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{{About|the city in the West Bank|other uses}}{{pp|small=yes}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2013}}

Palestine grid>Palestine grid| grid_position = 193/140| subdivision_type = State| subdivision_name = State of PalestineGovernorates of the Palestinian National Authority>GovernorateJericho Governorate>Jericho| established_title = Founded| established_date = 9600 BCE| government_footnotes = List of cities in Palestinian Authority areas>City (from 1994)| leader_title = Head of MunicipalityElected City Council Municipality of Jericho {{webarchive>url= |date=5 May 2008 }}. Retrieved 8 March 2008.| unit_pref = dunam| area_footnotes = | area_total_km2 = | area_total_dunam = 58701| elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = −258| elevation_min_m = | elevation_max_m = | population_footnotes = | population_total = 20,300| population_as_of = 2006| population_note = | population_density_km2 = auto| blank_name_sec1 = Name meaning| blank_info_sec1 = "Fragrant"| website = | footnotes = }}{{History of Palestine}}Jericho ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|dÊ’|É›|r|ɪ|k|oÊŠ|}}; {{transl|ar|DIN|Arīḥā}} {{IPA-ar|Ê”aˈriːħaː||ArJericho.ogg}}; {{transl|he|DIN|Yeriḥo}}) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank. It is located in the Jordan Valley, near Jordan River to the east and Jerusalem to the west. It is the administrative seat of the Jericho Governorate, and is governed by the Palestinian National Authority.NEWS, Kershner, Isabel, 6 August 2007, Abbas hosts meeting with Olmert in West Bank city of Jericho,weblink New York Times, United Atates, 16 November 2016, In 2007, it had a population of 18,346.2007 PCBS Census {{webarchive|url= |date=10 December 2010 }}. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS). The city was occupied by Jordan from 1949 to 1967, and has been held under Israeli occupation since 1967; administrative control was handed over to the Palestinian Authority in 1994.WEB,weblink The lost Jewish presence in Jericho, Palestinian farmers ordered to leave lands Al Jazeera. 29 August 2012 It is believed to be one of the oldest inhabited cities in the worldBOOK, Gates, Charles, 2003, "Near Eastern, Egyptian, and Aegean Cities", Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome, Routledge, 18, 0-415-01895-1, "Jericho, in the Jordan River Valley in the West Bank, inhabited from ca. 9000 BC to the present day, offers important evidence for the earliest permanent settlements in the Near East.", Murphy-O'Connor, 1998, p. 288.Freedman et al., 2000, p. 689–671. and the city with the oldest known protective wall in the world.Michal Strutin, Discovering Natural Israel (2001), p. 4. It was thought to have the oldest stone tower in the world as well, but excavations at Tell Qaramel in Syria have discovered stone towers that are even older.WEB,weblink Yet another sensational discovery by Polish archaeologists in Syria, Anna ÅšlÄ…zak, Science in Poland service, Polish Press Agency, 21 June 2007, 23 February 2016, WEB,weblink Pre- and Protohistory in the Near East: Tell Qaramel (Syria), R.F. Mazurowski, Newsletter 2006, Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, Warsaw University, 2007, 23 February 2016, Archaeologists have unearthed the remains of more than 20 successive settlements in Jericho, the first of which dates back 11,000 years (9000 BCE),WEB, Akhilesh Pillalamarri, Exploring the Indus Valley's Secrets,weblink The diplomat, 18 April 2015, 18 April 2015, WEB,weblink Jericho - Facts & History, almost to the very beginning of the Holocene epoch of the Earth's history.WEB,weblink What is the oldest city in the world?, WEB,weblink The world's 20 oldest cities, Copious springs in and around the city have attracted human habitation for thousands of years.Bromiley, 1995, p. 715 Jericho is described in the Hebrew Bible as the "city of palm trees" ({{bibleref2|Deuteronomy 34:3}}).


Jericho's name in Hebrew, {{transl|he|Yeriẖo}}, is generally thought to derive from the Canaanite word reaẖ ("fragrant"), but other theories hold that it originates in the Canaanite word for "moon" (Yareaẖ) or the name of the lunar deity Yarikh for whom the city was an early centre of worship.Schreiber, 2003, p. 141.Jericho's Arabic name, {{transl|ar|DIN|ʼArīḥā}}, means "fragrant" and also has its roots in Canaanite Reaẖ.Bromiley, 1995, p. 1136.JOURNAL,weblink The Creation Account in Genesis 1:1-3, Bibliotheca Sacra 132, 1975, 327–42,

History and archaeology

{{See also|Levantine archaeology}}

History of excavations

The first excavations of the site were made by Charles Warren in 1868. Ernst Sellin and Carl Watzinger excavated Tell es-Sultan and Tulul Abu el-'Alayiq between 1907 and 1909, and in 1911, and John Garstang excavated between 1930 and 1936. Extensive investigations using more modern techniques were made by Kathleen Kenyon between 1952 and 1958. Lorenzo Nigro and Nicolò Marchetti conducted excavations in 1997–2000. Since 2009 the Italian-Palestinian archaeological project of excavation and restoration was resumed by Rome "La Sapienza" University and Palestinian MOTA-DACH under the direction of Lorenzo Nigro and Hamdan Taha, and Jehad Yasine since 2015.WEB,weblink, Tell es-Sultan/Jericho, 6 November 2018, The Italian-Palestinian Expedition carried out 13 seasons in 20 years (1997–2017), with some major discoveries, like Tower A1 in the Middle Bronze Age southern Lower Town and Palace G on the eastern flanks of the Spring Hill overlooking the Spring of 'Ain es-Sultan dating from Early Bronze III.

Stone Age: Tell es-Sultan and its spring

{{See also|Tell es-Sultan}}The earliest settlement was located at the present-day Tell es-Sultan (or Sultan's Hill), a couple of kilometers from the current city. In both Arabic and Hebrew, tell means "mound" – consecutive layers of habitation built up a mound over time, as is common for ancient settlements in the Middle East and Anatolia. Jericho is the type site for the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) periods.

Natufian hunter-gatherers, {{circa}} 10,000 BCE

(File:Calibrated Carbon 14 dates for Jericho as of 2013.jpg|thumb|Calibrated Carbon 14 dates for Jericho as of 2013.JOURNAL, Shukurov, Anvar, Sarson, Graeme R., Gangal, Kavita, The Near-Eastern Roots of the Neolithic in South Asia, PLOS ONE, 7 May 2014, 9, 5, Appendix S1, 10.1371/journal.pone.0095714,weblink en, 1932-6203, 4012948, )Epipaleolithic construction at the site appears to predate the invention of agriculture, with the construction of Natufian culture structures beginning earlier than 9000 BCE, the beginning of the Holocene epoch in geologic history.Jericho has evidence of settlement dating back to 10,000 BCE. During the Younger Dryas period of cold and drought, permanent habitation of any one location was impossible. However, the Ein es-Sultan spring at what would become Jericho was a popular camping ground for Natufian hunter-gatherer groups, who left a scattering of crescent-shaped microlith tools behind them.BOOK, Mithen, Steven, After the ice: a global human history, 20,000–5000 BCE, 2006, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 0-674-01999-7, 57, 1st Harvard University Press pbk., Around 9600 BCE, the droughts and cold of the Younger Dryas stadial had come to an end, making it possible for Natufian groups to extend the duration of their stay, eventually leading to year-round habitation and permanent settlement.

