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Justin Trudeau
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{{pp-protected|small=yes}}{{short description|23rd and current Prime Minister of Canada}}{{Use Canadian English|date=October 2015}}{{Use mdy dates|date=July 2018}}







factoids
}}|birth_place = Ottawa, Ontario, Canada|death_date = |death_place = Liberal Party of Canada>LiberalSophie Grégoire Trudeau>May 28, 2005}}|relatives = Trudeau familyPierre TrudeauMargaret Trudeau>Margaret Sinclair|residence = Rideau Cottage (primary)Harrington Lake (seasonal)McGill University (Bachelor of Arts>BA, 1994)University of British Columbia (BEd, 1998)Université de MontréalCanadian dollar351,200HTTPS://LOP.PARL.CA/SITES/PARLINFO/DEFAULT/EN_CA/PEOPLE/SALARIES?GGCHECKBOX=FALSE&SENATECHECKBOX=FALSE&HOCCHECKBOX=TRUELAST=DATE=APRIL 11, 2018ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170601232820/HTTPS://LOP.PARL.CA/PARLINFO/LISTS/SALARIES.ASPX?MENU=HOC-POLITIC&SECTION=03D93C58-F843-49B3-9653-84275C23F3FBDEAD-URL=NO, February 2, 2019, }}|occupation = Teacher,Politicianweblinkweblink|Party website}}|signature = Signature Justin Trudeau.svg}}Justin Pierre James Trudeau {{postnom|PC|MP}} ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|t|r|ʊ|d|oʊ}}; {{IPA-fr|ʒystɛ̃ tʁydo|lang}}; born December 25, 1971) is a Canadian politician serving as the 23rd prime minister of Canada since 2015 and leader of the Liberal Party since 2013.NEWS,weblink Liberals projected to win majority, King, Robin Levinson, October 19, 2015, Toronto Star, October 19, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151020165346weblink">weblink October 20, 2015, no, NEWS, Justin Trudeau to be prime minister as Liberals surge to majority,weblink October 19, 2015, CBC News, October 19, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151020014706weblink">weblink October 20, 2015, Trudeau is the second-youngest Canadian prime minister, after Joe Clark; he is also the first to be related to a previous holder of the post, as the eldest son of Pierre Trudeau.NEWS, Justin Trudeau plans to announce his cabinet Nov. 4,weblink October 20, 2015, Toronto Star, October 20, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151021072527weblink">weblink October 21, 2015, WEB,weblink 'We're back,' Trudeau tells allies abroad, October 20, 2015, Hamilton Community News, October 20, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151126072054weblink">weblink November 26, 2015, Born in Ottawa, Trudeau attended Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf and graduated from McGill University in 1994 and the University of British Columbia in 1998. He gained a high public profile in October 2000, when he delivered a eulogy at his father's state funeral.WEB,weblink Justin Trudeau, Trudeau Foundation, November 5, 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151023002636weblink">weblink October 23, 2015, After graduating, he worked as a teacher in Vancouver, British Columbia. He completed one year of an engineering program at Montreal's École Polytechnique, from 2002 to 2003, and one year of a master's program in environmental geography at McGill University, from 2004 to 2005. He advocated for various causes, and portrayed a cousin in the 2007 TV miniseries The Great War.WEB,weblink Vancouver schools remember new PM Justin Trudeau as a great teacher, Amy, Judd, October 20, 2015, Global News, November 5, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151028033015weblink">weblink October 28, 2015, In the 2008 federal election, he was elected to represent the riding of Papineau in the House of Commons. In 2009, he was appointed the Liberal Party's critic for youth and multiculturalism, and the following year, became critic for citizenship and immigration. In 2011, he was appointed as critic for secondary education and youth and amateur sport. Trudeau won the leadership of the Liberal Party in April 2013 and went on to lead his party to victory in the 2015 federal election, moving the third-placed Liberals from 36 seats to 184 seats, the largest-ever numerical increase by a party in a Canadian general election.

Early life

Ancestry and birth

On June 23, 1971, the Prime Minister's office had announced that Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau's wife of four months, the former Margaret Sinclair,NEWS, Trudeau's Bride Takes All by Surprise,weblink Chicago Tribune Press Services, Chicago Tribune, Griffin, Eugene, March 6, 1971, September 4, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170305151655weblink">weblink March 5, 2017, was pregnant and due in December.NEWS, Rumors confirmed: Mrs. Trudeau expecting, due December,weblink Montreal Gazette, The Canadian Press, June 24, 1971, May 22, 2016, NEWS, Civic doctor for Margaret,weblink Ottawa Citizen, December 1, 1971, October 7, 2017, He was born on Christmas Day 1971 at 9:27 pm EST at the Ottawa Civic Hospital.NEWS, Downie, Jim, Justin just like dad,weblink Ottawa Citizen, The Canadian Press, December 28, 1971, October 21, 2015, Trudeau is the second child in Canadian history to be born to a Prime Minister in office; the first was John A. Macdonald's daughter Margaret Mary Theodora Macdonald (February 8, 1869 â€“ January 28, 1933). Trudeau's younger brothers Alexandre (Sacha) (born December 25, 1973) and Michel (October 2, 1975 â€“ November 13, 1998) were the third and fourth.NEWS, Welcome, Justin Trudeau,weblink March 2, 2013, St. Petersburg Times, December 31, 1971, BOOK,weblink Citizen of the World: The Life of Pierre Elliott Trudeau Volume One: 1919–1968, English, John, August 28, 2007, Knopf Canada, 978-0-676-97522-2, 205–, May 27, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130731194203weblink">weblink July 31, 2013, no, File:Margaret Sinclair, Pat Nixon, Justin Trudeau 1972-04-14 (cropped).jpg|thumb|left|Three-month-old Justin Trudeau at Rideau Hall with his mother (left) and U.S. First Lady Pat NixonPat NixonTrudeau is predominantly of Scottish and French Canadian descent. His grandfathers were businessman Charles-Émile TrudeauNEWS, Staff, Pierre Trudeau toughens up,weblink CBC Digital Archives, January 9, 1994, November 13, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151118221347weblink">weblink November 18, 2015, and Scottish-born James Sinclair,NEWS,weblink Colleagues, family discuss secret Trudeau wedding, March 5, 1971, September 3, 2016, CBC Digital Archives, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160106142854weblink">weblink January 6, 2016, who served as Minister of Fisheries in the cabinet of Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent.WEB, SINCLAIR, The Hon. James, P.C.,weblink Parliament of Canada, March 2, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130508193255weblink">weblink May 8, 2013, Trudeau's maternal great-grandfather Thomas Bernard was born in MakassarWEB,weblink Margaret Trudeau, CBC Television, April 24, 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130109022600weblink">weblink January 9, 2013, and immigrated to Penticton, British Columbia, in 1906 at age 15 with his family.WEB,weblink Passenger lists of the AORANGI arriving in Vancouver, British Columbia on 1906-06, February 17, 2016, April 19, 2017, Library and Archives Canada, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170104025049weblink">weblink January 4, 2017, Through the Bernard family, kinsmen of the Earls of Bandon,BOOK, Gartland, Fiona, Rebel roots: Justin Trudeau's Irish ancestry from Co Cork revealed, The Irish Times,weblink June 4, 2017, October 7, 2017, NEWS, Bandon claims Trudeau Just-In time,weblink The Southern Star (County Cork), The Southern Star, O'Mahony, Kieran, July 10, 2017, May 4, 2018, WEB,weblink The Bernards of Palace Anne, Bandon Cork Ancestors and Genealogy Heritage Roots Ireland, September 4, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160407000801weblink">weblink April 7, 2016, Trudeau is the 5th-great grandson of Major-General William Farquhar,NEWS,weblink Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau traces family links to Singapore at Fort Canning Park, The Straits Times, Sin, Yuen, November 15, 2018, November 21, 2018, a leader in the founding of modern Singapore; Trudeau also has remote ethnic Malaccan"Stamford Raffles was not above sneering at Farquhar's Malay wife and the children by her he had acknowledged. 'The Maya connexion', he termed them archly."BOOK, Barley, Nigel, 1991, The Duke of Puddle Dock: Travels in the Footsteps of Stamford Raffles,weblink Great Britain, Viking, 242, no,weblink January 16, 2017, BOOK, Ford, D., 2005, The world of Antoinette Clement: Colonial mistress,weblink Australia, University of Queensland, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304002318weblink">weblink March 4, 2016, and Ono NihaBOOK, Hedemann, Nancy Oakley, 1994, A Scottish-Hawaiian story: the Purvis family in the Sandwich Islands, Book Crafters,weblink September 4, 2016, no,weblink January 16, 2017, BOOK, Douglas-Home, Jessica, 1996, Violet: The Life and Loves of Violet Gordon Woodhouse, Harvill Press,weblink September 4, 2016, no,weblink January 16, 2017, BOOK, Cooper, Artemis, 2011, Writing at the Kitchen Table: The Authorized Biography of Elizabeth David, Faber & Faber,weblink September 4, 2016, no,weblink January 15, 2017, ancestry.Trudeau was christened with his father's niece Anne Rouleau-Danis as godmother and his mother's brother-in-law Thomas Walker as godfatherNEWS, Gillespie, Mike, The Ottawa Journal,weblink It's 'Justin Pierre James' – Trudeau baby baptized, January 17, 2015, November 12, 2015, Justin remained perfectly quiet when the prime minister and his wife took their places in the baptistry, accompanied by Mr. Trudeau's niece, Marie Anne Rouleau-Danis, and a stand-in for Thomas Walker, the PM's brother-in-law, who, along, with Mrs. Roulea-Danis, are the baby's godparents., no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151117070849weblink">weblink November 17, 2015, NEWS, Catling, Len, The University of British Columbia Athletic,weblink O'Connor returns home to Ottawa, meets Prime Minister, May 18, 2016, September 15, 2017, "My uncle played for the Lions," replied the Prime Minister. "Tom Walker played for them." The Prime Minister is referring to defensive tackle Tom Walker, who donned BC Lions colours in the early sixities., at Ottawa's Notre Dame Basilica on the afternoon of January 16, 1972, which marked his first public appearance.NEWS, Canada Premier's Son Christened in Ottawa,weblink The Blade (Toledo), The Blade, Reuters, January 17, 1972, October 28, 2015, On April 14, 1972, Trudeau's father and mother hosted a gala at the National Arts Centre, at which visiting U.S. president Richard M. Nixon said, "I'd like to toast the future prime minister of Canada, to Justin Pierre Trudeau" to which Pierre Elliott Trudeau responded that should his son ever assume the role, he hoped he would have "the grace and skill of the president".NEWS, Staff,weblink United Press International, The Bryan Times, Nixon, Trudeau sign treaty: Great Lakes cleanup is multi-billion job, April 15, 1972, November 10, 2015, Earlier that same day U.S. first lady Pat Nixon had come to see him in his nursery to deliver a gift, a stuffed toy Snoopy.NEWS, Staff,weblink United Press International, Daily Record (Washington), Daily Record, 'Snoopy' gift from Nixon's, April 15, 1972, November 10, 2015, NEWS, Ruvinsky, Auren, November 10, 2015, Parksville man discusses scene around some baby pictures he took of Justin Trudeau,weblink Parksville Qualicum Beach News, November 12, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151117034956weblink">weblink November 17, 2015, Nixon's White House audio tapes later revealed Nixon referred to that visit as "wasting three days up there. That trip we needed like a hole in the head."NEWS, Gill, Alexandra, March 23, 2002, Nixon's bushy-haired 'bastard' bites back,weblink The Globe and Mail, March 11, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160311194940weblink">weblink March 11, 2016, NEWS, Smyth, Julie, March 9, 2016, Parksville man discusses scene around some baby pictures he took of Justin Trudeau,weblink Maclean's Magazine, March 11, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160310223444weblink">weblink March 10, 2016,

