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Juan Gris

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Juan Gris
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| birth_place = Madrid, Spaindf=y5188723|}}| death_place = Boulogne-sur-Seine, Paris, France| nationality = Spanish| field = Painting, drawing| training = | movement = Cubism| works = | patrons = | awards = }}José Victoriano (Carmelo Carlos) González-Pérez (23 March 1887 – 11 May 1927), better known as Juan Gris ({{IPA-es|ˈxwan ˈɡɾis|lang}}; {{IPA-fr|gʀi|lang}}), was a Spanish painter born in Madrid who lived and worked in France most of his life. Closely connected to the innovative artistic genre Cubism, his works are among the movement's most distinctive.

Life

Gris was born in Madrid and later studied engineering at the Madrid School of Arts and Sciences. There, from 1902 to 1904, he contributed drawings to local periodicals. From 1904 to 1905, he studied painting with the academic artist José Moreno Carbonero. It was in 1905 that José Victoriano González adopted the more distinctive name Juan Gris.Gris 1998, p. 124.In 1909 Lucie Belin (1891–1942)—Gris' first wife—gave birth to Georges Gonzalez-Gris (1909–2003), the artists only child. The three lived at the Bateau-Lavoir, 13 Rue Ravignan, Paris, from 1909 to 1911. In 1912 Gris met Charlotte Augusta Fernande Herpin (1894–1983), also known as Josette. Late 1913 or early 1914 they lived together at the Bateau-Lavoir until 1922. Josette Gris was Juan Gris' second companion and unofficial wife.Geoffrey David Schwartz, The Cubist's View of Montmartre: A Stylistic and Contextual Analysis of Juan Gris' Cityscape Imagery, 1911-1912, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, December 1914Christopher Green, et al, Juan Gris: Whitechapel Art Gallery, London [18 September - 29 November 1992 ; Staatsgalerie Stuttgart 18 December 1992-14 February 1993 ; Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller, Otterlo 6 March - 2 May 1993, Yale University Press, 1992, p. 302, {{ISBN|0300053746}}

Career

(File:Juan Gris El 1 de mayo en el Kursall, 1907.jpg|thumb|El 1 de mayo en el Kursall. Illustration published in the magazine {{ill|¡Alegría!|es}}, Madrid 1907)In 1906 he moved to Paris and became friends with the poets Guillaume Apollinaire, Max Jacob, and artists Henri Matisse, Georges Braque, Fernand Léger and Jean Metzinger.Handbook, the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, University of California, 1983, p. 26, 83Metzinger, Jean, Le Cubisme était né, Souvenirs, Chambéry, Editions Présence, 1972, p. 48 He submitted darkly humorous illustrations to journals such as the anarchist satirical magazine L'Assiette au Beurre, and also Le Rire, Le Charivari, and Le Cri de Paris.Print Review, Issues 18–20, Pratt Graphics Center, Kennedy Galleries, University of Michigan, 1984, p. 69 In Paris, Gris followed the lead of Metzinger and another friend and fellow countryman, Pablo Picasso.Gris began to paint seriously in 1911 (when he gave up working as a satirical cartoonist), developing at this time a personal Cubist style.WEB,weblink Peter Brooke, On "Cubism" in context, online since 2012, 19 September 2014, In A Life of Picasso, John Richardson writes that Jean Metzinger's 1911 work, Le goûter (Tea Time), persuaded Juan Gris of the importance of mathematics in painting.John Richardson: A Life of Picasso, volume II, 1907–1917, The Painter of Modern Life, Jonathan Cape, London, 1996, p. 211. Gris exhibited for the first time at the 1912 Salon des Indépendants (a painting entitled Hommage à Pablo Picasso)."He appears with two styles", writes art historian Peter Brooke, "In one of them a grid structure appears that is clearly reminiscent of the Goûter and of Metzinger's later work in 1912." In the other, Brooke continues, "the grid is still present but the lines are not stated and their continuity is broken. Their presence is suggested by the heavy, often triangular, shading of the angles between them... Both styles are distinguished from the work of Picasso and Braque by their clear, rational and measurable quality." Although Gris regarded Picasso as a teacher, Gertrude Stein wrote in The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas that "Juan Gris was the only person whom Picasso wished away".After Gris' death, Stein said to Picasso, "You never realized his meaning because you did not have it", to which Picasso replied, "You know very well that I did". Caws, Mary Ann (2005). Pablo Picasso. Reaktion Books. {{ISBN|1-86189-247-0}}. p. 66.File:Juan Gris - Portrait of Pablo Picasso - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|upright|210px|Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas, the Art Institute of ChicagoArt Institute of ChicagoIn 1912 Gris exhibited at the Exposicío d'art cubista, Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona, the first declared group exhibition of Cubism worldwide;Mark Antliff and Patricia Leighten, A Cubism Reader, Documents and Criticism, 1906-1914, University of Chicago Press, 2008, pp. 293–295Commemoració del centenari del cubisme a Barcelona. 1912-2012, Associació Catalana de Crítics d'Art – ACCA the gallery Der Sturm in Berlin; the Salon de la Société Normande de Peinture Moderne in Rouen; and the Salon de la Section d'Or in Paris. Gris, in that same year, signed a contract that gave Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler exclusive rights to his work.WEB,weblink Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Lucy Flint-Gohlke, Thomas M. Messer, Handbook, the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, Abrams, 1983, Internet Archive, 19 September 2014, At first Gris painted in the style of Analytical Cubism, a term he himself later coined,Honour, H. and J. Fleming, (2009) A World History of Art. 7th edn. London: Laurence King Publishing, p. 784. {{ISBN|9781856695848}} but after 1913 he began his conversion to Synthetic Cubism, of which he became a steadfast interpreter, with extensive use of papier collé or, collage. Unlike Picasso and Braque, whose Cubist works were practically monochromatic, Gris painted with bright harmonious colors in daring, novel combinations in the manner of his friend Matisse. Gris exhibited with the painters of the Puteaux Group in the Salon de la Section d'Or in 1912.Cooper, Philip. Cubism. London: Phaidon, 1995, p. 56. {{ISBN|0714832502}} His preference for clarity and order influenced the Purist style of Amédée Ozenfant and Charles Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier), and made Gris an important exemplar of the post-war "return to order" movement.Cowling and Mundy 1990, p. 117. In 1915 he was painted by his friend, Amedeo Modigliani. In November 1917 he made one of his few sculptures, the polychrome plaster Harlequin.Gris 1998, p. 136.WEB,weblink Sculpture, admin, 19 February 2014, frenchsculpture.org, 5 November 2018,