Pre-Pottery Neolithic, {{circa}} 9500-6500 BCE

{{Further|Wall of Jericho|Tower of Jericho}}File:Jerycho8.jpg|right|thumb|Dwelling foundations unearthed at Tell es-SultanTell es-SultanThe Pre-Pottery Neolithic at Jericho is divided in Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B.

Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA)

The first permanent settlement on the site of Jericho developed near the Ein es-Sultan spring between 9,500 and 9000 BCE.WEB,weblink Prehistoric Cultures, Museum of Ancient and Modern Art, 2010, 5 September 2013, WEB,weblink Ancient Jericho: Tell es-Sultan, 2012, 5 September 2013, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, As the world warmed up, a new culture based on agriculture and sedentary dwelling emerged, which archaeologists have termed "Pre-Pottery Neolithic A" (abbreviated as PPNA). Its cultures lacked pottery, but featured the following:
  • small circular dwellings
  • burial of the dead under the floor of buildings
  • reliance on hunting of wild game
  • cultivation of wild or domestic cereals
File:Ancestor Statue, Jericho, c. 9000 BC, Replica.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Ancestor Statue, Jericho, c. 9000 BC (Replica). (Israel Museum]].BOOK, Rice, Patricia C., Moloney, Norah, Biological Anthropology and Prehistory: Exploring Our Human Ancestry, 2016, Routledge, 9781317349815, 636,weblink en, )At Jericho, circular dwellings were built of clay and straw bricks left to dry in the sun, which were plastered together with a mud mortar. Each house measured about {{convert|5|m}} across, and was roofed with mud-smeared brush. Hearths were located within and outside the homes.BOOK, Mithen, Steven, After the Ice: A Global Human History, 20,000–5000 BCE, 2006, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 0-674-01999-7, 54, 1st Harvard University Press pbk., By about 9400 BCE, the town had grown to more than 70 modest dwellings.{{citation needed|date=November 2012}}File:Ziko.jpg|thumb|The 8000 BCE Tower of JerichoTower of JerichoThe Pre-Sultan(c. 8350 – 7370 BCE){{dubious|Contradicts dates given in this paragraph: "between 9,400 and 9000", "about 9400 BCE", but fits somewhat with time when the tower was used according to Barkai & Liran: "The tower was constructed and used between ≈8300 BCE and ≈7800 BCE (Burleigh 1981, 1983)." It also fits with starting date of PPNB indicated in the next paragraph.|date=February 2016}}is sometimes called Sultanian. The site is a {{convert|40000|m2}} settlement surrounded by a massive stone wall over {{convert|3.6|m}} high and {{convert|1.8|m}} wide at the base (see Wall of Jericho), inside of which stood a stone tower (see Tower of Jericho), over {{convert|8.5|m}} high, containing an internal staircase with 22 stone stepsBOOK, Mithen, Steven, After the Ice: A Global Human History, 20,000–5000 BCE, 2006, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 0-674-01999-7, 59, 1st Harvard University Press pbk., and placed in the centre of the west side of the tell.Ran Barkai and Roy Liran. "Midsummer Sunset at Neolithic Jericho". In Time and Mind: The Journal of Archaeology, Consciousness and Culture, Volume 1—Issue 3, November 2008, p. 279. DOI 10.2752/175169708X329345 This tower and the even older ones excavated at Tell Qaramel in Syria are the oldest ever to be discovered. The wall may have served as a defence against flood-water, with the tower used for ceremonial purposes. The wall and tower were built during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) period around 8000 BCE.WEB,weblink O'Sullivan, Arieh, World’s first skyscraper sought to intimidate masses, Jerusalem Post, 14 February 2011, 6 November 2018, BOOK, Kathleen M. Kenyon, Thomas A. Holland, Excavations at Jericho: The architecture and stratigraphy of the Tell: plates, p. 6,weblink 12 July 2011, 1981, British School of Archaeology, 978-0-9500542-3-0, For the tower, carbon dates published in 1981 and 1983 indicate that it was built around 8300 BCE and stayed in use until c. 7800 BCE. The wall and tower would have taken a hundred men more than a hundred days to construct, thus suggesting some kind of social organization. The town contained round mud-brick houses, yet no street planning.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 20 February 2008, Old Testament Jericho,, 20 February 2008, 31 March 2011, The identity and number of the inhabitants of Jericho during the PPNA period is still under debate, with estimates going as high as 2,000–3,000, and as low as 200–300.BOOK, Akkermans, Peter M. M, Schwartz, Glenn M., The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (c. 16,000–300 BCE), 2004, Cambridge University Press, 978-0521796668, 57, It is known that this population had domesticated emmer wheat, barley and pulses and hunted wild animals.

Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB, a period of about 1.4 millenia)

