Joan of Arc

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Joan of Arc
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{{Redirect|Jeanne d'Arc|other uses|Jeanne d'Arc (disambiguation)|and|Joan of Arc (disambiguation)}}{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{short description|15th-century French folk heroine and Roman Catholic saint}}{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2018}}{{Use American English|date=March 2013}}{{Featured article}}

| titles = Martyr and "Holy Virgin"| feast_day = 30 MayCatholic Church>Anglican CommunionHTTP://WWW.CHURCHOFENGLAND.ORG/PRAYER-WORSHIP/WORSHIP/TEXTS/THE-CALENDAR/HOLYDAYS.ASPX>TITLE=HOLY DAYS, }}| beatified_date = 18 April 1909| beatified_place = Saint Peter's Basilica,Rome.| beatified_by = Pope Pius X| canonized_date = 16 May 1920| canonized_place = St. Peter's Basilica, Rome| canonized_by = Pope Benedict XV| patronage = France; martyrs; captives; military personnel; people ridiculed for their piety; prisoners; soldiers, women who have served in the WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service); and Women's Army Corps
missing image!
- Joandearc-signature.svg|170px|left|bottom}}Joan of Arc (French: Jeanne d'ArcHer name was written in a variety of ways, particularly before the mid-19th century. See Pernoud and Clin, pp. 220–21. Her signature appears as "Jehanne" (see, parts 47 and 49; it is also noted in Pernoud and Clin).In archaic form, Jehanne Darc (Pernoud Clin 1998, pp. 220–221), but also Tarc, Daly or Day (Contamine Bouzy Hélary 2012 pp. 511; 517-519). {{IPA-fr|Ê’an daʁk|pron}}; {{circa}} 1412 â€“ 30 May 1431),An exact date of birth (6 January, without mention of the year), is uniquely indicated by Perceval de Boulainvilliers, councillor of king Charles VII, in a letter to the duke of Milan. Régine Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January". However, Marius Sepet has alleged that Boulainvilliers' letter is mythographic and therefore, in his opinion, unreliable (Marius Sepet, "Observations critiques sur l'histoire de Jeanne d'Arc. La lettre de Perceval de Boulainvilliers", in Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes, n°77, 1916, pp. 439–47. Gerd Krumeich shares the same analysis (Gerd Krumeich, "La date de la naissance de Jeanne d'Arc", in De Domremy ... à Tokyo: Jeanne d'Arc et la Lorraine, 2013, pp. 21–31). Colette Beaune emphasizes the mythical character of the Epiphany feast, the peasants' joy and the long rooster crow mentioned by Boulainvilliers (Colette Beaune, Jeanne d'Arc, Paris: Perrin, 2004, ISBN 2-262-01705-0, pp. 26-30). As a medieval peasant, Joan of Arc knew only approximately her age. Olivier Bouzy points out that accuracy birthdates are commonly ignored in the Middle Ages, even within the nobility, except for the princes and kings. Therefore, Boulainvilliers' precise date is quite extraordinary for that time. At least, the year 1412 rates in the chronological range, beetween 1411 and 1413, referenced by the chronicles, Joan herself and her squire Jean d'Aulon (Olivier Bouzy, Jeanne d'Arc en son siècle, Paris: Fayard, 2013, ISBN 978-2-213-67205-2, pp. 91-93). United Press International gives January 6, 1412 at "UPI Almanac for Sunday, Jan. 6, 2019: "French battlefield leader St. Joan of Arc in 1412". nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Hundred Years' War (1415–53)|Lancastrian phase] of the Hundred Years' War, and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint. She was born to Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée, a peasant family, at Domrémy in northeast France. Joan claimed to have received visions of the archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, and Saint Catherine of Alexandria instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War. The uncrowned King Charles VII sent Joan to the Siege of Orléans as part of a relief army. She gained prominence after the siege was lifted only nine days later. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims. This long-awaited event boosted French morale and paved the way for the final French victory.On 23 May 1430, she was captured at Compiègne by the Burgundian faction, a group of French nobles allied with the English. She was later handed over to the EnglishWEB,weblink Le procès de Jeanne d'Arc, and put on trial by the pro-English bishop Pierre Cauchon on a variety of charges.Régine Pernoud, "Joan of Arc By Herself And Her Witnesses", pp. 179, 220–22 After Cauchon declared her guilty, she was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, dying at about nineteen years of age.In 1456, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, debunked the charges against her, pronounced her innocent, and declared her a martyr.Andrew Ward (2005) {{IMDb title|id=0421212|title=Joan of Arc}} In the 16th century she became a symbol of the Catholic League, and in 1803 she was declared a national symbol of France by the decision of Napoleon Bonaparte.BOOK, Dirk Arend Berents, D.E.H. de Boer, Marina Warner, Joan of Arc: Reality and Myth, Uitgeverij Verloren, 1994, 8, 978-90-6550-412-8, She was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. Joan of Arc is one of the nine secondary patron saints of France, along with Saint Denis, Saint Martin of Tours, Saint Louis, Saint Michael, Saint Rémi, Saint Petronilla, Saint Radegund and Saint Thérèse of Lisieux.Joan of Arc has remained a popular figure in literature, painting, sculpture, and other cultural works since the time of her death, and many famous writers, playwrights, filmmakers, artists, and composers have created, and continue to create, cultural depictions of her.


