Kazakh language

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Kazakh language
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or {{rtl-lang>kk-Arab|قازاق تىلى}} qazaqsha or qazaq tiliqɑzɑqˈɕɑqɑˈzɑq tɪˈlɪ|}}| states = Kazakhstan, China, Russia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan| region = Central Asia(Turkestan)WEBSITE=THE AGENCY ON STATISTICS OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTANACCESS-DATE=1 NOVEMBER 2017, .| date = 2019Kazakhs>speakers2| familycolor = AltaicTurkic languages>TurkicCommon Turkic languages>Common TurkicKipchak languages>Kipchak| fam4 = Kipchak–NogaiKazakh alphabets (Latin script>Latin, Cyrillic script, Arabic script, Kazakh Braille)Kazakhstan}}{{Flag|Russia}} {{Flag|China}} #0080FF#88C4FF|regions where Kazakh is the language of a significant minority}}| notice = IPA| glotto = kaza1248| glottorefname = Kazakh}}Kazakh or Kazak (Cyrillic: or ; Arabic: {{rtl-lang|kk-Arab|قازاقشا}} or {{rtl-lang|kk-Arab|قازاق تىلى}}; Latin: or ; {{IPA-kk|qɑzɑqˈɕɑ|pron}}, {{IPA-kk|qɑˈzɑq tɪˈlɪ|}}), is a Turkic language of the Kipchak branch spoken in Central Asia. It is closely related to Nogai, Kyrgyz and Karakalpak. Kazakh is the official language of Kazakhstan and a significant minority language in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang, China and in the Bayan-Ölgii Province of Mongolia. Kazakh is also spoken by many ethnic Kazakhs through the former Soviet Union (approximately 472,000 in Russia according to the 2010 Russian Census), Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey and Germany.Like other Turkic languages, Kazakh is an agglutinative language and it employs vowel harmony.In October 2017, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev decreed that the government would transition from using Cyrillic to the Latin alphabet by 2025.NEWS,weblink Kazakhstan to change from Cyrillic to Latin alphabet {{!, DW |date= 2017-10-27 |work= Deutsche Welle ( |access-date= 2018-03-28 |language= en}} President Nazarbayev signed on February 19, 2018 an amendment to the decree of October 26, 2017 No. 569 "On translating the Kazakh alphabet from Cyrillic alphabet to the Latin script."NEWS,weblink This Country Is Changing Its Stalin-imposed Alphabet After 80 Years, Newsweek, The amended alphabet uses {{angle|sh}} and {{angle|ch}} for the Kazakh sounds {{ipa|/ɕ/}} and {{ipa|/tɕ/}}, respectively, and eliminates the use of apostrophes.

Geographic distribution

The Kazakstani language (often called Qazaqsha) has its speakers (mainly Kazakhs) spread over a vast territory from the Tian Shan to the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Kazakh is the official state language of Kazakhstan, with nearly 10 million speakers (based on information from the CIA World FactbookWEB,weblink Central Asia: Kazakhstan, October 26, 2017, October 31, 2017, The World Factbook, The 2017 World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, live, October 30, 2017,weblink on population and proportion of Kazakh speakers).Map showing the geographical diffusion of the Kazakh and other Turkish languagesIn China, nearly two million ethnic Kazakhs and Kazakh speakers reside in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang.BOOK,weblink Kazakh, (Ethnologue, Ethnologue: Languages of the World), 20th, Dallas, Texas, SIL International, Simons, Gary F., Charles D., Fennig, 2017, October 28, 2017,

