 2007
, Kentucky Department of Revenue
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070420210040weblink">weblink
, April 20, 2007
, Kentucky has a broadly based classified property tax system. All classes of property, unless exempted by the Constitution, are taxed by the state, although at widely varying rates.WEB,weblink Property Tax, May 1, 2007, Kentucky Department of Revenue,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070403180310weblink">weblink April 3, 2007, Many of these classes are exempted from taxation by local government. Of the classes that are subject to local taxation, three have special rates set by the General Assembly, one by the Kentucky Supreme Court and the remaining classes are subject to the full local rate, which includes the tax rate set by the local taxing bodies plus all voted levies. Real property is assessed on 100% of the fair market value and property taxes are due by December 31. Once the primary source of state and local government revenue, property taxes now account for only about 6% of the Kentucky's annual General Fund revenues.WEB,weblink State Taxes – Kentucky – Overview, May 1, 2007, bankrate.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070408040707weblink">weblink April 8, 2007, dead, mdy-all, Until January 1, 2006, Kentucky imposed a tax on intangible personal property held by a taxpayer on January 1 of each year. The Kentucky intangible tax was repealed under House Bill 272.WEB,weblink Text of the House Bill 272, August 10, 2007, State of Kentucky, Intangible property consisted of any property or investment that represents evidence of value or the right to value. Some types of intangible property included: bonds, notes, retail repurchase agreements, accounts receivable, trusts, enforceable contracts sale of real estate (land contracts), money in hand, money in safe deposit boxes, annuities, interests in estates, loans to stockholders, and commercial paper.

Government-promoted slogans

In December 2002, the Kentucky governor Paul Patton unveiled the state slogan "It's that friendly",WEB,weblink Kentucky frowns on smiley license plates, NBC News, July 16, 2005, July 10, 2013, in hope of drawing more people into the state based on the idea of southern hospitality. This campaign was neither a failure nor a success.{{citation needed|date=September 2012}} Though it was meant to embrace southern values, many Kentuckians rejected the slogan as cheesy and ineffective. It was quickly seen that the slogan did not encourage tourism as much as initially hoped for. So government decided to create a different slogan to embrace Kentucky as a whole while also encouraging more people to visit the Bluegrass.WEB,weblink Unbridled Spirit→Information, May 1, 2007, State of Kentucky, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080601090945weblink">weblink June 1, 2008, In 2004, then Governor Ernie Fletcher launched a comprehensive branding campaign with the hope of making the state's $12–14 million advertising budget more effective.WEB, Branding campaign puts Kentucky in step with national trend – Louisville – Louisville Business First,weblink Louisville Business First, November 27, 2015, The resulting "Unbridled Spirit" brand was the result of a $500,000 contract with New West, a Kentucky-based public relations advertising and marketing firm, to develop a viable brand and tag line.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, 'Unbridled Spirit' Wins Kentucky Slogan Vote, December 2, 2004, The Fletcher administration aggressively marketed the brand in both the public and private sectors. Since that time, the "Welcome to Kentucky" signs at border areas have an "Unbridled Spirit" symbol on them.

Transportation

File:Kentucky Route 80 in Pulaski County.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|At {{convert|464|mi|km}} long, Kentucky Route 80 is the longest route in Kentucky, pictured here west of Somerset.]]

Roads

{{See also|List of Kentucky State Highways}}Kentucky is served by six major Interstate highways (I-24, I-64, I-65, I-69, I-71, and I-75), seven (:Category:Kentucky parkway system|parkways), and six bypasses and spurs (I-165, I-169, I-264, I-265, I-275, and I-471). The parkways were originally toll roads, but on November 22, 2006, Governor Ernie Fletcher ended the toll charges on the William H. Natcher Parkway and the Audubon Parkway, the last two parkways in Kentucky to charge tolls for access.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061008233115weblink">weblink October 8, 2006, Fletcher:Tolls to end November 22, May 1, 2007, Stinnett, Chuck, The related toll booths have been demolished.WEB,weblink Onlookers Cheer Booth Destruction at Ceremony, August 10, 2007, Stinnett, Chuck, November 22, 2006, Courier Press, Ending the tolls some seven months ahead of schedule was generally agreed to have been a positive economic development for transportation in Kentucky. In June 2007, a law went into effect raising the speed limit on rural portions of Kentucky Interstates and parkways from {{convert|65|to|70|mph}}.NEWS,weblink Courier-Journal, Many new laws go on books today, Steitzer, Stephanie, June 26, 2007, Road tunnels include the interstate Cumberland Gap Tunnel and the rural Nada Tunnel.