Childhood

File:Visite de Pierre Elliott Trudeau (1) (cropped).jpg|thumb|left|10-year-old Justin Trudeau touring the Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille with his father and French Prime Minister Pierre MauroyPierre MauroyHis parents publicly announced their separation on May 27, 1977,NEWS, Pierre Trudeau, wife separate at her request,weblink Lawrence Journal-World, Associated Press, May 28, 1977, June 8, 2016, NEWS, Being single parent has 'downsides': PM,weblink The Gazette (Montreal), The Gazette, United Press International, January 3, 1978, October 29, 2015, when Trudeau was five years old, with his father having custody. There had been repeated rumours of a reconciliation in the public for many years afterwards,NEWS, O'Hara, Jane, When Pierre put his boys first,weblink Maclean's Magazine, December 3, 1979, December 2, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151204075456weblink">weblink December 4, 2015, but his mother's attorney Michael LevineNEWS, Wong, Jan, Mr. Conflict of Interest,weblink The Globe and Mail, March 28, 2003, November 20, 2015, Indeed, Levine represented Margaret Trudeau when she got her shows on CJOH television in Ottawa in the early 1980s and later during her divorce from Pierre. And then he represented the former prime minister when he auctioned off his memoirs., no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160106142854weblink">weblink January 6, 2016, filed in Toronto to the Supreme Court of Ontario for a no-fault divorce on November 16, 1983NEWS, Margaret Trudeau files for divorce,weblink Ottawa Citizen, November 17, 1983, October 28, 2015, and finalized on April 2, 1984,NEWS, Trudeaus' divorce has become final: Report,weblink The Gazette, Montreal, April 5, 1984, October 28, 2015, with his father publicly announcing his intention to retire as prime minister on February 29 of that year.BOOK, Elin Woodger, David F. Burg, The 1980s,weblink May 27, 2011, March 2006, Infobase Publishing, 978-0-8160-5809-9, 414, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130731195713weblink">weblink July 31, 2013, Eventually his parents came to an amicable joint-custody arrangement and learned to get along quite well. Interviewed in October 1979, his nanny Dianne Lavergne was quoted, "Justin is a mommy's boy, so it's not easy, but children's hurts mend very quickly. And they're lucky kids, anyway."NEWS, Laver, Ross, Nostalgic nanny,weblink Ottawa Citizen, October 31, 1979, October 29, 2015, Of his mother and father's marriage, Trudeau said in 2009, "They loved each other incredibly, passionately, completely. But there was 30 years between them and my mom never was an equal partner in what encompassed my father's life, his duty, his country."NEWS, Campion-Smith, Bruce, Justin on growing up Trudeau,weblink March 2, 2013, Toronto Star, June 20, 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141107221601weblink">weblink November 7, 2014, Trudeau has three half-siblings, Kyle and Alicia, from his mother's remarriage to Fried Kemper,NEWS, bpHope,weblink February 8, 2008, November 10, 2015, Anzalone, Charles, Margaret Trudeau: Forgiveness, gratitude, wisdom, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151104055209weblink">weblink November 4, 2015, and Sarah, from his father's relationship with Deborah Coyne.NEWS,weblink Pierre Trudeau's daughter, Sarah, lives under the radar, November 24, 2010, November 10, 2015, Popplewell, Brett, Toronto Star, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151104234827weblink">weblink November 4, 2015, Trudeau lived at 24 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, the official residence of Canada's prime minister, from his birth until his father's government was defeated in the federal election on May 22, 1979. The Trudeaus were expected to move into the residence of the Leader of the Official Opposition, Stornoway, at 541 Acacia Avenue in Rockcliffe Park, but because of flooding in the basement, prime minister Joe Clark offered them Harrington Lake, the prime minister's official country retreat in Gatineau Park, with the expectation they would move into Stornoway at the start of July.NEWS, Stornoway changes to cost $65,000,weblink The Gazette, Montreal, June 16, 1979, October 28, 2015, However, the repairs were not complete so Pierre Trudeau took a prolonged vacation with his sons to the Nova Scotia summer home of his friend, MP Don Johnston, and later sent his sons to stay with their maternal grandparents in North Vancouver for the rest of the summer while he slept at his friend's Ottawa apartment. Justin and his brothers returned to Ottawa for the start of the school year, but lived only on the top floor of Stornoway while repairs continued on the bottom floor.NEWS, Janigan, Mary, The new Trudeau: A beard holds the key,weblink The Gazette, Montreal, September 6, 1979, October 28, 2015, His mother purchased and moved into a new home nearby at 95 Queen Victoria Avenue in Ottawa's New Edinburgh in September 1979.NEWS, Staff, Maggie house hunting?,weblink Ottawa Citizen, September 11, 1979, November 15, 2015, NEWS, Strobel, Mike, 'Burgh' accepts Maggie's move,weblink The Ottawa Journal, September 27, 1979, November 15, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151117105150weblink">weblink November 17, 2015, The Trudeaus returned to the prime minister's official residence in February 1980 after the election that returned his father to the Prime Minister's Office.NEWS, It's all yours next week, Clark tells a victorious Trudeau,weblink The Gazette, Montreal, February 20, 1980, October 28, 2015, His father had intended Trudeau to begin his formal education at a French Lycée, but Trudeau's mother convinced his father of the importance of sending their sons to a public school.NEWS, February 9, 1983, Brooker, Deborah, Margaret Trudeau today: a TV career, a new man – and her kids,weblink Ottawa Citizen, November 30, 2015, Q: I understand you insisted that the children attend a public school. A: Pierre wanted them from the beginning to go to a French Lycée to get a very academic education. I held out, and was able to give good arguments. Pierre has certainly agreed that they've done very well in school. They are all in French immersion, and are quite bilingual. They attend a local public school, and they're just normal little kids doing all the fun things of elementary years., In the end, Trudeau was enrolled in 1976 in the French immersion program at Rockcliffe Park Public School, the same school his mother had attended for 2 years when her family relocated to Rockcliffe Park while her father served as a federal Cabinet minister.NEWS,weblink Growning up in the public eye, Toronto Star, Coyle, Jim, October 17, 2015, August 26, 2016, He could have been dropped off by limousine, but his parents elected he take the school bus albeit with a Royal Canadian Mounted Police car following.NEWS, Staff, Schreyer children to get bodyguards,weblink The Gazette, Montreal, The Canadian Press, January 12, 1979, November 15, 2015, A team of plainclothes RCMP officers spring into action the moment Trudeau's two oldest boys leave 24 Sussex Drive and hop on the school bus. The officers do not rest until their charges are returned home., NEWS, Hampson, Beatrice, November 22, 1979, Pierre-like shrug Justin's reaction,weblink Ottawa Citizen, October 27, 2015, NEWS, October 21, 2015, Shannon McMullan was Justin Trudeau's grade school teacher,weblink The Manitoulin Expositor, November 6, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151118012542weblink">weblink November 18, 2015, NEWS, October 18, 2014, Kennedy, Mark, Q and A: Justin Trudeau in his own words,weblink Ottawa Citizen, November 22, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151124083959weblink">weblink November 24, 2015, This was followed by one year at the private Lycée Claudel d'Ottawa.NEWS, MacCharles, Tonda, October 5, 2000, Spotlight on Justin sparks talk of dynasty,weblink Toronto Star, November 20, 2015, WEB,weblink Justin Trudeau's Camp Application, 1984, Grant, Hamish, January 25, 2007, Flickr, November 20, 2015, After his father's retirement, in June 1984, his mother remained at her New Edinburgh home while the rest of the family moved into his father's home at 1418 Pine Avenue, Montreal known as Cormier HouseNEWS, Trudeau checks his new house,weblink The Gazette, Montreal, December 31, 1979, October 28, 2015, where the following autumn he began attending the private Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf, his father's alma mater. The school had begun as a Jesuit school but was non-denominational by the time Justin matriculated.WEB,weblink Justin Trudeau Memoir Paints Frank Picture of Privileged But Painful Childhood, The Huffington Post, October 18, 2014, Joan, Bryden, October 19, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141020024344weblink">weblink October 20, 2014, NEWS, Justin Trudeau on his own terms,weblink Maclean's Magazine, October 11, 2011, November 1, 2015, Jonathan, Gatehouse, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151023000651weblink">weblink October 23, 2015, In 2008, Trudeau said that of all his early family outings he enjoyed camping with his father the most, because "that was where our father got to be just our father â€“ a dad in the woods".WEB, Solway, Diane,weblink The Son Also Rises, Wmagazine.com, April 23, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110716193158weblink">weblink July 16, 2011, During the summers his father would send him and his brothers to Camp Ahmek, on Canoe Lake, in Algonquin Provincial Park, where he would later work in his first paid employment as a camp counselor.WEB,weblink TSC History, The Taylor Statten Camps, October 25, 2015, Prime Minister Trudeau, a former Ahmek camper himself (and yes, we taught him the "Ahmek J-stroke"), sent Justin, Alexandre (Sasha) and Michel (Mike) to Ahmek. Both Justin and Mike eventually became counsellors., no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151011221832weblink">weblink October 11, 2015, WEB,weblink Justin Trudeau (7 images), Milne, Brian, 4iiiis Photography, November 20, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160106142854weblink">weblink January 6, 2016, NEWS, Exclusive photo: Justin Trudeau in his days as camp counsellor,weblink The Globe & Mail, April 22, 2013, October 25, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151118025538weblink">weblink November 18, 2015, NEWS, Summer campers hold reunion,weblink Ottawa Citizen, The Canadian Press, October 21, 1986, October 28, 2015,