File:Treaty of Troyes.svg|upright=1.2|thumb|1415–1429
{{legend|#ea8b9d|Controlled by Henry VI of England}}{{legend|#c896c8|Controlled by Philip III of Burgundy}}{{legend|#7f9ad7|Controlled by Charles VII of France}}
{{legend|#c8ccd1|textcolor=#ffff00|text=★|Main battles}}{{legend|#c8ccd1|textcolor=#ff0000|text=---|Battle of Agincourt, 1415}}{{legend|#c8ccd1|textcolor=#ffffff|text=---|Journey to Chinon, 1429}}{{legend|#c8ccd1|textcolor=#0000ff|text=---|March to ReimsMarch to ReimsThe Hundred Years' War had begun in 1337 as an inheritance dispute over the French throne, interspersed with occasional periods of relative peace. Nearly all the fighting had taken place in France, and the English army's use of chevauchée tactics (destructive "scorched earth" raids) had devastated the economy.John Aberth, From the Brink of the Apocalypse, Routledge, 2000 {{ISBN|0-415-92715-3|978-0-415-92715-4}} p. 85 The French population had not regained its former size since the Black Death of the mid-14th century, and its merchants were isolated from foreign markets. Before the appearance of Joan of Arc, the English had nearly achieved their goal of a dual monarchy under English control and the French army had not achieved any major victories for a generation. In the words of DeVries, "The kingdom of France was not even a shadow of its thirteenth-century prototype."DeVries, pp. 27–28.The French king at the time of Joan's birth, Charles VI, suffered from bouts of insanityWEB,weblink Charles VI, Institute of Historical Research, 9 March 2010, and was often unable to rule. The king's brother Louis, Duke of Orléans, and the king's cousin John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, quarreled over the regency of France and the guardianship of the royal children. This dispute included accusations that Louis was having an extramarital affair with the queen, Isabeau of Bavaria, and allegations that John the Fearless kidnapped the royal children.BOOK, Pernoud, Régine, Marie-Véronique, Clin, Joan of Arc: Her Story, 1999, Palgrave Macmillan, 89,weblink 978-0-312-22730-2, The conflict climaxed with the assassination of the Duke of Orléans in 1407 on the orders of the Duke of Burgundy.Sackville-West, Vita. Saint Joan of Arc, p. 21.WEB,weblink The Glorious Age of the Dukes of Burgundy, Burgundy Today, 9 March 2010, The young Charles of Orléans succeeded his father as duke and was placed in the custody of his father-in-law, the Count of Armagnac. Their faction became known as the "Armagnac" faction, and the opposing party led by the Duke of Burgundy was called the "Burgundian faction". Henry V of England took advantage of these internal divisions when he invaded the kingdom in 1415, winning a dramatic victory at Agincourt on October 25 and subsequently capturing many northern French towns during a later campaign in 1417.DeVries, pp. 15–19. In 1418 Paris was taken by the Burgundians, who massacred the Count of Armagnac and about 2,500 of his followers.WEB, Sizer, Michael, The Calamity of Violence: Reading the Paris Massacres of 1418, 2007,weblink 29 December 2013, The future French king, Charles VII, assumed the title of Dauphin—the heir to the throne—at the age of fourteen, after all four of his older brothers had died in succession.Pernoud and Clin, p. 167. His first significant official act was to conclude a peace treaty with the Duke of Burgundy in 1419. This ended in disaster when Armagnac partisans assassinated John the Fearless during a meeting under Charles's guarantee of protection. The new duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good, blamed Charles for the murder and entered into an alliance with the English. The allied forces conquered large sections of France.DeVries, p. 24.In 1420 the queen of France, Isabeau of Bavaria, signed the Treaty of Troyes, which granted the succession of the French throne to Henry V and his heirs instead of her son Charles. This agreement revived suspicions that the Dauphin may have been the illegitimate product of Isabeau's rumored affair with the late duke of Orléans rather than the son of King Charles VI.Pernoud and Clin, pp. 188–89. Henry V and Charles VI died within two months of each other in 1422, leaving an infant, Henry VI of England, the nominal monarch of both kingdoms. Henry V's brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, acted as regent.DeVries, pp. 24, 26.By the time Joan of Arc began to influence events in 1429, nearly all of northern France and some parts of the southwest were under Anglo-Burgundian control. The English controlled Paris and Rouen while the Burgundian faction controlled Reims, which had served as the traditional coronation site for French kings since 816. This was an important consideration since neither claimant to the throne of France had been officially crowned yet. Since 1428 the English had been conducting a siege of Orléans, one of the few remaining cities still loyal to Charles VII and an important objective since it held a strategic position along the Loire River, which made it the last obstacle to an assault on the remainder of Charles VII's territory. In the words of one modern historian, "On the fate of Orléans hung that of the entire kingdom."Pernoud and Clin, p. 10. No one was optimistic that the city could long withstand the siege.DeVries, p. 28. For generations, there had been prophecies in France which promised the nation would be saved by a virgin from the "borders of Lorraine" "who would work miracles" and "that France will be lost by a woman and shall thereafter be restored by a virgin".Fraioli, Deborah Joan of Arc and the Hundred Years' War, Westport: Greenwood Press, 2005 p. 59. The second prophecy predicting France would be "lost" by a woman was taken to refer to Isabeau's role in signing the Treaty of Troyes.Fraioli, Deborah Joan of Arc and the Hundred Years' War, Westport: Greenwood Press, 2005 pp. 59–60.


{{Further|Name of Joan of Arc}}File:Maison natale Jeanne d'Arc 023.jpg
Joan was the daughter of Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée,Jacques d'Arc (1380–1440) was a farmer at Domrémy who held the post of doyen â€“ a local tax-collector and organizer of village defenses. He had married Isabelle de Vouthon (1387–1468), also called "Romée", in 1405. Their other children were Jacquemin, Jean, Pierre and Catherine. Charles VII ennobled Jacques and Isabelle's family on 29 December 1429, an act which was registered by the Chamber of Accounts on 20 January 1430. The grant permitted the family to change their surname to "du Lys". living in Domrémy, a village which was then in the French part of the Duchy of Bar.WEB,weblink Chemainus Theatre Festival – The 2008 Season – Saint Joan – Joan of Arc Historical Timeline,, 30 November 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 June 2013, The French portion of the duchy, called the Barrois mouvant, was situated west of the Meuse River while the rest of the duchy (east of the Meuse) was a part of the Holy Roman Empire. The duchy of Bar was later incorporated into the province of Lorraine and the village of Domrémy renamed Domrémy-la-Pucelle, in honor of Joan of Arc. See Condemnation trial, p. 37.weblink. Retrieved 23 March 2006. Joan's parents owned about 50 acres (20 hectares) of land and her father supplemented his farming work with a minor position as a village official, collecting taxes and heading the local watch.Pernoud and Clin, p. 221. They lived in an isolated patch of eastern France that remained loyal to the French crown despite being surrounded by pro-Burgundian lands. Several local raids occurred during her childhood and on one occasion her village was burned. Joan was illiterate and it is believed that her letters were dictated by her to scribes and she signed her letters with the help of others.Boyd, Beverly "Wyclif, Joan of Arc, and Margery Kempe" pp. 112–18 from Mystics Quarterly, Volume 12, Issue # 3 September 1986 p. 115.At her trial, Joan stated that she was about 19 years old, which implies she thought she was born around 1412. She later testified that she experienced her first vision in 1425 at the age of 13, when she was in her "father's garden"BOOK, Pernoud, Régine, Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, {{Google books, 8cNBUC1HXFIC, Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, 30, yes, |page=30}} and saw visions of figures she identified as Saint Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint Margaret, who told her to drive out the English and take the Dauphin to Reims for his coronation. She said she cried when they left, as they were so beautiful.Condemnation trial, pp. 58–59.weblink. Retrieved 23 March 2006.At the age of 16, she asked a relative named Durand Lassois to take her to the nearby town of Vaucouleurs, where she petitioned the garrison commander, Robert de Baudricourt, for an armed escort to take her to the French Royal Court at Chinon. Baudricourt's sarcastic response did not deter her.DeVries, pp. 37–40. She returned the following January and gained support from two of Baudricourt's soldiers: Jean de Metz and Bertrand de Poulengy.Nullification trial testimony of Jean de Metz.weblink. Retrieved 12 February 2006. According to Jean de Metz, she told him that "I must be at the King's side ... there will be no help (for the kingdom) if not from me. Although I would rather have remained spinning [wool] at my mother's side ... yet must I go and must I do this thing, for my Lord wills that I do so."Pernoud, Régine. Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 35. Under the auspices of Jean de Metz and Bertrand de Poulengy, she was given a second meeting, where she made a prediction about a military reversal at the Battle of Rouvray near Orléans several days before messengers arrived to report it.Oliphant, ch. 2.weblink. Retrieved 12 February 2006. According to the Journal du Siége d'Orléans, which portrays Joan as a miraculous figure, Joan came to know of the battle through "grace divine" while tending her flocks in Lorraine and used this divine revelation to persuade Baudricort to take her to the Dauphin.Wagner, p. 348


