Jan Hus

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Jan Hus
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{{for|the films|Jan Hus (1954 film)|Jan Hus (2015 film)}}{{use dmy dates|date=July 2012}}

Husinec (Prachatice District)>Husinec, Kingdom of Bohemia in the Holy Roman Empire(now Czech Republic)df=yes71369}}|death_place = Konstanz, Bishopric of Constance in the Holy Roman Empire(now Germany)|cause of death = Burned at the steakCharles University in Prague>University of Prague|school_tradition = Hussite|main_interests = Theology|notable_ideas =|influences = John Wycliffe|influenced = John Wesley, Jerome of Prague, Savonarola, Martin Luther, Henry VIII, John Calvin}}(File:German or Austrian 16th Century, John Huss Centenary Medal (reverse), 1515, NGA 45407.jpg|alt=A gold-colored medal, struck in silver, about four and a half centimeters across, showing the image of Jan Hus tied to a band of stakes. Inscriptions in capital letters read: (around the circumfrence), CENTVM REVOLVTIS ANNIS DEO RESPONDEBITIS ETMIHI / ANNO A CHRIST[o] NATO 1415 IO[annes] HVS; (and across the center), CONDEM / NATVR|thumb|German or Austrian 16th Century. John Huss Centenary Medal [reverse] . Silver, 4.33 cm. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Samuel H. Kress Collection.)Jan Hus ({{IPAc-en|h|ʊ|s}};"Hus". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. {{IPA-cs|ˈjan ˈɦus|lang|Cs-Jan_Hus.ogg}}; {{circa|1369}} – 6 July, 1415),JOURNAL, Fudge, Thomas, 1998, Infoelix Hus: The Rehabilitation of a Medieval Heretic,weblink Fides et Historia, 30, 1, 57–73, 2016-05-09,weblink 17 February 2017, yes, dmy-all, sometimes Anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, also referred to in historical texts as Iohannes Hus or Johannes Huss, was a Czech theologian, philosopher, master, dean, and rectoweblink Encyclopedia Britannica – Jan Hus of the Charles University in Prague who became a church reformer, an inspirer of Hussitism, a key predecessor to Protestantism and a seminal figure in the Bohemian Reformation.After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical reform, Hus is considered the first church reformer, as he lived before Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. His teachings had a strong influence on the states of Western Europe, most immediately in the approval of a reformed Bohemian religious denomination, and, more than a century later, on Martin Luther himself.BOOK, Heiko Augustinus Oberman, Eileen Walliser-Schwarzbart, Luther: Man Between God and the Devil,weblink 2006, Yale University Press, 0-300-10313-1, 54–55, He was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Catholic Church, including those on ecclesiology, the Eucharist, and other theological topics.After Hus was executed in 1415, the followers of his religious teachings (known as Hussites) refused to elect another Catholic monarch and defeated five consecutive papal crusades between 1420 and 1431 in what became known as the Hussite Wars."Sigismund of Luxembourg". Radio Prague Both the Bohemian and the Moravian populations remained majority Hussite until the 1620s, when a Protestant defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain resulted in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown coming under Habsburg dominion for the next 300 years and being subject to immediate and forced conversion in an intense campaign of return to Catholicism.

Early life

Jan Hus was born in Husinec, Bohemia, c. 1369. At an early age he traveled to Prague, where he supported himself by singing and serving in churches. His conduct was positive and, reportedly, his commitment to his studies was "remarkable".Wilhelm, Joseph (1910), "Jan Hus", The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, accessed 29 June 2013In 1393, Hus earned the degree of Bachelor of Arts at the University of Prague, and he earned his master's degree in 1396. He was ordained as a priest in 1400. In 1402 Hus began preaching inside the city, demanding a reformation of the Church. He served as rector of the University of Prague in 1402–1403. He was appointed a preacher at the newly built Bethlehem Chapel around the same time. Hus was a strong advocate for the Czechs and the Realists, and he was influenced by the writings of John Wycliffe. Although church authorities banned many works of Wycliffe in 1403, Hus translated Trialogus into Czech and helped to distribute it.