The following are Pre-Pottery Neolithic B cultural features, for the period from 7220 to 5850 BCE (though carbon-14-dates are few and early):
  • Expanded range of domesticated plants
  • Possible domestication of sheep
  • Apparent cult involving the preservation of human skulls, with facial features reconstructed using plaster, and eyes set with shells in some cases
File:Fertile crescent Neolithic B circa 7500 BC.jpg|thumb|Area of the fertile crescent, circa 7500 BC, with main sites. Jericho was a foremost site of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period. The area of MesopotamiaMesopotamiaAfter a few centuries, the first settlement was abandoned. After the PPNA settlement phase, there was a settlement hiatus of several centuries, then the PPNB settlement was founded on the eroded surface of the tell. This second settlement, established in 6800 BCE, perhaps represents the work of an invading people who absorbed the original inhabitants into their dominant culture. Artifacts dating from this period include ten plastered human skulls, painted so as to reconstitute the individuals' features. These represent either teraphim or the first example of portraiture in art history,{{dubious|reason=see Tell Awad and discussion on Jericho's talk page|date=August 2013}} and it is thought that they were kept in people's homes while the bodies were buried.Janson and Janson, 2003.The architecture consisted of rectilinear buildings made of mudbricks on stone foundations. The mudbricks were loaf-shaped with deep thumb prints to facilitate bonding. No building has been excavated in its entirety. Normally, several rooms cluster around a central courtyard. There is one big room ({{convert|6.5|x|4|m|1|abbr=on|lk=out}}{{dubious|reason=conversion via template displays unwarranted (false) precision|date=February 2018}} and {{convert|7|x|3|m|1|abbr=on|lk=out}}){{dubious|reason=conversion via template displays unwarranted (false) precision|date=February 2018}} with internal divisions; the rest are small, presumably used for storage. The rooms have red or pinkish terrazzo-floors made of lime. Some impressions of mats made of reeds or rushes have been preserved. The courtyards have clay floors.Kathleen Kenyon interpreted one building as a shrine. It contained a niche in the wall. A chipped pillar of volcanic stone that was found nearby might have fitted into this niche.The dead were buried under the floors or in the rubble fill of abandoned buildings. There are several collective burials. Not all the skeletons are completely articulated, which may point to a time of exposure before burial. A skull cache contained seven skulls. The jaws were removed and the faces covered with plaster; cowries were used as eyes. A total of ten skulls were found. Modelled skulls were found in Tell Ramad and Beisamoun as well.Other finds included flints, such as arrowheads (tanged or side-notched), finely denticulated sickle-blades, burins, scrapers, a few tranchet axes, obsidian, and green obsidian from an unknown source. There were also querns, hammerstones, and a few ground-stone axes made of greenstone. Other items discovered included dishes and bowls carved from soft limestone, spindle whorls made of stone and possible loom weights, spatulae and drills, stylised anthropomorphic plaster figures, almost life-size, anthropomorphic and theriomorphic clay figurines, as well as shell and malachite beads.In the late 4th millennium BCE, Jericho was occupied during Neolithic 2{{dubious|Neol. 2 seems to be equivalent with PPNB, which ends long before M4 BCE. Unless pottery appeared at Jericho later than M4, this is a mistake AND THIS BELONGS EITHER UNDER CHALCOLITHIC OR BRONZE AGE.|date=February 2016}} and the general character of the remains on the site link it culturally with Neolithic 2 (or PPNB) sites in the West Syrian and Middle Euphrates groups. This link is established by the presence of rectilinear mud-brick buildings and plaster floors that are characteristic of the age.

Bronze Age

A succession of settlements followed from 4500 BCE onward.File:Red terracotta Ancient Bronze period 3500-2000 BC Tell es-Sultan, ancient Jericho, Tomb A IV, Louvre Museum AO 15611.jpg|thumb|Red terracotta jar, Ancient Bronze period 3500-2000 BCE, Tell es-Sultan, ancient Jericho, Tomb A IV. Louvre MuseumLouvre Museum

Early Bronze Age

In the Early Bronze IIIA (c. 2700 – 2500/2450 BCE; Sultan IIIC1), the settlement reached its largest extent around 2600 BCE.During Early Bronze IIIB (c. 2500/2450–2350 BCE; Sultan IIIC2) there was a Palace G on Spring Hill and city walls.

Middle Bronze Age

{{for|the Biblical battle|Battle of Jericho}}Jericho was continually occupied into the Middle Bronze Age; it was destroyed in the Late Bronze Age, after which it no longer served as an urban centre. The city was surrounded by extensive defensive walls strengthened with rectangular towers, and possessed an extensive cemetery with vertical shaft-tombs and underground burial chambers; the elaborate funeral offerings in some of these may reflect the emergence of local kings.{{sfn|Kuijt|2012|p=167}}During the Middle Bronze Age, Jericho was a small prominent city of the Canaan region, reaching its greatest Bronze Age extent in the period from 1700 to 1550 BCE. It seems to have reflected the greater urbanization in the area at that time, and has been linked to the rise of the Maryannu, a class of chariot-using aristocrats linked to the rise of the Mitannite state to the north. Kathleen Kenyon reported "the Middle Bronze Age is perhaps the most prosperous in the whole history of Kna'an. ... The defenses ... belong to a fairly advanced date in that period" and there was "a massive stone revetment ... part of a complex system" of defenses.BOOK, Kenyon, Kathleen Mary, Kathleen Kenyon, Digging Up Jericho,weblink Ernest Benn Limited, 1957, London, England, 978-0510033118, 213–218, 26 February 2018, English, Bronze Age Jericho fell in the 16th century at the end of the Middle Bronze Age, the calibrated carbon remains from its City-IV destruction layer dating to 1617–1530 BCE. Notably this carbon dating {{circa}} 1573 BCE confirmed the accuracy of the stratigraphical dating {{circa}} 1550 by Kenyon.

Late Bronze Age

There was evidence of a small settlement in the Late Bronze Age ({{circa}} 1400s BCE) on the site, but erosion and destruction from previous excavations have erased significant parts of this layer.BOOK, Miriam C Davis, Dame Kathleen Kenyon: Digging Up the Holy Land,weblink Routledge, 1315430673, 121,126, 129,

Iron Age

Tell es-Sultan remained unoccupied from the end of the 15th to the 10th–9th centuries BCE, when the city was rebuilt.{{sfn|Jacobs|2000|p=691}}BOOK, Dever, William G., Recent Archeological Discoveries and Biblical Research,weblink 7 January 2013, 1990, 1989, University of Washington Press, US, 0-295-97261-0, 47, 2. The Israelite Settlement in Canaan. New Archeological Models, (Of course, for some, that only made the Biblical story more miraculous than ever—Joshua destroyed a city that wasn't even there!), Of this new city not much more remains than a four-room house on the eastern slope.BOOK, Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land, Jericho, Avraham Negev and Shimon Gibson, 2001, New York and London, Continuum, 259, 0-8264-1316-1, By the 7th century, Jericho had become an extensive town, but this settlement was destroyed in the Babylonian conquest of Judah in the late 6th century.{{sfn|Jacobs|2000|p=691}}

Persian and Early Hellenistic periods

After the destruction of the Judahite city by the Babylonians in the late 6th century,{{sfn|Jacobs|2000|p=691}} whatever was rebuilt in the Persian period as part of the Restoration after the Babylonian captivity, left only very few remains. The tell was abandoned as a place of settlement not long after this period. During the Persian through Hellenistic periods, there is little in terms of occupation attested throughout the region.{{sfn|Jacobs|2000|p=691}}Jericho went from being an administrative centre of Yehud Medinata ("the Province of Judah") under Persian rule to serving as the private estate of Alexander the Great between 336 and 323 BCE after his conquest of the region.{{citation needed|date=February 2016}} In the middle of the 2nd century BCE Jericho was under Hellenistic rule of the Seleucid Empire, when the Syrian General Bacchides built a number of forts to strengthen the defences of the area around Jericho against the revolt by the Macabees.1 Maccabees 9:50 One of these forts, built at the entrance to Wadi Qelt, was later refortified by Herod the Great, who named it Kypros after his mother.Murphy-O'Connor, 1998, pp. 289–291.

