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Jordan River
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{{About|the river in the Middle East|other rivers|Jordan River (disambiguation)}}{{redirect|The Jordan|other uses|Jordan (disambiguation)}}







factoids
| width_min = | width_avg = | width_max = | depth_min = | depth_avg = | depth_max = | discharge1_location= Dead Sea, Jordan Rift Valley| discharge1_min = | discharge1_avg = | discharge1_max = | source1 = Anti-Lebanon mountains>Anti-Lebanon Mountain Range at Mount Hermon, Golan Heights| source1_coordinates= 2814abbr=on}}| mouth = Dead Sea| mouth_location = | mouth_coordinates = −416abbr=on}}| progression = | river_system = | basin_size = Banias>Banias River, Dan River, Yarmouk River, Zarqa RiverHasbani River>Hasbani or Snir River, Iyyon Stream| custom_label = | custom_data = | extra = }}The Jordan River or River Jordan (, Nahar ha-Yarden; , , Nahr al-Urdunn; , Iordànes) is a {{convert|251|km|mi|adj=mid|-long}} river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea. Jordan and the Golan Heights border the river to the east, while the West Bank and Israel lie to its west. Both Jordan and the West Bank take their names from the river.The river holds major significance in Judaism and Christianity since the Bible says that the Israelites crossed it into the Promised Land and that Jesus of Nazareth was baptized by John the Baptist in it.WEB,weblink An Interfaith Look at the Jordan River, 16 January 2017,

Geography

The Jordan River has an upper course from its sources to the Sea of Galilee, and a lower course south of the Sea of Galilee down to the Dead Sea. In traditional terminology, the upper course (or most of it) is commonly referred to as passing through the "Hula Valley", as opposed to "Upper Jordan Valley"; the Sea of Galilee through which the river passes is a separate entity; and the term Jordan Valley is reserved for the lower course, fed by the Yarmouk and Zarqa Rivers.Over its upper course, fed by the Hasbani River in Banias and Dan, the river drops rapidly in a {{convert|75|km|adj=on}} run to the once large and swampy Lake Hula, which is slightly above sea level. Exiting the now much-diminished lake, it goes through an even steeper drop over the {{convert|25|km}} down to the Sea of Galilee, which it enters at its northern end. The Jordan deposits much of the silt it is carrying within the lake, which it leaves again near its southern tip. At that point, the river is situated about 210 metres below sea level. The last {{convert|120|km|adj=on}}-long section follows what is commonly termed the "Jordan Valley", which has less gradient (the total drop is another 210 metres) so that the river meanders before entering the Dead Sea, a terminal lake about 422 metres below sea level with no outlet. Two major tributaries enter from the east during this last section: the Yarmouk River and Zarqa River.Its section north of the Sea of Galilee is within the boundaries of Israel and forms the western boundary of the Golan Heights. South of the lake, it forms the border between the Kingdom of Jordan (to the east), and Israel (to the west).

Tributaries

{{unreferenced section|date=January 2018}}(File:The Jordan River loops, aerial view 1938.jpg|thumb|Aerial view, 1938)The streams coming together to create the River Jordan in its upper basin are, west to east:
  • Iyyon (Hebrew: עיון Iyyon, Arabic: دردره Dardara or براغيث Braghith – on old PEF maps (1871–77) as Wadi el-Kharrar in the Merj 'Ayun area and Nahr Bareighit in its lower part), a stream which flows from Lebanon.
  • Hasbani (Arabic: الحاصباني Hasbani, Hebrew: either שניר Snir or Hatzbani), a stream which flows from the north-western foot of Mount Hermon in Lebanon.BOOK,weblink Essays in Political Geography, Routledge, 2016, 9781317605287, 260,
  • Dan (Arabic: اللدان Leddan, Hebrew: דן Dan), a stream whose source is also at the base of Mount Hermon.
  • Banias (Arabic: بانياس Banias, Hebrew: either Banias or חרמון Hermon), a stream arising from a spring at Banias at the foot of Mount Hermon.
South of the Sea of Galilee the Jordan River receives the waters of further tributaries, the main ones being Smaller tributaries in this segment are

Etymology

While several hypotheses for the origin of the river's name have been proposed, the most accepted is that it comes from Semitic Yard|on 'flow down'

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