(File:Hus na kazatelne.jpg|thumb|left|Jan Hus preaching, illumination from a Czech manuscript, 1490s)Hus denounced the moral failings of clergy, bishops, and even the papacy from his pulpit. Archbishop Zbyněk Zajíc tolerated this, and even appointed Hus a preacher at the clergy's biennial synod. On June 24, 1405, Pope Innocent VII, however, directed the Archbishop to counter Wycliffe's teachings, especially the doctrine of impanation in the Eucharist. The archbishop complied by issuing a synod decree against Wycliffe, as well as forbidding any further attacks on the clergy.In 1406, two Bohemian students brought to Prague a document bearing the seal of the University of Oxford and praising Wycliffe. Hus proudly read the document from his pulpit. Then, in 1408, Pope Gregory XII warned Archbishop Zajic that the Church in Rome had been informed of Wycliffe's heresies and of the sympathies of King Wenceslaus IV for non-conformists. In response, the king and university ordered all of Wycliffe's writings surrendered to the archdiocesan chancery for correction. Hus obeyed, declaring that he condemned the errors in those writings.

Papal Schism

In 1408, the Charles University in Prague was divided by the Western Schism, in which Gregory XII in Rome and Benedict XIII in Avignon both claimed the papacy. Wenceslaus felt Gregory XII might interfere with his plans to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor. He denounced Gregory, ordered the clergy in Bohemia to observe a strict neutrality in the schism, and said that he expected the same of the University. Archbishop Zajíc remained faithful to Gregory. At the University, only the scholars of the Bohemian "nation" (one of the four governing sections), with Hus as their leader, vowed neutrality.{{Citation needed|date=January 2011}}

Kutná Hora Decree

(File:Jan Hus-Bible Martinicka.jpg|thumb|The oldest known representation of Jan Hus is from Martinická bible.){{see|Decree of Kutná Hora}}In January 1409, Wenceslaus summoned representatives of the four nations comprising the university to the Czech city of Kutná Hora to demand statements of allegiance. The Czech nation agreed, but the other three nations declined. The king then decreed that the Czech nation would have three votes in University affairs, while the "German nation" (composed of the former Bavarian, Saxon, and Polish nations) would have one vote in total. As a consequence of the changed voting, by May 1409 the German dean and rector were deposed and replaced by Czechs. The Palatine Elector called the Germans to his own University of Heidelberg, while the Margrave of Meissen started a new university in Leipzig. Probably over one thousand students and masters left Prague. The emigrants also spread accusations of Bohemian heresy. BOOK, Fudge, Thomas, Jan Hus: Religious Reform and Social Revolution in Bohemia, 2010, I.B.Tauris, 97-100,

Antipope Alexander V

In 1409, the Council of Pisa tried to end the schism by electing Alexander V as Pope, but Gregory and Benedict did not submit. (Alexander was declared an "antipope" by the Council of Constance in 1418.)Hus, his followers, and Wenceslaus IV transferred their allegiance to Alexander V. Under pressure from king Wenceslaus IV, Archbishop Zajíc did the same. Zajíc then lodged an accusation of "ecclesiastical disturbances" against Wycliffites in Prague with Alexander V.


On 20 December 1409, Alexander V issued a papal bull that empowered the Archbishop to proceed against Wycliffism in Prague. All copies of Wycliffe's writings were to be surrendered and his doctrines repudiated, and free preaching discontinued. After the publication of the bull in 1410, Hus appealed to Alexander V, but in vain. The Wycliffe books and valuable manuscripts were burned, and Hus and his adherents were excommunicated by Alexander V.


Archbishop Zajíc died in 1411, and with his death the religious movement in Bohemia entered a new phase, during which the disputes concerning indulgences assumed great importance.

Crusade against Naples

Alexander V died in 1410, and was succeeded by John XXIII (also later declared an antipope). In 1411, John XXIII proclaimed a crusade against King Ladislaus of Naples, the protector of rival Pope Gregory XII. This crusade was preached in Prague as well. John XXIII also authorized indulgences to raise money for the war. Priests urged the people on and these crowded into churches to give their offerings. This traffic in indulgences was to some a sign of the corruption of the church needing remediation.{{citation needed|reason=The anti-church?|date=July 2012}}