{{See also|Siege of Orléans}}File:Siege orleans.jpg|thumb|15th-century depiction of the Siege of Orléans of 1429, from Les Vigiles de Charles VII by Martial d'AuvergneMartial d'AuvergneRobert de Baudricourt granted Joan an escort to visit Chinon after news from Orleans confirmed her assertion of the defeat. She made the journey through hostile Burgundian territory disguised as a male soldier,Richey 2003, p. 4. a fact which would later lead to charges of "cross-dressing" against her, although her escort viewed it as a normal precaution. Two of the members of her escort said they and the people of Vaucouleurs provided her with this clothing, and had suggested it to her.Pernoud, Régine. "Joan of Arc By Herself And Her Witnesses", pp. 35–36.Joan's first meeting with Charles took place at the Royal Court in the town of Chinon in 1429, when she was aged 17 and he 26. After arriving at the Court she made a strong impression on Charles during a private conference with him. During this time Charles' mother-in-law Yolande of Aragon was planning to finance a relief expedition to Orléans. Joan asked for permission to travel with the army and wear protective armor, which was provided by the Royal government. She depended on donated items for her armor, horse, sword, banner, and other items utilized by her entourage. Historian Stephen W. Richey explains her attraction to the royal court by pointing out that they may have viewed her as the only source of hope for a regime that was near collapse:}}File:Contemporaine_afb_jeanne_d_arc.png|thumb|upright|left|Drawing of Joan of Arc by Clément de Fauquembergue (a doodle on the margin of the protocol of the (parliament of Paris]], dated 10 May 1429)This is the oldest known depiction of Joan of Arc, and the only one dating to her lifetime. It is drawn from the imagination based on accounts of her deeds at Orléans a few days before. "The earliest drawing of Joan of Arc that survives is a doodle in the margin of the parliamentary council register drawn by Clément de Fauquembergue. The entry is dated May 10, 1429. Joan is shown holding a banner and a sword, but she is wearing a dress and has long hair. Fauquembergue, drawing from his imagination, may be excused for putting her in women's clothing, but long after Joan's dressing practice was well known, many artists still preferred to dres her in skirts." Margaret Joan Maddox, "Jan of Arc" in: Matheson (ed.), Icons of the Middle Ages (2011), p. 442; see also Kelly DeVries, Joan of Arc: A Military Leader (2011), p. 29.)Upon her arrival on the scene, Joan effectively turned the longstanding Anglo-French conflict into a religious war,Vale, M.G.A., 'Charles VII', 1974, p. 55. a course of action that was not without risk. Charles' advisers were worried that unless Joan's orthodoxy could be established beyond doubt—that she was not a heretic or a sorceress—Charles' enemies could easily make the allegation that his crown was a gift from the devil. To circumvent this possibility, the Dauphin ordered background inquiries and a theological examination at Poitiers to verify her morality. In April 1429, the commission of inquiry "declared her to be of irreproachable life, a good Christian, possessed of the virtues of humility, honesty and simplicity." The theologians at Poitiers did not render a decision on the issue of divine inspiration; rather, they informed the Dauphin that there was a "favorable presumption" to be made on the divine nature of her mission. This convinced Charles, but they also stated that he had an obligation to put Joan to the test. "To doubt or abandon her without suspicion of evil would be to repudiate the Holy Spirit and to become unworthy of God's aid", they declared.Vale, M.G.A., 'Charles VII', 1974, p. 56. They recommended that her claims should be put to the test by seeing if she could lift the siege of Orléans as she had predicted.She arrived at the besieged city of Orléans on 29 April 1429. Jean d'Orléans, the acting head of the ducal family of Orléans on behalf of his captive half-brother, initially excluded her from war councils and failed to inform her when the army engaged the enemy.Historians often refer to this man by other names. Many call him "Count of Dunois" in reference to a title he received years after Joan's death, since this title is now his best-known designation. During Joan's lifetime he was often called "Bastard of Orléans" due to his condition as the illegitimate son of Louis of Orleans. His contemporaries viewed this "title" as nothing but a standard method of delineating such illegitimate offspring, but it nonetheless often confuses modern readers because "bastard" has become a popular insult. "Jean d'Orléans" is less precise but not anachronistic. For a short biography see Pernoud and Clin, pp. 180–81. However, his decision to exclude her did not prevent her presence at most councils and battles.BOOK,weblink St. Joan of Arc: The Life-story of the Maid of Orleans, Lynch, Denis, 1919, Benziger Brothers, en, The extent of her actual military participation and leadership is a subject of debate among historians. On the one hand, Joan stated that she carried her banner in battle and had never killed anyone,Barrett, W.P. "The Trial of Jeanne d'Arc", p. 63. preferring her banner "forty times" better than a sword;Barrett, W.P. "The Trial of Jeanne d'Arc", p. 221. and the army was always directly commanded by a nobleman, such as the Duke of Alençon for example. On the other hand, many of these same noblemen stated that Joan had a profound effect on their decisions since they often accepted the advice she gave them, believing her advice was divinely inspired.Pernoud, Régine. "Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses" pp. 63, 113. In either case, historians agree that the army enjoyed remarkable success during her brief time with it.Pernoud and Clin, p. 230.

Military campaigns

width_style person
|name = (File:Coat of Arms of Jeanne d%27Arc.svg|22px|link=) Joan of Arc
|image = Joan of Arc on horseback.png
|caption = Joan on horseback in a 1505 illustration
|nickname = The Maid of Orléans
|allegiance = Kingdom of France
|battles_label = Conflict
|battles = Hundred Years' War{hide}plainlist|
Siege of Orléans{{WIA{edih}
  • {{in5}}Battle of Jargeau
  • {{in5}}Battle of Meung-sur-Loire
  • {{in5}}Battle of Beaugency
  • March to Reims
  • Siege of Paris{{WIA}}
  • Siege of La Charité
  • Siege of Compiègne{{POW}}}}
  • }}The appearance of Joan of Arc at Orléans coincided with a sudden change in the pattern of the siege. During the five months before her arrival, the defenders had attempted only one offensive assault, which had ended in defeat. On 4 May, however, the Armagnacs attacked and captured the outlying fortress of Saint Loup (bastille de Saint-Loup), followed on May 5 by a march to a second fortress called Saint-Jean-le-Blanc, which was found deserted. When English troops came out to oppose the advance, a rapid cavalry charge drove them back into their fortresses, apparently without a fight.The Armagnacs then attacked and captured an English fortress built around a monastery called Les Augustins. That night, Armagnac troops maintained positions on the south bank of the river before attacking the main English stronghold, called "les Tourelles", on the morning of 7 May.DeVries, pp. 74–83 Contemporaries acknowledged Joan as the heroine of the engagement. She was wounded by an arrow between the neck and shoulder while holding her banner in the trench outside les Tourelles, but later returned to encourage a final assault that succeeded in taking the fortress. The English retreated from Orléans the next day, and the siege was over.{{citation needed|date=February 2017}}At Chinon and Poitiers, Joan had declared that she would provide a sign at Orléans. The lifting of the siege was interpreted by many people to be that sign, and it gained her the support of prominent clergy such as the Archbishop of Embrun and the theologian Jean Gerson, both of whom wrote supportive treatises immediately following this event.Fraioli, Deborah. "Joan of Arc, the Early Debate", pp. 87–88, 126–127. To the English, the ability of this peasant girl to defeat their armies was regarded as proof that she was possessed by the Devil; the British medievalist Beverly Boyd noted that this charge was not just propaganda, and was sincerely believed since the idea that God was supporting the French via Joan was distinctly unappealing to an English audience.Boyd, Beverly "Wyclif, Joan of Arc, and Margery Kempe" pp. 112–118 from Mystics Quarterly, Volume 12, Issue # 3 September 1986 p. 116The sudden victory at Orléans also led to many proposals for further offensive action. Joan persuaded Charles VII to allow her to accompany the army with Duke John II of Alençon, and she gained royal permission for her plan to recapture nearby bridges along the Loire as a prelude to an advance on Reims and the coronation of Charles VII. This was a bold proposal because Reims was roughly twice as far away as Paris and deep within enemy territory.DeVries, pp. 96–97. The English expected an attempt to recapture Paris or an attack on Normandy.{{citation needed|date=February 2017}}The Duke of Alençon accepted Joan's advice concerning strategy. Other commanders including Jean d'Orléans had been impressed with her performance at Orléans and became her supporters. Alençon credited her with saving his life at Jargeau, where she warned him that a cannon on the walls was about to fire at him.Nullification trial testimony of Jean, Duke of Alençon.weblink. Retrieved 12 February 2006. During the same siege she withstood a blow from a stone that hit her helmet while she was near the base of the town's wall. The army took Jargeau on 12 June, Meung-sur-Loire on 15 June, and Beaugency on 17 June.{{citation needed|date=February 2017}}The English army withdrew from the Loire Valley and headed north on 18 June, joining with an expected unit of reinforcements under the command of Sir John Fastolf. Joan urged the Armagnacs to pursue, and the two armies clashed southwest of the village of Patay. The battle at Patay might be compared to Agincourt in reverse. The French vanguard attacked a unit of English archers who had been placed to block the road. A rout ensued that decimated the main body of the English army and killed or captured most of its commanders. Fastolf escaped with a small band of soldiers and became the scapegoat for the humiliating English defeat. The French suffered minimal losses.DeVries, pp. 114–115.File:Vigiles misc 03.jpg|thumb|left|Miniature from Vigiles du roi Charles VII. The citizens of TroyesTroyesThe French army left Gien on 29 June on the march toward Reims and accepted the conditional surrender of the Burgundian-held city of Auxerre on 3 July. Other towns in the army's path returned to French allegiance without resistance. Troyes, the site of the treaty that tried to disinherit Charles VII, was the only one to put up even brief opposition. The army was in short supply of food by the time it reached Troyes. But the army was in luck: a wandering friar named Brother Richard had been preaching about the end of the world at Troyes and convinced local residents to plant beans, a crop with an early harvest. The hungry army arrived as the beans ripened.Lucie-Smith, pp. 156–160. Troyes capitulated after a bloodless four-day siege.DeVries, pp. 122–126.File:ingres coronation charles vii.jpg|thumb|"Joan of Arc at the Coronation of Charles VII", by Ingres, 1854]]Reims opened its gates to the army on 16 July 1429. The coronation took place the following morning. Although Joan and the Duke of Alençon urged a prompt march toward Paris, the royal court preferred to negotiate a truce with Duke Philip of Burgundy. The duke violated the purpose of the agreement by using it as a stalling tactic to reinforce the defense of Paris.DeVries, p. 134. The French army marched past a succession of towns near Paris during the interim and accepted the surrender of several towns without a fight. The Duke of Bedford led an English force to confront Charles VII's army at the battle of Montépilloy on August 15, which resulted in a standoff. The French assault at Paris ensued on 8 September. Despite a wound to the leg from a crossbow bolt, Joan remained in the inner trench of Paris until she was carried back to safety by one of the commanders.Pernoud, Régine. Joan of Arc By Herself And Her Witnesses (1982), p. 137.The following morning the army received a royal order to withdraw. Most historians blame French Grand Chamberlain Georges de la Trémoille for the political blunders that followed the coronation.These range from mild associations of intrigue to scholarly invective. For an impassioned statement see Gower, ch. 4.weblink (Retrieved 12 February 2006) Milder examples are Pernoud and Clin, pp. 78–80; DeVries, p. 135; and Oliphant, ch. 6.weblink. Retrieved 12 February 2006. In October, Joan was with the royal army when it took Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier, followed by an unsuccessful attempt to take La-Charité-sur-Loire in November and December. On 29 December, Joan and her family were ennobled by Charles VII as a reward for her actions.BOOK, Friedrich Henning, The Maid of Orleans,weblink 1904, A.C. McClurg, 135–, WEB,weblink Joan of Arc is burned at the stake for heresy, 14 June 2019,, A&E Television Networks, 1 June 2019,