Writing system

The oldest known written records of languages closely related to Kazakh were written in the Old Turkic alphabet, though it is not believed that any of these varieties were direct predecessors of Kazakh. Modern Kazakh, going back approximately one thousand years, was written in the Arabic script until 1929, when Soviet authorities introduced a Latin-based alphabet, and then a Cyrillic in 1940.NEWS, Egemen Qazaqstan, Болашаққа бағдар: рухани жаңғыру, April 26, 2017, October 30, 2017, Orientation for the future: spiritual revival, Нұрсұлтан, Назарбаев, Nursultan Nazarbayev,weblink live,weblink June 28, 2017, Kazakh, In presenting a strategic plan in April 2017, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev described the twentieth century as a period in which the "Kazakh language and culture have been devastated".Nazarbayev ordered Kazakh authorities to create a Latin Kazakh alphabet by the end of 2017, so written Kazakh could return to a Latin script starting in 2018.NEWS,weblink Kazakh President Orders Shift Away From Cyrillic Alphabet, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, April 12, 2017, October 30, 2017,weblink live, July 6, 2017, NEWS,weblink From Я to R: How To Change A Country's Alphabet -- And How Not To, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, May 16, 2017, May 18, 2017,weblink May 23, 2017, live, {{As of|2018}}, Kazakh is written in Cyrillic in Kazakhstan and Mongolia, Kazakh is written in Latin in Kazakhstan, while more than one million Kazakh speakers in China use an Arabic-derived alphabet similar to the one that is used to write Uyghur.On October 26, 2017, Nazarbayev issued Presidential Decree 569 for the change to a finalized Latin variant of the Kazakh alphabet and ordered that the government's transition to this alphabet be completed by 2025,WEB, О переводе алфавита казахского языка с кириллицы на латинскую графику, On the change of the alphabet of the Kazakh language from the Cyrillic to the Latin script, RU, President of the Republic of Kazakhstan,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink October 26, 2017, October 26, 2017, October 27, 2017, live, NEWS,weblink Kazakhstan to Qazaqstan: Why would a country switch its alphabet?, October 31, 2017, BBC News, October 31, 2017, Andreas, Illmer, Elbek, Daniyarov, Azim, Rakhimov, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 31, 2017, a decision taken to emphasise Kazakh culture after the era of Soviet ruleNEWS, Nazarbayev Signs Decree On Kazakh Language Switch To Latin-Based Alphabet, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty,weblink October 27, 2017, October 30, 2017, live, October 27, 2017,weblink and to facilitate the use of digital devices.NEWS,weblink Alphabet soup as Kazakh leader orders switch from Cyrillic to Latin letters, The Guardian, 26 October 2017, 30 October 2017,weblink October 28, 2017, live, Reuters, But the initial decision to use a novel orthography employing apostrophes, which make the use of many popular tools for searching and writing text difficult, has generated controversy.NEWS,weblink Kazakhstan Cheers New Alphabet, Except for All Those Apostrophes, Higgins, Andrew, 2018, The New York Times, 2018-01-16, en-US, 0362-4331, The alphabet was revised the following year by Presidential Decree 637 of 19 February 2018 and the use of apostrophes was discontinued and replaced with the use of diacritics and digraphs.WEB,weblink Kazakhstan adopts new version of Latin-based Kazakh alphabet, The Astana Times, 26 February 2018, Decree No. 637 of February 19, 2018(File:2018_Kazakh_Latin_Alphabet.png|thumb|left|Latin alphabet for the Kazakh language, adopted by Presidential Decree 569 (26 October 2017); Amended by Decree 637 (19 February 2018))Nazarbayev first brought up the topic of using the Latin alphabet instead of the Cyrillic alphabet as the official script for Kazakh in Kazakhstan in October 2006.NEWS,weblink Kazakhstan switching to Latin alphabet, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 30, 2007, October 30, 2006, Interfax, NEWS,weblink Kazakh President Revives Idea of Switching to Latin Script, October 24, 2006, October 30, 2017, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty,weblink live, March 7, 2017, A Kazakh government study released in September 2007 said that a switch to a Latin script over a 10- to 12-year period was feasible, at a cost of $300 million.NEWS, Kazakhstan: Moving Forward With Plan to Replace Cyrillic With Latin Alphabet,weblink September 3, 2007, Paul,  Bartlett,weblink" title="">weblink May 12, 2008, live, October 30, 2017, EurasiaNet, The transition was halted temporarily on December 13, 2007, with President Nazarbayev declaring: "For 70 years the Kazakhstanis read and wrote in Cyrillic. More than 100 nationalities live in our state. Thus we need stability and peace. We should be in no hurry in the issue of alphabet transformation."NEWS, Kazakhstan should be in no hurry in Kazakh alphabet transformation to Latin: Nazarbayev, Kazinform, December 13, 2007, cited in WEB, Kazakhstan backtracks on move from Cyrillic to Roman alphabet?, December 14, 2007, October 30, 2017,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink September 29, 2014, live, Pinyin News, However, on January 30, 2015, the Minister of Culture and Sports Arystanbek Mukhamediuly announced that a transition plan was underway, with specialists working on the orthography in order to accommodate the phonological aspects of the language.NEWS, Kazakh language to be converted to Latin alphabet – MCS RK, live,weblink September 17, 2015, Kazinform, January 30, 2015, February 19, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink However, many citizens state that the officially introduced alphabet needs lots of improvements and changes. Moreover, Kazakh becomes the only Turkic language which will be using Sh, Ch, after the intentions of the Uzbek government to abandon the Sh, Ch digraphs due to its impracticality.{| class="wikitable"! Cyrillic script! Arabic script! "Resmı nusqa 3.0" Latin script! Kazinform Latin script! Kazak Grammar Latin script! English translation| Барлық адамдар тумысынан азат және қадір-қасиеті мен құқықтары тең болып дүниеге келеді. Адамдарға ақыл-парасат, ар-ождан берілген, сондықтан олар бір-бірімен туыстық, бауырмалдық қарым-қатынас жасаулары тиіс. {{Script/Arabicstyle=font-feature-settings:'cv50' 1; -webkit-font-feature-settings:'cv50' 1;}}| Barlyq adamdar týmysynan azat jáne qadir-qasıeti men quqyqtary teÅ„ bolyp dúnıege keledi. Adamdarǵa aqyl-parasat, ar-ojdan berilgen, sondyqtan olar bir-birimen týystyq, baýyrmaldyq qarym-qatynas jasaýlary tıis.| Barlıq adamdar twmısınan azat jäne qadir-qasïyeti men quqıqtarı teñ bolıp dünïyege keledi. AdamdarÄŸa aqıl-parasat, ar-ojdan berilgen, sondıqtan olar bir-birimen twıstıq, bawırmaldıq qarım-qatınas jasawları tïis.| Barlık adamdar tuwmısınan azat jäne kadir-kasiyeti men kukıktarı teÅ„ bolıp düniyege keledi. Adamdarga akıl-parasat, ar-ojdan berilgen, sondıktan olar bir-birimen tuwıstık, bawırmaldık karım-katınas jasawları tiyis.| All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.(File:Kazakh latin alphabet (1924).JPG|right|312x312px|thumb|Kazakh Arabic and Latin script in 1924)