Condemnation of indulgences and Crusade

(File:Jan Hus 2.jpg|thumb|right|Hus by an unknown artist, 16th century)Hus spoke out against indulgences, but he could not carry with him the men of the university. In 1412, a dispute took place, on which occasion Hus delivered his address Quaestio magistri Johannis Hus de indulgentiis. It was taken literally from the last chapter of Wycliffe's book, De ecclesia, and his treatise, De absolutione a pena et culpa. Hus asserted that no Pope or bishop had the right to take up the sword in the name of the Church; he should pray for his enemies and bless those that curse him; man obtains forgiveness of sins by true repentance, not money. The doctors of the theological faculty replied, but without success. A few days afterward, some of Hus's followers, led by Vok Voksa z Valdštejna, burnt the Papal bulls. Hus, they said, should be obeyed rather than the Church, which they considered a fraudulent mob of adulterers and Simonists.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink 415–20, Huss, John, Hussites, Schaff, Philip, 1953, The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, In response, three men from the lower classes who openly called the indulgences a fraud were beheaded. They were later considered the first martyrs of the Hussite Church. In the meantime, the faculty had condemned the forty-five articles and added several other theses, deemed heretical, which had originated with Hus. The king forbade the teaching of these articles, but neither Hus nor the university complied with the ruling, requesting that the articles should be first proven to be un-scriptural. The tumults at Prague had stirred up a sensation; papal legates and Archbishop Albik tried to persuade Hus to give up his opposition to the papal bulls, and the king made an unsuccessful attempt to reconcile the two parties.{{Citation needed|date=January 2011}}

Attempts at reconciliation

King Wenceslaus IV made efforts to harmonize the opposing parties. In 1412, he convoked the heads of his kingdom for a consultation and, at their suggestion, ordered a synod to be held at Český Brod on 2 February 1412. It did not take place there, but in the palace of the archbishops at Prague, in order to exclude Hus from participation. Propositions were made to restore peace in the Church. Hus declared that Bohemia should have the same freedom in regard to ecclesiastical affairs as other countries and that approbation and condemnation should therefore be announced only with the permission of the state power. This was the doctrine of Wycliffe (Sermones, iii. 519, etc.).There followed treatises from both parties, but no harmony was obtained. "Even if I should stand before the stake which has been prepared for me," Hus wrote at the time, "I would never accept the recommendation of the theological faculty." The synod did not produce any results, but the King ordered a commission to continue the work of reconciliation. The doctors of the university demanded approval of their conception of the Church, according to which the Pope is the head, the Cardinals are the body of the Church, from Hus and his followers. Hus protested vigorously. The Hussite party seems to have made a great effort toward reconciliation. To the article that the Roman Church must be obeyed, they added only "so far as every pious Christian is bound". Stanislav ze Znojma and Štěpán Páleč protested against this addition and left the convention; they were exiled by the king, with two others.{{citation needed|date=July 2018}}

Hus leaves Prague and appeals to Jesus Christ

By this time, Hus's ideas had become widely accepted in Bohemia, and there was broad resentment against the Church hierarchy. The attack on Hus by the Pope and Archbishop caused riots in parts of Bohemia. King Wenceslaus IV and his government took the side of Hus, and the power of his adherents increased from day to day. Hus continued to preach in the Bethlehem Chapel. The churches of the city were put under the ban, and the interdict was pronounced against Prague. To protect the city, Hus left and went into the countryside, where he continued to preach and write.MAGAZINE,weblink John Huss, Pre-Reformation Reformer, 8 November 2013, Christianity Today, Before Hus left Prague, he decided to take a step which gave a new dimension to his endeavors. He no longer put his trust in an indecisive King, a hostile Pope or an ineffective Council. On October 18, 1412, he appealed to Jesus Christ as the supreme judge. By appealing directly to the highest Christian authority, Christ himself, he bypassed the laws and structures of the medieval Church.WEB, Magistri Ioannis Hus appelatio ad supremum iudicem, Master John Hus, appeal to the final judge, Latin, Czech,weblink, 23 July 2015, {{self-published inline|date=July 2018}}{{psc|date=July 2018}} For the Bohemian Reformation, this step was as significant as the 95 theses posted in Wittenberg by Martin Luther in 1517.After Hus left Prague for the country, he realized what a gulf there was between university education and theological speculation on one hand, and the life of uneducated country priests and the laymen entrusted to their care on the other.BOOK, Nodl, Martin, Horníčková, Kateřina, Šroněk, Michal, Umění české reformace (1380–1620) [The Art of the Bohemian Reformation (1380–1620)], 2010, Academia, Praha, 978-80-200-1879-3, 530–531, Summary, Therefore, he started to write many texts in Czech, such as basics of the Christian faith or preachings, intended mainly for the priests whose knowledge of Latin was poor.BOOK, Šmahel, František, Jan Hus : život a dílo, Jan Hus: Life and Work, Czech, 2013, Argo, Praha, 978-80-257-0875-0, 143,