University and early career

Trudeau has a bachelor of arts degree in literature from McGill University and a bachelor of education degree from the University of British Columbia. In his first year at McGill, Trudeau became acquainted with his future Principal Secretary Gerald Butts, through their mutual friend, Jonathan Ablett. Butts invited Trudeau to join the McGill Debating Union.NEWS, McCabe, Daniel, October 22, 2015, Portrait of the PM-designate as a young man,weblink McGill News, November 19, 2015, Trudeau joined the McGill Debating Union at the invitation of a new acquaintance, Butts, then the debating union's vice-president. The two forged a close friendship at McGill that endures today..., yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151120164221weblink">weblink November 20, 2015, They bonded while driving back to Montreal after a debate tournament at Princeton University in which the Princeton team included Ted Cruz, a candidate for the U.S. Republican Party's presidential nomination in 2016.WEB,weblink Canadian Liberty and the Politics of Fear, Staff, March 10, 2015, Liberal Party of Canada, November 19, 2015, You know, I dabbled in the Debating Union at McGill. I even debated Ted Cruz once at a tournament at Yale. He hasn't changed very much., yes,weblink November 20, 2015, After graduation, he stayed in Vancouver and he found substitute work at several local schools and permanent work as a French and math teacher at the private West Point Grey Academy and was roommates at the Douglas LodgeNEWS,weblink Vancouver building that used to be home to Justin Trudeau damaged after ambulance crashes into limousine, Smith, Charlie, November 1, 2015, November 9, 2015, The Georgia Straight, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151104053446weblink">weblink November 4, 2015, with fellow West Point Grey Academy faculty member and friend Christopher Ingvaldson.NEWS, Raj, Althia, Contender: The Justin Trudeau Story,weblink October 23, 2014, March 5, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150622125650weblink">weblink June 22, 2015, "Justin Trudeau described by friends as down-to-earth and sensitive", Canadian Press, October 4, 2000, 03:25; Tonda MacCharles, "Son 'most like Pierre' relishes his privacy; While Liberals talk about dynasty, Justin looks forward to returning to teaching job", Kitchener-Waterloo Record, October 5, 2000, A06; Justin Trudeau, "Something I'm passionate about", The Globe and Mail, February 3, 2001, A11; Gloria Galloway, "Justin Trudeau delivers motivational speech to Ontario teachers", The Canadian Press, April 27, 2001, 14:50; "Students should learn to be brave, Trudeau says", Globe and Mail, April 28, 2001, A9. From 2002 to 2004, he studied engineering at the École Polytechnique de Montréal, a part of the Université de Montréal."Justin Trudeau tells education conference he plans return to teaching", Canadian Press, February 28, 2004. He also started a master's degree in environmental geography at McGill University, before suspending his program to seek public office among other reasons."Canada Votes 2011: Ridings: Papineau" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160221225444weblink |date=February 21, 2016 }}, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved October 25, 2015.In August 2000, Justin Trudeau attended the Kokanee Summit in Creston, British Columbia to raise funds in honor of his brother Michel Trudeau and avalanche victims.NEWS,weblink COMMENTARY: The facts about what Justin Trudeau can’t remember, Global News, 2018-07-09, en, After the event, an unsigned editorial in the Creston Valley Advance (a local newspaper) accused Trudeau of having groped an unnamed female reporter while at the music festival. The piece stated Trudeau provided a "day-late" apology to the reporter, saying, "If I had known you were reporting for a national paper, I never would have been so forward."NEWS,weblink COMMENTARY: The facts about what Justin Trudeau can't remember, Global News, 2018-07-09, en, The editorial eventually resurfaced during his premiership, and in July 2018 he publicly said he didn't recall the incident.NEWS,weblink Justin Trudeau 'does not remember' groping reporter at festival, The Guardian, July 2, 2018, July 3, 2018, Ashifa Kassam, NEWS,weblink Justin Trudeau responds to groping allegations: 'I don't remember any negative interactions', Rebecca Tan, The Washington Post, July 2, 2018, July 3, 2018, Several commentators described Trudeau's refusal to act on the allegation as hypocritical given his previous actions against others accused of sexual misconduct.NEWS, Urback, Robyn, Hypocrisy is at the crux of the Trudeau groping allegation,weblink 6 August 2018, CBC News, 8 July 2018, NEWS, Brown, Drew, The Cynical Hypocrisy in the Justin Trudeau Groping Allegation Scandal,weblink 6 August 2018, Vice.com, 9 July 2019, NEWS, Bell, Rick, Bell: Trudeau hypocrisy lingers after he exits Calgary,weblink 6 August 2018, The Calgary Sun, 8 July 2018, NEWS, Kingston, Anne, Why Justin Trudeau’s reported ‘Kokanee Grope’ really matters,weblink 6 August 2018, McLeans, 27 June 2018, NEWS, Gunter, Lorne, GUNTER: Trudeau responds quite differently when he's the one accused,weblink 6 August 2018, The Calgary Sun, 10 July 2018, Trudeau, then 28, emerged as a prominent figure in October 2000, after delivering a eulogy at his father's state funeral."Justin Trudeau's eulogy for his father" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160106142854weblink |date=January 6, 2016 }}, CBC News; "Text of the eulogy given by Justin Trudeau at his father's funeral Tuesday", Canadian Press, October 3, 2000.Francine Dube, "Son's eulogy moves thousands to tears: 'It's all up to us': Dignitaries, citizens pay last respects to former PM", National Post, October 4, 2000, pg. A1Andre Picard and Mark Mickleburgh, "'Je t'aime, papa' THE SON: The very private Justin becomes a very public figure", The Globe and Mail, October 4, 2000, p. A1; Graham Fraser, "Trudeau children lead our farewell – Justin's eulogy a towering tribute at father's funeral", Toronto Star, October 4, 2000, p. 1. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) received numerous calls to rebroadcast the speech after its initial transmission, and leading Quebec politician Claude Ryan described it as "perhaps ... the first manifestation of a dynasty".Tonda MacCharles, "Spotlight on Justin sparks talk of dynasty – Trudeau's final resting place", Toronto Star, October 5, 2000, pg. 1. A book issued by the CBC in 2003 included the speech in its list of significant Canadian events from the past fifty years.Willa McLean, "This just in ...; CBC broadcaster revisits momentous events of past 50 years", Kitchener-Waterloo Record, February 8, 2003, pg. G3.In 2007, Trudeau starred in the two-part CBC Television miniseries The Great War, which gave an account of Canada's participation in the First World War. He portrayed his fifth cousin, twice removed,Nos Origines "Genealogy of Canada" IDs 475064 & 647509. Major Talbot Mercer Papineau, who was killed on October 30, 1917, during the Battle of Passchendaele.NEWS, Justin Trudeau pleased to play war hero,weblink April 17, 2013, Canwest News Service, April 6, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140512064059weblink">weblink May 12, 2014, Trudeau is one of several children of former prime ministers who have become Canadian media personalities. The others are Ben Mulroney (son of Brian Mulroney), Catherine Clark (daughter of Joe Clark), and Trudeau's younger brother, Alexandre.NEWS, Hopper, Tristin, 'There's so much attention on me': Fathers' legacies loom large for children of Canadian prime ministers,weblink March 2, 2013, National Post, October 5, 2012, no,weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20121008074735weblink">weblink October 8, 2012, mdy-all, Ben Mulroney was a guest at Trudeau's wedding.NEWS, Newman, Peter C., Trudeau's big leap—like father, like son,weblink March 2, 2013, Maclean's Magazine, September 18, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130304230004weblink">weblink March 4, 2013,

Advocacy

Trudeau and his family started the Kokanee Glacier Alpine Campaign for winter sports safety in 2000, two years after his brother Michel Trudeau died in an avalanche during a ski trip.NEWS, Stetski, Wayne, The Kokanee Glacier Alpine Campaign,weblink April 18, 2013, Visions BC Parks Newsletter, April 2001, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130927181723weblink">weblink September 27, 2013, In 2002, Trudeau criticized the Government of British Columbia's decision to stop its funding for a public avalanche warning system.Carol Harrington, "Trudeau takes on B.C. – Son of late PM decries cuts to public avalanche bulletins", Toronto Star, January 12, 2002, A24.File:Darfur-Rally 008.jpg|thumb|right|Left to right at a Darfur rally, 2006: Trudeau, Darfurian refugee Tragi Mustafa, one of the event organisers, and Senator Roméo DallaireRoméo DallaireTrudeau chaired the Katimavik youth program, a project started by longtime family friend Jacques Hébert, from 2002 to 2006.Kate Jaimet, "Trudeau retains '60s ideals: Lauds Katimavik's promotion of social causes", Calgary Herald, November 3, 2002, pg. A6Jen Gerson, "Captain Katimavik; Justin Trudeau comes to town to promote youth volunteer program, look cool", Toronto Star, March 21, 2006, pg. C4.In 2002–03, Trudeau was a panelist on CBC Radio's Canada Reads series, where he championed The Colony of Unrequited Dreams by Wayne Johnston."CBC Radio picks five books for second round of Canada Reads series", Canadian Press, November 19, 2002."Bookmark your calendar: Canada Book Week turns the page on Canada Book Day", Calgary Herald, April 22, 2003, pg. B13. Trudeau and his brother Alexandre inaugurated the Trudeau Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Toronto in April 2004; the centre later became a part of the Munk School of Global Affairs.NEWS, Peace and Conflict Studies Centre Named for Trudeau,weblink April 19, 2013, University of Toronto Magazine, 2004, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130728025751weblink">weblink July 28, 2013, In 2006, he hosted the Giller Prize for literature.NEWS, Justin Trudeau to host glitzy Giller prize gala, Kitchener-Waterloo Record, October 27, 2006, D12, NEWS, Beltrame, Julian, Justin Trudeau says lofty expectations have always followed him,weblink April 19, 2013, CTV News, April 24, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130418061126weblink">weblink April 18, 2013, In 2005, Trudeau fought against a proposed $100-million zinc mine that he argued would poison the Nahanni River, a United Nations World Heritage Site located in the Northwest Territories. He was quoted as saying, "The river is an absolutely magnificent, magical place. I'm not saying mining is wrong ... but that is not the place for it. It's just the wrong thing to be doing."NEWS, Bueckert, Dennis, Justin Trudeau denounces mine near park his father created: Vancouver company wants to build massive mine with access through Nahanni watershed, The Vancouver Sun, May 16, 2005, D10, NEWS, Trudeau, Justin, We hold the Nahanni in trust for the world. Let's protect it,weblink April 19, 2013, The Globe and Mail, On September 17, 2006, Trudeau was the master of ceremonies at a Toronto rally organized by Roméo Dallaire that called for Canadian participation in resolving the Darfur crisis.NEWS, Dallaire wants to mobilize young Canadians to support Darfur intervention, The Canadian Press, September 13, 2006, NEWS, Trudeau, Dallaire to lead Darfur rally, Toronto Star, September 17, 2006, A06, NEWS, Javed, Noor, Dallaire says Canada should take leadership role in Darfur,weblink April 19, 2013, CNews, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20130628045330weblink">weblink June 28, 2013, mdy-all,

Political beginnings

(File:Justin Trudeau supporting Gerard Kennedy 2.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Trudeau at the 2006 leadership convention){{See also|Electoral history of Justin Trudeau}}Trudeau supported the Liberal Party from a young age, offering his support to party leader John Turner in the 1988 federal election.Patricia Poirier, "Trudeau's son offers his support to Turner", The Globe and Mail, September 16, 1988, pg. A8. Two years later, he defended Canadian federalism at a student event at the Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf, an elite high school which he attended.Jane Taber, "A teacher of drama, a riveting moment", National Post, October 4, 2000, pg. A3.Following his father's death, Trudeau became more involved with the Liberal Party throughout the 2000s. Along with Olympian Charmaine Crooks, he co-hosted a tribute to outgoing prime minister Jean Chrétien at the party's 2003 leadership convention, and was appointed to chair a task force on youth renewal after the party's defeat in the 2006 federal election.NEWS, Chrétien bids adieu to a lifetime in politics,weblink September 28, 2012, CBC News, November 14, 2003, Juliet O'Neill, "Justin Trudeau to spearhead youth renewal of Liberal party: Task force", National Post, April 7, 2006, p. A1In October 2006, Trudeau criticized Quebec nationalism by describing political nationalism generally as an "old idea from the 19th century", "based on a smallness of thought" and not relevant to modern Quebec. This comment was seen as a criticism of Michael Ignatieff, then a candidate in the 2006 Liberal Party leadership election, who was promoting recognition of Quebec as a nation.NEWS, Gordon, Sean, Sounding like his father, Justin Trudeau takes aim at Michael Ignatieff's idea of Quebec as a 'nation', Toronto Star, October 27, 2006, A01, NEWS, Perreaux, Les, Eldest Trudeau son takes poke at Ignatieff stand, nationalism: 'Unfortunately, some people these days are wrapped up in this idea of nation for Quebec', The Gazette, Montreal, October 27, 2006, A12, Trudeau later wrote a public letter on the subject, describing the idea of Quebec nationhood as "against everything my father ever believed".NEWS, Macpherson, Son, Pass the peanut butter, it looks like Ignatieff is toast: His 'nationhood' proposal has stirred political heavies to line up against him, The Gazette, Montreal, November 2, 2006, A23, NEWS, Thompson, Elizabeth, Ignatieff lacks 'wisdom' to lead: Justin Trudeau: Says Gerard Kennedy deserves closer look, The Gazette, Montreal, November 15, 2006, A14, Trudeau announced his support for leadership candidate Gerard Kennedy shortly before the 2006 convention and introduced Kennedy during the candidates' final speeches.NEWS, Coyne, Andrew, Andrew Coyne, Kennedy's message is bold, but risky,weblink September 29, 2012, National Post, December 2, 2006, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140614071015weblink">weblink June 14, 2014, When Kennedy dropped off after the second ballot, Trudeau joined him in supporting the ultimate winner, Stéphane Dion.Robert Benzie, "All the right moves for Kennedy; 'Kingmaker' becomes Dion's heir apparent", Toronto Star, December 3, 2006, A07.NEWS, Corrigan, Ed, Liberals Elect Stephan Dion,weblink September 29, 2012, The Canadian, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120518041406weblink">weblink May 18, 2012, mdy-all, Rumours circulated in early 2007 that Trudeau would run in an upcoming by-election in the Montreal riding of Outremont. The Montreal newspaper La Presse reported despite Trudeau's keenness, Liberal leader Stéphane Dion wanted Outremont for a star candidate who could help rebuild the Liberal Party. Instead, Trudeau announced that he would seek the Liberal nomination in the nearby riding of Papineau for the next general election.WEB,weblink Quebec Liberal MP Jean Lapierre to resign, CTV News, January 11, 2007, April 23, 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081205142958weblink">weblink December 5, 2008, NEWS, Will Justin Trudeau run for Parliament MP?,weblink April 21, 2013, Toronto Star, Sean, Gordon, Susan Delacourt, January 10, 2007, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140504072305weblink">weblink May 4, 2014, NEWS, Taber, Jane, Liberals welcome Trudeau, bid adieu to Graham, The Globe and Mail, February 23, 2007, A1, The riding, which had once been held for 26 years by André Ouellet, a senior minister under his father, had been in Liberal hands for 53 years before falling to the Bloc Québécois in 2006.WEB,weblink Spotlight on Montreal ridings: Papineau, CBC News, September 25, 2015, November 21, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151121153622weblink">weblink November 21, 2015, Trudeau faced off against Mary Deros, a Montreal city councillor and Basilio Giordano, the publisher of a local Italian-language newspaper for the Liberal nomination. On April 29, 2007, he easily won the party's nomination, picking up 690 votes to 350 for Deros and 220 for Giordano.NEWS, Woods, Allan, Trudeau wins nomination,weblink April 19, 2013, Toronto Star, April 30, 2007, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140504071105weblink">weblink May 4, 2014,