Rails

File:High Bridge in Kentucky.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|High Bridge over the Kentucky RiverKentucky River{{See also|List of Kentucky railroads}}Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Ashland, South Portsmouth, Maysville and Fulton. The Cardinal (trains 50 and 51) is the line that offers Amtrak service to Ashland, South Shore, Maysville and South Portsmouth. The City of New Orleans (trains 58 and 59) serve Fulton. The Northern Kentucky area is served by the Cardinal at Cincinnati Union Terminal. The terminal is just across the Ohio River in Cincinnati.Norfolk Southern Railway passes through the Central and Southern parts of the Commonwealth, via its Cincinnati, New Orleans, and Texas Pacific (CNO&TP) subsidiary. The line originates in Cincinnati and terminates 338 miles south in Chattanooga, Tennessee.{{as of|2004}}, there were approximately {{convert|2640|mi}} of railways in Kentucky, with about 65% of those being operated by CSX Transportation. Coal was by far the most common cargo, accounting for 76% of cargo loaded and 61% of cargo delivered.WEB,weblink PDF, Railroad Service in Kentucky, May 1, 2007, Association of American Railroads, dead,weblink January 17, 2013, Also, Norfolk Southern's main north-south line runs through central and southern Kentucky, starting in Cincinnati. Formerly the CNO&TP subsidiary of Southern Railway, it is NS's most profitable line.Bardstown features a tourist attraction known as My Old Kentucky Dinner Train. Run along a {{convert|20|mi|km|-1|adj=on}} stretch of rail purchased from CSX in 1987, guests are served a four-course meal as they make a two-and-a-half hour round-trip between Bardstown and Limestone Springs.NEWS,weblink On the Right Track – Kentucky Dinner Train serves up railroad nostalgia, May 1, 2007, Knight, Andy, Cincinnati.com, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070410021419weblink">weblink April 10, 2007,
The Kentucky Railway Museum is located in nearby New Haven.WEB,weblink Kentucky Railway Museum, May 1, 2007,
Other areas in Kentucky are reclaiming old railways in rail trail projects. One such project is Louisville's Big Four Bridge. When the bridge's Indiana approach ramps opened in 2014, completing the pedestrian connection across the Ohio River, the Big Four Bridge rail trail became the second-longest pedestrian-only bridge in the world.NEWS, Courier-Journal, Bridges money may be shifted, Shafer, Sheldon, March 5, 2007, The longest pedestrian-only bridge is also found in Kentucky—the Newport Southbank Bridge, popularly known as the "Purple People Bridge", connecting Newport to Cincinnati, Ohio.NEWS,weblink Meet the Purple People Bridge, May 1, 2007, Crowley, Patrick, April 23, 2003, Cincinnati Enquirer,

Air

{{See also|List of airports in Kentucky}}Kentucky's primary airports include Louisville International Airport (Standiford Field (SDF)) of Louisville, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport (CVG) of Cincinnati/Covington, and Blue Grass Airport (LEX) in Lexington. Louisville International Airport is home to UPS's Worldport, its international air-sorting hub.WEB,weblink Fast Facts, September 11, 2007, Louisville International Airport, dead,weblink September 20, 2012, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport is the largest airport in the state, and is a focus city for passenger airline Delta Air Lines and headquarters of its Delta Private Jets. The airport is one of DHL Aviation's three super-hubs, serving destinations throughout the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Asia, making it the 7th busiest airport in the U.S. and 36th in the world based on passenger and cargo operations.{{citation needed|date=December 2016}} CVG is also a focus city for Frontier Airlines and is the largest O&D airport and base for Allegiant Air, along with home to a maintenance for American Airlines subsidiary PSA Airlines and Delta Air Lines subsidiary Endeavor Air. There are also a number of regional airports scattered across the state.On August 27, 2006, Blue Grass Airport was the site of a crash that killed 47 passengers and 2 crew members aboard a Bombardier CRJ designated Comair Flight 191, or Delta Air Lines Flight 5191, sometimes mistakenly identified by the press as Comair Flight 5191.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061105013158weblink">weblink November 5, 2006, Crash Kills 49, November 5, 2006, December 7, 2011, The lone survivor was the flight's first officer, James Polehinke, who doctors determined to be brain damaged and unable to recall the crash at all.NEWS,weblink Comair Crash Survivor Leaves Hospital, May 1, 2007, CBS, October 3, 2006, File:Barge hauling coal, Louisville and Portland Canal.jpg|thumb|A barge hauling coal in the Louisville and Portland Canal, the only manmade section of the Ohio RiverOhio River

Water

As the state is bounded by two of the largest rivers in North America, water transportation has historically played a major role in Kentucky's economy. Louisville was a major port for steamships in the nineteenth century. Today, most barge traffic on Kentucky waterways consists of coal that is shipped from both the Eastern and Western Coalfields, about half of which is used locally to power many power plants located directly off the Ohio River, with the rest being exported to other countries, most notably Japan.Many of the largest ports in the United States are located in or adjacent to Kentucky, including:
  • Huntington-Tristate (includes Ashland, Kentucky), largest inland port and 7th largest overall
  • Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky, 5th largest inland port and 43rd overall
  • Louisville-Southern Indiana, 7th largest inland port and 55th overall
As a state, Kentucky ranks 10th overall in port tonnage.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090825064009weblink">weblink August 25, 2009, Top 20 Inland U.S. Ports for 2003, December 7, 2011, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100502153836weblink">weblink May 2, 2010, CY 2001 Tonnage for Selected U.S. Ports by Port Tons, May 2, 2010, December 7, 2011, The only natural obstacle along the entire length of the Ohio River is the Falls of the Ohio, located just west of Downtown Louisville.

Subdivisions and settlements

Counties

{{See also|List of counties in Kentucky|Fiscal Court}}Kentucky is subdivided into 120 counties, the largest being Pike County at {{convert|787.6|sqmi|km2}}, and the most populous being Jefferson County (which coincides with the Louisville Metro governmental area) with 741,096 residents {{as of|2010|lc=y}}.Kentucky Counties, University of KentuckyCounty government, under the Kentucky Constitution of 1891, is vested in the County Judge/Executive, (formerly called the County Judge) who serves as the executive head of the county, and a legislature called a Fiscal Court. Despite the unusual name, the Fiscal Court no longer has judicial functions.

Consolidated city-county governments

Kentucky's two most populous counties, Jefferson and Fayette, have their governments consolidated with the governments of their largest cities. Louisville-Jefferson County Government (Louisville Metro) and Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government (Lexington Metro) are unique in that their city councils and county Fiscal Court structures have been merged into a single entity with a single chief executive, the Metro Mayor and Urban County Mayor, respectively. Although the counties still exist as subdivisions of the state, in reference the names Louisville and Lexington are used to refer to the entire area coextensive with the former cities and counties. Somewhat incongruously, when entering Lexington-Fayette the highway signs read "Fayette County" while most signs leading into Louisville-Jefferson simply read "Welcome to Louisville Metro".