Writings of Hus and Wycliffe

Of the writings occasioned by these controversies, those of Hus on the Church, entitled De Ecclesia, were written in 1413 and have been most frequently quoted and admired or criticized, and yet their first ten chapters are but an epitome of Wycliffe's work of the same title, and the following chapters are but an abstract of another of Wycliffe's works (De potentate papae) on the power of the Pope. Wycliffe had written his book to oppose the common position that the Church consisted primarily of the clergy, and Hus now found himself making the same point. He wrote his work at the castle of one of his protectors in Kozí Hrádek, and sent it to Prague, where it was publicly read in the Bethlehem Chapel. It was answered by Stanislav ze Znojma and Štěpán z Pálče (also Štěpán Páleč) with treatises of the same title.{{citation needed|date=July 2018}}After the most vehement opponents of Hus had left Prague, his adherents occupied the whole ground. Hus wrote his treatises and preached in the neighborhood of Kozí Hrádek. Bohemian Wycliffism was carried into Poland, Hungary, Croatia, and Austria. But in January 1413, a general council in Rome condemned the writings of Wycliffe and ordered them to be burned.BOOK, Church Schism & Corruption, Maseko, Achim Nkosi, Lulu, 2009, 978-1-4092-2186-9, {{page needed|date=July 2018}}{{self-published inline|date=July 2018}}

Council of Constance

King Wenceslaus's brother Sigismund of Hungary, who was "King of the Romans" (that is, head of the Holy Roman Empire, though not then Emperor), and heir to the Bohemian crown, was anxious to put an end to religious dissension within the Church. To put an end to the papal schism and to take up the long desired reform of the Church, he arranged for a general council to convene on 1 November 1414, at Konstanz (Constance). The Council of Constance (1414–1418) became the 16th ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church. Hus, willing to make an end of all dissensions, agreed to go to Constance, under Sigismund's promise of safe conduct.BOOK, Truth Prevails: The Undying Faith of Jan Hus. Introduction and Guide for Use,weblink On to Constance, 20–1, Vision Video, Discussion guide with DVD, 174147148, {{unreliable source?|date=July 2018}}

Imprisonment and preparations for trial

(File:Hus (Lessing 1842).jpg|thumb|280px|Jan Hus at the Council of Constance, 19th century painting by Karl Friedrich Lessing)It is not known whether Hus knew what his fate would be, but he made his will before setting out. He started on his journey on 11 October 1414, arriving in Constance on 3 November 1414. The following day, the bulletins on the church doors announced that Michal z Německého Brodu would be opposing Hus. In the beginning, Hus was at liberty, under his safe-conduct from Sigismund, and lived at the house of a widow. But he continued celebrating Mass and preaching to the people, in violation of restrictions decreed by the Church. After a few weeks on 28 November 1414, his opponents succeeded in imprisoning him, on the strength of a rumor that he intended to flee. He was first brought into the residence of a canon and then, on 6 December 1414, into the prison of the Dominican monastery. Sigismund, as the guarantor of Hus's safety, was greatly angered and threatened the prelates with dismissal; however, the prelates convinced him that he could not be bound by promises to a heretic.BOOK, Fudge, Thomas, Jan Hus: Religious Reform and Social Revolution in Bohemia,weblink 2010, I.B.Tauris, 125–7, On 4 December 1414, John XXIII entrusted a committee of three bishops with a preliminary investigation against Hus. As was common practice, witnesses for the prosecution were heard, but Hus was not allowed an advocate for his defense. His situation became worse after the downfall of John XXIII, who had left Constance to avoid abdicating. Hus had been the captive of John XXIII and in constant communication with his friends, but now he was delivered to the bishop of Constance and brought to his castle, Gottlieben on the Rhine. Here he remained for 73 days, separated from his friends, chained day and night, poorly fed, and ill.{{citation needed|date=January 2011}}