Hasmonean and Herodian periods

{{Further|Jericho royal winter palaces}}After the abandonment of the Tell es-Sultan location, the new Jericho of the Late Hellenistic or Hasmonean and Early Roman or Herodian periods, was established as a garden city in the vicinity of the royal estate at Tulul Abu el-'Alayiq and expanded greatly thanks to the intensive exploitation of the springs of the area. The new site consists of a group of low mounds on both banks of Wadi Qelt.{{sfn|Jacobs|2000|p=691}} The Hasmoneans were a dynasty descending from a priestly group (kohanim) from the tribe of Levi, who ruled over Judea following the success of the Maccabean Revolt until Roman influence over the region brought Herod to claim the Hasmonean throne.Magnusson, Magnus (1977). Archaeology of the Bible. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 219. {{ISBN|9780671240103}}.The rock-cut tombs of a Herodian- and Hasmonean-era cemetery lie in the lowest part of the cliffs between Nuseib al-Aweishireh and Jabal Quruntul in Jericho and were used between 100 BCE and 68 CE.

Herodian period

File:Jerycho50.jpg|thumb|right|Remains from Herod's palace]]Herod had to lease back the royal estate at Jericho from Cleopatra, after Mark Antony had given it to her as a gift. After their joint suicide in 30 BCE, Octavian assumed control of the Roman Empire and granted Herod absolute rule over Jericho, as part of the new Herodian domain. Herod's rule oversaw the construction of a hippodrome-theatre (Tell es-Samrat) to entertain his guests and new aqueducts to irrigate the area below the cliffs and reach his winter palaces built at the site of Tulul Abu el-Alaiq (also written 'Alayiq). In 2008 the Israel Exploration Society published an illustrated volume of Herod's third Jericho palace.Silvia Rozenberg; Ehud Netzer (2008). Hasmonean and Herodian palaces at Jericho: final reports of the 1973–1987 excavations. 4, "The decoration of Herod's third palace at Jericho". Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society: Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. {{ISBN|9789652210715}}. WorldCat websiteThe dramatic murder of Aristobulus III in a swimming pool at the winter palaces near Jericho, as described by the Roman Jewish historian Josephus, took place during a banquet organized by Herod's Hasmonean mother-in-law. After the construction of the palaces, the city had functioned not only as an agricultural center and as a crossroad, but also as a winter resort for Jerusalem's aristocracy.Jericho - (Ariha) {{Webarchive|url= |date=7 March 2016 }} Studium Biblicum Franciscum - Jerusalem.Herod was succeeded in Judea by his son, Herod Archelaus, who built a village in his name not far to the north, Archelaïs (modern Khirbet al-Beiyudat), to house workers for his date plantation.{{citation needed|date=February 2016}}First-century Jericho is described in Strabo's Geography as follows:

In the New Testament

(File:El Greco - Christ Healing the Blind - WGA10420.jpg|thumb|250px|Christ Healing the Blind in Jericho, El Greco)The Christian Gospels state that Jesus of Nazareth passed through Jericho where he healed blind beggars ({{Bibleref2|Matthew 20:29}}), and inspired a local chief tax-collector named Zacchaeus to repent of his dishonest practices ({{Bibleref2|Luke 19:1–10}}). The road between Jerusalem and Jericho is the setting for the Parable of the Good Samaritan.WEB,weblink The Parable of the Good Samaritan Luke 10:25,, 31 March 2011, John Wesley, in his New Testament Notes on this section of Luke's Gospel, claimed that "about twelve thousand priests and Levites dwelt there, who all attended the service of the temple".Wesley, J., Notes on The Gospel According to St LukeSmith's Bible Names Dictionary suggests that on the arrival of Jesus and his entourage, "Jericho was once more 'a city of palms' when our Lord visited it. Here he restored sight to the blind (Matthew 20:30; Mark 10:46; Luke 18:35). Here the descendant of Rahab did not disdain the hospitality of Zaccaeus the publican. Finally, between Jerusalem and Jericho was laid the scene of his story of the good Samaritan."Smith's Bible Names Dictionary: Jericho, accessed 6 February 2017.

Roman province

After the fall of Jerusalem to Vespasian's armies in the Great Revolt of Judea in 70 CE, Jericho declined rapidly, and by 100 CE it was but a small Roman garrison town. A fort was built there in 130 and played a role in putting down the Bar Kochba revolt in 133.

Byzantine period

(File:PikiWiki Israel 15003 Jericho synagogue mosaic.JPG|thumb|250px|Copy of Mosaic of the Shalom Al Yisrael Synagogue, 6th–7th century CE)Accounts of Jericho by a Christian pilgrim are given in 333. Shortly thereafter the built-up area of the town was abandoned and a Byzantine Jericho, Ericha, was built 1600 metres (1 mi) to the east, on which the modern town is centered.Losch, 2005, p. 117–118. Christianity took hold in the city during the Byzantine era and the area was heavily populated. A number of monasteries and churches were built, including St George of Koziba in 340 AD and a domed church dedicated to Saint Eliseus. At least two synagogues were also built in the 6th century CE. The monasteries were abandoned after the Persian invasion of 614.The Jericho Synagogue in the Royal Maccabean winter palace at Jericho dates from 70–50 BCE.A synagogue dating to the late 6th or early 7th century CE was discovered in Jericho in 1936, and was named Shalom Al Yisrael Synagogue, or "peace unto Israel", after the central Hebrew motto in its mosaic floor. It was controlled by Israel after the Six Day War, but after the handover to Palestinian Authority control per the Oslo Accords, it has been a source of conflict. On the night of 12 October 2000, the synagogue was vandalized by Palestinians who burned holy books and relics and damaged the mosaic.WEB,weblink The Palestinian Authority and the Jewish Holy Sites, JCPA, 21 February 2010, WEB,weblink Jewish life in Jericho,, 5 May 2009, The Na'aran synagogue, another Byzantine era construction, was discovered on the northern outskirts of Jericho in 1918. While less is known of it than Shalom Al Yisrael, it has a larger mosaic and is in similar condition.