Kazakh exhibits tongue-root vowel harmony, with some words of recent foreign origin (usually of Russian or Arabic origin) as exceptions. There is also a system of rounding harmony which resembles that of Kyrgyz, but which does not apply as strongly and is not reflected in the orthography.


The following chart depicts the consonant inventory of standard Kazakh;Some variations occur in the different regions where Kazakh is spoken, including outside Kazakhstan; e.g. ж / ج (where a Perso-Arabic script similar to the current Uyghur alphabet is used) is read {{IPA|[ʑ]}} in standard Kazakh, but {{IPA|[d͡ʑ]}} in some places. many of the sounds, however, are allophones of other sounds or appear only in recent loan-words. The 18 consonant phonemes listed by Vajda are without parentheses—since these are phonemes, their listed place and manner of articulation are very general, and will vary from what is shown. The phonemes {{IPA|/f/}}, {{IPA|/v/}}, {{IPA|/t͡ɕ/}} and {{IPA|/x/}} only occur in recent borrowings, mostly from Russian.In the table, the elements left of a divide are voiceless, while those to the right are voiced.{| class="wikitable"Kazakh consonant phonemes{{citation|last=Vajda|first=Edward|editor-last1=Kaplan|editor-first1=E.|editor-last2=Whisenhunt|editor-first2=D.|year=1994|chapter=Kazakh phonology|title=Essays presented in honor of Henry Schwarz|place=Washington|publisher=Western Washington|pages=603–650}}!! colspan="2" | Labials! colspan="2" | Alveolar! colspan="2" | (Alveolo-)palatal! colspan="2" | Velar! colspan="2" | Uvular align="center"! Nasal {{IPAм/m}} {{IPAн/n}} {{IPAң/ń}} align="center"! Stopp}} {{angle bracket|п/p}}b}} {{angle bracket|б/b}}t}} {{angle bracket|т/t}}d}} {{angle bracket|д/d}}tɕ}} {{angbr|ч/ch}}|k}} {{angle bracket|к/k}}ɡ}} {{angle bracket|г/g}}q}} {{angle bracket|қ/q}}| align="center"! Fricativef}} {{angle bracket|ф/f}}v}} {{angle bracket|в/v}}s}} {{angle bracket|с/s}}z}} {{angle bracket|з/z}}ɕ}} {{angle bracket|ш/sh}}ʑ}} {{angbr|җ/j}}| |χ}} {{angle bracket|х/h}}ʁ}} {{angle bracket|ғ/ǵ}} align="center"! Approximant {{IPAл/l}} {{IPAй/ı}} {{IPAу/ý}} align="center"! Rhotic {{IPAр/r}}