File:Spiezer Chronik Jan Hus 1485.jpg|thumb|Spiezer Chronik (1485), Burning of Jan Hus at the stake in KonstanzKonstanzOn 5 June 1415, he was tried for the first time, and for that purpose was transferred to a Franciscan monastery, where he spent the last weeks of his life. Extracts from his works were read, and witnesses were heard. He refused all formulae of submission, but declared himself willing to recant if his errors should be proven to him from the Bible. Hus conceded his veneration of Wycliffe, and said that he could only wish his soul might some time attain unto that place where Wycliffe's was. On the other hand, he denied having defended Wycliffe's doctrine of The Lord's Supper or the forty-five articles; he had only opposed their summary condemnation. King Sigismund admonished him to deliver himself up to the mercy of the Council, as he did not desire to protect a heretic.At the last trial, on 8 June 1415, thirty-nine sentences were read to him, twenty-six of which had been excerpted from his book on the Church (De ecclesia), seven from his treatise against Páleč (Contra Palecz), and six from that against Stanislav ze Znojma (Contra Stanislaum). The danger of some of these doctrines to worldly power was explained to Sigismund to incite him against Hus. Hus again declared himself willing to submit if he could be convinced of errors. This declaration was considered an unconditional surrender, and he was asked to confess:
  1. that he had erred in the theses which he had hitherto maintained;
  2. that he renounced them for the future;
  3. that he recanted them; and
  4. that he declared the opposite of these sentences.
He asked to be exempted from recanting doctrines which he had never taught; others, which the assembly considered erroneous, he was not willing to revoke; to act differently would be against his conscience. These words found no favourable reception. After the trial on 8 June, several other attempts were purportedly made to induce him to recant, which he resisted.Di Mauro, Dennis. Jan Hus' Chalice: Symbol of Christian Freedom (a thesis). July 2006. Obtained fromweblink {{Webarchive|url= |date=3 August 2016 }}{{unreliable source|date=January 2019}}


File:Hus památník.jpg|thumb|220px|The monument in KonstanzKonstanzThe condemnation took place on 6 July 1415, in the presence of the assembly of the Council in the Cathedral. After the High Mass and Liturgy, Hus was led into the church. The Bishop of Lodi (then Giacomo Balardi Arrigoni) delivered an oration on the duty of eradicating heresy; then some theses of Hus and Wycliffe and a report of his trial were read.

Refusals to recant

An Italian prelate pronounced the sentence of condemnation upon Hus and his writings. Hus protested, saying that even at this hour he did not wish anything, but to be convinced from Scripture. He fell upon his knees and asked God with a soft voice to forgive all his enemies. Then followed his degradation — he was dressed in priestly vestments and again asked to recant; again he refused. With curses, Hus's ornaments were taken from him, his priestly tonsure was destroyed, and the sentence of the Church was pronounced, stripping him of all rights, and he was delivered to secular authorities. Then a tall paper hat was put upon his head, with the inscription "Haeresiarcha" (i.e., the leader of a heretical movement). Hus was led away to the stake under a strong guard of armed men.


File:Jan Hus at the Stake.jpg|thumb|180px|right|Jan Hus at the stake, Jena codex (c. 1500)]]At the place of execution, he knelt down, spread out his hands, and prayed aloud. The executioner undressed Hus and tied his hands behind his back with ropes, and bound his neck with a chain to a stake around which wood and straw had been piled up so that it covered him to the neck. At the last moment, the imperial marshal, von Pappenheim, in the presence of the Count Palatine, asked Hus to recant and thus save his own life. Hus declined, stating:Anecdotally, it has been claimed that the executioners had trouble intensifying the fire. An old woman then came to the stake and threw a relatively small amount of (:wikt:brushwood|brushwood) on it. Upon seeing her act, a suffering Hus then exclaimed, "O Sancta Simplicitas!". The phrase's Czech equivalent, "Svatá prostota!" (vocative form: "Svatá prostoto!", Translated "Holy simplicity!") is still used today when commenting on a person's foolish action coming from the belief that he or she is doing something righteous.{{Citation needed|date=January 2011}}It is said that when he was about to expire, he cried out, "Christ, son of the Living God, have mercy on us!" (a variant of the Jesus Prayer). Hus's ashes were later thrown into the Rhine River as a means of preventing the veneration of his remains.