Early Muslim period

{{Further|Hisham's Palace}}File:Arabischer Mosaizist um 735 001.jpg|right|thumb|Arabic Umayyad mosaic from Hisham's PalaceHisham's PalaceJericho, by then named "Ariha" in Arabic variation, became part of Jund Filastin ("Military District of Palestine"), part of the larger province of Bilad al-Sham. The Arab Muslim historian Musa b. 'Uqba (died 758) recorded that caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab exiled the Jews and Christians of Khaybar to Jericho (and Tayma).Several hadith collections: e.g. Bukhari, Sahih as translated Muḥammad Muḥsin Khân, The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih al-Bukhari (India: Kitab Bhavan, 1987) 3.39.531 and 4.53.380, and Muslim Sahih trans. Abdul Hamid Siddiqui (Lahore: Kazi Publications, 1976) 10.3763.By 659, that district had come under the control of Mu'awiya, founder of the Umayyad dynasty. That year, an earthquake destroyed Jericho.The Maronite Chronicle, written during Mu'awiya's caliphate. Note that for propaganda reasons it dates the earthquake to the wrong year: Andrew Palmer, The Seventh Century in the West-Syrian Chronicles (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1993), 30, 31, 32. A decade later, the pilgrim Arculf visited Jericho and found it in ruins, all its "miserable Canaanite" inhabitants now dispersed in shanty towns around the Dead Sea shore."The Pilgrimage of Arculf in the Holy Land", De Locis Sanctis as translated by Rev. James Rose MacPherson (W. London: BD. 24, Hanover Square, 1895), ch. I.11.A palatial complex long attributed to the tenth Umayyad caliph, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (r. 724–743) and thus known as Hisham's Palace, is located at Khirbet al-Mafjar, about 1.5 kilometres (1 mi) north of Tell es-Sultan. This "desert castle" or qasr was more likely built by Caliph Walid ibn Yazid (r. 743–744), who was assassinated before he could complete the construction.Jerome Murphy-O’Connor, The Holy Land: An Oxford Archaeological Guide from Earliest Times to 1700, Oxford University Press 2008, pp. 342–344. The remains of two mosques, a courtyard, mosaics, and other items can still be seen in situ today. The unfinished structure was largely destroyed in an earthquake in 747.Umayyad rule ended in 750 and was followed by the Arab caliphates of the Abbasid and Fatimid dynasties. Irrigated agriculture was developed under Islamic rule, reaffirming Jericho's reputation as a fertile "City of the Palms".Shahin, 2005, p. 285. Al-Maqdisi, the Arab geographer, wrote in 985 that "the water of Jericho is held to be the highest and best in all Islam. Bananas are plentiful, also dates and flowers of fragrant odor".Shahin, 2005, p. 283. Jericho is also referred to by him as one of the principal cities of Jund quoted in Le Strange, 1890, p. 39The city flourished until 1071 with the invasion of the Seljuk Turks, followed by the upheavals of the Crusades.{{citation needed|date=August 2012}}

Crusader period

In 1179, the Crusaders rebuilt the Monastery of St. George of Koziba, at its original site 10 kilometres (6 mi) from the center of town. They also built another two churches and a monastery dedicated to John the Baptist, and are credited with introducing sugarcane production to the city.Hull, 1855. The site of Tawahin es-Sukkar (lit. "sugar mills") holds remains of a Crusader sugar production facility. In 1187, the Crusaders were evicted by the Ayyubid forces of Saladin after their victory in the Battle of Hattin, and the town slowly went into decline.

Ayyubid and Mamluk periods

(File:Map of Jericho in 14c Farhi Bible by Elisha ben Avraham Crescas.jpg|thumb|14th century map of Jericho in Farchi Bible)In 1226, Arab geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi said of Jericho, "it has many palm trees, also sugarcane in quantities, and bananas. The best of all the sugar in the Ghaur land is made here." In the 14th century, Abu al-Fida writes there are sulfur mines in Jericho, "the only ones in Palestine".al-Hamawi and Abu-l Fida quoted in Le Strange, 1890, p. 397

Ottoman period

(File:Jerico1.jpg|thumb|right|Postcard image depicting Jericho in the late 19th or early 20th century)

16th century

Jericho was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517 with all of Palestine, and in 1545 a revenue of 19,000 Akçe was recorded, destined for the new Waqf for the Haseki Sultan Imaret of Jerusalem.Singer, 2002, pp. 50, 52 The villagers processed indigo as one source of revenue, using a cauldron specifically for this purpose that was loaned to them by the Ottoman authorities in Jerusalem.Singer, 2002, p. 120 Later that century, the Jericho revenues no longer went to the Haseki Sultan Imaret.Singer, 2002, p. 126In 1596 Jericho appeared in the tax registers under the name of Riha, being in the nahiya of Al-Quds in the liwa of Al-Quds. It had a population of 51 household, all Muslims. They paid a fixed tax-rate of 33,3% on agricultural products, including wheat, barley, summer crops, vineyards and fruit trees, goats and beehives, water buffaloes, in addition to occasional revenues; a total of 40,000 Akçe. All of the revenue still went to a Waqf.Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 114

17th century

The French traveller Laurent d'Arvieux described the city in 1659 as "now desolate, and consists only of about fifty poor houses, in bad condition ... The plain around is extremely fertile; the soil is middling fat; but it is watered by several rivulets, which flow into the Jordan. Notwithstanding these advantages only the gardens adjacent to the town are cultivated."Graham, 1836, p. 122

19th century

In the 19th century, European scholars, archaeologists and missionaries visited often. At the time it was an oasis in a poor state, similar to other regions in the plains and deserts.Ben-Arieh, Yehoshua. "The Sanjak of Jerusalem in the 1870s". In Cathedra, 36. Jerusalem: Yad Yitzhak Ben Zvi. 1985. pp. 80–82 Edward Robinson (1838) reported 50 families, which were about 200 people,Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol. 2, p. 280 Titus Tobler (1854) reported some 30 poor huts, whose residents paid a total of 3611 Kuruş in tax.Titus Tobler, Topographie von Jerusalem und seinen Umgebungen, Berlin, 1853–1854, p. 642 Abraham Samuel Herschberg (1858-1943) also reported after his 1899-1900 travels in the regionENCYCLOPEDIA, Herschberg, Abraham Samuel (1858–1943), Encyclopaedia Judaica, Fred Skolnik (editor in chief), 42-43, 9, 2nd, Keter, Thomson Gale, 2007, 978-0-02-865930-5,weblink 23 May 2019, of some 30 poor huts and 300 residents.A. s. Hershberg, In the Land of the East, Vilna 1899, p. 469 At that time, Jericho was the residence of the region's Turkish governor. The main water sources for the village were a spring called Ein al-Sultan, lit. "Sultan's Spring", in Arabic and Ein Elisha, lit. "Elisha Spring", in Hebrew, and springs in Wadi Qelt.J. S. Buckingham (1786-1855) describes in his 1822 book how the male villagers of er-Riha, although nominally sedentary, engaged in Bedouin-style raiding, or ghazzu: the little land cultivation he observed was done by women and children, while men spent most of their time riding through the plains and engaging in "robbery and plunder", their main and most profitable activity.BOOK, Near Eastern Tribal Societies During the Nineteenth Century: Economy, Society and Politics Between Tent and Town, Raiding and robbing, Eveline, van der Steen, Routledge, 2014, 9781317543473,weblink 23 May 2019, An Ottoman village list from around 1870 showed that Riha, Jericho, had 36 houses and a population of 105, though the population count included men, only.Socin, 1879, p. 159Hartmann, 1883, p. 124, noted 34 housesThe first excavation at Tell es-Sultan was carried out in 1867.