Crystal Cubism

File:Juan Gris, 1916, Woman with Mandolin, after Corot (La femme à la mandoline, d'après Corot), oil on canvas, 92 x 60 cm, Kunstmuseum Basel.jpg|thumb|Juan Gris, September 1916, Woman with Mandolin, after Corot (La femme à la mandoline, d'après Corot), oil on canvas, 92 x 60 cm, Kunstmuseum BaselKunstmuseum BaselFile:Juan Gris (José Victoriano González Pérez), Spanish - Still Life before an Open Window, Place Ravignan - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|Juan Gris, 1915, Still Life before an Open Window, Place Ravignan, oil on canvas, 115.9 x 88.9 cm, Philadelphia Museum of ArtPhiladelphia Museum of ArtGris's works from late 1916 through 1917 exhibit a greater simplification of geometric structure, a blurring of the distinction between objects and setting, between subject matter and background. The oblique overlapping planar constructions, tending away from equilibrium, can best be seen in Woman with Mandolin, after Corot (September 1916) and in its epilogue, Portrait of Josette Gris (October 1916; Museo Reina Sofia).Christopher Green, Cubism and its Enemies, Modern Movements and Reaction in French Art, 1916–1928, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1987, pp. 13–47.The clear-cut underlying geometric framework of these works seemingly controls the finer elements of the compositions; the constituent components, including the small planes of the faces, become part of the unified whole. Though Gris certainly had planned the representation of his chosen subject matter, the abstract armature serves as the starting point.The geometric structure of Juan Gris's Crystal period is already palpable in Still Life before an Open Window, Place Ravignan (June 1915; Philadelphia Museum of Art). The overlapping elemental planar structure of the composition serves as a foundation to flatten the individual elements onto a unifying surface, foretelling the shape of things to come.In 1919 and particularly 1920, artists and critics began to write conspicuously about this 'synthetic' approach, and to assert its importance in the overall scheme of advanced Cubism.