Hussite Wars

File:Hussites.gif|thumb|right|300px|Evolution of the Hussite movement in the Lands of the Bohemian CrownLands of the Bohemian CrownFile:Jensky kodex Zizka.jpg|thumb|Jan ŽižkaJan ŽižkaFile:Vrhání husitů do šachet.gif|thumb|Some two thousand of Hus's followers thrown into the Kutná HoraKutná HoraResponding with horror to the execution of Hus, the people of Bohemia moved even more rapidly away from Papal teachings, provoking Rome to pronounce a crusade against them (1 March 1420): Pope Martin V issued a Papal bull authorising the execution of all supporters of Hus and Wycliffe. King Wenceslaus IV died in August 1419 and his brother, Sigismund of Hungary, was unable to establish a real government in Bohemia due to the Hussite revolt.The Hussite community included most of the Czech population of the Kingdom of Bohemia, and became a major military power. Under the leadership of Jan Žižka (c. 1360 – 1424) and later of Prokop the Great (c. 1380 – 1434) – both excellent commanders – the Hussites defeated the crusade and the other three crusades that followed (1419–1434). Fighting ended after a compromise between the Utraquist Hussites and the Catholic Council of Basel in 1436. It resulted in the Basel Compacts, in which the Catholic Church officially allowed Bohemia to practice its own version of Christianity (Hussitism). A century later, as much as ninety percent of the inhabitants of the Czech Crown lands still followed Hussite teachings.

Hus's scholarship and teachings

File:Luther und Hus-Abendmahl.jpg|thumb|Luther and Hus serving Communion under both kindsCommunion under both kindsHus left only a few reformatory writings in the proper sense of the word, most of his works being polemical treatises against Stanislav ze Znojma and Štěpán Páleč. He translated Wycliffe's Trialogus, and was very familiar with his works on the body of Jesus, on the Church, on the power of the pope, and especially with his sermons. There are reasons to suppose that Wycliffe's doctrine of the Lord's Supper (consubstantiation rather than transubstantiationGotthard Victor Lechler, John Wycliffe and His English Precursors, Religious Tract Society, 1904, p. 381ff) had spread to Prague as early as 1399, with strong evidence that students returning from England had brought the work back with them. It gained an even wider circulation after it had been prohibited in 1403, and Hus preached and taught it, although it is possible that he simply repeated it without advocating it. But the doctrine was seized eagerly by the radical party, the Taborites, who made it the central point of their system. According to their book, the Church is not the clerical hierarchy which was generally accepted as ‘the Church;’ the Church is the entire body of those who from eternity have been predestined for salvation. Christ, not the pope, is its head. It is no article of faith that one must obey the pope to be saved. Neither internal membership in the Church nor churchly offices and dignities are a surety that the persons in question are members of the true Church.To some, Hus's efforts were predominantly designed to rid the Church of its ethical abuses, rather than a campaign of sweeping theological change. To others, the seeds of the Reformation are clear in Hus's and Wycliffe's writings. In explaining the plight of the average Christian in Bohemia, Hus wrote, "One pays for confession, for mass, for the sacrament, for indulgences, for churching a woman, for a blessing, for burials, for funeral services and prayers. The very last penny which an old woman has hidden in her bundle for fear of thieves or robbery will not be saved. The villainous priest will grab it." (Macek, 16) After Hus's death, his followers, known as Hussites, split off into several groups including the Utraquists, Taborites and Orphans.

Apology of the Catholic Church

Nearly six centuries later in 1999, Pope John Paul II expressed "deep regret for the cruel death inflicted" on Hus and added "deep sorrow" for Hus's death and praised his "moral courage". Cardinal Miloslav Vlk of the Czech Republic was instrumental in crafting John Paul II's statement.NEWS, Allen Jr., John L., 15 September 2009, The German shepherd bids farewell to a 'wolf in winter',weblink National Catholic Reporter,