    A truce with England during the following few months left Joan with little to do. On 23 March 1430, she dictated a threatening letter to the Hussites, a dissident group which had broken with the Catholic Church on a number of doctrinal points and had defeated several previous crusades sent against them. Joan's letter promises to "remove your madness and foul superstition, taking away either your heresy or your lives."Pernoud and Clin, pp. 258–59. Joan, an ardent Catholic who hated all forms of heresy (together with Islam), also sent a letter challenging the English to leave France and go with her to Bohemia to fight the Hussites, an offer that went unanswered.Boyd, Beverly "yclif, Joan of Arc, and Margery Kempe" pp. 112–18 from Mystics Quarterly, Volume 12, Issue # 3 September 1986 p. 116.File:Capture de Jeanne.JPG|thumb|left|Joan captured by the Burgundians at Compiègne. Mural in the Panthéon, Paris]]The truce with England quickly came to an end. Joan traveled to Compiègne the following May to help defend the city against an English and Burgundian siege. On 23 May 1430 she was with a force that attempted to attack the Burgundian camp at Margny north of Compiègne, but was ambushed and captured.JOURNAL, A Friend to Compiegne, Geiger, Barbara, Calliope Magazine, April 2008, 18, 8, 32–34, When the troops began to withdraw toward the nearby fortifications of Compiègne after the advance of an additional force of 6,000 Burgundians, Joan stayed with the rear guard. Burgundian troops surrounded the rear guard, and she was pulled off her horse by an archer.DeVries, pp. 161–70. She agreed to surrender to a pro-Burgundian nobleman named Lionel of Wandomme, a member of Jean de Luxembourg's unit.{{Citation|url=|title=Joan of Arc, Jeanne la Pucelle, (1412 –1431)|author=Payne, Andrew||page=2|access-date=3 August 2019}}Joan was imprisoned by the Burgundians at Beaurevoir Castle. She made several escape attempts, on one occasion jumping from her 70-foot (21 m) tower, landing on the soft earth of a dry moat, after which she was moved to the Burgundian town of Arras.Pernoud, Régine. Joan of Arc: Her Story, p. 96. The English negotiated with their Burgundian allies to transfer her to their custody, with Bishop Pierre Cauchon of Beauvais, an English partisan, assuming a prominent role in these negotiations and her later trial."Joan of Arc, Saint". Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Library Edition, 12 September 2007 . The final agreement called for the English to pay the sum of 10,000 livres tournoisRégine Pernoud & Marie-Véronique Clin: Jeanne d'Arc, Fayard, Paris, 2 May 1986, p. 182. to obtain her from Jean de Luxembourg, a member of the Council of Duke Philip of Burgundy.{{citation needed|date=February 2017}}The English moved Joan to the city of Rouen, which served as their main headquarters in France. Historian Pierre Champion notes that the Armagnacs attempted to rescue her several times by launching military campaigns toward Rouen while she was held there. One campaign occurred during the winter of 1430–1431, another in March 1431, and one in late May shortly before her execution. These attempts were beaten back.Champion's description is included in Barrett's translation of the trial transcript: Barrett, W.P. The Trial of Joan of Arc, p. 390. Champion also quotes 15th-century sources that say Charles VII threatened to "exact vengeance" upon Burgundian troops whom his forces had captured and upon "the English and women of England" in retaliation for their treatment of Joan.Barrett, W.P. The Trial of Joan of Arc, p. 390.