In Opposition, 2008–2015

Prime Minister Stephen Harper called an election for 14 October 2008, by which time Trudeau had been campaigning for a year in Papineau. On election day Trudeau narrowly defeated Bloc Québécois incumbent Vivian Barbot.NEWS, Trudeau pledges loyalty to constituents after Papineau win,weblink April 18, 2013, CBC News, October 15, 2008, Following his election win, Edward Greenspon, editor-in-chief of The Globe and Mail, noted that Trudeau would "be viewed as few other rookie MPs are—as a potential future Prime Minister—and scrutinized through that lens".The Conservative Party won a minority government in the 2008 election, and Trudeau entered parliament as a member of the Official Opposition. Trudeau was the first member of the 40th Parliament of Canada to introduce a private member's motion, in which he called for a "national voluntary service policy for young people". The proposal won support from parliamentarians across party lines.NEWS, Hebert, Chantal, Trudeau looking lonely on left,weblink April 21, 2013, Toronto Star, February 27, 2007, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140426235103weblink">weblink April 26, 2014, He later co-chaired the Liberal Party's April 2009 national convention in Vancouver, and in October of the same year he was appointed as the party's critic for multiculturalism and youth.Jane Taber, "Vancouver to host a Liberal love-in; the knives are to be left at home", The Globe and Mail, April 25, 2009, A4; Terry Pedwell, "Liberals won't change strategy, despite polls, say MPs", October 6, 2009, 12:06.In September 2010, he was reassigned as critic for youth, citizenship, and immigration."Michael Ignatieff Announces Liberal Critic Team for Return of Parliament", States News Service, September 7, 2010. During that time, he criticized the government's legislation targeting human smuggling, which he argued would penalize the victims of smuggling.Douglas Quan and Norma Greenway, "Feds target human smugglers in legislation", Windsor Star, October 22, 2010, pg. C1.Trudeau sparked controversy when it was revealed that he earned $1.3 million in public speaking fees from charities and school boards across Canada, $277,000 of which Trudeau received after becoming an MP.NEWS,weblink Justin Trudeau promises to 'make it right,' pay back charities for his hefty speaking fees, The National Post, Joan Bryden, June 16, 2013, NEWS,weblink Trudeau offers to reimburse organizations $20,000 for speeches, The Globe and Mail, June 16, 2013, {{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}He encouraged an increase of Canada's relief efforts after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and sought more accessible immigration procedures for Haitians moving to Canada in the time of crisis. His own riding includes a significant Haitian community."Liberals rally for immediate action in Haiti", State News Service, January 13, 2010; "Liberal MP wants immigration rules relaxed for Haitians", Canada AM, January 22, 2010.Trudeau was re-elected in Papineau in the 2011 federal election, as the Liberal Party fell to third-party standing in the House of Commons with only thirty-four seats. Ignatieff resigned as party leader immediately after the election, and rumours again circulated that Trudeau could run to become his successor. On this occasion, Trudeau said, "I don't feel I should be closing off any options ... because of the history packaged into my name, a lot of people are turning to me in a way that ... to be blunt, concerns me.""Trudeau won't rule out bid for party leadership", Ottawa Citizen, May 5, 2011, pg. A3Susan Delacourt, "Is the party over? Canada's 'natural governing party' faces difficult questions after Monday's shellacking", Toronto Star, May 7, 2011, IN1. Weeks after the election Toronto MP Bob Rae was selected to serve as the interim leader until the party's leadership convention, which was later decided to be held in April 2013. Rae appointed Trudeau as the party's critic for Post Secondary Education, Youth and Amateur Sport.NEWS, Trudeau â€“ again?,weblink June 9, 2012, Hamilton Spectator, June 17, 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110921151235weblink">weblink September 21, 2011, After his re-election, he traveled the country hosting fundraisers for charities and the Liberal Party.NEWS, Justin Trudeau pumps up St. John's Liberal fundraiser,weblink June 9, 2012, CBC News, May 3, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120615080523weblink">weblink June 15, 2012, NEWS, Trudeau to speak at local scholarship fundraiser,weblink June 9, 2012, Northern Life, April 17, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141225210343weblink">weblink December 25, 2014, WEB, Lawrence MacAulay Fundraising Dinner with Justin Trudeau,weblink Liberal Party of Canada, June 9, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100806223758weblink">weblink August 6, 2010, WEB, By-election fundraiser with Justin Trudeau,weblink Liberal Calgary, June 9, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120630014520weblink">weblink June 30, 2012, Trudeau wanted to take part in a charity boxing match on behalf of the cancer research fundraising event Fight for the Cure, but was having difficulty finding a Conservative opponent until Conservative senator Patrick Brazeau agreed when asked on Trudeau's behalf by their mutual hairdresser Stefania Capovilla.NEWS, Justin Trudeau scores major upset in Fight for the Cure boxing match over Conservative Senator Patrick Brazeau, Robert Hiltz and Michael den Tandt,weblink National Post, April 1, 2012, April 4, 2013, no,weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20120401200713weblink">weblink April 1, 2012, mdy-all, NEWS, Meet Stefania Capovilla, the hairstylist behind these Parliament Hill 'dos, Blaze Carlson, Kathryn,weblink National Post, May 9, 2012, November 3, 2015, Mr. Trudeau had, while sitting in her Somerset salon, lamented his inability to find a formidable Conservative opponent. Ms. Capovilla, who is a stylist for the SunNewsNetwork, recalled the conversation as she did Mr. Brazeau's make-up before an on-camera interview about aboriginal policy. She looked down, saw "those arms," and asked if he would square off against her Liberal friend., no,weblink" title="archive.is/20160105040359weblink">weblink January 5, 2016, The fight on March 31, 2012 in Ottawa at the Hampton Inn was broadcast live on Sun News with commentary by Ezra Levant and Brian Lilley and Trudeau won in the third round, the result considered an upset.NEWS, Trudeau declines Brazeau boxing rematch as debt paid, John, Size,weblink CTV News, April 2, 2012, April 4, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131220215459weblink">weblink December 20, 2013,

Liberal Party leadership

Earlier speculation

File:Trudeau headshot 2008.jpg|thumb|upright|2008 Trudeau promotional portrait by Jean-Marc CarisseJean-Marc CarisseAfter Dion's resignation as Liberal leader in 2008, Trudeau's name was mentioned as a potential candidate to succeed him, with polls showing him as a favourite among Canadians for the position.NEWS, Canadians want Trudeau as next Liberal leader,weblink June 9, 2012, Calgary Herald, October 29, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140426140534weblink">weblink April 26, 2014, WEB,weblink Canadians prefer Trudeau: Poll shows young heir is top pick to replace Dion, canada.com, October 28, 2008, April 23, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121105100457weblink">weblink November 5, 2012, However, he did not enter the race and Ignatieff was later acclaimed as leader in December 2008.NEWS, Ignatieff secures Liberal leadership as Rae bows out,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140116115543weblink">weblink yes, January 16, 2014, June 9, 2012, The Canadian Press, December 9, 2008, After the party's poor showing in the 2011 election, Ignatieff resigned from the leadership and Trudeau was again seen as a potential candidate to lead the party.NEWS, Liberals field questions about future leaders,weblink June 9, 2012, CBC News, May 4, 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110825084032weblink">weblink August 25, 2011, Following the election, Trudeau said he was undecided about seeking the leadership;NEWS, Trudeau undecided on Liberal leadership bid,weblink June 9, 2012, IFpress, May 4, 2011, months later on October 12 at Wilfrid Laurier University, he announced he would not seek the post because he had a young family.NEWS, Trudeau rules out Liberal leadership bid in 2013,weblink Hicks, Jeff, October 12, 2013, Waterloo Region Record, November 21, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160106142858weblink">weblink January 6, 2016, When interim leader Rae, who was also seen as a frontrunner, announced he would not be entering the race in June 2012, Trudeau was hit with a "tsunami" of calls from supporters to reconsider his earlier decision to not seek the leadership.NEWS, Bryden, Joan, Justin Trudeau hit with 'tsunami' of calls to run for Liberals since Bob Rae's withdrawal,weblink June 9, 2012, National Post, June 15, 2012, no,weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20120618132013weblink">weblink June 18, 2012, mdy-all, Opinion polling conducted by several pollsters showed that if Trudeau were to become leader the Liberal Party would surge in support, from a distant third place to either being competitive with the Conservative Party or leading them.NEWS, Goldstein, Lorrie, We're Justin love,weblink June 9, 2012, Toronto Sun, June 27, 2012, In July 2012, Trudeau stated that he would reconsider his earlier decision to not seek the leadership and would announce his final decision at the end of the summer.WEB,weblink Justin Trudeau at Stampede mulls Liberal leadership run, The Canadian Press, CBC News, June 7, 2012, November 21, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151121125459weblink">weblink November 21, 2015, WEB,weblink Hébert: Is Justin Trudeau the Liberals’ salvation?, Toronto Star, May 4, 2012, November 21, 2015, Hébert, Chantal, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151121133504weblink">weblink November 21, 2015,