File:Jan Hus Statue and Tyn Church, Old Town Square, Prague - 8190.jpg|thumb|Jan Hus Memorial at Old Town Square in PraguePragueA century after the Hussite Wars began, as many as 90% of inhabitants of the Czech lands were Hussites (although in the Utraquist tradition following a joint Utraquist—Catholic victory in the Hussite Wars).BOOK, Václavík, David, Náboženství a moderní česká společnost, Religion and Modern Czech Society, Czech, Grada Publishing a.s., 2010, 53,weblink Although Bohemia was the site of one of the most significant pre-reformation movements,Protestantism in Bohemia and Moravia (Czech Republic) there are only few Protestant adherents remaining in modern times;WEB, cs,weblink$File/PVCR071_ENG.pdf, Tab 7.1 Population by religious belief and by municipality size groups,, 2013-11-19, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 21 February 2015, WEB, cs,weblink$File/PVCR072_ENG.pdf, Tab 7.2 Population by religious belief and by regions,, 2013-11-19, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 4 November 2013, mainly due to historical reasons such as persecution of Protestants by the Catholic Habsburgs,BOOK, 978-0-470-29323-2, Hana, Mastrini, Frommer's Prague & the Best of the Czech Republic, 2008, 7th, Wiley, {{page needed|date=July 2018}} particularly after the Battle of White Mountain in 1620; restrictions during the Communist rule; and also the ongoing secularization.Jan Hus was a key contributor to Protestantism, whose teachings had a strong influence on the states of Europe and on Martin Luther. The Hussite Wars resulted in the Basel Compacts which allowed for a reformed church in the Kingdom of Bohemia—almost a century before such developments would take place in the Lutheran Reformation. The Unitas Fratrum (or Moravian Church) considers itself a spiritual heir to many of Hus's followers.WEB,weblink The Origin & Growth, Unitas Fratrum, 17 September 2011, Hus's extensive writings earn him a prominent place in Czech literary history.

Hus and Czech language

Jan Hus introduced improvements into medieval Czech language, such as the diacritic including the "hook" háček (č,ě,š,ř,ž) (instead of digraph like "cz", "ie", "sch", "rz", "zs"), the "dot" above letters for strong accent, as well as the acute accent to mark long vowels (á,é,í,ó,ú), in order to represent each sound by a single symbol. Some sources mention documented use of the special symbols in Bible translations (1462), the Schaffhausen Bible, and handwritten notes in the bible. The symbol "ů" (instead of "uo") came later. The book Orthographia Bohemica (1406) may have been written by Jan Hus, or by another author from Charles University.Professor Thomas Garrigue Masaryk used Hus name in his speech on Geneve University in 6 July 1915, for defense against Austria and in July 1917 for the title of the first corps of troops his legions in RussiaPRECLÍK, Vratislav. Masaryk a legie (Masaryk and legions), váz. kniha, 219 str., vydalo nakladatelství Paris Karviná, Žižkova 2379 (734 01 Karviná) ve spolupráci s Masarykovým demokratickým hnutím (Masaryk Democratic Movement, Prague, CZ), 2019, {{ISBN|978-80-87173-47-3}}, pp.17 - 25, 33 - 45, 70 – 76, 159 – 184, 187 - 199.Today, the Jan Hus Memorial is located at the Prague Old Town Square (), and there are many smaller memorials in other towns throughout the Czech Republic.In New York City, a church in Brooklyn (located at 153 Ocean Avenue), and a church and a theatre in Manhattan (located at 351 East 74th Street) are named for Hus: respectively the John Hus Moravian Church, the Jan Hus Presbyterian Church and the Jan Hus Playhouse. Although the Manhattan's church and theatre share a single building and management, the Playhouse's productions are usually non-religious or non-denominational.A statue of Jan Hus was erected at the Union Cemetery in Bohemia, New York (on Long Island) by Czech immigrants to the New York area in 1893.In contrast to the popular perception that Hus was a proto-Protestant, some Eastern Orthodox Christians have argued that his theology was far closer to Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Jan Hus is considered as a martyr saint in some jurisdictions of the Orthodox Church.WEB,weblink Jan Hus, Jerome of Prague and Orthodoxy in Czechia & Slovakia, 26 January 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 13 December 2013, yes, dmy-all, The Czechoslovak Hussite Church claims to trace its origin to Hus, to be "neo-Hussite", and contains mixed Eastern Orthodox and Protestant elements. Hus has forever left his impact as a man whose life, teachings and beliefs transformed the church.Hus was voted the greatest hero of Czech nation in a 2015 survey by Czech Radio. He received 19% of votes.WEB, Anketa: KDO JE PRO VÁS HRDiNA.CZ?,weblink, 20 June 2017, cs,

Holidays commemorating Hus

Famous followers of Jan Hus

  • Jerome of Prague, Hus's friend and devoted follower shared his fate and on 30 May 1416 was also burned at Konstanz
  • Jan Kardinál z RejnÅ¡tejna (1375–1428) ()WEB,weblink Jan Kardinál z RejnÅ¡tejna,, 5 September 2008,
  • Jan Žižka z Trocnova a Kalicha (c. 1360–1424), Czech general and Hussite leader
  • MatÄ›j z Knína (died 26 March 1410) (in German: Matthäus von Knin)
  • Mikuláš Biskupec z PelhÅ™imova (1385 PodÄ›brady – 1460 PodÄ›brady) (in Latin: Nicolaus Pilgramensis, in German: Nikolaus von Pelgrims)
  • John Amos Comenius (1592–1670) () – pastor, teacher, philosopher, educator and writer. The last bishop of Unitas Fratrum prior to its renewal, and pastor in the Moravian Church. Early champion of universal education, and education in one's mother language.