Kazakh has a system of 12 phonemic vowels, 3 of which are diphthongs. The rounding contrast and {{IPA|/æ/}} generally only occur as phonemes in the first syllable of a word, but do occur later allophonically; see the section on harmony below for more information. Moreover, the {{IPA|/æ/}} sound has been included artificially due to the influence of Arabic, Persian and, later, Tatar languages during the Islamic period.BOOK,weblink A Grammar of Kazakh, Wagner, John Doyle, Dotton, Zura, The letter "e" is often palatalised due to Russian influence.According to Vajda, the front/back quality of vowels is actually one of neutral versus retracted tongue root.{{Citation needed|date=September 2009|reason=No reference given for 'Vajda'; why complicate things with ±RTR, which seems to be applied here mostly just because it is a fashionable feature in phonology}}Phonetic values are paired with the corresponding character in Kazakh's Cyrillic and current Latin alphabets.{| class="wikitable" style=text-align:center|+Kazakh vowel phonemes!!Front(−RTR)!Central(0RTR)!Back(+RTR)! Closeɪ}} {{angle bracket|і/i}}ʉ}} {{angle bracket|ү/ú}}ʊ}} {{angle bracket|ұ/u}}! Diphthongjɪ}} {{angle bracket|е/e}}əj}} {{angle bracket|и/í}}ʊw}} {{angle bracket|у/ý}}! Mide}} {{angle bracket|э/e}}ə}} {{angle bracket|ы/y}}o}} {{angle bracket|о/o}}! Openæ}} {{angle bracket|ә/á}}œ}} {{angle bracket|ө/ó}}ɑ}} {{angle bracket|а/a}}{| class="wikitable"|+Kazakh vowels by their pronunciation! rowspan="2" |! colspan="2" |Front! colspan="2" |Back!{{small|unrounded}}!{{small|rounded}}!{{small|unrounded}}!{{small|rounded}}!Closeɪ}} {{angle bracket|і/i}}ʉ}} {{angle bracket|ү/ü}}ə}} {{angle bracket|ы/ı}}ʊ}} {{angle bracket|ұ/u}}!Opene}} {{angle bracketæ}} {{angle bracket|ә/ä}}œ̝}} {{angle bracket|ө/ö}}ɑ}} {{angle bracket|а/a}}o}} {{angle bracket|о/o}}

Morphology and syntax

Kazakh is generally verb-final, though various permutations on SOV (subject–object–verb) word order can be used, for example, due to Inflectional and derivational morphology, both verbal and nominal, in Kazakh, exists almost exclusively in the form of agglutinative suffixes. Kazakh is a nominative-accusative, head-final, left-branching, dependent-marking language.BOOK, Mukhamedova, Raikhangul, Kazakh: A Comprehensive Grammar, 2015, Routledge, 9781317573081, {|class="wikitable"|+Declension of nouns!Case!Morpheme!Possible forms!кеме "ship"||ауа "air"||шелек "bucket"||сәбіз "carrot"||бас "head"||тұз "salt"!Nom|тұз!Accні>ны>ті>ді>ты>|тұзды!Genнің>ның>тің>дің>тың>|тұздың!Datге>ға>ке>ге>қа>|тұзға!Locде>да>те>де>та>|тұзда!Ablден>дан>тен>ден>тан>|тұздан!Instмен>мен>пен>бен>пен>|тұзбен


Kazakh has eight personal pronouns:{|class="wikitable"|+Personal pronouns!colspan="2"|Singular!colspan="2"|Plural!Kazakh (transliteration)||English||Kazakh (transliteration)||English|We(informal)>|You (plural and singular formal)|TheyThe declension of the pronouns is outlined in the following chart. Singular pronouns (with the exception of сіз, which used to be plural) exhibit irregularities, while plural pronouns don't. Irregular forms are highlighted in bold.{|class="wikitable"|+Declension of pronouns!Nom|олар!Accмені>сені>оны>|оларды!Genменің>сенің>оның>|олардың!Datмаған>саған>оған>|оларға!Locонда>|оларда!Ablменен>сенен>одан>|олардан!Instменімен>сенімен>онымен>|оларменIn addition to the pronouns, there are several more sets of morphemes dealing with person.{|class="wikitable"|+Morphemes indicating person!||pronouns||copulas||possessive endings||past/conditional!1st sg|-(ı)m!2nd sg|-(ı)ń!3rd sg|—!1st pl|-(ı)k!2nd sng formal & pl|-(ı)nız!3rd pl|—

Tense, aspect and mood

Kazakh may express different combinations of tense, aspect and mood through the use of various verbal morphology or through a system of auxiliary verbs, many of which might better be considered light verbs. The present tense is a prime example of this; progressive tense in Kazakh is formed with one of four possible auxiliaries. These auxiliaries "отыр" (sit), "тұр" (stand), "жүр" (go) and "жат" (lie), encode various shades of meaning of how the action is carried out and also interact with the lexical semantics of the root verb: telic and non-telic actions, semelfactives, durative and non-durative, punctual, etc. There are selectional restrictions on auxiliaries: motion verbs, such as бару (go) and келу (come) may not combine with "отыр". Any verb, however, can combine with "жат" (lie) to get a progressive tense meaning.{|class="wikitable"|+Progressive aspect in the present tense!Kazakh||Aspect||English translationMen jeymin>|"I (will) eat [every day]."Men jeudemin>|"I am eating [right now]."Men jep otırmın>|"I am [sitting and] eating." / "I have been eating."Men jep turmın>|"I am [in the middle of] eating [this very minute]."Men jep jürmin>|"I eat [lunch, everyday]"While it is possible to think that different categories of aspect govern the choice of auxiliary, it is not so straightforward in Kazakh. Auxiliaries are internally sensitive to the lexical semantics of predicates, for example, verbs describing motion:{| class="wikitable"|+Selectional restrictions on Kazakh auxiliaries!Kazakh!Gloss!Auxiliary Used!English translation|Суда балық жүзедіSuw-da balıq jüz-e-di|water-LOC fish swim-PRES-3|∅(present/future tense used)|"Fish swim in water"(general statement)|Суда балық жүзудеSuw-da balık jüz-ude|water-LOC fish swim-CNVB AUX.3|жат- to lie, general marker forprogressive aspect.|"The/A fish is swimming in the water"|Суда балық жүзіп жүрSuw-da balık jüz-ip jür|water-LOC fish swim-CNVB AUX.3|жүр – "go", dynamic/habitual/iterative|"The fish is swimming [as it always does] in the water"|Суда балық жүзіп тұрSuw-da balık jüz-ip tur|water-LOC fish swim-CNVB AUX.3|тұр – "stand", progressive marker to showthe swimming is punctual|"The fish is swimming in the water"|* Суда балық жүзіп отырSuw-da balık jüz-ip otır|water-LOC fish swim-CNVB AUX.3|отыр – "sit", ungrammatical inthis sentence, отыр can only be usedfor verbs that are stative in nature|*The fish has been swimmingNot a possible sentence of KazakhIn addition to the complexities of the progressive tense, there are many auxiliary-converb pairs that encode a range of aspectual, modal, volitional, evidential and action- modificational meanings. For example, the pattern -ып көру, with the auxiliary verb көру (see), indicates that the subject of the verb attempted or tried to do something (compare the Japanese てみる temiru construction).