2013 leadership election

{{see also|Liberal Party of Canada leadership election, 2013}}On September 26, 2012, multiple media outlets started reporting that Trudeau would launch his leadership bid the following week.NEWS, Justin Trudeau to run for Liberal leadership,weblink September 28, 2012, CBC News, September 26, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120928063223weblink">weblink September 28, 2012, NEWS, Justin Trudeau to seek Liberal leadership,weblink September 28, 2012, The Globe and Mail, September 26, 2012, Toronto, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120930005644weblink">weblink September 30, 2012, While Trudeau was seen as a frontrunner for the leadership of the Liberal Party, he was criticized for his perceived lack of substance.NEWS, Radia, Andy, Justin Trudeau to run for Liberal leadership but is he all splash and no substance?,weblink October 1, 2012, Yahoo News, September 26, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120929013759weblink">weblink September 29, 2012, NEWS, Caplan, Gerald, Is Justin Trudeau really taken seriously by his own party?,weblink October 1, 2012, The Globe and Mail, September 28, 2012, Toronto, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121001034649weblink">weblink October 1, 2012, During his time as a member of parliament he spoke little on policy matters and it was not known where he stood on many issues such as the economy and foreign affairs.NEWS, Berthiaume, Lee, Justin Trudeau's good looks expected to cover up other weaknesses,weblink October 1, 2012, Canada.com, September 28, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120930033518weblink">weblink September 30, 2012, NEWS, Coyne, Andrew, The son is not the father and the future is not buried in the past,weblink October 1, 2012, National Post, September 28, 2012, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20130129202634weblink">weblink January 29, 2013, Some strategists and pundits believed the leadership would be the time for Trudeau to be tested on these issues; however, there was also fear within the party that his celebrity status and large lead might deter other strong candidates from entering the leadership race.NEWS, Bryden, Joan, Reports: Trudeau leadership bid imminent,weblink October 25, 2015, The Canadian Press, September 26, 2012, no,weblink November 17, 2015, NEWS, Berthiaume, Lee, Trudeau leadership bid stirs talk of Liberal 'coronation',weblink October 1, 2012, Postmedia News, September 28, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150929203358weblink">weblink September 29, 2015, NEWS, MacKinnon, Leslie, Trudeau seen by senior Liberals as a risk worth taking,weblink October 1, 2012, CBC News, October 1, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121001113126weblink">weblink October 1, 2012, On October 2, 2012, Trudeau held a rally in Montreal to launch his bid for the leadership of the Liberal Party.NEWS, Vieira, Paul, The Wall Street Journal â€“ Justin Trudeau Poised to Step into Liberal Race in Canada,weblink The Wall Street Journal, October 2, 2012, no,weblink October 6, 2012, The core people on his campaign team were considered longtime friends, and all in their 30s and 40s. His senior advisor was Gerald Butts, the former President of WWF-Canada who had previously served as principal secretary to former Ontario premier Dalton McGuinty. Other senior aides included campaign manager Katie Telford, and policy advisors Mike McNeir and Robert Asselin, who had all worked for recent Liberal Party leaders.NEWS, LeBlanc, Daniel, Inside Justin Trudeau's war room,weblink March 2, 2013, The Globe and Mail, March 1, 2013, Toronto, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150930002337weblink">weblink September 30, 2015, His brother Alexandre also took a break from his documentary work to be a senior advisor on Trudeau's campaign.NEWS, The other brother: Sacha, the 'apolitical' one, joins Justin Trudeau's campaign team,weblink March 2, 2013, National Post, October 22, 2012, no,weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20121029104438weblink">weblink October 29, 2012, mdy-all, During the leadership campaign three by-elections were held on November 26, 2012. The riding Calgary Centre was expected to be a three-way race between the Conservatives, Liberals and Green Party. A week before by-election day Sun Media reported on comments Trudeau had made in a 2010 interview with Télé-Québec, in which he said, "Canada isn't doing well right now because it's Albertans who control our community and socio-democratic agenda." Trudeau's campaign advisor said that the comments were being brought up now because of the close race in Calgary Centre.NEWS,weblink Sun commentary on Télé-Québec interview, CBC News, November 22, 2012, January 2, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130102111331weblink">weblink January 2, 2013, The following day, Trudeau apologized, saying he was wrong to use "Alberta" as "shorthand" in referring to Stephen Harper's government.NEWS, Ian, Bailey,weblink Globe reports on Trudeau apology, The Globe and Mail, November 23, 2012, January 2, 2013, Toronto, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121227172130weblink">weblink December 27, 2012, The Conservatives held onto Calgary Centre in the by-election by less than 1,200 votes. Liberal candidate Harvey Locke said he lost the by-election on his own and that comments made by Trudeau did not influence the outcome.NEWS, Walton, Dawn, Tories retain Calgary Centre as Liberals, Greens split vote,weblink April 17, 2013, The Globe and Mail, Toronto, November 27, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121127164157weblink">weblink November 27, 2012, Fellow leadership candidate Marc Garneau, seen as Trudeau's main challenger in the race, criticized Trudeau for not releasing enough substantial policy positions. Garneau called on him to release more detailed policies before members and supporters begin to vote.NEWS, McPharland, Kelly, Kelly McParland: Marc Garneau challenges Justin Trudeau to take a stand. Any stand.,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20130411111706weblink">weblink yes, April 11, 2013, March 2, 2013, National Post, February 14, 2013, Garneau later challenged Trudeau to a one-on-one debate, and said that if Trudeau could not defend his ideas in a debate against him, he wouldn't be able to do so against Prime Minister Harper.NEWS, Visser, Josh, Marc Garneau challenges 'untested' Liberal frontrunner Justin Trudeau to one-on-one debate,weblink March 2, 2013, National Post, February 25, 2013, no,weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20130225183756weblink">weblink February 25, 2013, mdy-all, Trudeau clashed in debates with challenger Joyce Murray, who was the only Liberal leadership candidate to speak out strongly in favour of electing the House of Commons with a system of proportional representation. She challenged Trudeau over his support for a preferential ballot voting system.WEB,weblink Liberal MPs Murray and Garneau challenge frontrunner Trudeau, CBC News, March 3, 2013, November 21, 2015, Mas, Susana, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151121141326weblink">weblink November 21, 2015, On March 13, 2013, Garneau dropped out of the leadership race, saying that polling conducted by his campaign showed he would be unable to defeat Trudeau.NEWS, Hebert, Chanatal, Marc Garneau's withdrawal from Liberal leadership race saves himself humiliation: Hébert,weblink March 15, 2013, Toronto Star, March 13, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130315064132weblink">weblink March 15, 2013, NEWS, Berthiaume, Lee, 'The game is long': Liberals still in leadership fight for votes after Marc Garneau bows out,weblink March 15, 2013, National Post, March 13, 2013, With Joyce Murray the last challenger receiving significant press time, more Liberal politicians and public figures declared themselves for Trudeau. Trudeau was declared the winner of the leadership election on April 14, 2013, garnering 80.1% of 30,800 votes.NEWS, Lee, Berthiaume, Justin Trudeau elected Liberal leader in landslide victory,weblink April 17, 2013, National Post, April 14, 2013, no,weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20130416090044weblink">weblink April 16, 2013, mdy-all, Joyce Murray finished in second place with 10.2% points, ahead of Martha Hall Findlay's 5.7%.NEWS,weblink Toronto, The Globe and Mail, Justin Trudeau elected Liberal leader in a landslide, April 15, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160209102616weblink">weblink February 9, 2016, Trudeau had lost only five ridings, all to Murray and all in BC.NEWS, Liberal leadership race – results map,weblink October 20, 2015, Canadian Election Atlas, April 15, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150930091653weblink">weblink September 30, 2015,

Leadership, 2013–2015

File:Justin Trudeau 2014-1.jpg|thumb|right|Justin Trudeau delivering a speech on a doorstep in (Little Italy, Toronto|Toronto's Little Italy]], 2014WEB,weblink Photo: Liberal Leader Justin Trudeau campaigns in Toronto's Trinity–Spadina riding in support of Liberal candidate Adam Vaughan., June 16, 2014, no,weblink January 6, 2016, )Polls conducted during the leadership race showed that support for the Liberals would surge if they were led by Trudeau. Days after winning his party's leadership a poll showed that the Liberal Party was the choice of 43 per cent of respondents. This compared to 30 per cent for the governing Conservatives and 19 per cent for the Official Opposition New Democrats.NEWS, Poll shows Justin Trudeau Liberals far ahead 38,weblink April 21, 2013, Toronto Sun, April 16, 2013, According to an October 2013 EKOS poll, Trudeau's approval numbers improved to a 48–29 approval–disapproval; Thomas Mulcair's jumped to a slight lead at 50–25, while Stephen Harper's ratings sank to 24–69.WEB,weblink Stephen Harper Plumbing Record Lows on Trust, Direction, and Approval, ekospolitics.com, October 19, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150923234726weblink">weblink September 23, 2015, A December 2013 EKOS poll showed the Liberals preferred by 32.1% of voters, the Conservatives by 26.2%, the NDP 22.9%. Likely voters, estimated by removing those who didn't vote in 2011, moved the parties into a logjam: Liberals 29.1%, Conservatives 28.5%, NDP 27.2%.WEB,weblink Stephen Harper and the Middle Class Crisis, ekospolitics.com, October 19, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150923234727weblink">weblink September 23, 2015, In 2013, Justin Trudeau chose to give up his seat at the funeral of Nelson Mandela, in deference to Irwin Cotler as representative of the Liberal Party of Canada, because of Cotler's work for and with Nelson Mandela in fighting apartheid.CTV News Network, "Memorial of Nelson Mandela", December 10, 2013.During the leadership campaign Trudeau pledged to park all his assets, exclusive of real estate holdings, into a blind trust which is atypical for opposition MPs, including leaders. According to documents obtained by the Ottawa Citizen, he fulfilled the pledge in July 2013 when the blind trust was set up by BMO Private Banking.NEWS,weblink Justin Trudeau voluntarily moves personal investments into blind trust, fulfilling campaign promise, Ottawa Citizen, McGregor, Glen, August 1, 2013, November 10, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151026132921weblink">weblink October 26, 2015, On January 27, 2014, Trudeau and MP Carolyn Bennett escorted Chrystia Freeland into the House of Commons, as is traditional for by-election victors.WEB,weblink Parliament: Speaking a language all its own, February 7, 2014, Toronto Star, October 19, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151019065639weblink">weblink October 19, 2015, Trudeau launched an internet video the week before the 2014 Liberal party convention titled "An economy that benefits us all" in which he narrates his economic platform. He said that Canada's debt to GDP ratios have come down in recent years and now it's time for Ottawa to "step up".NEWS, John Ivison: Why Justin Trudeau's new guiding light could have a dramatic impact on Canadian public policy,weblink October 20, 2015, National Post, February 21, 2014, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20140222035446weblink">weblink February 22, 2014,

2015 federal election

{{see|Canadian federal election, 2015}}File:Justin Trudeau at the Vancouver LGBTQ Pride 2015.jpg|thumb|left|Trudeau marching in the Vancouver Pride FestivalVancouver Pride FestivalOn October 19, 2015, after the longest official campaign in over a century, Trudeau led the Liberals to a decisive victory in the federal election. The Liberals won 184 of the 338 seats, with 39.5% of the popular vote, for a strong majority government;NEWS,weblink Election results, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, October 23, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151022233012weblink">weblink October 22, 2015, WEB,weblink Election Night Results – National, 2013 – Élections Canada, elections.ca, October 23, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151023060206weblink">weblink October 23, 2015, a gain of 150 seats compared to the 2011 federal election.This was the second-best performance in the party's history. The Liberals won mostly on the strength of a solid performance in the eastern half of the country. In addition to taking all of Atlantic Canada and Toronto, they won 40 seats in Quebec—the most that the Liberals had won in that province since Trudeau's father led them to a near-sweep of the province in 1980, and also the first time since then that the Liberals won a majority of Quebec's seats in an election. The 150-seat gain was the biggest numerical increase for a single party since Confederation, and marked the first time that a party had rebounded from third place in the Commons to a majority government.(file:RealChange.png|290px|thumb|The Trudeau Liberals slogan during the 2015 campaign was "Real Change")In addition to the appeal of his party's platform, Trudeau's success has been credited to his performance both on the campaign trail and televised election debates exceeding the lowered expectations created by Conservative advertisements and conservative media outlets.NEWS, Campbell, Bradley, Stephen Harper underestimated Justin Trudeau, but it was the mocking way he did it that cost him the election,weblink October 21, 2015, PRI, October 20, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151021203300weblink">weblink October 21, 2015, NEWS, Hamilton, Graeme, Graeme Hamilton: Justin Trudeau's stunning victory for the Liberals should finally silence his doubters,weblink October 21, 2015, National Post, October 20, 2015, no,weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20151119122258weblink">weblink November 19, 2015, mdy-all, NEWS, Gagnon, Michelle, Justin Trudeau's rise shows the benefits of being underestimated,weblink October 21, 2015, CBC News, October 7, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151029081255weblink">weblink October 29, 2015, Trudeau declared victory shortly after CBC News projected that he had won a majority government. He began his speech with a reference to Wilfrid Laurier's "sunny ways" () approach to bringing Canadians together despite their differences. According to Trudeau, Laurier "knew that politics can be a positive force, and that's the message Canadians have sent today".WEB,weblink For the record: A full transcript of Justin Trudeau's speech, Maclean's Magazine, October 23, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151023102847weblink">weblink October 23, 2015, Harper announced his resignation as the head of the Conservative Party that night.WEB, Stephen Harper resigns as Conservative leader,weblink CTVNews, October 20, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151020035634weblink">weblink October 20, 2015, WEB,weblink Canadian election 2015 hands Justin Trudeau and the Liberals a majority government, Tom, Blackwell, October 20, 2015, National Post, October 23, 2015, no,weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20151120044540weblink">weblink November 20, 2015, mdy-all,