The Greek Orthodox monasteries of Monastery of St. George of Choziba and John the Baptist were refounded and completed in 1901 and 1904, respectively.(File:Air views of Palestine. Air route following the old Jerusalem-Jericho Road. Modern Jericho. Taken above the Ain Sultan road looking S. LOC matpc.22116.jpg|250px|thumb|Jericho from the air in 1931)

British Mandate period

During World War II The British built fortresses in Jericho with the help of the Jewish company Solel Boneh, and bridges were rigged with explosives in preparation for a possible invasion by German allied forces.Friling and Cummings, 2005, p. 65. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I, Jericho came under the rule of the Mandatory Palestine.According to the 1922 census of Palestine, Jericho had 1,029 inhabitants, consisting of 931 Muslims, 6 Jews and 92 Christians;Barron, 1923, Table VII, Sub-district of Jericho, p. 19 where the Christians were 45 Orthodox, 12 Roman Catholics, 13 Greek Catholics (Melchites), 6 Syrian Catholic, 11 Armenians, 4 Copts and 1 Church of England.Barron, 1923, Table XIV, p. 45In 1927, an earthquake struck and affected Jericho and other cities. Around 300 people died,WEB,weblink Israel hit by fifth minor quake in a week, Ya Libnan, 22 October 2013, 27 December 2013, but by the 1931 census the population had increased to 1,693 inhabitants, in 347 houses.Mills, 1932, p. 45In the 1945 statistics, the Jericho's population was 3,010; 2,570 Muslims, 170 Jews, 260 Christians and 10 classified as "other",Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 24 and it had jurisdiction over 37,481 dunams of land.Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 57 Of this, 948 dunams were used for citrus and bananas, 5,873 dunams were for plantations and irrigable land, 9,141 for cereals,Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 102 while a total of 38 dunams were urban, built-up areas.Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 153

Jordanian period

Jericho came under Jordanian control after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. The Jericho Conference, organized by King Abdullah and attended by over 2,000 Palestinian delegates in 1948 proclaimed "His Majesty Abdullah as King of all Palestine" and called for "the unification of Palestine and Transjordan as a step toward full Arab unity". In mid-1950, Jordan formally annexed the West Bank and Jericho residents, like other residents of West Bank localities became Jordanian citizens.Benvenisti, 1998, pp. 27-28.In 1961, the population of Jericho was 10,166,Government of Jordan, 1964, p. 13 of whom 935 were Christian, the rest Muslim.Government of Jordan, Department of Statistics, 1964, pp. 115-116

1967, aftermath

Jericho has been occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War of 1967 along with the rest of the West Bank. It was the first city handed over to Palestinian Authority control in accordance with the Oslo Accords.WEB,weblink At 10th anniversary, a far poorer Palestinian Authority, Ilene R., Prusher, 14 September 2004, Christian Science Monitor, The limited Palestinian self-rule of Jericho was agreed on in the Gaza–Jericho Agreement of 4 May 1994. Part of the agreement was a "Protocol on Economic Relations", signed on 29 April 1994.NEWS, Simons, Marlise,weblink Gaza-Jericho Economic Accord Signed by Israel and Palestinians, Jericho (West Bank); Middle East; Gaza Strip, New York Times, 30 April 1994, 31 March 2011, The city is in an enclave of the Jordan Valley that is in Area A of the West Bank, while the surrounding area is designated as being in Area C under full Israeli military control. Four roadblocks encircle the enclave, restricting Jericho's Palestinian population's movement through the West Bank.{{citation|last=Ġānim|first=AsÊ»ad|title=Palestinian Politics After Arafat: A Failed National Movement|publisher=Indiana University Press|year=2010|page=35|isbn=9780253354273}}In response to the 2001 Second Intifada and suicide bombings, Jericho was re-occupied by Israeli troops. A {{convert|2|m|adj=on}} deep trench was built around a large part of the city to control Palestinian traffic to and from Jericho.ARIJ & LRC, 20 March 2001, The Tightening of the Siege on Jericho: Israel Employs a New Policy of Trench Digging {{webarchive|url= |date=13 June 2013 }}On 14 March 2006, the Israel Defense Forces launched Operation Bringing Home the Goods, raiding a Jericho prison to capture the PFLP general secretary, Ahmad Sa'adat, and five other prisoners, all of whom had been charged with assassinating the Israeli tourist minister Rehavam Zeevi in 2001.Israel holds militant after siege 14 March 2006 BBC NewsAfter Hamas assaulted a neighborhood in Gaza mostly populated by the Fatah-aligned Hilles clan, in response to their attack that killed six Hamas members, the Hilles clan was relocated to Jericho on 4 August 2008.Jerusalem Post {{webarchive|url= |date=11 May 2011 }} 4 August 2008 IDF: Hilles clan won't boost terrorism Yaacov Katz And Khaled Abu ToamehIn 2009, Palestinian Authority Prime Minister Salam Fayyad and U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs David Johnson inaugurated the Presidential Guard Training Center in Jericho, a $9.1 million training facility for Palestinian Authority security forces built with U.S. funding.WEB,weblink Training Center for Palestinian Authority Security Forces Opens in Jericho, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 February 2013, dmy-all, The city's current mayor is Hassan Saleh, a former lawyer.