Designer and theorist

In 1924, he designed ballet sets and costumes for Sergei Diaghilev and the famous Ballets Russes.Robert Craig Hansen, Scenic and costume design for the Ballets Russes, Issue 30 of Theater and dramatic studies, UMI Research Press, 1 August 1985, p. 86, {{ISBN|0835716813}}Gris articulated most of his aesthetic theories during 1924 and 1925. He delivered his definitive lecture, Des possibilités de la peinture, at the Sorbonne in 1924. Major Gris exhibitions took place at the Galerie Simon in Paris and the Galerie Flechtheim in Berlin in 1923 and at the Galerie Flechtheim in Düsseldorf in 1925.José Pierre, Cubism, Heron, 1969, p. 135

Death

File:Juan Gris, 1915, Nature morte à la nappe à carreaux (Still Life with Checked Tablecloth), oil on canvas, 116.5 x 89.3 cm.jpg|thumb|Juan Gris, Nature morte à la nappe à carreaux (Still Life with Checkered Tablecloth), 1915, oil on canvas, 116.5 x 89.3 cm, Metropolitan Museum of ArtMetropolitan Museum of ArtAfter October 1925, Gris was frequently ill with bouts of uremia and cardiac problems. He died of renal failureGreen, Oxford Art Online: "Juan Gris" in Boulogne-sur-Seine (Paris) on 11 May 1927, at the age of 40, leaving a wife, Josette, and a son, Georges.

Art market

The top auction price for a Gris work is $57.1 million (£34.8 million), achieved for his 1915 painting Nature morte à la nappe à carreaux (Still Life with Checked Tablecloth).WEB,weblink Juan Gris (1887–1927) | Nature morte à la nappe à carreaux | Impressionist & Modern Art Auction | Christie's, Christies.com.cn, 4 February 2014, This surpassed previous records of $20.8 million for his 1915 still life Livre, pipe et verres, $28.6 million for the 1913 artwork Violon et guitare WEB,weblink Juan Gris (1887–1927) | Impressionist & Modern Art Auction | Christie's, Christies.com.cn, 23 March 2012, and $31.8 million for The musician's table, now in the Met. WEB, Acquisitions of the month: August-September 2018,weblink Apollo Magazine,

Selected works

  • Violin Hanging on a Wall (Le violon accroché), (1913). Guggenheim Museum, New York Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
  • Pears and Grapes on a Table, (autumn 1913). Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.Juan Gris, Pears and Grapes on a Table, autumn 1913. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Retrieved April 5, 2019Juan Gris. Pears and grapes on a table (or Still life with pears), (1913). (Artwork in exhibitions information since 1947). artdesigncafe. Retrieved April 5, 2019
  • Bottle of Rum and Newspaper (Bouteille de rhum et journal), (June 1914). Guggenheim Museum, New York
  • Cherries (Les cerises), (1915). Guggenheim Museum, New York
  • Fruit Dish on a Checkered Tablecloth (Compotier et nappe à carreaux), (November 1917). Guggenheim Museum, New York

Gallery

File:Juan Gris, 1911, Maisons à Paris (Houses in Paris), oil on canvas, 52.4 x 34.2 cm, Guggenheim Museum.jpg|Maisons à Paris (Houses in Paris), 1911, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New YorkFile:Juan Legua MET DT4462.jpg|Juan Legua, 1911, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New YorkFile:Juan Gris - Guitar and Pipe.jpg|Guitar and Pipe, 1913, Dallas Museum of Art, TexasFile:Juan Gris - Glass of Beer and Playing Cards.jpg|Glass of Beer and Playing Cards, 1913, Columbus Museum of Art, OhioFile:Juan Gris - Violin and Checkerboard.jpg|Violin and Checkerboard, 1913, Private collectionFile:Juan Gris - La bouteille d'anis - Google Art Project.jpg|The Bottle of Anís del Mono, 1914, Queen Sofia Museum, MadridFile:Fantômas - Juan Gris.JPG|Fantômas, 1915, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.File:Newspaper and Fruit Dish Juan Gris.jpeg|Newspaper and Fruit Dish, 1916, Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, CTFile:Juan Gris, Glass and Checkerboard, c. 1917, NGA 166491.jpg|Glass and Checkerboard, c. 1917, National Gallery of ArtFile:Juan Gris, 1917, Compotier et nappe à carreaux, oil on wood panel, 80.6 x 53.9 cm, Guggenheim Museum.jpg|Compotier et nappe à carreaux, 1917, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New YorkFile:Juan Gris.jpg|The Guitar (La Guitarra), 1918, Fundación Telefónica at Queen Sofia Museum, MadridFile:Juan Gris - Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin.jpg|Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, Private collection, ParisFile:Juan Gris, 1919, Arlequin à la guitare, oil on canvas, 116 x 89 cm, Musée National d'Art Moderne.jpg|Harlequin with Guitar, 1919, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, ParisFile:Le Canigou Juan Gris.jpeg|Le Canigou, 1921, Albright–Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New YorkFile:The Painter's Window Juan Gris.jpeg|The Painter's Window, 1925, Baltimore Museum of Art, Maryland

Notes

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References

External links

{{Commons category|Juan Gris}} {{Cubism}}{{Juan Gris}}{{Authority control}}

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