    File:Tour Jeanne D'Arc10.jpg|thumb|upright|The keep of the castle of Rouen, surviving remnant of the fortress where Joan was imprisoned during her trial. It has since become known as the "Joan of Arc Tower".]]The trial for heresy was politically motivated. The tribunal was composed entirely of pro-English and Burgundian clerics, and overseen by English commanders including the Duke of Bedford and the Earl of Warwick.Pernoud, Régine. "Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses", pp. 165–67. In the words of the British medievalist Beverly Boyd, the trial was meant by the English Crown to be "a ploy to get rid of a bizarre prisoner of war with maximum embarrassment to their enemies". Legal proceedings commenced on 9 January 1431 at Rouen, the seat of the English occupation government.Judges' investigations 9 January â€“ 26 March, ordinary trial 26 March â€“ 24 May, recantation 24 May, relapse trial 28–29 May. The procedure was suspect on a number of points, which would later provoke criticism of the tribunal by the chief inquisitor who investigated the trial after the war.Pernoud, Régine. "Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses", p. 269.Under ecclesiastical law, Bishop Cauchon lacked jurisdiction over the case.The retrial verdict later affirmed that Cauchon had no authority to try the case. See Joan of Arc: Her Story, by Régine Pernoud and Marie-Véronique Clin, p. 108. Cauchon owed his appointment to his partisan support of the English Crown, which financed the trial. The low standard of evidence used in the trial also violated inquisitorial rules.Peters, Edward. Inquisition, p. 69. Clerical notary Nicolas Bailly, who was commissioned to collect testimony against Joan, could find no adverse evidence.Nullification trial testimony of Father Nicholas Bailly.weblink. Retrieved 12 February 2006. Without such evidence the court lacked grounds to initiate a trial. Opening a trial anyway, the court also violated ecclesiastical law by denying Joan the right to a legal adviser. In addition, stacking the tribunal entirely with pro-English clergy violated the medieval Church's requirement that heresy trials be judged by an impartial or balanced group of clerics. Upon the opening of the first public examination, Joan complained that those present were all partisans against her and asked for "ecclesiastics of the French side" to be invited in order to provide balance. This request was denied.Taylor, Craig, Joan of Arc: La Pucelle, p. 137.File:Joan of arc interrogation.jpg|thumb|left|Joan of Arc interrogated in her prison cell by the Cardinal of Winchester, by Hippolyte Delaroche, 1824, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen, France]]The Vice-Inquisitor of Northern France (Jean Lemaitre) objected to the trial at its outset, and several eyewitnesses later said he was forced to cooperate after the English threatened his life.Deposition of Nicholas de Houppeville on 8 May 1452 during Inquisitor Brehal's first investigation. See: Pernoud, Régine. "The Retrial of Joan of Arc; The Evidence at the Trial For Her Rehabilitation 1450–1456", p. 236. Some of the other clergy at the trial were also threatened when they refused to cooperate, including a Dominican friar named Isambart de la Pierre.See: Pernoud, Régine. "The Retrial of Joan of Arc; The Evidence at the Trial For Her Rehabilitation 1450–1456", p. 241. These threats, and the domination of the trial by a secular government, were violations of the Church's rules and undermined the right of the Church to conduct heresy trials without secular interference.{{Citation needed|date=February 2017}}The trial record contains statements from Joan that the eyewitnesses later said astonished the court, since she was an illiterate peasant and yet was able to evade the theological pitfalls the tribunal had set up to entrap her. The transcript's most famous exchange is an exercise in subtlety: "Asked if she knew she was in God's grace, she answered, 'If I am not, may God put me there; and if I am, may God so keep me.{{'"}}Condemnation trial, p. 52.weblink. Retrieved 12 February 2006. The question is a scholarly trap. Church doctrine held that no one could be certain of being in God's grace. If she had answered yes, then she would have been charged with heresy. If she had answered no, then she would have confessed her own guilt. The court notary Boisguillaume later testified that at the moment the court heard her reply, "Those who were interrogating her were stupefied."Pernoud and Clin, p. 112. In the twentieth century George Bernard Shaw found this dialogue so compelling that sections of his play Saint Joan are literal translations of the trial record. See Shaw, "Saint Joan". Penguin Classics, Reissue edition (2001). {{ISBN|0-14-043791-6}}Several members of the tribunal later testified that important portions of the transcript were falsified by being altered in her disfavor. Under Inquisitorial guidelines, Joan should have been confined in an ecclesiastical prison under the supervision of female guards (i.e., nuns). Instead, the English kept her in a secular prison guarded by their own soldiers. Bishop Cauchon denied Joan's appeals to the Council of Basel and the Pope, which should have stopped his proceeding.Pernoud and Clin, p. 130.The twelve articles of accusation which summarized the court's findings contradicted the court record, which had already been doctored by the judges.Condemnation trial, pp. 314–16.weblink. Retrieved 12 February 2006.Pernoud, p. 171. Under threat of immediate execution, the illiterate defendant signed an abjuration document that she did not understand. The court substituted a different abjuration in the official record.Condemnation trial, pp. 342–343.weblink. Retrieved 12 February 2006. Also, in nullification trial testimony, Brother Pierre Migier stated, "As to the act of recantation, I know it was performed by her; it was in writing, and was about the length of a Pater Noster."weblink Retrieved 12 February 2006. In modern English this is better known as the Lord's Prayer, Latin and English texts available here:weblink. Retrieved 12 February 2006.

    Cross-dressing charge

    (File:Stilke Hermann Anton - Joan of Arc's Death at the Stake.jpg|thumb|Joan of Arc's Death at the Stake, by {{ill|Hermann Stilke|de|Hermann Stilke|vertical-align=sup}} (1843))Heresy was a capital crime only for a repeat offense; therefore, a repeat offense of "cross-dressing" was now arranged by the court, according to the eyewitnesses. Joan agreed to wear feminine clothing when she abjured, which created a problem. According to the later descriptions of some of the tribunal members, she had previously been wearing male (i.e. military) clothing in prison because it gave her the ability to fasten her hosen, boots and tunic together into one piece, which deterred rape by making it difficult to pull her hosen off. She was evidently afraid to give up this outfit even temporarily because it was likely to be confiscated by the judge and she would thereby be left without protection.Nullification trial testimony of Guillaume de Manchon.weblink. Retrieved 12 February 2006.According to medieval clothing expert Adrien Harmand, she wore two layers of hosen or "pants" ("trousers" in British-English) attached to the doublet with 20 fastenings. The outer pants were made of a boot-like leather. "Jeanne d'Arc, son costume, son armure."weblink{{fr icon}}. Retrieved 23 March 2006. A woman's dress offered no such protection. A few days after her abjuration, when she was forced to wear a dress, she told a tribunal member that "a great English lord had entered her prison and tried to take her by force."See Pernoud, p. 220, which quotes appellate testimony by Friar Martin Ladvenu and Friar Isambart de la Pierre. She resumed male attire either as a defense against molestation or, in the testimony of Jean Massieu, because her dress had been taken by the guards and she was left with nothing else to wear.Nullification trial testimony of Jean Massieu.weblink. Retrieved 12 February 2006.Her resumption of male military clothing was labeled a relapse into heresy for cross-dressing, although this would later be disputed by the inquisitor who presided over the appeals court that examined the case after the war. Medieval Catholic doctrine held that cross-dressing should be evaluated based on context, as stated in the Summa Theologica by St. Thomas Aquinas, which says that necessity would be a permissible reason for cross-dressing."Summa Theologica", II – II, Q 169, Art. 2, ad. 3 weblink. Retrieved 8 January 2014 This would include the use of clothing as protection against rape if the clothing would offer protection. In terms of doctrine, she had been justified in disguising herself as a pageboy during her journey through enemy territory, and she was justified in wearing armor during battle and protective clothing in camp and then in prison. The Chronique de la Pucelle states that it deterred molestation while she was camped in the field. When her soldiers' clothing was not needed while on campaign, she was said to have gone back to wearing a dress.From "De Quadam Puella". For a discussion of this, see footnote 18 on p. 29 of "Joan of Arc: The Early Debate" (2000), by Deborah Fraioli. Clergy who later testified at the posthumous appellate trial affirmed that she continued to wear male clothing in prison to deter molestation and rape.Joan referred the court to the Poitiers inquiry when questioned on the matter. The Poitiers record no longer survives, but circumstances indicate the Poitiers clerics had approved her practice.Condemnation trial, p. 78.weblink (Retrieved 12 February 2006) Retrial testimony of Brother Séguin, (Frère Séguin, fils de Séguin), Professor of Theology at Poitiers, does not mention clothing directly, but constitutes a wholehearted endorsement of her piety.weblink. Retrieved 12 February 2006. She also kept her hair cut short through her military campaigns and while in prison. Her supporters, such as the theologian Jean Gerson, defended her hairstyle for practical reasons, as did Inquisitor Brehal later during the appellate trial.Fraioli, "Joan of Arc: The Early Debate", p. 131. Nonetheless, at the trial in 1431 she was condemned and sentenced to die. Boyd described Joan's trial as so "unfair" that the trial transcripts were later used as evidence for canonizing her in the 20th century.


    Eyewitnesses described the scene of the execution by burning on 30 May 1431. Tied to a tall pillar at the Vieux-Marché in Rouen, she asked two of the clergy, Fr Martin Ladvenu and Fr Isambart de la Pierre, to hold a crucifix before her. An English soldier also constructed a small cross that she put in the front of her dress. After she died, the English raked back the coals to expose her charred body so that no one could claim she had escaped alive. They then burned the body twice more, to reduce it to ashes and prevent any collection of relics, and cast her remains into the Seine River.In February 2006 a team of forensic scientists announced the beginning of a six-month study to assess bone and skin remains from a museum at Chinon reputed to be those of the heroine. The study cannot provide a positive identification but could rule out some types of hoax through carbon dating and gender determination.weblink (Retrieved 1 March 2006) An interim report released 17 December 2006 states that this is unlikely to have belonged to her.weblink. Retrieved 17 December 2006. The executioner, Geoffroy Thérage, later stated that he "greatly feared to be damned for he had burned a holy woman."Pernoud, p. 233.

    Posthumous events

    The Hundred Years' War continued for twenty-two years after her death. Charles VII retained legitimacy as the king of France in spite of a rival coronation held for Henry VI at Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris on 16 December 1431, the boy's tenth birthday. Before England could rebuild its military leadership and force of longbowmen lost in 1429, the country lost its alliance with Burgundy when the Treaty of Arras was signed in 1435. The Duke of Bedford died the same year and Henry VI became the youngest king of England to rule without a regent. His weak leadership was probably the most important factor in ending the conflict. Kelly DeVries argues that Joan of Arc's aggressive use of artillery and frontal assaults influenced French tactics for the rest of the war.DeVries, pp. 179–80.In 1452, during the posthumous investigation into her execution, the Church declared that a religious play in her honor at Orléans would allow attendees to gain an indulgence (remission of temporal punishment for sin) by making a pilgrimage to the event.Pernoud, Régine. Joan of Arc By Herself And Her Witnesses (1982), p. 262.


    File:Calixtus III.jpg|thumb|upright|Pope Callixtus IIIPope Callixtus IIIA posthumous retrial opened after the war ended. Pope Callixtus III authorized this proceeding, also known as the "nullification trial", at the request of Inquisitor-General Jean Bréhal and Joan's mother Isabelle Romée. The purpose of the trial was to investigate whether the trial of condemnation and its verdict had been handled justly and according to canon law. Investigations started with an inquest by Guillaume Bouillé, a theologian and former rector of the University of Paris (Sorbonne).Bréhal conducted an investigation in 1452. A formal appeal followed in November 1455. The appellate process involved clergy from throughout Europe and observed standard court procedure. A panel of theologians analyzed testimony from 115 witnesses. Bréhal drew up his final summary in June 1456, which describes Joan as a martyr and implicated the late Pierre Cauchon with heresyWEB,weblink Joan of Arc, Declaration of Innocence : July 7th, 1456,, 2019-02-03, for having convicted an innocent woman in pursuit of a secular vendetta. The technical reason for her execution had been a Biblical clothing law.{{bibleref|Deuteronomy|22:5}} The nullification trial reversed the conviction in part because the condemnation proceeding had failed to consider the doctrinal exceptions to that stricture. The appellate court declared her innocent on 7 July 1456.Pernoud, Régine. Joan of Arc By Herself And Her Witnesses (1982), p. 268.


    Joan of Arc became a symbol of the Catholic League during the 16th century.When Félix Dupanloup was made bishop of Orléans in 1849, he pronounced a fervid panegyric on Joan of Arc, which attracted attention in England as well as France, and he led the efforts which culminated in Joan of Arc's beatification in 1909."The Spectator" The Outlook (3 July 1909) Vol. 92, pp. 548–50 Google Books 19 May 2016 She was canonized as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church on 16 May 1920 by Pope Benedict XV in his bull Divina disponente.Pope Benedict XV, Divina Disponente (Latin), 16 May 1920.


    {{See also|Cultural depictions of Joan of Arc}}File:Joan of Arc Emmanuel Fremiet.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Jeanne d'Arc, a gilded bronze equestrian statue exhibited at the Place des Pyramides in Paris, by Emmanuel FrémietEmmanuel Frémiet(File:Jeanne d' Arc (Eugene Thirion).jpg|thumb|Jeanne d'Arc, by Eugène Thirion (1876). Late 19th century images such as this often had political undertones because of French territorial cessions to Germany in 1871. (Chautou, Church of Notre Dame))File:Orléans Jeanne d'Arc place du Martroi.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Joan of Arc statue in Orléans, by Denis FoyatierDenis FoyatierFile:Albert Lynch - Jeanne d'Arc.jpg|thumb|upright|A 1903 engraving of Joan of Arc by Albert LynchAlbert LynchJoan of Arc became a semi-legendary figure for the four centuries after her death. The main sources of information about her were chronicles. Five original manuscripts of her condemnation trial surfaced in old archives during the 19th century. Soon, historians also located the complete records of her rehabilitation trial, which contained sworn testimony from 115 witnesses, and the original French notes for the Latin condemnation trial transcript. Various contemporary letters also emerged, three of which carry the signature Jehanne in the unsteady hand of a person learning to write.Pernoud and Clin, pp. 247–64. This unusual wealth of primary source material is one reason DeVries declares, "No person of the Middle Ages, male or female, has been the subject of more study."DeVries in "Fresh Verdicts on Joan of Arc", edited by Bonnie Wheeler, p. 3.Joan of Arc came from an obscure village and rose to prominence when she was a teenager, and she did so as an uneducated peasant. The French and English kings had justified the ongoing war through competing interpretations of inheritance law, first concerning Edward III's claim to the French throne and then Henry VI's. The conflict had been a legalistic feud between two related royal families, but Joan transformed it along religious lines and gave meaning to appeals such as that of squire Jean de Metz when he asked, "Must the king be driven from the kingdom; and are we to be English?" In the words of Stephen Richey, "She turned what had been a dry dynastic squabble that left the common people unmoved except for their own suffering into a passionately popular war of national liberation."WEB,weblink Joan of Arc – A Military Appreciation, Richey, Stephen W., 2000, Richey also expresses the breadth of her subsequent appeal:From Christine de Pizan to the present, women have looked to Joan as a positive example of a brave and active woman.English translation of Christine de Pizan's poem "The Tale of Joan of Arc" or Le Ditié de Jeanne d'Arc by L. Shopkow.weblink (Retrieved 12 February 2006) Analysis of the poem by Professors Kennedy and Varty of Magdalen College, Oxford. WEB,weblink Archived copy, 7 February 2006, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink 16 June 2008, Retrieved 12 February 2006. She operated within a religious tradition that believed an exceptional person from any level of society might receive a divine calling. Some of her most significant aid came from women. King Charles VII's mother-in-law, Yolande of Aragon, confirmed Joan's virginity and financed her departure to Orléans. Joan of Luxembourg, aunt to the count of Luxembourg who held custody of her after Compiègne, alleviated her conditions of captivity and may have delayed her sale to the English. Finally, Anne of Burgundy, the duchess of Bedford and wife to the regent of England, declared Joan a virgin during pretrial inquiries.These tests, which her confessor describes as hymen investigations, are not reliable measures of virginity. However, they signified approval from matrons of the highest social rank at key moments of her life. Rehabilitation trial testimony of Jean Pasquerel.weblink Retrieved 12 March 2006.Three separate vessels of the French Navy have been named after her, including a helicopter carrier that was retired from active service on 7 June 2010. At present, the French far-right political party Front National holds rallies at her statues, reproduces her image in the party's publications, and uses a tricolor flame partly symbolic of her martyrdom as its emblem. This party's opponents sometimes satirize its appropriation of her image.Front National publicity logos include the tricolor flame and reproductions of statues depicting her. The graphics forums at Étapes magazine include a variety of political posters from the 2002 presidential election.weblink {{fr icon}} Retrieved 7 February 2006. {{webarchive |url= |date=29 October 2007 }} The French civic (:fr:Fête nationale de Jeanne d'Arc et du patriotisme|holiday in her honour), set in 1920, is the second Sunday of May.WEB,weblink Loi instituant une fête nationale de Jeanne d'Arc, fête du patriotisme, (:fr:Journal officiel de la République française), 191, 52e année, 14 July 1920, 10018, World War I songs include "Joan of Arc, They Are Calling You", and "Joan of Arc's Answer Song".WEB,weblink Joan of Arc's answer song, The Library of Congress, WEB,weblink Joan of Arc they are calling you,