Geography and climate

(File:Jerycho9.jpg|thumb|200px|Jericho cable car)Jericho is located {{convert|258|m|ft}} below sea level in an oasis in Wadi Qelt in the Jordan Valley, which makes it the lowest city in the world.BOOK, Holman Christian Standard Bible, Holman, The Holman Illustrated Study Bible-HCSB,weblink Broadman & Holman, 1391, 15 September 2006, 1586402765, The nearby spring of Ein es-Sultan produces 3.8 m3 (1,000 gallons) of water per minute, irrigating some {{convert|2500|acre|km2|order=flip}} through multiple channels and feeding into the Jordan River, {{convert|6|mi|0|order=flip}} away.Ring et al., 1994, p. 367–370. Annual rainfall is {{convert|204|mm|abbr=on}}, mostly concentrated in the winter months and into early spring. The average temperature is {{convert|11|C}} in January and {{convert|31|C}} in July.According to the Köppen climate classification, Jericho has a hot desert climate (BWh). Rich alluvial soil and abundant spring water have made Jericho an attractive place for settlement.{{Weather box|width = auto|location = Jericho|metric first = yes|single line = yes| Jan high C = 19.0| Feb high C = 20.6| Mar high C = 24.4| Apr high C = 29.5| May high C = 34.4| Jun high C = 37.0| Jul high C = 38.6| Aug high C = 37.9| Sep high C = 35.8| Oct high C = 32.7| Nov high C = 28.1| Dec high C = 21.4|year high C = 30.0| Jan mean C = 10.7| Feb mean C = 12.6| Mar mean C = 16.3| Apr mean C = 22.4| May mean C = 26.6| Jun mean C = 30.4| Jul mean C = 30.9| Aug mean C = 30.4| Sep mean C = 28.6| Oct mean C = 25.8| Nov mean C = 22.8| Dec mean C = 16.9|year mean C = 22.9| Jan low C = 4.4| Feb low C = 5.9| Mar low C = 9.6| Apr low C = 13.6| May low C = 18.2| Jun low C = 20.2| Jul low C = 21.9| Aug low C = 21.1| Sep low C = 20.5| Oct low C = 17.6| Nov low C = 16.6| Dec low C = 11.6|year low C = 15.1| precipitation colour = green| Jan precipitation mm = 59| Feb precipitation mm = 44| Mar precipitation mm = 20| Apr precipitation mm = 4| May precipitation mm = 1| Jun precipitation mm = 0| Jul precipitation mm = 0| Aug precipitation mm = 1| Sep precipitation mm = 2| Oct precipitation mm = 3| Nov precipitation mm = 5| Dec precipitation mm = 65|year precipitation mm = 204| Jan humidity = 77| Feb humidity = 81| Mar humidity = 74| Apr humidity = 62| May humidity = 49| Jun humidity = 50| Jul humidity = 51| Aug humidity = 57| Sep humidity = 52| Oct humidity = 56| Nov humidity = 54| Dec humidity = 74| year humidity = 61| Jan sun = 189.1| Feb sun = 186.5| Mar sun = 244.9| Apr sun = 288.0| May sun = 362.7| Jun sun = 393.0| Jul sun = 418.5| Aug sun = 396.8| Sep sun = 336.0| Oct sun = 294.5| Nov sun = 249.0| Dec sun = 207.7|year sun = | Jand sun = 6.1| Febd sun = 6.6| Mard sun = 7.9| Aprd sun = 9.6| Mayd sun = 11.7| Jund sun = 13.1| Juld sun = 13.5| Augd sun = 12.8| Sepd sun = 11.2| Octd sun = 9.5| Novd sun = 8.3| Decd sun = 6.7|yeard sun = 9.8|source 1 = Arab Meteorology BookWEB,weblink Appendix I: Meteorological Data, Springer, 25 October 2015, |date=August 2010}}


(File:PikiWiki Israel 1536 Jericho municipality עיריית יריחו.jpg|thumb|Municipality of Jericho, 1967)In the first census carried out by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), in 1997, Jericho's population was 14,674. Palestinian refugees constituted a significant 43.6% of the residents or 6,393 people.Palestinian Population by Locality and Refugee Status {{webarchive|url= |date=18 November 2008 }} Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS). The gender make-up of the city was 51% male and 49% female. Jericho has a young population, with nearly half (49.2%) of the inhabitants being under the age of 20. People between the ages of 20 and 44 made up 36.2% of the population, 10.7% between the ages of 45 and 64, and 3.6% were over the age of 64.Palestinian Population by Locality, Sex and Age Groups in Years {{webarchive|url= |date=14 June 2008 }} (PCBS). In the 2007 census by the PCBS, Jericho had a population of 18,346.Demographics have varied widely depending on the dominant ethnic group and rule in the region over the past three thousand years. In a 1945 land and population survey by Sami Hadawi, 3,010 inhabitants is the figure given for Jericho, of which 94% (2840) were Arab and 6% (170) were Jews.Hadawi, 1970, p.57Today, the overwhelming majority of the population is Muslim.{{Citation|first=Dan|last=Fisher|url=|title=World's Oldest City Retains Lure : Biblical Jericho: Winter Oasis for the West Bank|work=Los Angeles Times|date=2 February 1987}} The Christian community makes up around 1% of the population.WEB,weblink HOLY LAND/ Jericho: A small Christian community and their school, A large community of black Palestinians is present in Jericho.


(File:PikiWiki Israel 1539 The market of Jericho השוק ביריחו.jpg|thumb|250px|Jericho marketplace, 1967)In 1994, Israel and the Palestinians signed an economic accord that enabled Palestinians in Jericho to open banks, collect taxes and engage in export and import in preparation for self-rule.WEB,weblink Gaza-Jericho Economic Accord Signed by Israel and Palestinians, Marlise, Simons, 30 April 1994,,


In 2010, Jericho, with its proximity to the Dead Sea, was declared the most popular destination among Palestinian tourists.WEB,weblink Palestinians aim to push tourism beyond Bethlehem, By Gavin Rabinowitz, in Bethlehem for, AFP, In 1998, a $150 million casino-hotel was built in Jericho with the backing of Yasser Arafat.WEB,weblink Walls going up in Jericho -- construction of casino-hotel Palestinians, Israelis have role in project, The casino is now closed, though the hotel on the premises is open for guests.

Biblical and Christian tourism

Christian tourism is one of Jericho's primary sources of income. There are several major Christian pilgrimage sites in and around Jericho.

Archaeological tourism

The archaeological sites in and near Jericho have a high potential for attracting tourists. These are dealt with in detail in the History and archaeology paragraph:


Agriculture is another source of income, with banana groves ringing the city.The Jericho Agro-Industrial Park is a public-private enterprise being developed in the Jericho area. Agricultural processing companies are being offered financial concessions to lease plots of land in the park in a bid to boost Jericho's economy.WEB,weblink Jericho business park aims to inch Palestine towards sustainability, Liz, Ford, 18 June 2012, The Guardian,

Schools and religious institutions

In 1925, Christian friars opened a school for 100 pupils that became the Terra Santa School. The city has 22 state schools and a number of private schools.

Health care

In April 2010, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) held a groundbreaking ceremony for the renovation of the Jericho Governmental Hospital. USAID is providing $2.5 million in funding for this project.WEB,weblink USAID to Renovate the Jericho Governmental Hospital, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 March 2011, dmy-all,


The sports team Hilal Areeha plays association football in the West Bank First Division. They play home games in the 15,000 spectator Jericho International Stadium.WEB,weblink World Stadiums - Stadiums in Palestine,, (File:Jericho Panorama.jpg|thumb|center|800px|Panorama of Jericho)

Twin towns – sister cities

{{Refimprove section|date=February 2015}}{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in the Palestinian territories}}Jericho is twinned with:{{div col|colwidth=30em}}
  • {{flagicon|BRA}} Campinas in São Paulo, Brazil
  • {{flagicon|HUN}} Eger in Hungary(since 2013)WEB,weblink Jerikó lett Eger új testvérvárosa,, 7 September 2013,
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Alessandria in Alessandria, Piedmont, Italy (since 2004)
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Pisa in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy (since 2000)WEB,weblink Pisa - Official Sister Cities, Comune di Pisa, Via degli Uffizi, 1 - 56100 Pisa centralino: +39 050 910111, 16 December 2008,
  • {{flagicon|NOR}} Lærdal in Norway(since 1998)
  • {{flagicon|ROM}} IaÅŸi in Romania
  • {{flagicon|SRB}} Kragujevac in SerbiaWEB,weblink Kragujevac Twin Cities, 2009 Information service of Kragujevac City, 21 February 2009,
  • {{flagicon|USA}} Calipatria, California in the USA
{{div col end}}

Notable residents

In popular culture

Jericho was featured in episode 20 of the American TV show The Time Tunnel, "The Walls Of Jericho", first aired in 1967.