Prime Minister of Canada

File:Justin Trudeau and Donald Trump in February 2017 (cropped).jpg|thumb|right|Trudeau and U.S. President Donald TrumpDonald TrumpTrudeau and the rest of the Cabinet were sworn in by Governor General David Johnston on November 4, 2015. He said that his first legislative priority was to lower taxes for middle-income Canadians and raise taxes for the top one per cent of income earners after parliament was reconvened on December 3, 2015.NEWS,weblink Justin Trudeau signals new style on 1st day as Canada's 23rd prime minister, November 4, 2015, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, November 5, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151104221759weblink">weblink November 4, 2015, Trudeau also issued a statement promising to rebuild relations with indigenous people and run an open, ethical and transparent government.WEB,weblink Justin Trudeau on his cabinet and its promise to Canadians, Maclean's, November 5, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151110015306weblink">weblink November 10, 2015, On November 5, 2015, during the first Liberal caucus meeting since forming a majority government, the party announced that it would reinstate the mandatory long-form census that had been scrapped in 2010, effective with the 2016 census.WEB,weblink The long-form census is back – with penalties still possible if you ignore it, Lee Berthiaume, Ottawa Citizen More Lee Berthiaume, Ottawa Citizen, Ottawa Citizen, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151106131721weblink">weblink November 6, 2015, NEWS,weblink Liberals can restore long-form census for 2016, if they act quickly, observers say, October 28, 2015, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151106071707weblink">weblink November 6, 2015, In January 2017, Canada's Ethics Commissioner, Mary Dawson, began an investigation into Trudeau for a vacation he and his family took to Aga Khan IV's private island in the Bahamas.NEWS, Justin Trudeau’s flying unicorn hits a storm,weblink The Economist, October 12, 2017, WEB, Canada's Trudeau faces ethics probe over Bahamas trip{{!, Top News{{!}} Reuters |url=http://ca.reuters.com/article/topNews/idCAKBN15029P |agency=Reuters |accessdate=January 18, 2017 |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170117134836weblink |archivedate=January 17, 2017 }} The Ethics Commissioner's report, released in December 2017, found that Trudeau had violated four provisions of the Conflict of Interest Act.WEB,weblink Trudeau 'sorry' for violating conflict laws with visits to Aga Khan's island, CBC News, December 20, 2017, By breaking the law, he became the first sitting prime minister to do so.NEWS, Press, Jordan, 21 December 2017, Trudeau becomes first prime minister found in violation of ethics law,weblink The Hamilton Spectator, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 13 January 2019, In February 2018, Trudeau was criticized when his administration invited Khalistani nationalist Jaspal Atwal to the Canadian High Commission's dinner party in Delhi. Atwal had previously been convicted for the shooting and attempted murder of Indian Cabinet Minister Malkiat Singh Sidhu in 1986, as well as the assault on former B.C. Premier Ujjal Dosanjh in 1985. Following the dinner, the PMO rescinded the invitation, and apologized for the incident.NEWS,weblink Who is Jaspal Atwal? Man at centre of controversy over Trudeau’s India trip remains a political mystery, The Toronto Star, Tonda MacCharles, February 26, 2018, NEWS,weblink Trudeau's India visit marred by invite of B.C. man convicted of attempted murder, CBC News, David Cochrane, February 22, 2018, NEWS,weblink Justin Trudeau would lose if an election were held tomorrow, India trip a symptom of shift in mood: Ipsos poll, Global News, Amanda Connolly, March 3, 2018, NEWS,weblink Rex Murphy: Perhaps Justin Trudeau's India trip could have been salvaged with some elephants?, The National Post, Rex Murphy, March 2, 2018,

Domestic policy

Deficit

During the election, the Liberal Party promised to run a deficit of around $10 billion per year, but Trudeau's Minister of Finance, Bill Morneau, announced in his first budget in March 2016 that the government would have a $29 billion deficit in 2016 and 2017.WEB,weblink Ten highlights from Justin Trudeau's first federal budget, National Observer, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160425035754weblink">weblink April 25, 2016, File:Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau Plays With Secretary Kerry's Granddaughter Before Both Officials Signed the COP21 Climate Change Agreement on Earth Day in New York (26514346291).jpg|thumb|Trudeau and then-U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry before both officials signed the Paris AgreementParis Agreement

Infrastructure

During the 2015 election campaign, Trudeau said that if made prime minister, he would implement an infrastructure plan worth $60 billion (US$42 billion) in spending over 10 years.WEB,weblink Canada's Prime Minister Justin Trudeau Says Will Proceed With Infrastructure Spending Plan, Paul Vieira, David George-Cosh, January 13, 2016, The Wall Street Journal, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160511043514weblink">weblink May 11, 2016, Following his electoral win, in 2016, the Trudeau announced a 12-year, $180 billion (US$143 billion) infrastructure plan, with a focus on public transport, infrastructure in rural communities and Canada's northern regions, green infrastructure and affordable housing.WEB,weblink Investing in Canada Plan, August 18, 2017, August 23, 2017, Government of Canada, The Trudeau government also is setting up an infrastructure bank to fund projects.NEWS,weblink Liberals set up fast-track system for infrastructure bank approvals, Jordan, Press, June 27, 2017, August 23, 2017, Ottawa, CTV News, The Canadian Press,

Abortion

Trudeau has stated that he wishes to form a party that is "resolutely pro-choice" and that potential Liberal candidates in the 2015 election who are anti-abortion would not be greenlighted for the nomination if they did not agree to vote pro-choice on abortion bills.NEWS,weblink Justin Trudeau says anti-abortion candidates can't run as Liberals, National Post, May 7, 2014, The Canadian Press, May 7, 2014, no,weblink" title="archive.is/20140507212850weblink">weblink May 7, 2014, This stance was in line with a resolution passed by a majority of Liberal party members at its 2012 policy convention. Trudeau's stance was criticized by conservative Catholics, with former MP Jim Karygiannis saying it will "definitely hurt the party",NEWS, Justin Trudeau's abortion policy will "definitely" hurt Liberals, former MP says,weblink May 20, 2014, June 11, 2014, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140611191820weblink">weblink June 11, 2014, and Toronto cardinal Thomas Collins writing to Trudeau urging him to reverse his ruling,NEWS, Cardinal Collins urges Justin Trudeau to reverse pro-choice rule,weblink May 14, 2014, June 11, 2014, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140611200032weblink">weblink June 11, 2014, leading Trudeau to defend the position.NEWS, Trudeau defends abortion stance amid sharp Catholic criticism,weblink May 21, 2014, June 11, 2014, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140611163901weblink">weblink June 11, 2014,

Marijuana

Trudeau first publicly expressed an interest in the legalization of marijuana while speaking at a rally in Kelowna, B.C. on June 24, 2013. He told a crowd, "I'm actually not in favour of decriminalizing cannabis. I'm in favour of legalizing it. Tax it, regulate. It's one of the only ways to keep it out of the hands of our kids because the current war on drugs, the current model is not working. We have to use evidence and science to make sure we're moving forward on that."WEB, Justin Trudeau wants to legalize marijuana in order to 'keep it out of the hands of our kids',weblink June 24, 2013, National Post, November 21, 2015, In an interview in August 2013, Trudeau said that the last time he had used marijuana was in 2010, after he had become a member of parliament: "We had a few good friends over for a dinner party, our kids were at their grandmother's for the night, and one of our friends lit a joint and passed it around. I had a puff."WEB, Justin Trudeau admits smoking marijuana as MP,weblink Joanna, Smith, August 22, 2013, Toronto Star, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160220135744weblink">weblink February 20, 2016, WEB, Justin Trudeau says he smoked marijuana, makes no apologies,weblink August 22, 2013, Global News, November 21, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151122221517weblink">weblink November 22, 2015, NEWS, Justin Trudeau admits smoking marijuana as MP,weblink Ian, Munroe, August 22, 2013, CBC News, November 21, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151023024751weblink">weblink October 23, 2015, After analysing the results of the legalization of marijuana in Colorado, Trudeau reiterated his position in favour of the legalization in Canada, saying that Canadians would benefit from analysing the experiences of both Colorado and the state of Washington.WEB, Justin Trudeau says Canada should 'draw on best practices' from marijuana legalization in Colorado, Washington,weblink Bill, Graveland, January 23, 2014, June 11, 2014, National Post, no,weblink" title="archive.is/20140613135813weblink">weblink June 13, 2014, After the Liberal party formed the government in November 2015, with Trudeau as prime minister, he announced that a federal-provincial-territorial process was being created to discuss a jointly suitable process for the legalization of marijuana possession for recreational purposes. The plan is to remove marijuana consumption and incidental possession from the Criminal Code; however, new laws will be enacted for greater punishment of those convicted of supplying pot to minors and for impairment while driving a motor vehicle.WEB,weblink Tax on legalized pot won't be a cash cow: PM, Bronskill, Jim, December 17, 2015, CTV News, December 23, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151222203542weblink">weblink December 22, 2015, By late November 2015, Justice Minister Jody Wilson-Raybould said that she and the ministers of Health and Public Safety were working on specifics as to the legislation.WEB,weblink 'World is going to be looking to Canada' on pot legalization, Jane Philpott says, Lunn, Susan, November 28, 2015, CBC News, December 23, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151223195228weblink">weblink December 23, 2015, In April 2016, the Trudeau government announced that it would aim to introduce legislation to legalize cannabis in Spring 2017.WEB,weblink Marijuana legalization in Canada: What we know and don't know, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161104134853weblink">weblink November 4, 2016, The legislation to legalize cannabis for recreational use (Cannabis Act, Bill C-45) was passed by the House of Commons of Canada in late November 2017; it passed second reading in the Senate of Canada on March 22, 2018.NEWS,weblink Bill to legalize marijuana passes second reading in Senate as Conservatives drop threat to block it, Vaughan, Andrew, March 23, 2018, National Post, June 23, 2018, The Canadian Press, On June 18, 2018, the House passed the bill with most, but not all, of the Senate's amendments.NEWS,weblink Canada's House of Commons votes to legalize marijuana, Anapol, Avery, June 18, 2018, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, June 19, 2018, The Senate accepted this version of the Act the following day.NEWS,weblink Marijuana legalization Bill C-45 officially passes Senate vote, heading for royal assent, Scotti, Monique, June 19, 2018, Global News, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced the next day that recreational use of cannabis would no longer violate criminal law as of October 17, 2018.NEWS,weblink Trudeau says pot will be legal as of Oct. 17, 2018, Tasker, John Paul, June 20, 2018, CBC News, As of October 17, 2018, cannabis is legal in Canada for both recreational and medicinal use.On October 17, the first day of legalization, the Government of Canada announced that it intends to grant pardons to Canadians convicted of simple cannabis possession charges.NEWS,weblink Feds to announce plan to pardon Canadians convicted of simple possession of pot, Aiello, Rachel, October 16, 2018, CTV News, October 23, 2018,

Religious freedom

Trudeau has expressed opposition towards the proposed Quebec Charter of Values, a controversial charter in that province and elsewhere that among other things prohibited public sector employees from wearing or displaying "conspicuous" religious symbols, justifying that it would make the people of Quebec "choose between their freedom of religion and freedom of expression, freedom of conscience and their economic well-being and their acceptance in the workplace. That for me is a real concern."NEWS, Trudeau says he will defend Quebec's open society,weblink Meagan, Fitzpatrick, August 29, 2013, June 11, 2014, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140211011450weblink">weblink February 11, 2014,

Women's rights

File:Women Deliver 2019 Conference Location Announcement (35245496952).jpg|thumb|Sophie Grégoire, Justin Trudeau, Marie-Claude Bibeau and Maryam Monsef listening to Katja Iversen announcing that the Women Deliver 2019 Conference will be in VancouverVancouverTrudeau identifies as a feminist,NEWS,weblink Justin Trudeau: The rise of the feminist and pro-choice Canadian Prime Minister who wants to legalise marijuana 'right away', Heather, Saul, October 20, 2015, The Independent, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151117033911weblink">weblink November 17, 2015, having stated, "I am a feminist. I'm proud to be a feminist." Trudeau has also stated that "the Liberal Party is unequivocal in its defence of women's rights. We are the party of the Charter." After being sworn in as Prime Minister, when asked by a reporter why he felt gender parity was important when naming his cabinet, he replied simply, "Because it's 2015."Prime Minister Justin Trudeau Explains Importance of Gender Parity With 3-Word Answer {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151108193218weblink |date=November 8, 2015 }} – The Huffington Post Canada More recently, he has similarly answered to feminist organizations on social media that "On behalf of the Government of Canada, I am writing back to let you know that I wholeheartedly agree: Poverty is Sexist".WEB,weblink Poverty Is Sexist, Declares Trudeau, The Huffington Post, November 18, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161122052625weblink">weblink November 22, 2016, In January 2018 in a speech at the World Economic Forum, Trudeau called for critical discussion on issues brought up by the Me Too, Time's Up, and Women's March movements.WEB,weblink Justin Trudeau's Davos address in full, World Economic Forum, 2018-07-09, Trudeau has also advocated a high standard and holds a "zero tolerance for sexual assault, harassment or other forms of misconduct by his employees or caucus colleagues."NEWS,weblink Change in Canadian society on sexual harassment 'not fast enough', Trudeau says {{!, The Star|work=thestar.com|access-date=2018-07-09|language=en}} As leader of the Liberal Party, Trudeau initiated investigations on several members of parliament resulting in the dismissal of cabinet minister Kent Hehr, the resignation of MP Darshan Kang, and the suspension and later expulsion of MPs Scott Andrews and Massimo Pacetti.NEWS,weblink Trudeau says Liberals 'doing the best that we can' amid sexual harassment allegations {{!, CBC News|work=CBC|access-date=2018-07-09|language=en-US}} In an interview, Trudeau explained that the zero tolerance standard applied to himself as well and stated, "I've been very, very careful all my life to be thoughtful, to be respectful of people's space and people's headspace as well."NEWS,weblink Trudeau says zero tolerance on misconduct toward women applies to him as well {{!, CBC News|work=CBC|access-date=2018-07-09|language=en-US}}