File:Vaclav Brozik - Hus.jpg|Painting of Jan Hus at the Council of Constance by Václav Brožík (1883).File:Burning of jan hus at the stake at council of constance.jpg|Preparing the execution of Jan Hus.File:Jan Hus Preaching at the Bethlehem Chapel.JPG|Alfons Mucha: Master Jan Hus Preaching at the Bethlehem Chapel: Truth prevails, 1916; part of the 20-painting work, The Slav Epic.File:Betlemska kaple.jpg|Bethlehem Chapel (exterior) in PragueFile:Betlémská kaple interior.JPG|Bethlehem Chapel (interior) in PragueFile:Portrait of Jan Hus.jpg|Medallion Portrait of Jan HusFile:Execution of Jan Hus.jpg|Preparing to burn Jan Hus at the stakeFile:Medallion of Jan Hus.jpg|Medallion of Jan Hus, Showing his portrait and execution


  • Iohannes Hus. Postilla adumbrata, ed. G. Silagi (Corpus Christianorum. Continuatio Mediaevalis 261), Turnhout: Brepols Publishers ({{ISBN|978-2-503-55275-0}})
  • De ecclesia. The church, Jan Hus; David S. Schaff, translator, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1915.
  • The letters of John Hus, Jan Hus; Herbert B. Workman; R. Martin Pope, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1904.
  • The Letters of John Hus, Jan Hus; Matthew Spinka, translator.

See also



Further reading

  • Budgen, Victor. "On Fire For God." Evangelical Press, 2007.
  • Fudge, Thomas A. Jan Hus: Religious Reform and Social Revolution in Bohemia, I.B. Tauris, London, 2010
  • Fudge, Thomas A. The Memory and Morivation of Jan Hus, Medieval Priest and Martyr, Turnhout, Brepols, 2013
  • Fudge, Thomas A. The Trial of Jan Hus: Medieval Heresy and Criminal Procedure, Oxford University Press, New York, 2013
  • Fudge, Thomas A. Jan Hus Between Time and Eternity: Reconsidering a Medieval Heretic, Lexington Books, Lanham, MD, 2016
  • Fudge, Thomas A. Living With Jan Hus: A Modern Journey Across a Medieval Landscape, Center for Christian Studies, Portland, OR, 2015
  • {hide}Citation|last=Spinka|first=Matthew|title=The Letters of John Hus|publisher=Manchester University Press
place=Totowa, New Jersey|oclc=590290{edih} year=1968|place=Princeton, New Jersey|oclc=441706{edih}
  • {{Citation|last=Spinka|first=Matthew|title=John Hus' Concept of the Church|publisher=Princeton University Press|year=1966|place=Princeton, New Jersey|oclc =390635}}
  • Matthew Spinka: 'John Hus at the Council of Constance' Columbia University Press, 1965 (Includes the eye-witness account by Peter of Mladonovice)
  • Count Lützow: Life & Times of Master John Hus, E. P. Dutton & Co. London, 1909
  • Josef Macek: The Hussite Movement in Bohemia, Orbis, Prague, 1958
  • Philip Schaff-Herzog: Encyclopedia of Religion
  • Richard Friedenthal: Jan Hus. Der Ketzer und das Jahrhundert der Revolutionskriege. 2. Auflage 1987, {{ISBN|3-492-10331-6}}
  • Wilhelm, J. (1910). Jan Hus. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 16 May 2011 from New Advent:weblink

External links

{{Sister project links|wikt=no|b=no|s=Author:Jan Hus|v=no|n=no|voy=no}}

  • BOOK, Huss, John, Schaff, David Schley, 1915, De Ecclesia. The Church,weblink New York, Charles Scribner's Sons,
  • NIE, Huss, John, 1905, x, x,
  • EB1911, Huss, John, x, x,
  • CE1913, Wilhelm, J., Jan Hus, x, x,
  • COLLIER'S, Huss, John, x, x,
}}{{Christian History|collapsed}}{{Authority control}}

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