    Joan of Arc's religious visions have remained an ongoing topic of interest. She identified Saint Margaret, Saint Catherine, and Saint Michael as the sources of her revelations, although there is some ambiguity as to which of several identically named saints she intended.Analysis of her visions is problematic since the main source of information on this topic is the condemnation trial transcript in which she defied customary courtroom procedure about a witness oath and specifically refused to answer every question about her visions. She complained that a standard witness oath would conflict with an oath she had previously sworn to maintain confidentiality about meetings with her king. It remains unknown to what extent the surviving record may represent the fabrications of corrupt court officials or her own possible fabrications to protect state secrets.Condemnation trial, pp. 36–37, 41–42, 48–49. Retrieved 1 September 2006. Some historians sidestep speculation about the visions by asserting that her belief in her calling is more relevant than questions about the visions' ultimate origin.In a parenthetical note to a military biography, DeVries asserts: "The visions, or their veracity, are not in themselves important for this study. What is important, in fact what is key to Joan's history as a military leader, is that she (author's emphasis) believed that they came from God," p. 35.A number of more recent scholars attempted to explain her visions in psychiatric or neurological terms. Potential diagnoses have included epilepsy, migraine, tuberculosis, and schizophrenia.Many of these hypotheses were devised by people whose expertise is in history rather than medicine. For a sampling of papers that passed peer review in medical journals, see JOURNAL, d'Orsi G., Tinuper P., "I heard voices ...": from semiology, an historical review, and a new hypothesis on the presumed epilepsy of Joan of Arc, Epilepsy Behav, 9, 1, 152–57, August 2006, 16750938, 10.1016/j.yebeh.2006.04.020, (idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features)JOURNAL, 10.1111/j.1528-1157.1991.tb05537.x, Foote-Smith E., Bayne L., Joan of Arc, Epilepsia, 32, 6, 810–15, 1991, 1743152, (epilepsy)JOURNAL, 10.1097/00007611-198412000-00003, Henker F. O., Joan of Arc and DSM III, South. Med. J., 77, 12, 1488–90, December 1984, 6390693,weblink (various psychiatric definitions)JOURNAL, Allen C, The schizophrenia of Joan of Arc, Hist Med, 6, 3–4, 4–9, Autumn–Winter 1975, 11630627, (schizophrenia) None of the putative diagnoses have gained consensus support, and many scholars have argued that she didn't display any of the objective symptoms that can accompany the mental illnesses which have been suggested, such as schizophrenia. Dr. Philip Mackowiak dismissed the possibility of schizophrenia and several other disorders (Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and ergot poisoning) in a chapter on Joan of Arc in his book Post-Mortem in 2007.Though he did suggest the possibility of delusional disorder. Mackowiak, Philip; Post-Mortem: Solving History's Great Medical Mysteries, ACP Press, 2007Dr. John Hughes rejected the idea that Joan of Arc suffered from epilepsy in an article in the academic journal Epilepsy & Behavior.JOURNAL, 15710295, 2005, Hughes, J. R., Did all those famous people really have epilepsy?, Epilepsy & Behavior, 6, 2, 115–39, 10.1016/j.yebeh.2004.11.011, Two experts who analysed the hypothesis of temporal lobe tuberculoma in the medical journal Neuropsychobiology expressed their misgivings about this claim in the following statement:}}In response to another such theory alleging that her visions were caused by bovine tuberculosis as a result of drinking unpasteurized milk, historian Régine Pernoud wrote that if drinking unpasteurized milk could produce such potential benefits for the nation, then the French government should stop mandating the pasteurization of milk.Pernoud, p. 275.Joan of Arc gained favor in the court of King Charles VII, who accepted her as sane. He would have been familiar with the signs of madness because his own father, Charles VI, had suffered from it. Charles VI was popularly known as "Charles the Mad", and much of France's political and military decline during his reign could be attributed to the power vacuum that his episodes of insanity had produced. The previous king had believed he was made of glass, a delusion no courtier had mistaken for a religious awakening. Fears that King Charles VII would manifest the same insanity may have factored into the attempt to disinherit him at Troyes. This stigma was so persistent that contemporaries of the next generation would attribute to inherited madness the breakdown that England's King Henry VI was to suffer in 1453: Henry VI was nephew to Charles VII and grandson to Charles VI. The court of Charles VII was shrewd and skeptical on the subject of mental health.Pernoud and Clin, pp. 3, 169, 183.Nullification trial testimony of Dame Marguerite de Touroulde, widow of a king's counselor: "I heard from those that brought her to the king that at first they thought she was mad, and intended to put her away in some ditch, but while on the way they felt moved to do everything according to her good pleasure."weblink Retrieved 12 February 2006. Upon Joan's arrival at Chinon the royal counselor Jacques Gélu cautioned,She remained astute to the end of her life and the rehabilitation trial testimony frequently marvels at her astuteness:Her subtle replies under interrogation even forced the court to stop holding public sessions.

    Alleged relics

    File:Tete de Saint Maurice Orleans.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|Helmeted head of a late Gothic saint's statue, in the past widely held to have been modelled after the likeness of Joan of Arc"Tête casquée découverte en 1820 dans les démolitions des restes de l'ancienne église Saint-Eloi-Saint-Maurice, considérée parfois, mais à tort, comme représentant Jeanne d'Arc; c'est en réalité une tête de St Georges." Val de Loire; Maine, Orléanais, Touraine, Anjou, Hachette (1963), p. 70. See Edmunds, The Mission of Joan of Arc, (2008) 40ff for references to the defense given to the head's being an authentic likeness of Joan by Walter Scott and by Bernard Shaw.]]In 1867, a jar was found in a Paris pharmacy with the inscription "Remains found under the stake of Joan of Arc, virgin of Orleans." They consisted of a charred human rib, carbonized wood, a piece of linen and a cat femur—explained as the practice of throwing black cats onto the pyre of witches. In 2006, Philippe Charlier, a forensic scientist at Raymond Poincaré University Hospital (Garches) was authorized to study the relics. Carbon-14 tests and various spectroscopic analyses were performed, and the results determined that the remains come from an Egyptian mummy from the sixth to the third century BC.JOURNAL, Declan Butler, Joan of Arc's relics exposed as forgery, Nature (journal), Nature, 446, 7136, 593, 4 April 2007, 10.1038/446593a, 17410145, 2007Natur.446..593B, In March 2016 a ring believed to have been worn by Joan, which had passed through the hands of several prominent people including a cardinal, a king, an aristocrat and the daughter of a British physician, was sold at auction to the Puy du Fou, a historical theme park, for £300,000.NEWS, 4 March 2016, Joan of Arc ring returns to France after auction sale,weblink BBC, London, 5 March 2016, There is no conclusive proof that she owned the ring, but its unusual design closely matches Joan's own words about her ring at her trial.NEWS, Dalya Alberge,weblink Hot property: ring worn by Joan of Arc up for auction, The Sunday Times, 27 December 2015, 31 December 2015, WEB,weblink Joan of Arc ring dating back to 15th century for sale at London auction,, 27 December 2015, 31 January 2016, The Arts Council later determined the ring should not have left the United Kingdom. The purchasers appealed, including to Queen Elizabeth II, and the ring was allowed to remain in France. The ring was reportedly first passed to Cardinal Henry Beaufort, who attended Joan's trial and execution in 1431.Joan of Arc ring stays in France after appeal to Queen, Kim Willsher, The Guardian, 26 August 2016

    Revisionist theories

    The standard accounts of the life of Joan of Arc have been challenged by revisionist authors. Claims include: that Joan of Arc was not actually burned at the stake;BOOK, Brewer, E. Cobham, Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, 1900, Cassell and Company, 683, New, that she was secretly the half sister of King Charles VII;BOOK, Caze, Pierre, La Vérité sur Jeanne d'Arc, 1819, Paris, fr, that she was not a true Christian but a member of a pagan cult;BOOK, Murray, Margaret, The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, 1921, Oxford University Press, 318–26, The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, and that most of the story of Joan of Arc is actually a myth.BOOK, Donald, Graeme, Lies, Damned Lies, and History: A Catalogue of Historical Errors and Misunderstandings, 2009, The History Press, 978-0752452333, 99–103,