Major cities

{{See also|List of cities in Kentucky}}{{Largest cities| name = Largest cities| country = KentuckyDATE=FEBRUARY 21, 2019PUBLISHER=CITY POPULATION, February 21, 2019, | list_by_pop =| class = nav| div_name =| div_link = Counties of Kentucky{{!}}County| city_1 = Louisville, Kentucky{{!}}Louisville| div_1 = Jefferson County, Kentucky{{!}}Jefferson| pop_1 = 623,349| img_1 = Louisville Skyline.jpg| city_2 = Lexington, Kentucky{{!}}Lexington| div_2 = Fayette County, Kentucky{{!}}Fayette| pop_2 = 321,959| img_2 = LexingtonDowntown.JPG| city_3 = Bowling Green, Kentucky{{!}}Bowling Green| div_3 = Warren County, Kentucky{{!}}Warren| pop_3 = 67,067| img_3 = Shops_along_Fountain_Square_in_Bowling_Green,_Kentucky_2008.JPG| city_4 = Owensboro, Kentucky{{!}}Owensboro| div_4 = Daviess County, Kentucky{{!}}Daviess| pop_4 = 59,404| img_4 = Owensboro2ndStAnn.JPG| city_5 = Covington, Kentucky{{!}}Covington| div_5 = Kenton County, Kentucky{{!}}Kenton| pop_5 = 40,455| img_5 = | city_6 = Richmond, Kentucky{{!}}Richmond| div_6 = Madison County, Kentucky{{!}}Madison| pop_6 = 35,397| img_6 = | city_7 = Georgetown, Kentucky{{!}}Georgetown| div_7 = Scott County, Kentucky{{!}}Scott| pop_7 = 33,660| img_7 = | city_8 = Florence, Kentucky{{!}}Florence| div_8 = Boone County, Kentucky{{!}}Boone| pop_8 = 32,305| img_8 = | city_9 = Hopkinsville, Kentucky{{!}}Hopkinsville| div_9 = Christian County, Kentucky{{!}}Christian| pop_9 = 30,789| img_9 =| city_10 = Nicholasville, Kentucky{{!}}Nicholasville| div_10 = Jessamine County, Kentucky{{!}}Jessamine| pop_10 = 30,553| img_10 = }}The Metro Louisville government area has a 2018 population of 1,298,990. Under United States Census Bureau methodology, the population of Louisville was 623,867. The latter figure is the population of the so-called "balance"—the parts of Jefferson County that were either unincorporated or within the City of Louisville before the formation of the merged government in 2003. In 2018, the Louisville Combined Statistical Area (CSA) had a population of 1,569,112; including 1,209,191 in Kentucky, which means more than 25% of the state’s population now lives in the Louisville CSA. Since 2000, over one-third of the state's population growth has occurred in the Louisville CSA. In addition, the top 28 wealthiest places in Kentucky are in Jefferson County and seven of the 15 wealthiest counties in the state are located in the Louisville CSA.WEB,weblink Kentucky State Data Center, Ksdc.louisville.edu, August 4, 2009, {{Nonspecific|date=March 2017}}The second largest city is Lexington with a 2018 census population of 323,780, it’s metro had a population of 516,697, and its CSA, which includes the Frankfort and Richmond statistical areas, having a population of 746,310. The Northern Kentucky area, which comprises the seven Kentucky counties in the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky metropolitan area, had a population of 447,457 in 2018. The metropolitan areas of Louisville, Lexington, and Northern Kentucky have a combined population of 2,402,958 {{as of|2018|lc=y}}, which is 54% of the state's total population on only about 19% of the state’s land. This area is often referred to as the Golden triangle as it contains a majority of the states wealth, population, population growth, and economic growth, it is also where most of the states largest cities by population are located. It is referred to the Golden triangle as the metro areas of Lexington, Louisville, and Northern Kentucky/Cincinnati outline a triangle shape. Interstates I-71, I-75, and I-64 form the triangle shape. Additionally all counties in Kentucky that are part of a MSA or CSA have a total population of 2,970,694, which is 67% of the state’s population.{{as of|2017}} Bowling Green had a population of 67,067, making it the third most-populous city in the state. The Bowling Green metropolitan area had an estimated population of 174,835; and the combined statistical area it shares with Glasgow has an estimated population of 228,743.The two other fast growing urban areas in Kentucky are the Bowling Green area and the "Tri Cities Region" of southeastern Kentucky, comprising Somerset, London and Corbin.Although only one town in the "Tri Cities", namely Somerset, currently has more than 12,000 people, the area has been experiencing heightened population and job growth since the 1990s. Growth has been especially rapid in Laurel County, which outgrew areas such as Scott and Jessamine counties around Lexington or Shelby and Nelson Counties around Louisville. London significantly grew in population in the 2000s, from 5,692 in 2000 to 7,993 in 2010. London also landed a Wal-Mart distribution center in 1997, bringing thousands of jobs to the community.In northeast Kentucky, the greater Ashland area is an important transportation, manufacturing, and medical center. Iron and petroleum production, as well as the transport of coal by rail and barge, have been historical pillars of the region's economy. Due to a decline in the area's industrial base, Ashland has seen a sizable reduction in its population since 1990. The population of the area has since stabilized, however, with the medical service industry taking a greater role in the local economy. The Ashland area, including the counties of Boyd and Greenup, are part of the Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH, Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). As of the 2000 census, the MSA had a population of 288,649. More than 21,000 of those people ({{as of|2010|lc=y}}) reside within the city limits of Ashland.The largest county in Kentucky by area is Pike, which contains Pikeville and suburb Coal Run Village. The county and surrounding area is the most populated region in the state that is not part of a Micropolitan Statistical Area or a Metropolitan Statistical Area containing nearly 200,000 people in five counties: Floyd County, Martin County, Letcher County, and neighboring Mingo County, West Virginia. Pike County contains slightly over 68,000 people.Only three U.S. states have capitals with smaller populations than Kentucky's Frankfort (pop. 25,527), those being Augusta, Maine (pop. 18,560), Pierre, South Dakota (pop. 13,876), and Montpelier, Vermont (pop. 8,035).

Education

File:William T. Young Library.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|The library at the University of KentuckyUniversity of KentuckyFile:Speed Engineering School, Louisville, Kentucky (1067).jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|The University of LouisvilleUniversity of Louisville{{See also|Education Reform in Kentucky|List of colleges and universities in Kentucky|List of high schools in Kentucky|List of school districts in Kentucky}}Kentucky maintains eight public four-year universities. There are two general tiers: major research institutions (the University of Kentucky and the University of Louisville) and regional universities, which encompasses the remaining 6 schools. The regional schools have specific target counties that many of their programs are targeted towards (such as Forestry at Eastern Kentucky University or Cave Management at Western Kentucky University), however most of their curriculum varies little from any other public university.UK and UofL have the highest academic rankings and admissions standards although the regional schools aren't without their national recognized departments – examples being Western Kentucky University's nationally ranked Journalism Department or Morehead State University offering one of the nation's only Space Science degrees. UK is the flagship and land grant of the system and has agriculture extension services in every county. The two research schools split duties related to the medical field, UK handles all medical outreach programs in the eastern half of the state while UofL does all medical outreach in the state's western half.The state's sixteen public two-year colleges have been governed by the Kentucky Community and Technical College System since the passage of the Postsecondary Education Improvement Act of 1997, commonly referred to as House Bill 1.WEB,weblink Postsecondary Education Improvement Act of 1997, May 1, 2007, State of Kentucky,
Before the passage of House Bill 1, most of these colleges were under the control of the University of Kentucky.
Transylvania University, located in Lexington, is the oldest university west of the Allegheny Mountains, founded in 1780. Transylvania is a liberal arts university, consistently ranked in the top tier in the country.{{citation needed|date=September 2019}}Berea College, located at the extreme southern edge of the Bluegrass below the Cumberland Plateau, was the first coeducational college in the South to admit both black and white students, doing so from its very establishment in 1855.WEB,weblink Berea College:Learning, Labor, and Service, May 1, 2007, Diversity Web,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070705210337weblink">weblink July 5, 2007, dead, mdy-all, This policy was successfully challenged in the United States Supreme Court in the case of Berea College v. Kentucky in 1908.WEB,weblink Berea College v. Kentucky, Brownat50.org, December 7, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111227013611weblink">weblink December 27, 2011, dead, mdy-all, This decision effectively segregated Berea until the landmark Brown v. Board of Education in 1954.There are 173 school districts and 1,233 public schools in Kentucky.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070302123424weblink">weblink dead, March 2, 2007, Kentucky's Schools and Districts, Kentucky Department of Education, June 6, 2012, For the 2010 to 2011 school year, there were approximately 647,827 students enrolled in public school.WEB,weblink Kentucky Education Facts, Kentucky Department of Education, June 15, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120420022820weblink">weblink April 20, 2012, Kentucky has been the site of much educational reform over the past two decades. In 1989, the Kentucky Supreme Court ruled that the state's education system was unconstitutional.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011234758weblink">weblink October 11, 2007, A Guide to the Kentucky Education Reform Act of 1990, May 1, 2007, Education Resources Information Center, [Abstract of A Guide to the Kentucky Education Reform Act of 1990 – provided by Education Resources Information Center (ERIC)] The response of the General Assembly was passage of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) the following year. Years later, Kentucky has shown progress, but most agree that further reform is needed.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081207091202weblink">weblink December 7, 2008, Education Reform and Equitable Excellence: The Kentucky Experiment, May 1, 2007, Roeder, Phillip, The West Virginia teachers' strike in 2018 inspired teachers in other states, including Kentucky, to take similar action.NEWS, At least 4 Kentucky school districts close amid protests,weblink Associated Press, March 7, 2019,

Media

{{Expand section|date=March 2017 }}{{See also|:Category:Kentucky media}}

Culture

File:Buffalo trace distillery.jpg|thumb|right|The Buffalo Trace DistilleryBuffalo Trace Distillery{{See also|Theater in Kentucky|Performing arts in Louisville, Kentucky|List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area}}Although Kentucky's culture is generally considered to be Southern, it is unique in that it is also influenced by the Midwest and Southern Appalachia in certain areas of the state. The state is known for bourbon and whiskey distilling, tobacco, horse racing, and college basketball. Kentucky is more similar to the Upland South in terms of ancestry that is predominantly American.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040920132346weblink">weblink dead, September 20, 2004, Ancestry 2000: Census 2000 Brief, Brittingham, Angela & de la Cruz, G. Patricia, United States Census Bureau, June 28, 2007, June 2004, Nevertheless, during the 19th century, Kentucky did receive a substantial number of German immigrants, who settled mostly in the Midwest, along the Ohio River primarily in Louisville, Covington and Newport.WEB,weblink Kentucky's German Americans in the Civil War, Kygermanscw.yolasite.com, July 2, 2010, Only Maryland, Delaware and West Virginia have higher German ancestry percentages than Kentucky among Census-defined Southern states, although Kentucky's percentage is closer to Arkansas and Virginia's than the previously named state's percentages. Scottish Americans, English Americans and Scotch-Irish Americans have heavily influenced Kentucky culture, and are present in every part of the state.WEB,weblink 2000 Census: Percent Reporting Any German Ancestry, July 20, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070926234406weblink">weblink September 26, 2007, dead, As of the 1980s the only counties in the United States where over half of the population cited "English" as their only ancestry group were all in the hills of eastern Kentucky (and made up virtually every county in this region).Kentucky was a slave state, and blacks once comprised over one-quarter of its population. However, it lacked the cotton plantation system and never had the same high percentage of African Americans as most other slave states. With less than 8% of its current population being black, Kentucky is rarely included in modern-day definitions of the Black Belt, despite a relatively significant rural African American population in the Central and Western areas of the state.WEB,weblink High Poverty in the Rural U.S. and South: Progress and Persistence in the 1990s, June 28, 2007, Beale, Calvin, July 21, 2004, PowerPoint,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070626232430weblink">weblink June 26, 2007, WEB,weblink The American Black Belt Region: A Forgotten Place, June 28, 2007, Womack, Veronica L., July 23, 2004, PowerPoint,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070626232429weblink">weblink June 26, 2007, dead, WEB,weblink Identifying the "Black Belt" of Cash-Crop Production, June 28, 2007, Unknown, JPEG Image, Bowdoin College,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070628062351weblink">weblink June 28, 2007, dead, Kentucky adopted the Jim Crow system of racial segregation in most public spheres after the Civil War. Louisville's 1914 ordinance for residential racial segregation was struck down by the US Supreme Court in 1917. However, in 1908 Kentucky enacted the Day Law, "An Act to Prohibit White and Colored Persons from Attending the Same School", which Berea College unsuccessfully challenged at the US Supreme Court in 1908; in 1948, Lyman T. Johnson filed suit for admission to the University of Kentucky; as a result in the summer of 1949, nearly thirty African American students entered UK graduate and professional programs.WEB,weblink Desegregation of UK – ExploreKYHistory, ExploreKYHistory, Kentucky integrated its schools after the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education verdict, later adopting the first state civil rights act in the South in 1966.WEB, Kentucky OK's Rights Bill; 1st in South, Kentucky yesterday became the first state south of the Mason-Dixon line to adopt a civil rights measure. With only one dissenting vote, the state Senate approval a bill outlawing racial discrimination in public accommodations and employment that is stronger than the federal act of 1964. It sailed thru [sic] the House 76 to 12 last week. A milder bill had failed to get out of committee in 1964... Gov. Edward T. Breathitt said he would sign the measure tomorrow at the base of Abraham Lincoln's status in the capitol rotunda., January 26, 1966, Chicago Tribune,weblink Chicago Tribune, File:Werne's Row 4th and Hill, Old Louisville.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.15|Old LouisvilleOld LouisvilleThe biggest day in American horse racing, the Kentucky Derby, is preceded by the two-week Derby FestivalWEB,weblink Derby Festival Home Page, May 13, 2011, in Louisville. The Derby Festival features many events, including Thunder Over Louisville, the Pegasus Parade, the Great Steamboat Race, Fest-a-Ville, the Chow Wagon, BalloonFest, BourbonVille, and many others leading up to the big race.Louisville also plays host to the Kentucky State FairWEB,weblink Kentucky State Fair, December 25, 2006, and the Kentucky Shakespeare Festival.WEB,weblink Kentucky Shakespeare Festival Home Page, December 25, 2006, Bowling Green, the state's third-largest city and home to the only assembly plant in the world that manufactures the Chevrolet Corvette,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071227111243weblink">weblink December 27, 2007, National Corvette Museum press release, December 25, 2006, opened the National Corvette Museum in 1994.WEB,weblink National Corvette Museum Home Page, December 25, 2006, The fourth-largest city, Owensboro, gives credence to its nickname of "Barbecue Capital of the World" by hosting the annual International Bar-B-Q Festival.WEB,weblink Home Page of the International Barbecue Festival, December 25, 2006, Old Louisville, the largest historic preservation district in the United States featuring Victorian architecture and the third largest overall,WEB,weblink Stately Mansions Grace Old Louisville, Atlanta Journal Constitution, December 25, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060422111720weblink">weblink April 22, 2006, hosts the St. James Court Art Show, the largest outdoor art show in the United States.WEB,weblink St. James Court Art Show Home Page, December 25, 2006, The neighborhood was also home to the Southern Exposition (1883–1887), which featured the first public display of Thomas Edison's light bulb,WEB,weblink The Heart Line, Kentucky Commission on Community Volunteerism and Service, December 25, 2006, dead,weblink September 26, 2006, and was the setting of Alice Hegan Rice's novel, Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch.WEB,weblink Old Louisville and Literature, December 25, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061224022716weblink">weblink December 24, 2006, Hodgenville, the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln, hosts the annual Lincoln Days Celebration, and also hosted the kick-off for the National Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Celebration in February 2008. Bardstown celebrates its heritage as a major bourbon-producing region with the Kentucky Bourbon Festival.WEB,weblink Kentucky Bourbon Festival Home Page, December 25, 2006, Glasgow mimics Glasgow, Scotland by hosting the Glasgow Highland Games, its own version of the Highland Games,WEB,weblink Glasgow, Kentucky Highland Games Home Page, December 25, 2006, and Sturgis hosts "Little Sturgis", a mini version of Sturgis, South Dakota's annual Sturgis Motorcycle Rally.WEB,weblink Little Sturgis Rally Home Page, December 25, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061223053331weblink">weblink December 23, 2006, Winchester celebrates an original Kentucky creation, Beer Cheese, with its Beer Cheese Festival held annually in June.WEB,weblink HOME, Beer Cheese Festival, Beer Cheese was developed in Clark County at some point in the 1940s along the Kentucky River.BOOK,weblink A Culinary History of Kentucky: Burgoo, Beer Cheese and Goetta, 9781625847478, Young-Brown, Fiona, 2014-04-01, The residents of tiny Benton pay tribute to their favorite tuber, the sweet potato, by hosting Tater Day.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061227214402weblink">weblink December 27, 2006, Tater Day Festival A Local Legacy, December 25, 2006, Residents of Clarkson in Grayson County celebrate their city's ties to the honey industry by celebrating the Clarkson Honeyfest.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080513044539weblink">weblink May 13, 2008, Clarkson Honeyfest home page, May 12, 2007, The Clarkson Honeyfest is held the last Thursday, Friday and Saturday in September, and is the "Official State Honey Festival of Kentucky".

Music

{{See also|Category:Musicians from Kentucky}}Renfro Valley, Kentucky is home to Renfro Valley Entertainment Center and the Kentucky Music Hall of Fame and is known as "Kentucky's Country Music Capital", a designation given it by the Kentucky State Legislature in the late 1980s. The Renfro Valley Barn Dance was where Renfro Valley's musical heritage began, in 1939, and influential country music luminaries like Red Foley, Homer & Jethro, Lily May Ledford & the Original Coon Creek Girls, Martha Carson, and many others have performed as regular members of the shows there over the years. The Renfro Valley Gatherin' is today America's second oldest continually broadcast radio program of any kind. It is broadcast on local radio station WRVK and a syndicated network of nearly 200 other stations across the United States and Canada every week.File:U.S. 23 Country Music Highway Museum.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|The U.S. 23 Country Music Highway Museum in Paintsville provides background on the country music artists from Eastern Kentucky.]]Contemporary Christian music star Steven Curtis Chapman is a Paducah native, and Rock and Roll Hall of Famers The Everly Brothers are closely connected with Muhlenberg County, where older brother Don was born. Merle Travis, Country & Western artist known for both his signature "Travis picking" guitar playing style, as well as his hit song "Sixteen Tons", was also born in Muhlenberg County. Kentucky was also home to Mildred and Patty Hill, the Louisville sisters credited with composing the tune to the ditty Happy Birthday to You in 1893; Loretta Lynn (Johnson County), Brian Littrell and Kevin Richardson of the Backstreet Boys, and Billy Ray Cyrus (Flatwoods).However, its depth lies in its signature sound—Bluegrass music. Bill Monroe, "The Father of Bluegrass", was born in the small Ohio County town of Rosine, while Ricky Skaggs, Keith Whitley, David "Stringbean" Akeman, Louis Marshall "Grandpa" Jones, Sonny and Bobby Osborne, and Sam Bush (who has been compared to Monroe) all hail from Kentucky. The International Bluegrass Music Museum is located in Owensboro,WEB,weblink International Bluegrass Music Museum, November 30, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090502142523weblink">weblink May 2, 2009, mdy-all, while the annual Festival of the Bluegrass is held in Lexington.WEB,weblink Festival of the Bluegrass Home Page, November 30, 2006, Kentucky is also home to famed jazz musician and pioneer, Lionel Hampton.NEWS, Voce, Steve, Obituary: Lionel Hampton, The Independent,weblink September 2, 2002, June 3, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130730173629weblink">weblink July 30, 2013, Blues legend W. C. Handy and R&B singer Wilson Pickett also spent considerable time in Kentucky. The R&B group Midnight Star and Hip-Hop group Nappy Roots were both formed in Kentucky, as were country acts The Kentucky Headhunters, Montgomery Gentry and Halfway to Hazard, The Judds, as well as Dove Award-winning Christian groups Audio Adrenaline (rock) and Bride (metal). Heavy Rock band Black Stone Cherry hails from rural Edmonton, Indie rock band My Morning Jacket with lead singer and guitarist Jim James also originated out of Louisville, on the local independent music Scene. Rock bands Cage the Elephant, Sleeper Agent, and Morning Teleportation are also from Bowling Green. The bluegrass groups Driftwood and Kentucky Rain, along with Nick Lachey of the pop band 98 Degrees are also from Kentucky. King Crimson guitarist Adrian Belew is from Covington. Post rock band Slint also hails from Louisville. Noted singer and actress Rosemary Clooney was a native of Maysville, her legacy being celebrated at the annual music festival bearing her name. More recently in the limelight are country artists Chris Stapleton, Sturgill Simpson, Tyler Childers, and Chris Knight.In eastern Kentucky, old-time music carries on the tradition of ancient ballads and reels developed in historical Appalachia.

Literature

Kentucky has played a major role in Southern and American literature, producing works that often celebrate the working class, rural life, nature, and explore issues of class, extractive economy, and family. Major works from the state include Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) by Harriet Beecher Stowe, widely seen as one of the impetuses for the American Civil War; The Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come (1908) by John Fox, Jr., which was the first novel to sell a million copies in the United States; All the King's Men by Robert Penn Warren (1946) rated as the 36th greatest novel by Modern Library; The Dollmaker (1954) by Harriette Arnow later adapted into a popular film starring Jane Fonda; Night Comes to the Cumberlands (1962) by Harry Caudill, which led to The War on Poverty, and others. Thomas Merton lived most of his life and wrote most of his books during his time as a monk at the Abbey of Our Lady of Gethsemani near Bardstown, Kentucky. Hunter S. Thompson is also a native of the state. In recent years, several writers from Kentucky have published widely read and critically acclaimed books. These authors include Wendell Berry, Silas House, Barbara Kingsolver, Maurice Manning, and Bobbie Ann Mason.Well-known playwrights from Kentucky include Marsha Norman ('Night Mother) and Naomi Wallace (One Flea Spare).File:Hot Brown Kurtz.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.95| The Hot BrownHot Brown

Cuisine

Kentucky's cuisine is generally similar to traditional southern cooking, although in some areas of the state it can blend elements of both the South and Midwest.WEB,weblink Southern Recipes – Southern Food and Recipes, Southernfood.about.com, June 17, 2009, August 4, 2009, WEB,weblink International Institute of Culinary Arts,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080106091226weblink">weblink January 6, 2008, dead, One original Kentucky dish is called the Hot Brown, a dish normally layered in this order: toasted bread, turkey, bacon, tomatoes and topped with mornay sauce. It was developed at the Brown Hotel in Louisville.WEB,weblink Hot Brown Recipe, Brown Hotel (Louisville, Kentucky), Brown Hotel, December 18, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070823065032weblink">weblink August 23, 2007, The Pendennis Club in Louisville is the birthplace of the Old Fashioned cocktail. Also, western Kentucky is known for its own regional style of barbecue. Central Kentucky is the birthplace of Beer Cheese.Harland Sanders, a Kentucky colonel, originated Kentucky Fried Chicken at his service station in North Corbin, though the first franchised KFC was located in South Salt Lake, Utah.NEWS, Henetz, Patty, Nii, Jenifer K., Colonel's landmark KFC is mashed,weblink Deseret News, January 14, 2017, April 21, 2004,

Sports

{{more citations needed section|date=August 2014}}File:University of Louisville marching band, Churchill Downs Twin Spires.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|Kentucky's Churchill Downs hosts the Kentucky DerbyKentucky DerbyKentucky is the home of several sports teams such as Minor League Baseball's Triple-A Louisville Bats and Class A Lexington Legends and the Class A Bowling Green Hot Rods. They are also home to the Frontier Leagues Florence Freedom and several teams in the MCFL. The Lexington Horsemen and Louisville Fire of the now-defunct af2 had been interested in making a move up to the "major league" Arena Football League, but nothing has come of those plans.The northern part of the state lies across the Ohio River from Cincinnati, which is home to a National Football League team, the Bengals, and a Major League Baseball team, the Reds. It is not uncommon for fans to park in the city of Newport and use the Newport Southbank Pedestrian Bridge, locally known as the "Purple People Bridge", to walk to these games in Cincinnati. Also, Georgetown College in Georgetown was the location for the Bengals' summer training camp, until it was announced in 2012 that the Bengals would no longer use the facilities.WEB,weblink About the camp, Georgetown College, December 18, 2006, As in many states, especially those without major league professional sport teams, college athletics are prominent. This is especially true of the state's three Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) programs, including the Kentucky Wildcats, the Western Kentucky Hilltoppers, and the Louisville Cardinals. The Wildcats, Hilltoppers, and Cardinals are among the most tradition-rich college men's basketball teams in the United States, combining for 11 National championships and 24 NCAA Final Fours;{{citation needed|date=August 2014}} all three are high on the lists of total all-time wins, wins per season, and average wins per season.{{citation needed|date=August 2014}}The Kentucky Wildcats are particularly notable, leading all Division I programs in all-time wins, win percentage, NCAA tournament appearances, and being second only to UCLA in NCAA championships.{{citation needed|date=August 2014}} Louisville has also stepped onto the football scene in recent years, including winning the 2007 Orange Bowl as well as the 2013 Sugar Bowl, and also producing 2016 Heisman Trophy winner Lamar Jackson. Western Kentucky, the 2002 national champion in Division I-AA football (now Football Championship Subdivision (FCS)), completed its transition to Division I FBS football in 2009.The Kentucky Derby is a horse race held annually in Louisville on the first Saturday in May. The Valhalla Golf Club in Louisville has hosted several editions of the PGA Championship, Senior PGA Championship and Ryder Cup since the 1990s.The NASCAR Cup Series has a race at the Kentucky Speedway in Sparta, Kentucky, which is within an hour driving distance from Cincinnati, Louisville and Lexington. The race is called the Quaker State 400. The NASCAR Nationwide Series and the Camping World Truck Series also race there, and previously the IndyCar Series.Ohio Valley Wrestling in Louisville was the primary location for training and rehab for WWE professional wrestlers from 2000 until 2008, when WWE moved its contracted talent to Florida Championship Wrestling. OVW later became the primary developmental territory for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA) from 2011 to 2013.In 2014 Louisville City FC, a professional soccer team in the league then known as USL Pro and now as the United Soccer League, was announced. The team made its debut in 2015, playing home games at Louisville Slugger Field. In its first season, Louisville City was the official reserve side for Orlando City SC while making its debut in Major League Soccer at the same time. That arrangement ended in 2016, when Orlando City established a directly controlled reserve side in the USL.