Senate reform

Trudeau has long advocated changes that would make the Senate of Canada a less partisan house. In January 2014, he announced a step that began reducing Senate partisanship by removing Liberal senators from the Liberal caucus.NEWS, Galloway, Gloria, December 3, 2015, Liberals to set up advisory board for Senate nominees, but B.C. won't take part,weblink The Globe and Mail, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, December 4, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151204072945weblink">weblink December 4, 2015, On December 5, 2015, after his appointment as prime minister, the new government's democratic institutions minister, Maryam Monsef, with House leader Dominic LeBlanc, announced a major overhaul of the appointment process, as Trudeau had promised during the election campaign. The new system consists of five board members—three federal appointees and two from the relevant province—who will pick independent candidates, not officially affiliated with any political party, based on merit,WEB,weblink Liberal plan to pick 'non-partisan' senators draws quick criticism, Harris, Kathleen, December 3, 2015, CBC News, December 4, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151203155416weblink">weblink December 3, 2015, a similar concept to the Advisory Committee on Vice-Regal Appointments.The stated goal of the December 2015, reform, was to improve the effectiveness of the Senate which had been, according to Monsef, "hampered by its reputation as a partisan institution". She indicated that this reform would not require an amendment to the constitution. The advisory board was expected to have been appointed by the end of December 2015. The criteria for appointment to the Senate would be "outstanding personal qualities that include integrity and ethics and experience in public life, community service or leadership in their field of expertise". At the time of the announcement, there were 17 Senate vacancies and these were expected to be filled by the end of 2016.NEWS, Smith, Joanna, December 3, 2015, Liberals set up non-partisan, merit-based process for choosing new senators,weblink Toronto Star, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, December 4, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151205232310weblink">weblink December 5, 2015,

Indigenous people

Trudeau met with hundreds of chiefs at the Assembly of First Nations on December 7, 2015, and laid out his philosophy and commitments to Canada's indigenous people, to assure their "constitutionally guaranteed rights ... a sacred obligation". In brief,WEB,weblink Trudeau lays out plan for new relationship with indigenous people, Mas, Susana, December 8, 2015, CBC News, December 8, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151208212554weblink">weblink December 8, 2015, he promised to rescind government policies that are in conflict with their rights, make a significant investment in education programs, increase general funding, and launch an enquiry into missing and murdered indigenous women. Trudeau also indicated that the new government would implement all of the recommendations made by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.NEWS, Brown, Louise, December 7, 2015, Q&A: Murray Sinclair: Time to right the wrongs of the past on First Nations education,weblink Toronto Star, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, December 8, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151210183502weblink">weblink December 10, 2015, WEB,weblink Commission de vérité et réconciliation du Canada, Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, 2015, Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, February 23, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304082611weblink">weblink March 4, 2016,

Immigration

In 2017, the Liberal government announced Canada will welcome nearly one million immigrants over the next three years. The number of migrants will climb to 310,000 in 2018, up from 300,000 in 2017. That number will rise to 330,000 in 2019 then 340,000 in 2020.WEB, Eric Lam, Canada to Admit Almost a Million Immigrants Over Next Three Years,weblink www.bloomberg.com, WEB, Preeti K McCarthy, Canada to take 1 million immigrants by 2020,weblink SBS Your Language, en, WEB, Kathleen Harris, Chris Hall, Peter Zimonjic, Canada to admit nearly 1 million immigrants over next 3 years {{!, CBC News |url=https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/immigration-canada-2018-1.4371146 |website=CBC}}

Electoral reform

During the campaign prior to the 2015 federal election, Trudeau promised to eliminate the current voting system by the next federal election.NEWS,weblink Trudeau wants alternative to first past the post, Maclean's, June 16, 2015, The Canadian Press, May 10, 2016, Bryden, Joan, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160522154652weblink">weblink May 22, 2016, Called "first-past-the-post" or "single-member plurality",WEB,weblink The Electoral System of Canada, Elections Canada, Elections Canada, December 9, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151208143349weblink">weblink December 8, 2015, this system awards the House of Commons seat in any electoral district to the candidate who received the most votes in that electoral riding, and the party with the most seats forms government.NEWS,weblink The pros and cons of Canada's first-past-the-post electoral system, CBC News, June 17, 2015, The Canadian Press, May 10, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160428074220weblink">weblink April 28, 2016, Consequently, it is possible for a political party to form a majority government with around 40 percent of the popular vote across Canada.Trudeau has said that he advocates a system where the distribution of seats is more in line with the popular vote on a Canada-wide basis, to be achieved by a new type of ballot that allows voters to rank the candidates in order of preference.WEB,weblink Justin Trudeau's electoral reform plan needs to 'get going', Gollom, Mark, November 1, 2015, CBC News, December 9, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151204212302weblink">weblink December 4, 2015, However, Trudeau has said that he is open to proportional representation, which is more likely to produce coalition governments.In December 2015, the government announced that an all-party parliamentary committee would be formed in early 2016 to consider other options. During a discussion of the plan, Minister of Democratic Institutions Maryam Monsef referred to it as "an open and robust process of consultation". However, she refused to commit to the Conservative Party's demand for a public referendum that would allow Canadians to vote on their preferred electoral system, indicating that she does not want to "prejudice the outcome of that consultation process".WEB,weblink Trudeau government won't commit to electoral reform referendum, Tories push for vote, Staff, The Canadian Press, December 3, 2015, Global News, Shaw Media Inc., December 9, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160106142854weblink">weblink January 6, 2016, There was some controversy regarding the government's initial plans for the Special Committee on Electoral Reform, as the Liberals announced that they would have a majority of the committee's ten seats. Trudeau and Monsef subsequently altered their plans, ceding a majority of the seats to the opposition. Trudeau acknowledged the opposition's concerns that "we were perhaps behaving in a way that was resembling more the previous government than the kind of approach and tone that we promised throughout the electoral campaign", and stated they changed course to show otherwise.WEB,weblink Liberals acting too much like Harper, Trudeau says after electoral reform concession, Laura, Payton, June 2, 2016, CTV, June 4, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160707133757weblink">weblink July 7, 2016, On February 1, 2017, the newly appointed Minister of Democratic Institutions Karina Gould announced that the government had abandoned the electoral reform project and it was no longer a priority in her mandate letter from Trudeau.NEWS,weblink Trudeau abandons electoral reform, breaking key campaign promise, The Globe and Mail, February 6, 2017, en-ca, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170205160959weblink">weblink February 5, 2017, In the letter, Trudeau wrote that "a clear preference for a new electoral system, let alone a consensus, has not emerged" and that "without a clear preference or a clear question, a referendum would not be in Canada's interest".NEWS, Smith, Joanna, Trudeau abandons promise for electoral reform,weblink February 10, 2017, Maclean's, The Canadian Press, February 1, 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170209174029weblink">weblink February 9, 2017, On February 10, 2017, at a townhall in Yellowknife, Trudeau admitted he had "turned his back" on the promise to reform the electoral system.NEWS, Kupfer, Matthew, Trudeau says national unity more important than electoral reform,weblink February 10, 2017, CBC News, February 10, 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170210202012weblink">weblink February 10, 2017, NEWS, Kirkup, Kristy, Trudeau defends 'turning back' on electoral reform promise,weblink February 10, 2017, CTV News, February 10, 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170210194853weblink">weblink February 10, 2017,

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)

Trudeau thinks that Canada needs to study the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement before Canada makes a final decision on ratification.Asia-Pacific Leaders See Trade as Solution to Economic, Security Troubles {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170227142729weblink |date=February 27, 2017 }} T. Moss, The Wall Street Journal, World, November 19, 2015 Trudeau said that Canadians should know what effects TPP would have on different industries, adding that he would hold an open and serious discussion with Canadians.Trudeau shouldn’t be rushed into signing Pacific trade deal: Editorial {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160213084010weblink |date=February 13, 2016 }} Editorial, Toronto Star, Opinion, November 23, 2015After the US left the TPP Canada would Join Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership which incorporates most of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) provisions by reference.WEB,weblink 11 nations to sign Pacific trade pact as US plans tariffs, nydailynews.com, March 8, 2018, March 9, 2018, WEB,weblink Canada Reaches Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, natlawreview.com, January 19, 2018, March 9, 2018,

Foreign policy

{{see also|List of international prime ministerial trips made by Justin Trudeau}}File:The Three Amigos 2016.jpg|thumb|right|Prime Minister Justin Trudeau with Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto and then-U.S. President Barack ObamaBarack ObamaOn October 22, 2015, Trudeau stated that, once prime minister, he would end Canada's airstrike mission against ISIL.WEB, Matt Gurney: Mr. Trudeau has the right to bring the jets home. But why is he?,weblink Matt, Gurney, October 22, 2015, October 24, 2015, National Post, no,weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20151120072115weblink">weblink November 20, 2015, mdy-all, NEWS, Trudeau pulls jets out from coalition against ISIS to mixed reviews,weblink Lara O'Brien and Marc Apollonio., October 23, 2015, October 24, 2015, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151026184732weblink">weblink October 26, 2015, In his mandate letter to Defence Minister Harjit Sajjan, he also called for increased focus on Canadian trainers for local troops and humanitarian aid for the region.WEB,weblink End combat mission in Iraq and Syria, Trudeau orders defence minister, The Canadian Press, Toronto Star, November 13, 2015, November 13, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151114132621weblink">weblink November 14, 2015, On November 13, 2015, Trudeau was asked whether his plans to change Canada's contribution to the fight against ISIS and to repeal parts of Bill C-51 would change following the terrorist attacks in Paris. Trudeau responded, "It's too soon to jump to conclusions, but obviously governments have a responsibility to keep their citizens safe, while defending our rights and freedoms, and that balance is something the Canadian government, and indeed all governments around the world, will be focusing on."WEB,weblink Trudeau faces fiery foreign policy debut amid Paris attacks and G20, CBC News, November 14, 2015, November 21, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151122055503weblink">weblink November 22, 2015, WEB,weblink After Paris attacks, Trudeau's soft power already under fire, The Globe and Mail, November 14, 2015, November 20, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151120120117weblink">weblink November 20, 2015, WEB,weblink After Paris attacks, Trudeau mulls Canada military policy, Reuters Canada, November 13, 2015, November 20, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151117021429weblink">weblink November 17, 2015, On June 14, 2016, Trudeau refused to recognize ISIS's atrocities as genocide, instead waiting for an official position from the UN Security Council. He switched his position once the UN Commission released its inquiry on Syria.NEWS, Conservative motion to label ISIS actions genocide fails as Liberals vote against,weblink June 16, 2016, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160615075614weblink">weblink June 15, 2016, NEWS, Liberals Agree ISIS Actions Constitute Genocide After UN Report,weblink June 16, 2016, Huffington Post, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160617162105weblink">weblink June 17, 2016, Trudeau supported the Harper-negotiated arms deal with Saudi Arabia,WEB,weblink Human rights groups ask Trudeau to end 'immoral' arms deal with Saudi Arabia, The Globe and Mail, April 27, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160918191624weblink">weblink September 18, 2016, believed to be the largest arms sale in Canadian history.WEB,weblink Canada's Mistaken Arms Sale to Saudi Arabia, Epoch Times, April 25, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160924072304weblink">weblink September 24, 2016, Upon hearing the news of Cuban dictator Fidel Castro's death, Trudeau released a statement that described Castro as a "remarkable leader" and a "larger than life leader who served his people."NEWS,weblink Justin Trudeau Criticized for Praising Fidel Castro as ‘Remarkable Leader’, Stack, Liam, 2016-11-26, The New York Times, 0362-4331, In 2017, Trudeau criticized Executive Order 13769 entitled "Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States" signed by President Donald Trump. The executive order bans refugees from seven countries, six of which have Muslim majorities, from entering the United States. On social media, he displayed support for affected refugees.NEWS, Gillies, Rob, Trudeau says Canada will take refugees banned by U.S.,weblink March 8, 2017, PBS NewsHour, January 28, 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170307230538weblink">weblink March 7, 2017, In August 2018, Canada called for the immediate release of Saudi blogger Raif Badawi and his sister Samar. In response to Canada's criticism, Saudi Arabia expelled Canada's ambassador, and froze trade with Canada.WEB,weblink Saudi Arabia expels Canadian ambassador, freezes trade in human rights dispute, Jon Gambrell, The Associated Press, Toronto Star, 5 August 2018, Trudeau said that Canada will "continue to speak clearly and firmly on issues of human rights at home and abroad wherever we see the need."NEWS, ‘We don’t have a single friend’: Canada’s Saudi spat reveals country is alone,weblink The Guardian, August 11, 2018, In September 2018, as the Rohingya crisis in Myanmar became ethnic cleansing against the country's Rohingya Muslim minority,NEWS, Trudeau says he is open to reconsidering Suu Kyi’s honorary citizenship,weblink The Globe and Mail, 26 September 2018, Canada has stripped Myanmar leader Aung San Suu Kyi of her honorary Canadian citizenship.NEWS, Canada strips Aung San Suu Kyi of honorary citizenship,weblink Deutsche Welle, 28 September 2018, In October 2018, Trudeau condemned the killing of Saudi dissident journalist Jamal Khashoggi at the Saudi Arabian consulate in Istanbul and promised "consequences".NEWS, Trudeau's dilemma: how to be tough on Saudi Arabia and save jobs,weblink Reuters, 1 November 2018,

