Jixia Academy

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Jixia Academy
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|gr=Jihshiah shyuegong|j=Zik1-haa6 hok6-gung1|y=Jīk-haah hohk-gūng|tl=Tsik-hā ha̍k-kiong}}The Jixia Academy or Academy of the Gate of ChiNeedham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China, Vol. 1, pp. 95 f. Cambridge University Press, 1956. {{ISBN|052105799X}}, 9780521057998. Accessed 2 Nov 2012. was a scholarly academy during the Warring States period. It was located in Linzi, the capital of Qi (present-day Shandong). The academy took its name from its position outside the city's western gate,Kirkland, R. Taoism: The Enduring Tradition, pp. 64 f. Routledge, 2004. {{ISBN|0203688678}}, 9780203688670. Accessed 2 Nov 2012. named for the harvest god Ji.


Based on passages in the Records of the Grand Historian,Sima Qian. Records of the Grand Historian. the academy is generally credited to King Xuan and given a foundation date around 318 BC. However, Xu Gan credited the academy to King Xuan's grandfather, Duke Huan, and Sima Qian's passages are consistent with King Xuan having restored {{ndash}} rather than established {{ndash}} the institution.Makeham, John. Name and Actuality in Early Chinese Thought, pp. 249 f. SUNY Press, 1994. {{ISBN|0791419843}}, 9780791419847. Accessed 2 Nov 2012. Although the academy has been summarized as "the first time on record a state began to act as a patron of scholarship out of the apparent conviction that this was a proper function of the state", others argue that the Huanglao political theories and the prestige produced by the project were undertaken merely to bolster the Tian clan's legitimacy following Duke Tai's overthrow of Qi's previous Jiang dynastyPeerenboom, Randall. Law and Morality in Ancient China: The Silk Manuscripts of Huang-Lao, pp. 224 ff. SUNY Press, 1993. {{ISBN|0791412377}}, 9780791412374. and Duke Huan's execution of his brother, nephew, and mother.Bamboo Annals. "(:zh:s:古本竹書紀年/魏紀|Annals of Wei)". {{zh-icon}}


Scholars {{ndash}} including the most renowned of the era {{ndash}} came from great distances to lodge in the academy: the Taoist philosophers Tian Pia, Shen Dao, Peng Meng, and possibly Zhuangzi; Zou Yan, the founder of the School of Naturalists; the Mohist philosopher Song Xing; and the Confucian philosophers Mencius,Stockwell, Foster. A History of Information Storage and Retrieval. McFarland & Company, 2001. {{ISBN|0-7864-0840-5}}. Xun Zi,Sato, Masayuki. The Confucian Quest for Order: The Origin and Formation of the Political Thought of Xun Zi. Brill (Boston), 2003. and Chunyu Kun. The famous scenes of the Mencius dealing with King Xuan arose from the philosopher's time at the academy. The Jixia Academy was also the original center of the Huanglao school and was involved with the compilation of the Guanzi essay Neiye "Inward Training" that is the oldest received writing concerning "cultivation of qi" and meditation.Harper, Donald & al. The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999. Some have argued it was the probable location for the editing and redaction that produced the current Tao Teh Ching.The academy was popular not only because of the mansions and stipends provided, but because of the honors bestowed by King Xuan: the chief scholar held the rank of "Grand Prefect"{{clarify|date=November 2012}} and other leaders of the academy were called "Master" (, xiānshēng) and honored as if they were high ministers of state (, shàngdàifū) rather than lowly scholar gentry and they were exempt from corvee. According to the anti-Confucian chapter eleven of Discourses on Salt and Iron (81 BC), "King Xuan of Qi appreciated the scholars and their teachings. Mencius, Chunyu Kun, and others neglected the high offices they were given, preferring to make speeches about affairs of state. There were more than one thousand of these scholars disputing at the Jixia Academy in Qin. You admit that people like Gongsun Hong were everywhere then." WEB,weblink Discourses on Salt and Iron, chapter XI, 1973, 25 October 2015, Traditions of Exemplary Women, Ch'eng Wen, Taipei, Taiwan, Esson W. Gale, From Discourses on Salt and Iron


The Jixia Academy thrived until the reign of King Min. In 284 BC, it was scattered by Yan's sack of Linzi. However, Sima Qian credited its example with the creation of other academies, particularly those of the Four Lords: Lord Mengchang's within Qi, as well as Lord Pingyuan's in Zhao, Lord Chunshen's in Chu, and Lord Xinling's in Wei.Kim, Hongkyung. The Old Master: A Syncretic Reading of the Laozi from the Mawangdui Text Onward. SUNY Press, 2012. {{ISBN|1438440111}}, 9781438440118. In Qin, the chancellor Lü Buwei supported thousands of scholars between 250 and 238 BC.


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