State symbols

{{See also|Flag of Kentucky|Seal of Kentucky}}{| class="wikitable" style="width:100%;"!width=25%|Insignia!width=35%|Symbol!width=20%|Binomial nomenclature!width=15%|Year AdoptedWEB,weblink Kentucky's State Symbols, Kentucky Department of Libraries and Archives, December 18, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061213232500weblink">weblink December 13, 2006, List of U.S. state birds>Official state birdNorthern cardinal>Cardinal| Cardinalis cardinalis| 1926List of U.S. state butterflies>Official state butterfly| Viceroy butterfly| Limenitis archippus| 1990List of U.S. state dances>Official state dance| Clogging|| 2006List of U.S. state beverages>Official state beverage| Milk|| 2005List of U.S. state fish>Official state fishSpotted bass>Kentucky spotted bass| Micropterus punctulatus| 2005List of U.S. state fossils>Official state fossil| Brachiopod| undetermined| 1986List of U.S. state flowers>Official state flower| Goldenrod| Soldiago gigantea| 1926List of U.S. state fruits>Official state fruit| Blackberry| Rubus allegheniensis| 2004List of U.S. state minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones>Official state gemstoneFreshwater pearl mussel>Freshwater pearl|| 1986List of U.S. state grasses>State grassPoa pratensis>Kentucky bluegrass| Poa pratensis| TraditionalList of U.S. state mottos>Official state motto| "United we stand, divided we fall"|| 1942/1792| Official state slogan| "United we stand, divided we fall"|PUBLISHER=STATE OF KENTUCKY DATE=NOVEMBER 20, 2006 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20080601090945/HTTP://KENTUCKY.GOV/PAGES/UNBRIDLEDSPIRIT.ASPX, June 1, 2008, | Official state Latin motto| "Deo gratiam habeamus" ("Let us be grateful to God")|| 2002List of U.S. state mammals>Official state horse| Thoroughbred| Equus caballus| 1996List of U.S. state minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones>Official state mineral| Coal|| 1998| Official state outdoor musical| The Stephen Foster Story|| 2002Musical instrument>Official state instrument| Appalachian dulcimer|| 2001List of U.S. state nicknames>State nickname| "The bluegrass state"|| TraditionalList of U.S. state minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones>Official state rockAgate>Kentucky agate|| 2000Soil>Official state soil| Crider soil series|| 1990List of U.S. state trees>Official state tree| Tulip poplar| Liriodendron tulipifera| 1994List of U.S. state mammals>Official wild animal game speciesEastern gray squirrel>Gray squirrel| Sciurus carolinensis| 1968List of U.S. state songs>Official state song| "My Old Kentucky Home" (revised version)|| 1928/1986| Official state silverware pattern| Old Kentucky blue grass: the Georgetown pattern|| 1996| Official state music| Bluegrass music|TITLE=HB71: AN ACT DESIGNATING BLUEGRASS MUSIC AS THE OFFICIAL STATE MUSIC OF KENTUCKY ACCESSDATE=JUNE 26, 2007, | Official state automobile| Chevrolet Corvette|| 2010

Official state places and events

{{col-begin}}{{col-2}} {{col-2}} {{col-end}}Unless otherwise specified, all state symbol information is taken from weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070703084450weblink">Kentucky State Symbols.

Kentucky colonel

Kentucky colonel is the highest title of honor bestowed by the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Commissions for Kentucky colonels are given by the Governor and the Secretary of State to individuals in recognition of noteworthy accomplishments and outstanding service to a community, state or the nation. The sitting governor of the Commonwealth of Kentucky bestows the honor of a colonel's commission, by issuance of letters patent.

Gallery

File:LouisvilleSluggerMusem.jpg|The world-famous Louisville Slugger baseball bat is made in Kentucky. It holds the Guinness World Record for the largest bat.File:Kentucky quarter, reverse side, 2001.jpg|Kentucky's 2001 commemorative quarter featuring My Old Kentucky Home and a Thoroughbred horseFile:Thunder over louisville 2006.jpg|Thunder Over Louisville is the largest annual fireworks show in the world.File:Horse farm in Kentucky.jpg|Kentucky's horse farms are world-renowned.File:Daniel Boone National Forest Tater Knob.jpg|The Daniel Boone National ForestFile:Ohio River 282.jpg|The Ohio River forms the northern border of Kentucky.File:Shops along Fountain Square in Bowling Green, Kentucky 2008.JPG|Many Kentucky cities have historic areas near downtown, such as this example in Bowling Green.

See also

Notes

{{NoteFoot}}

References

{{Reflist}}

Bibliography

Politics

History

Surveys and reference

  • Bodley, Temple and Samuel M. Wilson. History of Kentucky 4 vols. (1928).
  • Caudill, Harry M., Night Comes to the Cumberlands (1963). {{ISBN|0-316-13212-8}}
  • Channing, Steven. Kentucky: A Bicentennial History (1977).
  • Clark, Thomas Dionysius. A History of Kentucky (many editions, 1937–1992).
  • Collins, Lewis. History of Kentucky (1880).
  • BOOK, Gunther, John, John Gunther, Romance and Reality in Kentucky, Inside U.S.A, 640–652, New York City, New York, London, Harper & Brothers, 1947, Inside U.S.A. (book),
  • Harrison, Lowell H. and James C. Klotter. A New History of Kentucky (1997).
  • Kleber, John E. et al. The Kentucky Encyclopedia (1992), standard reference history. {{ISBN|0-8131-1772-0}}
  • Klotter, James C. Our Kentucky: A Study of the Bluegrass State (2000), high school text
  • Lucas, Marion Brunson and Wright, George C. A History of Blacks in Kentucky 2 vols. (1992).
  • Notable Kentucky African Americans weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080306060234weblink">World-Wide Web Resources - Notable Kentucky African Americans
  • Share, Allen J. Cities in the Commonwealth: Two Centuries of Urban Life in Kentucky (1982).
  • Wallis, Frederick A. and Hambleton Tapp. A Sesqui-Centennial History of Kentucky 4 vols. (1945).
  • Ward, William S., A Literary History of Kentucky (1988) ({{ISBN|0-87049-578-X}}).
  • WPA, Kentucky: A Guide to the Bluegrass State (1939), classic guide.
  • BOOK, Two Hundred Years at the Fall of the Ohio: A History of Louisville and Jefferson County, Yater, George H., 1987, The Filson Historical Society, Filson Club, Incorporated, 2nd, 978-0-9601072-3-0,

Specialized scholarly studies

External links

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