    See also




    • BOOK, Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, Pernoud, Régine, translated by Edward Hyams, 1982, Scarborough House, New York, 978-0-8128-1260-2,weblink
    • BOOK, DeVries, Kelly, Joan of Arc: A Military Leader, Sutton Publishing, Stroud, Gloucestershire, 1999, 978-0-7509-1805-3, 42957383, Kelly DeVries,weblink
    • BOOK, Richard C., Famiglietti, Royal Intrigue: Crisis at the Court of Charles VI 1392–1420, AMS Press, New York, AMS studies in the Middle Ages, 9, 1987, 978-0-404-61439-3,
    • BOOK, Lucie-Smith, Edward, Joan of Arc, 1976, Allen Lane, Bristol, 978-0-7139-0857-2,
    • BOOK, Oliphant, Mrs. (Margaret), Jeanne d'Arc: Her Life and Death, 978-1-4043-1086-5, Heroes of the Nations, 2003, 1896,,weblink
    • BOOK, Joan of Arc: Her Story, Pernoud, Régine, Marie-Véronique Clin, translated and revised by Jeremy duQuesnay Adams; edited by Bonnie Wheeler, 1999, St. Martin's Press, New York, 978-0-312-21442-5, 39890535,
    • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Wagner, John A, Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 2006, 978-0-313-32736-0,
    • BOOK, Bishop, Jacqueline, Joan of Arc, 2006,
    • BOOK, Lowell, Francis Cabot, Joan of Arc, 1896, Houghton Mifflin Co, Boston,
    • BOOK, Larkin, Sarah, Joan of Arc, 1951, Philosophical Library, New York,

    Further reading


    • BOOK, Anon, The First Biography of Joan of Arc with the Chronicle Record of a Contemporary Account,weblink trans. Rankin, Daniel & Quintal, Claire, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 July 2011, dmy-all,
    • BOOK, The trial of Jeanne d'Arc, Barrett, W.P., Gotham house, New York, 1932, 1314152,
    • BOOK, Brooks, Polly Schoyer, Beyond the Myth: The Story of Joan of Arc, Houghton Mifflin Co, New York, 1999, 978-0-397-32422-4, 20319268,
    • BOOK, Castor, Helen, Joan of Arc: A History, 2014, Faber and Faber, London, 9780571284627, 328,
    • BOOK, de Quincey, Thomas, The English Mail-Coach and Joan of Arc,weblink August 2004,
    • BOOK, France, Anatole, The Life of Joan of Arc,weblink Anatole France, 2006-10-07, , 19th century French classic
    • BOOK, Gower, Ronald Sutherland, Joan of Arc,weblink 2005-10-24,
    • BOOK, Kaiser, Anton, Joan of Arc: A Study in Charismatic Women's Leadership, Black Hills Books, US, 2017, 978-1-945333-08-8, 194,
    • BOOK, Meltzer, Francoise, For Fear of the Fire: Joan of Arc and the Limits of Subjectivity, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2001, 978-0-226-51982-1, 46240234, Françoise Meltzer,
    • BOOK, Pernoud, Régine, The Retrial of Joan of Arc; The Evidence at the Trial For Her Rehabilitation 1450–1456, Harcourt, Brace and Company, New York, 1955, 1338471, trans. J.M. Cohen,
    • BOOK, Pernoud, Régine, Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, Scarborough House, London, 1994, 978-0-8128-1260-2, 31535658, trans. E. Hymans, Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses,
    • BOOK, Pernoud, Régine, Clin, Marie-Véronique, Joan of Arc: Her Story, St. Martin's Griffin, New York, 1999, 978-0-312-22730-2, 39890535, trans. Jeremy Duquesnay Adams,
    • BOOK, Richey, Stephen W., Joan of Arc: The Warrior Saint, Praeger, Westport, CT, 2003, 978-0-275-98103-7, 52030963,
    • BOOK, Spoto, Donald, Joan : the mysterious life of a heretic who became a saint, HarperSanFrancisco, San Francisco, 2007, 978-0-06-081517-2, 84655969,weblink

    Historiography and memory

    • BOOK, Fraioli, Deborah, Joan of Arc: The Early Debate, Boydell Press, London, 2002, 978-0-85115-880-8, 48680250,weblink
    • BOOK, Heimann, Nora, Joan of Arc in French Art and Culture (1700–1855): From Satire to Sanctity, Ashgate, Aldershot, 2005, 978-0-7546-5085-0,
    • BOOK, Heimann, Nora, Coyle, Laura, Joan of Arc: Her Image in France and America, Corcoran Gallery of Art in association with D Giles Limited, Washington, DC, 2006, 978-1-904832-19-5,
    • BOOK, Russell, Preston, Lights of Madness: In Search of Joan of Arc, Frederic C. Beil, Pub, Savannah, GA, 2005, 978-1-929490-24-0,
    • Tumblety, Joan. "Contested histories: Jeanne d'Arc and the front national." The European Legacy (1999) 41 pp: 8–25.

    In French

    • BOOK, Procès de condamnation et de réhabilitation de Jeanne d'Arc dite la Pucelle. Publiés pour la première fois d'après les manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale, suivis de tous les documents historiques qu'on a pu réunir et accompagnés de notes et d'éclaircissements., Quicherat, Jules-Étienne-Joseph, Johnson, New York, 1965, 1–5, 728420, French, 1841–1849,
    • BOOK, Contamine, Philippe, De Jeanne d'Arc aux guerres d'Italie: figures, images et problèmes du XVe siècle, Paradigme, Orleans, 1994, 2-86878-109-8, French,
    • BOOK, Beaune, Colette, Jeanne d'Arc, Perrin, Paris, 2004, 2-262-01705-0, French,
    • BOOK, Michaud-Fréjaville, Françoise, Une ville, une destinée : Orléans et Jeanne d'Arc, Honoré Champion, Orleans, Paris, 2005, French,weblink
    • BOOK, Neveux, François, De l'hérétique à la sainte. Les procès de Jeanne d'Arc revisités, Presses universitaires de Caen, Caen, 2012, 978-2-84133-421-6, French,weblink
    • BOOK, Contamine, Philippe, Bouzy, Olivier, Hélary, Xavier, Jeanne d'Arc. Histoire et dictionnaire, Robert Laffont, Paris, 2012, 978-2-221-10929-8, French,
    • BOOK, Guyon, Catherine, Delavenne, Magali, De Domrémy... à Tokyo: Jeanne d'Arc et la Lorraine, Presses universitaires de Nancy, 2013, 978-2-8143-0154-2, Nancy, French,
    • BOOK, Bouzy, Olivier, Jeanne d'Arc en son siècle, Fayard, Paris, 2013, 978-2-213-67205-2, French,
    • BOOK, Boudet, Jean-Patrice, Hélary, Xavier, Jeanne d'Arc: histoire et mythes, Presses universitaires de Rennes, Rennes, 2014, 978-2-7535-3389-9, French,
    • BOOK, Krumeich, Gerd, Jeanne d'Arc à travers l'histoire, Belin, Paris, 2017, 978-2-410-00096-2, French,

    Related history

    • BOOK, Allmand, C., The Hundred Years War: England and France at War c. 1300–1450, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988, 978-0-521-31923-2,
    • BOOK, Davis, H.W.C, Medieval Europe,weblink August 2004,
    • BOOK, Guizot, François Pierre Guillaume, A Popular History of France from the Earliest Times, 3,weblink April 2004,
    • BOOK, John Henry Haaren, Haaren, John Henry, Poland, A.B., Famous Men of the Middle Ages,weblink
    • BOOK, Lacroix, Paul, Manners, Custom and Dress During the Middle Ages and During the Renaissance Period,weblink February 2004,
    • BOOK, Lingard, John, The History of England,weblink
    • BOOK, Perroy, Edouard, The Hundred Years War, Capricorn Books, New York, 1965, trans. W.B. Wells,
    • BOOK, Pollard, A.F., The History of England: A Study in Political Evolution,weblink August 2004,
    • BOOK, Power, Eileen Edna, Medieval People,weblink 2004-08-09,
    • BOOK, Vauchez, André, Sainthood in the Later Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997, 978-0-521-44559-7, trans. Jean Birrell,

    External links

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