Annotated text with gloss

From "Meniń Qazaqstanym" ("My Kazakhstan"), the national anthem of Kazakhstan:{| class="wikitable"!Менің Қазақстаным !Men-iń Qazaqstan-ym!My Kazakhstan|Алтын күн аспаны|Altyn kún aspan-y|The golden sun in the sky[ɑltən kʉn ɑspɑˈnə]}}|gold sun sky-3.POSS||Алтын дән даласы|Altyn dán dala-sy|The golden corn of the steppe[altən dæn dɑlɑˈsə]}}|gold corn steppe-3.POSS||Ерліктің дастаны|Erlik-tiń dastan-y|The legend of courage[erlɘkˈtɘŋ dɑstɑˈnə]}}|courage legend-GEN epic-3.POSS-NOM||Еліме қарашы!|El-im-e qara-shy|Just look at my country![ɘlɘˈmʲe qɑrɑˈʃə]}}|country-1SG.ACC look-IMP||Ежелден ер деген|Ejel-den er de-gen|Called heroes since time immemorial[ɘʑʲɘlˈdʲen ɘr dʲɪˈɡʲen]}}|antiquity-ABL hero say-PTCP.PST||Даңқымыз шықты ғой|Dańq-ymyz shyq-ty ǵoı|Our glory, emerged![dɑɴqəˈməz ʃəqˈtə ʁoj]}}|glory-1PL.POSS.NOM emerge-PST.3 EMPH||Намысын бермеген|Namys-yn ber-me-gen|Without losing their honor[nɑməˈsən bʲermʲeˈɡʲen]}}|honor-3.POSS-ACC give-NEG-PTCP.PST||Қазағым мықты ғой|Qazaǵ-ym myqty ǵoı|Mighty are my Kazakh people![qɑzɑˈʁəm məqˈtə ʁoj]}}|Kazakh-1SG.POSS strong EMPH||Менің елім, менің елім|Men-iń el-im, meniń el-im|My country, my country[mʲɘˈnɘŋ ɘˈlɪm, mʲɘˈnɘŋ ɘˈlɪm]}}|1SG.GEN my country (2x)-1SG.NOM||Гүлің болып, егілемін|Gúl-iń bol-yp, eg-il-e-min|As your flower, I am rooted in you[ɡʉˈlɘŋ boˈləp, ɘɡɘlʲɘˈmɪn]}}|flower-2SG.NOM be-CNVB, root-PASS-PRES-1SG||Жырың болып төгілемін, елім|Jyr-yń bol-yp, tóg-il-e-min, el-im|As your song, I will be sung abound[ʒəˈrəŋ boˈləp tœɡɪlˈʲɘmɪn, ɘˈlɪm]}}|song-2SG.NOM be-CNVB, sing-PASS-PRES-1SG, country-1SG.POSS.NOM||Туған жерім менің – Қазақстаным|Tý-ǵan jer-im meniń – Qazaqstan-ym|My native land – My Kazakhstan[tuwˈʁan ʒeˈrɪm mʲɘnɘŋ qɑzɑqˈstɑnəm]}}|birth-PTCP-PST place-1SG.POSS.NOM 1SG.GEN – Kazakhstan-1SG.POSS.NOM|

See also



Further reading

  • {hide}citation|last=Kara|first=Dávid Somfai|title=Kazak|year=2002|publisher=Lincom Europa|isbn=9783895864704
  • Mark Kirchner: "Kazakh and Karakalpak". In: The Turkic languages. Ed. by Lars Johanson and É. Á. Csató. London [u.a.] : Routledge, 1998. (Routledge language family descriptions). S.318-332.

External links

{{InterWiki|code=kk}}{{Wikivoyage|Kazakh phrasebook|Kazakh|a phrasebook}} {{navboxes||list ={{Turkic languages}}{{Kazakhstan topics}}}}{{Authority control}}

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