Personal life

Family

File:ETalk2008-Justin Trudeau Sophie Gregoire.jpg|thumb|left|Trudeau with his wife Sophie Grégoire at the 2008 Toronto International Film FestivalToronto International Film FestivalTrudeau first met Sophie Grégoire when they were both children growing up in Montreal; Grégoire was a classmate and childhood friend of Trudeau's youngest brother, Michel.WEB,weblink JUSTIN AND SOPHIE: THE FAMILY ALBUM, The Globe and Mail, October 30, 2015, November 20, 2015, Annett, Evan, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151122055943weblink">weblink November 22, 2015, They reconnected as adults in June 2003, when Grégoire, by then a Quebec television personality, was assigned as Trudeau's co-host for a charity ball; they began dating several months later. Trudeau and Grégoire became engaged in October 2004, and married on May 28, 2005, in a Roman Catholic ceremony at Montreal's Sainte-Madeleine d'Outremont Church.NEWS,weblink Justin Trudeau weds, August 23, 2013, May 30, 2005, CBC News, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130523050836weblink">weblink May 23, 2013, They have three children: Xavier James (born October 18, 2007),NEWS,weblink Trudeau clan adds baby Xavier to its ranks, August 23, 2013, October 19, 2007, Toronto Star, Sean, Gordon, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131005222501weblink">weblink October 5, 2013, Ella-Grace Margaret (born February 5, 2009)NEWS, Justin and Sophie Trudeau Welcome Daughter Ella-Grace,weblink August 23, 2013, People, February 7, 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131005224016weblink">weblink October 5, 2013, NEWS, Justin Trudeau, Sophie Gregoire welcome baby girl,weblink April 17, 2013, CTV News, February 5, 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130503171156weblink">weblink May 3, 2013, and Hadrien Grégoire (born February 28, 2014).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20140228162915weblink">weblink yes, February 28, 2014, The Gazette, Montreal, Justin Trudeau announces birth of third child, Hadrien, February 28, 2014, February 28, 2014, NEWS,weblink Toronto Star, That's Hadrien Trudeau: new baby, new spelling, March 13, 2014, March 15, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140314133911weblink">weblink March 14, 2014, In June 2013, two months after Trudeau became the leader of the Liberal Party, the couple sold their home in the Côte-des-Neiges neighbourhood of Montreal.WEB,weblink Justin Trudeau moves family to his childhood stomping grounds in Ottawa, National Post, August 9, 2013, November 20, 2015, McGregor, Glen, no,weblink" title="archive.is/20160105040314weblink">weblink January 5, 2016, They began living in a rented home in Ottawa's Rockcliffe Park, the neighbourhood near where Trudeau resided as a child during his father's time as prime minister.On August 18, 2014, an intruder broke into the house while Grégoire and the couple's three children were sleeping and left a threatening note; however, nothing was stolen and there was no damage to the property. Following the incident, Trudeau, who was in Winnipeg at the time of the break-in, stated his intention to inquire with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police about his home security.WEB,weblink Break-in at Justin Trudeau's home the latest in long-line of security breaches involving Canadian politicians, National Post, August 18, 2014, January 31, 2016, After his 2015 electoral victory, Trudeau opted to live at Rideau Cottage, on the grounds of Rideau Hall, until necessary repairs are completed at 24 Sussex to make it comfortable for his family.WEB,weblink Justin Trudeau and family to live in Rideau Cottage, not 24 Sussex, The Canadian Press, Ottawa Sun, October 26, 2015, November 20, 2015, Trudeau has a large Earth inside a Haida raven tattoo on his left arm.WEB, Anna, Friedman, Justin Trudeau Joins the Ranks of the World's Tattooed Leaders, October 20, 2015, tattoohistorian.com,weblink November 14, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151117022817weblink">weblink November 17, 2015, The tattoo is based on a design by Robert Davidson, a Haida artist whose grandmother ceremonially adopted Pierre Trudeau as an honorary member of the Haida tribe during a 1976 trip to what was then called the Queen Charlotte Islands.WEB,weblink Haida leaders 'proud' of Justin Trudeau's stylized raven tattoo, National Post, October 22, 2015, November 20, 2015, Hopper, Tristin, no,weblink" title="archive.is/20160105040328weblink">weblink January 5, 2016, Davidson was initially hopeful that the tattoo was indicative of Trudeau's support for Indigenous protections, but after Trudeau approved a controversial natural gas export facility on Lelu Island—a project the Haida strongly opposed—Davidson claimed that Trudeau's tattoo was an example of cultural appropriation, and showed his lack of respect for Indigenous Canadians and for the Haida customs that come with accepting a tattoo from their tribe.WEB,weblink Skin-deep: The awkwardness of Justin Trudeau’s Haida tattoo, Macdonald, Nancy, October 27, 2016, Macleans, August 20, 2018,

Religion

Trudeau's father was a devout Roman CatholicNEWS, Mas, Susana, Justin Trudeau memoir: 7 surprising revelations from Common Ground,weblink CBC News, October 20, 2014, October 22, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151022182156weblink">weblink October 22, 2015, and his mother converted from Anglicanism to Catholicism just prior to their wedding.BOOK, Derfler, Leslie, Political Resurrection in the Twentieth Century: The Fall and Rise of Political Leaders, 2012, Springer, 9781137027863, 185,weblink December 19, 2017, en, As a child, he attended Mass each Sunday and said his prayers each night before bedtime. He became a lapsed Catholic at age 18, as he felt that much of his day-to-day life was not addressed by the formality and structure of the church.NEWS, John, Longhurst, PM's faith has evolved with age – Trudeau's beliefs in social justice, abortion rights attract some, alienate others,weblink Winnipeg Free Press, Associated Press, November 23, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151124123301weblink">weblink November 24, 2015, Trudeau described his faith during this period as "like so many Catholics across this country, I said, 'OK, I'm Catholic, I'm of faith, but I'm just not really going to go to church. Maybe on Easter, maybe midnight Mass at Christmas.{{'"}} After the death of his brother Michel in 1998, Trudeau was persuaded by a friend to participate in an Alpha course, during which he regained his faith. In 2011, Trudeau stated, "My own personal faith is an extremely important part of who I am and the values that I try to lead with."NEWS, Justin Trudeau upset Tory MP questioned his faith,weblink December 19, 2017, CBC News, November 3, 2011, en,

Honours

(File:QEII Diamond Jubilee Medal ribbon.png|100px){| class="wikitable" style="background:silver;" align="center"| Notes100px) Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal for Canada
  • 2012: As an elected Member of the House of Commons of Canada, Justin Trudeau was awarded the medal as a member of the Canadian order of precedence.WEB, The Office of the Secretary to the Governor, The Diamond Jubilee Medal awarded to Justin Trudeau, M.P.,weblink Website of the Governor General of Canada, en,

Honorary degrees

Honorary degrees{| border="1" border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%; margin:0.5em 1em 0.5em 0; border:1px #056 solid; border-collapse:collapse;"
! style="background:#f5f5f5; width:20%;"| Country !!style="background:#f5f5f5; width:20%;"| Location !! style="background:#f5f5f5; width:20%;"| Date !! style="background:#f5f5f5; width:20%;"| School !! style="background:#f5f5f5; width:20%;"| DegreeUnited Kingdom}} {{FlagdecoEdinburgh, Scotland >July 5, 2017 >University of Edinburgh >WORK=THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGHLANGUAGE=EN, {{Citationtitle=Justin Trudeau receives honourary degree from University of Edinburghurl=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=veMI-Xw0ji8|access-date=July 6, 2018}}United States}} {{FlagdecoNew York City, New York >May 16, 2018 >New York University >Doctor of Laws (LL.D.){{Citation>last=CBC Newsdate=May 16, 2018access-date=July 6, 2018}}2018 HONOREES,HONORARY DEGREES & SPEAKERS >URL=HTTPS://WWW.NYU.EDU/LIFE/EVENTS-TRADITIONS/COMMENCEMENT/ALL-UNIVERSITY-COMMENCEMENT/HONORARY-DEGREES-SPEAKERS.HTML, www.nyu.edu, {{Expand list|date=May 2018}}

Electoral record

{{Canadian federal election, 2015/Papineau}}{| class="wikitable collapsible"! colspan="5" | Liberal Party of Canada leadership election, 2013! rowspan="2" | Candidate! colspan="4" | First Ballot! Points*! %! Votes! %Justin Trudeau > 24,669 align=right 80.1 > 81,389 align=right | 78.76Joyce Murray > 3,131 align=right 12,148 align=right | 11.76Martha Hall Findlay > 1,760 align=right 6,585 align=right | 6.37Martin Cauchon > 816 align=right 1,630 align=right | 1.58Deborah Coyne > 214 align=right 833 align=right | 0.81Karen McCrimmon > 210 align=right 757 align=right | 0.73! Total! 30,800! 100.0! 104,552! 100.00
  • Each federal electoral district had 100 points, which were determined by the voters in the district.
{{Canadian federal election, 2011/Papineau}}{{Canadian federal election, 2008/Papineau}}

Published works

  • Trudeau, Justin (October 20, 2014). Common Ground. HarperCollins Canada. {{ISBN|978-1-4434-3339-6}}

Ancestry

{{ahnentafelalign=center|boxstyle_1=background-color: #fcc;|boxstyle_2=background-color: #fb9;|boxstyle_3=background-color: #ffc;|boxstyle_4=background-color: #bfc;|boxstyle_5=background-color: #9fe;|1=1. Justin Trudeau(b. 1971)|2=2.Pierre Trudeau(1919–2000)Margaret Trudeau>Margaret Sinclair(b. 1948)|4=4. Charles-Émile Trudeau(1887–1935)|5=5. Grace Elliott(1890–1973)James Sinclair (politician)>James Sinclair(1908–1984)|7=7. Kathleen Bernard(1920–2012)|8=8. Joseph Trudeau(1848–1919)|9=9. Malvina Cardinal(1849–1931)|10=10. Philip Armstrong Elliott(1859–1936)|11=11. Sarah Sauvé(1857–1899)|12=12. James George Sinclair(1879–1962)|13=13. Betsy Ross(1878–1959)|14=14. Thomas Bernard(1891–1946)|15=15. Rose Ivens(1891–1979)|16=16. Louis Trudeau(1817–1879)|17=17. Louise Dupuis(1817–1884)|18=18. Solime Cardinal(1815–1897)|19=19. Marguerite Surprenant(1820–1873) |20=20. Edward Elliott(1830–1881)|21=21. Amelia Morrison(1834–1903) |22=22. Séraphin Sauvé(1821–1890)|23=23. Agnes Clark(1830–1920)|24=24. James Sinclair(1834–1904)|25=25. Isabella Taylor(1840–1914)|26=26. Alexander Ross(1849–1920)|27=27. Betsy Ann Munro(1852–1916)|28=28. Charles Grant Bugden Bernard(1857–1936)|29=29. Annie Purvis(1870–1947)|30=30. Charles Howe Ivens(1859–1926)|31=31. Julia Webb(1850–1898)}}

References

{{reflist|30em}}

External links

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