See also

Listed alphabetically by first word, disregarding the article.



  • BOOK, Barron, J.B., Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922,weblink Government of Palestine, 1923,
  • BOOK, City of Stone: The Hidden History of Jerusalem, Meron Benvenisti, M., Benvenisti, University of California Press, 1998, 978-0-520-20768-4,
  • BOOK, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: E-J, G.W., Bromiley, Geoffrey W. Bromiley, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1995, 978-0-8028-3782-0,
  • BOOK, Conder, C.R., Claude Reignier Conder, Kitchener, H.H., Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, 1883,weblink The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology, London, Palestine Exploration Fund, Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 3, pp. 173, 174, 181, 183, 231, 507;
  • BOOK, Dauphin, Claudine, La Palestine byzantine, Peuplement et Populations,weblink III : Catalogue, BAR International Series 726, 1998, Archeopress, Oxford, French, 0-860549-05-4,
  • BOOK, Village Statistics, April, 1945,weblink Department of Statistics, 1945, Government of Palestine,
  • BOOK, Israel Finkelstein, Finkelstein, I., Neil Asher Silberman, Silberman, N.A., The Bible Unearthed, Touchstone, 2002, 0-684-86913-6,
  • BOOK, Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, David Noel Freedman, D.N., Freedman, Allen C., Myers, Astrid B., Beck, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2000, 978-0-8028-2400-4,
  • BOOK, Arrows in the Dark: David Ben-Gurion, the Yishuv Leadership, and Rescue Attempts During the Holocaust, Tuvia, Friling, Ora, Cummings, University of Wisconsin Press, 2005, 978-0-299-17550-4,
  • BOOK, Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome., Gates, Charles, 2003,
  • BOOK, First Census of Population and Housing. Volume I: Final Tables; General Characteristics of the Population, Government of Jordan, Department of Statistics, 1964,weblink
  • BOOK, A topographical dictionary of Palestine,weblink Graham, Peter, 1836, London,
  • BOOK, Guérin, V., Victor Guérin, Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine,weblink 2: Samarie, pt. 1, 1874, L'Imprimerie Nationale, Paris, French,
  • BOOK, Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine,weblink S., Hadawi, Sami Hadawi, 1970, Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center,
  • JOURNAL, Hartmann, M., Martin Hartmann, Die Ortschaftenliste des Liwa Jerusalem in dem türkischen Staatskalender für Syrien auf das Jahr 1288 der Flucht (1871), Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins, 6, 102–149,weblink 1883,
  • BOOK, Holman Illustrated Study Bible-HCSB: Holman Christian Standard Bible, Broadman & Holman Publishers, Holman, 2006, 978-1-58640-275-4,
  • BOOK, Mount Seir, Sinai and Western Palestine, Edward, Hull, 1855, Richard Bently and Sons,weblink
  • BOOK, Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter, Kamal, Abdulfattah, Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century,weblink 1977, Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft, 3-920405-41-2,
  • BOOK, Jacobs, Paul F., Jericho, Freedman, David Noel, Myers, Allen C., Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, 2000, Eerdmans,weblink harv
  • BOOK, History of Art: The Western Tradition, Horst Woldemar, Janson, Anthony F., Janson, Prentice Hall, 2003, 0-13-182895-9,
  • BOOK, Digging Up Jericho, Kathleen Kenyon, K., Kenyon, 1957,
  • BOOK, The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, Kuijt, Ian, 2012,weblink
  • BOOK, The Uttermost Part of the Earth: A Guide to Places in the Bible, Richard R., Losch, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2005, 978-0-8028-2805-7,
  • BOOK, The Holy Land: An Oxford Archaeological Guide from Earliest Times to 1700, J., Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, Oxford University Press, 1998, 978-0-19-288013-0,
  • BOOK, Mills, E., Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas,weblink Government of Palestine, Jerusalem, 1932,
  • BOOK, Palmer, E.H., Edward Henry Palmer, 1881,weblink The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer, Palestine Exploration Fund, Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund,
  • BOOK, International dictionary of historic places, Trudy, Ring, Robert M., Salkin, K. A., Berney, Paul E., Schellinger, Taylor & Francis, 1994, 978-1-884964-03-9,
  • BOOK, Robinson, E., Edward Robinson (scholar), Smith, E., Eli Smith, 1856,weblink Biblical Researches in Palestine and adjacent regions: A Journal of Travels in the years 1838 and 1852, 2nd edition, London, John Murray (publisher), John Murray, 2,
  • BOOK, Amazing Archaeologists and Their Finds, William, Scheller, The Oliver Press, Inc., 1994, 978-1-881508-17-5,
  • JOURNAL, Schick, C., Conrad Schick, Zur Einwohnerzahl des Bezirks Jerusalem, Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins, 19, 120–127,weblink 1896,
  • BOOK, The Shengold Jewish Encyclopedia, Mordecai, Schreiber, Alvin I., Schiff, Leon, Klenicki, Schreiber Pub., 2003, 978-1-887563-77-2,
  • BOOK, Palestine: A Guide, Mariam, Shahin, 2005, Interlink Books, 978-1-56656-557-8,weblink
  • BOOK, Singer, A., Amy Singer (historian), Constructing Ottoman Beneficence: An Imperial Soup Kitchen in Jerusalem,weblink 2002, State University of New York Press, Albany, 0-7914-5352-9,
  • JOURNAL, Socin, A., Albert Socin, Alphabetisches Verzeichniss von Ortschaften des Paschalik Jerusalem, Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins, 2, 135–163,weblink 1879,
  • Stacey, D. 'Hedonists or pragmatic agriculturalists? Reassessing Hasmonean Jericho', Levant, 38 (2006), 191–202.
  • BOOK, Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500,weblink G., Strange, le, Guy Le Strange, 1890, Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund,

External links

{{wikivoyage|Jericho}} {{Jericho Governorate}}{{Cities in the West Bank}}{{New Testament places associated with Jesus}}{{Characters and names in the Quran}}{{Ark of the Covenant}}

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Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott