Jammu and Kashmir

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Jammu and Kashmir
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{{Short description|State in India}}{{About|the Indian state|the larger region|Kashmir|the proposed union territory|Jammu and Kashmir (union territory)|the former princely state|Jammu and Kashmir (princely state)|}}{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}{{pp-semi|small=yes}}{{Use Indian English|date=June 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2019}}

| coor_pinpoint = Srinagar | subdivision_type = CountryIndia{{refn>group=note|The Government of Pakistan and Pakistan sources refer to Jammu amd Kashmir as "Indian-occupied Kashmir" ("IOK") or "Indian-held Kashmir" (IHK);WEB, Ali Zain,weblink Pakistani flag hoisted, pro-freedom slogans chanted in Indian Occupied Kashmir – Daily Pakistan Global,, 13 September 2015, 17 November 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 18 November 2015, live, dmy-all, WEB,  ,weblink Pakistani flag hoisted once again in Indian Occupied Kashmir | World | Dunya News,, 11 September 2015, 17 November 2015, "Indian-administered Kashmir" and "Indian-controlled Kashmir" are used by neutral sources.South Asia: fourth report of session 2006–07 by By Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Foreign Affairs Committee page 37 Indian sources call the territory under Pakistan control "Pakistan-occupied Kashmir" ("POK") or "Pakistan-held Kashmir" ("PHK").BOOK, Christopher, Snedden, Christopher Snedden, Kashmir: The Unwritten History, HarperCollins India, 2013, 978-9350298985, 2–3, The enigma of terminology {{Webarchive|url= |date=16 October 2015 }}, The Hindu, 27 January 2014.}}| established_title = Admission to Union| established_date = 26 October 1947| seat_type = CapitalSrinagar (May–October) Jammu (November–April)HTTPS://WWW.THEHINDU.COM/NEWS/NATIONAL/OTHER-STATES/WHAT-IS-THE-DARBAR-MOVE-IN-J-K-ALL-ABOUT/ARTICLE18409452.ECE LAST=DESK DATE=8 MAY 2017 LANGUAGE=EN-IN ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20171110135648/HTTP://WWW.THEHINDU.COM/NEWS/NATIONAL/OTHER-STATES/WHAT-IS-THE-DARBAR-MOVE-IN-J-K-ALL-ABOUT/ARTICLE18409452.ECE URL-STATUS=LIVE, List of districts in Jammu and Kashmir>Districts| parts_style = paraList of districts in Jammu and Kashmir>22leg|[*]}}| governing_body = Government of Jammu and KashmirGovernors of Jammu and Kashmir>GovernorSatya Pal MalikSATYA PAL MALIK SWORN IN AS JAMMU AND KASHMIR GOVERNOR WORK=THE ECONOMIC TIMES DATE=23 AUGUST 2018 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180823110106/HTTPS://ECONOMICTIMES.INDIATIMES.COM/NEWS/POLITICS-AND-NATION/SATYA-PAL-MALIK-SWORN-IN-AS-JAMMU-AND-KASHMIR-GOVERNOR/ARTICLESHOW/65512757.CMS URL-STATUS=LIVE, Chief Ministers of Jammu and Kashmir>Chief MinisterVacant{{small>(President's rule)}}HTTPS://WWW.FIRSTPOST.COM/POLITICS/BJP-PDP-ALLIANCE-ENDS-IN-JAMMU-AND-KASHMIR-LIVE-UPDATES-MODI-GOVT-DID-EVERYTHING-TO-NORMALISE-SITUATION-SAYS-RAM-MADHAV-4542011.HTML>TITLE=BJP-PDP ALLIANCE ENDS IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR LIVE UPDATES: MEHBOOBA MUFTI RESIGNS AS CHIEF MINISTER; GOVERNOR'S RULE IN STATEFIRSTPOST>ACCESSDATE=19 JUNE 2018, 19 June 2018, | unit_pref = Metric| area_total_km2 = 222236 List of states and territories of India by area>5thJammu and Kashmir is a disputed territory between India, Pakistan and China. The areas of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan administered by Pakistan and Aksai Chin region administered by China are included in the total area.WEBSITE=PEAKBAGGER.COM, 9 August 2019, | elevation_max_m = 7,742| elevation_max_point = Saltoro Kangri| elevation_min_m = 247| elevation_min_point = Chenab River| population_total = 12541302| population_as_of = 2011| population_density_km2 = 56List of states and union territories of India by population>19thIndian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset1 = +05:30IN-JK)List of Indian states and territories by Human Development Index>HDIWEBSITE=GLOBAL DATA LAB ACCESSDATE=25 SEPTEMBER 2018 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180923120638/HTTPS://HDI.GLOBALDATALAB.ORG/AREADATA/SHDI/ URL-STATUS=LIVE, (medium)| blank1_name_sec1 = HDI rankList of Indian states and territories by Human Development Index>17th (2017)Literacy in India>Literacy| blank_info_sec2 = 68.74 (30th)Official languages}}UrduHTTP://NCLM.NIC.IN/SHARED/LINKIMAGES/NCLM50THREPORT.PDF PUBLISHER=COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES, MINISTRY OF MINORITY AFFAIRS, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACCESSDATE=14 JANUARY 2015 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160708012438/HTTP://NCLM.NIC.IN/SHARED/LINKIMAGES/NCLM50THREPORT.PDF DF=,}}Jammu and Kashmir Legislature>LegislatureBicameralism>Bicameral (89 seats in the Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly + 36 seats in the Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Council>Council){{small|(currently dissolved)}}15th Lok Sabha>Parliamentary constituency| leader_name3 = Rajya Sabha (4) Lok Sabha (6)High Courts of India>High Court| leader_name4 = Jammu and Kashmir High Court| blank2_name_sec2 = Other spokenKashmiri language>Kashmiri, Hindi, Dogri language, Punjabi language>Punjabi, Pahari language (JK), Gujari language>Gojri, Balti language, Dadri, Ladakhi language>LadakhiHTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=RRBIAAAAQBAJ&LPG=PP1&PG=PA184#V=ONEPAGE&Q&F=FALSE >TITLE=THE PARCHMENT OF KASHMIR: HISTORY, SOCIETY, AND POLITY FIRST=N. PUBLISHER=SPRINGER PAGE=184 ACCESS-DATE=23 FEBRUARY 2019 ARCHIVE-DATE=23 FEBRUARY 2019 LAST=AGGARWAL LAST2=AGRAWAL DATE=1995 ISBN=9788170225577 ACCESS-DATE=23 FEBRUARY 2019 ARCHIVE-DATE=24 FEBRUARY 2019 Zangskari,ZANGSKARI LANGUAGE=EN, Bhadarwahi,BHADRAWAHI >URL=HTTP://WWW.ETHNOLOGUE.COM/LANGUAGE/BHD Purgi language>Purgi,PURIK >URL=HTTP://WWW.ETHNOLOGUE.COM/LANGUAGE/PRX Standard Tibetan>Tibetan,TIBETAN (BHOTI)—AN ENDANGERED SCRIPT IN TRANS-HIMALAYA >ENCYCLOPEDIA=THE TIBET JOURNAL FIRST=NAWANG TSERING VOLUME=30 PAGES=61–64 JSTOR=43301113 Bateri language>Bateri,BATERI >URL=HTTP://WWW.ETHNOLOGUE.COM/LANGUAGE/BTV Shina language>Shina,CRANE>FIRST=ROBERT I.YEAR=1956LANGUAGE=ENGLISHQUOTE=SHINA IS THE MOST EASTERN OF THESE LANGUAGES AND IN SOME OF ITS DIALECTS SUCH AS THE BROKPA OF DAH AND HANU AND THE DIALECT OF DRAS, IT IMPINGES UPON THE AREA OF THE SINO-TIBETAN LANGUAGE FAMILY AND HAS BEEN AFFECTED BY TIBETAN WITH AN OVERLAY OF WORDS AND IDIOMS., Burushaski,PAKISTAN'S "BURUSHASKI" LANGUAGE FINDS NEW RELATIVES >URL=HTTPS://WWW.NPR.ORG/2012/06/20/155454736/PAKISTANS-BURUSHASKI-LANGUAGE-FINDS-NEW-RELATIVES BrokskatBROKSKAT LANGUAGE=EN, and Khowar languageSIMONSLAST2=FENNIGTITLE=ETHNOLOGUE: LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD, TWENTIETH EDITIONPUBLISHER=SIL INTERNATIONALLANGUAGE=ENGLISH, | demographics_type1 = GDPDATE=19 JANUARY 2018 LANGUAGE=EN ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20190224173809/HTTPS://WWW.PRSINDIA.ORG/PARLIAMENTTRACK/BUDGETS/JAMMU-AND-KASHMIR-BUDGET-ANALYSIS-2018-19 URL-STATUS=LIVE, List of Indian states and union territories by GDP>Total {{nobold|(2018–19)}}1.16|t}}}}

Jammu and Kashmir is a region administered by India as a state from 1954, constituting the southern and southeastern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India, Pakistan and China since the mid-20th century.{{citation|last1=Akhtar|first1=Rais|last2=Kirk|first2=William|title=Jammu and Kashmir, State, India|publisher=Encyclopaedia Britannica|url= |accessdate=7 August 2019}} (subscription required) Quote: "Jammu and Kashmir, state of India, located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent in the vicinity of the Karakoram and westernmost Himalayan mountain ranges. The state is part of the larger region of Kashmir, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since the partition of the subcontinent in 1947."{{citation|last1=Jan·Osma鈔czyk|first1=Edmund|last2=Osmańczyk|first2=Edmund Jan|title=Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements: G to M|url=|year=2003|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-0-415-93922-5|pages=1191–}} Quote: "Jammu and Kashmir: Territory in northwestern India, subject to a dispute between India and Pakistan. It has borders with Pakistan and China." The underlying region of this state were parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, whose western districts, now known as Azad Kashmir, and northern territories, now known as Gilgit-Baltistan, are administered by Pakistan. The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet, has been under Chinese control since 1962.After the Government of India repealed the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 of the Indian constitution, the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, which seeks to dissolve the state and reorganise it into two union territories – Jammu and Kashmir in the west and Ladakh in the east.WEB,weblink Jammu Kashmir Article 370: Govt revokes Article 370 from Jammu and Kashmir, bifurcates state into two Union Territories, 5 August 2019, The Times of India, en, 5 August 2019, Ist, 15:45, The act will come into effect from 31 October 2019. Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population.


{{For|the pre-1954 history|History of Kashmir}}


After the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir was divided between India (who controlled the regions of Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh) and Pakistan (who controlled Gilgit–Baltistan and Azad Kashmir). The Indian-administered territories became the state of Jammu and Kashmir in 1954, with the presidential order of 1954.{{Harvnb|Schofield|2003|p=94}}In 1956–57, China completed a military road through the disputed Aksai Chin area of Kashmir. India's belated discovery of this road culminated in the Sino-Indian War of 1962; China has since administered Aksai Chin.WEB,weblink Kashmir – region, Indian subcontinent, 16 November 2016,weblink 5 October 2016, live, Following the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, India and Pakistan signed the Simla Agreement, recognizing a Line of Control in Kashmir, and committing to a peaceful resolution of the dispute through bilateral negotiations.WEB, Kashmir Fast Facts,weblink CNN, 12 January 2019, en,

Kashmir insurgency

In the late 1980s, discontent over the high-handed policies of the union government and allegations of the rigging of the 1987 Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election{{Harvnb|Schofield|2003|p=137}} triggered a violent uprising and armed insurgencyWEB,weblink 1989 Insurgency,, 6 January 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 26 January 2015, live, WEB,weblink Contours of militancy, 16 November 2016, which was backed by Pakistan.{{Harvnb|Schofield|2003|p=210}} Since then, a prolonged, bloody conflict between separatists and the Indian Army took place, both of whom have been accused of widespread human rights abuses, including abductions, massacres, rapes and armed robbery.{{refn|group=note|Sources that detail human right abuses in Jammu and Kashmir.WEB,weblink India: "Everyone Lives in Fear": Patterns of Impunity in Jammu and Kashmir: I. Summary, Human Rights Watch, 2 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 22 May 2008, live, WEB,weblink India and Human Rights in Kashmir â€“ The Myth â€“ India Together, 2 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 9 May 2006, live, {{Harvnb|Schofield|2003|pp=148, 158}}WEB,weblink India: "Everyone Lives in Fear": Patterns of Impunity in Jammu and Kashmir: VI. Militant Abuses, 2 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 27 May 2008, live, NEWS,weblink Kashmir troops held after rape, 2 June 2008, BBC News, 19 April 2002,weblink" title="">weblink 18 December 2008, live, NEWS,weblink 219 Kashmiri Pandits killed by militants since 1989, The Jammu and Kashmir government on Tuesday said 219 Kashmiri Pandits were killed by militants since 1989 while 24,202 families were among the total 38,119 families which migrated out of the Valley due to turmoil, 31 December 2007, Chennai, India, The Hindu,weblink" title="">weblink 25 March 2010, live, WEB,weblink Not myth, but the truth of migration, The Pandits have preserved the threat letters sent to them. They have the audio and video evidence to show what happened. They have preserved the local newspapers through which they were warned to leave the Valley within 48 hours. This evidence also include still photographs of Pandits killed by militants and the desecrated temples., 31 December 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 24 November 2010, dead, WEB,weblink Pregnant woman in Doda accuses Lashkar militants of gang raping her repeatedly, A 31-year-old pregnant Gujjar woman has told police at the Baderwah Police Station in Jammu and Kashmir's Doda District that she was repeatedly gang raped by Lashkar-e-Toiba militants for two months., The Indian News, 31 December 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 22 March 2012, live, WEB,weblink 19/01/90: When Kashmiri Pandits fled Islamic terror, Notices are pasted on doors of Pandit houses, peremptorily asking the occupants to leave Kashmir within 24 hours or face death and worse... In the preceding months, 300 Hindu men and women, nearly all of them Kashmiri Pandits, had been slaughtered following the brutal murder of Pandit Tika Lal Taploo, noted lawyer and BJP national executive member, by the JKLF in Srinagar on September 14, 1989. Soon after that, Justice N K Ganju of the Srinagar high court was shot dead. Pandit Sarwanand Premi, 80-year-old poet, and his son were kidnapped, tortured, their eyes gouged out, and hanged to death. A Kashmiri Pandit nurse working at the Soura Medical College Hospital in Srinagar was gang-raped and then beaten to death. Another woman was abducted, raped and sliced into bits and pieces at a sawmill., Rediff, 31 December 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 26 January 2017, live, }} India contended that the insurgency was largely started by Afghan mujahadeen who entered the Kashmir valley following the end of the Soviet–Afghan War.NEWS,weblink India Pakistan – Timeline, BBC News, 10 April 2015, BBC News,weblink" title="">weblink 22 February 2017, live, Following the 2008 Kashmir unrest, secessionist movements in the region were boosted.NEWS,weblink Online edition of The Times of India, dated 17 August 2008, In Kashmir, there's azadi in air, Avijit Ghosh, 28 January 2009, 17 August 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 3 January 2009, live, NEWS,weblink Time, Valley of Tears, 4 September 2008, 5 May 2010, Jyoti, Thottam,weblink" title="">weblink 5 May 2010, live, dmy-all, The 2016–17 Kashmir unrest resulted in the death of over 90 civilians and the injury of over 15,000.NEWS,weblink Kashmir unrest: What was the real death toll in the state in 2016?, 2 January 2017, Firstpost, Yasir, Sameer, 27 January 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 2 February 2017, live, NEWS,weblink After 15000 injuries, Govt to train forces in pellet guns, 23 January 2017, Greater Kashmir, Akmali, Mukeet, 27 January 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 26 January 2017, live, Six policemen, including a sub-inspector were killed in an ambush in Anantnag in June 2017, by trespassing militants of the Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Toiba.NEWS,weblink Online edition of The Indian Express, dated June 16, 2017, Six policemen, including sub-inspector, killed in militant ambush in Anantnag, Jammu and Kashmir, Express Web Desk, 20 June 2017, 16 June 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 19 June 2017, live, An attack on an Indian police convoy in Pulwama, in February 2019, resulted in the deaths of 40 police officers. Responsibility for the attack was claimed by a Pakistan-backed militant group Jaish-e-Mohammed.Pulwama Attack 2019, everything about J&K terror attack on CRPF by terrorist Adil Ahmed Dar, Jaish-eMohammad {{Webarchive|url= |date=18 February 2019 }}, India Today, 16 February 2019.File:Police in Kashmir confronting violent protestors December 2018.jpg|Police in Kashmir confronting violent protesters in 2018


In August 2019, both houses of the Parliament of India passed resolutions to amend Article 370 and extend the Constitution of India in its entirety to the state, which was implemented as a constitutional order by the President of India.{{citation |author=K. Venkataramanan |title=How the status of Jammu and Kashmir is being changed |newspaper=The Hindu |date=5 August 2019 |url=}}WEB, Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part II, Section 3,weblink The Gazette of India, Government of India, 6 August 2019, 5 August 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 5 August 2019, dead, At the same time, the parliament also passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, which would dismiss the state of Jammu and Kashmir and bifurcate it into union territories: the eponymous union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, and that of Ladakh.Jammu & Kashmir Reorganisation Bill passed by Rajya Sabha: Key takeaways, The Indian Express, 5 August 2019. The reorganisation act was passed by both houses of parliament and was assented to by the President of India, and will come into effect on 31 October 2019.{{citation|url=|title=In exercise of the powers conferred by clause a of section 2 of the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act.|date=9 August 2019|accessdate=9 August 2019|author=Ministry of Home Affairs|work=The Gazette of India}} Prior to these measures, the union government locked down the Kashmir Valley, increased security forces, imposed Section 144 that prevented assembly, and placed political leaders such as former Jammu and Kashmir chief ministers Omar Abdullah and Mehbooba Mufti under house arrest.Article 370 Jammu And Kashmir LIVE Updates: "Abuse Of Executive Power," Rahul Gandhi Tweets On Article 370 Removal, NDTV, 6 August 2019. Internet and phone services were also blocked.WEB, Ratcliffe, Rebecca, Kashmir: Pakistan will 'go to any extent' to protect Kashmiris,weblink theguardian, 6 August 2019, Inside Kashmir's lockdown: 'Even I will pick up a gun', BBC News, 10 August 2019.WEB, India revokes Kashmir's special status: All the latest updates,weblink aljazeera, 10 August 2019,

Administrative divisions

File:Jammu-Kashmir-Ladakh.svg|thumb|right|The Divisions of Jammu and Kashmir: Kashmir (green), Jammu (orange) and LadakhLadakhJammu and Kashmir consists of three divisions: the Jammu Division, the Kashmir Division and Ladakh which are further divided into 22 districts.WEB,weblink Ministry of Home Affairs:: Department of Jammu & Kashmir Affairs, 28 August 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2008, The Siachen Glacier, while under Indian military control, does not lie under the administration of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Kishtwar, Ramban, Reasi, Samba, Bandipora, Ganderbal, Kulgam and Shopian were districts formed in 2008, and their areas are included with those of the districts from which they were formed.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin-bottom: 0;"! Division !!Name !! Headquarters !! Area (km²) !! Population 2001 Census !! Population 2011 CensusJammu Division>Kathua District >Kathua >| {{formatnum: 615711}}Jammu District Jammu (city) >| {{formatnum: 1526406}}Samba District Samba, Jammu >| {{formatnum: 318611}}Udhampur District Udhampur {{formatnum: 4550}} {{formatnum: 475068}} {{formatnum: 555357}}Reasi District Reasi {{formatnum: 1,719}} {{formatnum: 268441}} {{formatnum: 314714}}Rajouri District Rajouri {{formatnum: 2630}} {{formatnum: 483284}} {{formatnum: 619266}}Poonch district, Jammu and Kashmir >Poonch (town)>Poonch {{formatnum: 1674}} {{formatnum: 372613}} {{formatnum: 476820}}Doda District Doda {{formatnum: 11691}} {{formatnum: 320256}} {{formatnum: 409576}}Ramban District Ramban (Jammu and Kashmir) >| {{formatnum: 283313}}Kishtwar District Kishtwar {{formatnum: 1644}} {{formatnum: 190843}} {{formatnum: 231037}} style="background:lightblue"Total for division ''Jammu (city) >{{formatnum: 26293}} >{{formatnum: 4430191}} >| {{formatnum: 5350811}}''Kashmir valley>Anantnag District >Anantnag >| {{formatnum: 1069749}}Kulgam District Kulgam {{formatnum: 1067}} {{formatnum: 437885}} {{formatnum: 423181}}Pulwama District Pulwama {{formatnum: 1398}} {{formatnum: 441275}} {{formatnum: 570060}}Shopian District Shopian {{formatnum: 612.87}} {{formatnum: 211332}} {{formatnum: 265960}}Budgam District Budgam {{formatnum: 1371}} {{formatnum: 629309}} {{formatnum: 755331}}Srinagar District Srinagar {{formatnum: 2228}} {{formatnum: 990548}} {{formatnum: 1250173}}Ganderbal District Ganderbal {{formatnum: 259}} {{formatnum: 211899}} {{formatnum: 297003}}Bandipora District Bandipore >| {{formatnum: 385099}}Baramulla District Baramulla {{formatnum: 4588}} {{formatnum: 853344}} {{formatnum: 1015503}}Kupwara District Kupwara {{formatnum: 2379}} {{formatnum: 650393}} {{formatnum: 875564}} style="background:lightblue"Total for division Srinagar {{formatnum: 15948}} {{formatnum: 5476970}} {{formatnum: 6907622}} LadakhKargil District Kargil town >| {{formatnum: 143388}}Leh District Leh {{formatnum: 45110}} {{formatnum: 117232}} {{formatnum: 147104}} style="background:lightblue"Total for division Leh and Kargil {{formatnum: 59146}} {{formatnum: 236539}} {{formatnum: 290492}} Total {{formatnum: 101387}} {{formatnum: 10143700}} {{formatnum: 12548925}}

Urban Local Bodies (ULB)

Municipal corporations: 2 â€“ Srinagar, JammuMunicipal councils: 6 â€“ Udhampur, Kathua, Poonch, Anantnag, Baramulla, SoporeMunicipal Committees: 70 â€“ Akhnoor, Gho Manhasan, Bishnah, Arnia, RS Pura, Khour, Jourian, Samba, Vijaypur, Bari Brahmana, Ramgarh, Hiranagar, Basohli, Lakhenpur, Billawar, Parole, Rajouri, Sunderbani, Kalakote, Nowshera, Thanamandi, Kishtwar, Chenani, Ramnagar, Katra, Reasi, Doda, Thathri, Bhaderwah, Ramban, Batote, Banihal, Surankote, Achabal, Bijbehara, Kokernag, Mattan, Quazigund, Aishmuquam, Seer Hamdan, Verinag, Kulgam, Devsar, Yaripora, Frisal, Pulwama, Pampore, Tral, Khrew, Awantipora, Shopian, Ganderbal, Budgam, Khansahib, Magam, Beerwah, Chadoora, Charari Sharief, Kunzer, Pattan, Uri, Watergam, Bandipora, Sumbal, Hajin, Kupwara, Handwara, Langate, Leh, Kargil.WEB,weblink Housing and Urban Development Department, Housing and Urban Development Department, Government of Jammu and Kashmir, 18 October 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 19 October 2018, live,


{{India census population| title= Historical populations| align = right| state = | 1901 = 2139362 | 1911 = 2292535 | 1921 = 2424359 | 1931 = 2670208 | 1941 = 2946728 | 1951 = 3253852 | 1961 = 3560976 | 1971 = 4616632 | 1981 = 5987389 | 1991 = 7837051 | 2001 = 10143700 | 2011 = 12541302 PUBLISHER=CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN URL-STATUS=LIVE, † 1951 and 1991 populations are estimated}}Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population.Larson, Gerald James. "India's Agony Over Religion", 1995, page 245 In the Census of India held in 1961, the first to be conducted after the formation of the state, Islam was practiced by 68.31% of the population, while 28.45% followed Hinduism. The proportion of population that practiced Islam fell to 64.19% by 1981 but recovered afterward.WEB,weblink Share of Muslims and Hindus in J&K population same in 1961, 2011 Censuses, 29 December 2016, 30 December 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 30 December 2016, live, According to the 2011 census, the last to be conducted in the state, Islam was practised by about 68.3% of the state population, while 28.4% followed Hinduism and small minorities followed Sikhism (1.9%), Buddhism (0.9%) and Christianity (0.3%).WEB,weblink C-1 Population By Religious Community, Ministry of Home Affairs (India), Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, 2011, 21 August 2019, live, In 1947-48, 525,000 refugees from the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir (mainly the Jammu province) migrated to Pakistan and Azad Kashmir;{{sfn|Korbel, Danger in Kashmir|1966|p=153}}{{citation |first=Christopher |last=Snedden |authorlink=Christopher Snedden |title=What happened to Muslims in Jammu? Local identity, '"the massacre" of 1947' and the roots of the 'Kashmir problem' |journal=South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies |volume=24 |pages=111–134 |number=2 |doi=10.1080/00856400108723454|year=2001 }}{{rp|125}} 226,000 refugees from Pakistan-administered Kashmir migrated to India and Jammu and Kashmir.{{sfn|Korbel, Danger in Kashmir|1966|p=153}} An estimated 50,000-150,000 Kashmiri Muslims and 150,000–300,000 Kashmiri Pandits were internally displaced due to the conflict.JOURNAL, Evans, Alexander, 1 March 2002, A departure from history: Kashmiri Pandits, 1990–2001, Contemporary South Asia, 11, 1, 19–37, 10.1080/0958493022000000341, 0958-4935, According to political scientist Alexander Evans, approximately 99% of the total population of 160,000–170,000 of Kashmiri Brahmins, also called Kashmiri Pandits, (i.e. approximately 150,000 to 160,000) left the Kashmir Valley in 1990 as militancy engulfed the state. According to an estimate by the Central Intelligence Agency, about 300,000 Kashmiri Pandits from the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir were internally displaced due to the ongoing violence.WEB,weblinkweblink dead, India, Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, 9 May 2007, The state's official language is Urdu, which occupied a central space in media, education, religious and political discourses and the legislature of Jammu and Kashmir; the language functioned as a symbol of identity among Muslims of South Asia.BOOK, Bhat, M. Ashraf, Emergence of the Urdu Discourses in Kashmir, 9 September 2011, LANGUAGE IN INDIA, 11, According to the 2011 census, 53.27% of the population spoke Kashmiri, 20.83% spoke Hindi, 1.75% spoke Punjabi and 4.11% spoke other languages.WEB, Language – India, States and Union Territories,weblink Census of India 2011, Office of the Registrar General, 13–14, 19 October 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 14 November 2018, live, Urdu is spoken as a native language by less than 1% of the population, but it was regarded as a "neutral" and non-native language of the multilingual region, and broadly accepted by Kashmiri Muslims.BOOK, Farouqi, Ather, Redefining Urdu Politics in India, 2006, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, Rajeshwari Pandharipande of the University of Illinois criticised Urdu for rendering Kashmiri into a functional "minority language," effectively restricting its use to households and family.{{citation |last=Pandharipande |first=Rajeshwari |title=Minority Matters: Issues in Minority Languages in India |url= |journal=International Journal on Multicultural Societies |volume=4 |number=2 |year=2002 |pp=3–4 |access-date=21 June 2016 |archive-url= |archive-date=15 June 2016 |url-status=live }}{{citation|last1=Kachru|first1=Braj B.|last2=Kachru|first2=Yamuna|last3=Sridhar|first3=S. N.|title=Language in South Asia|url=|date=27 March 2008|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-1-139-46550-2|pages=132–}}


Jammu and Kashmir was the only state in India which had special autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India, according to which no law enacted by the Parliament of India, except for those in the field of defence, communication and foreign policy, would be extendable in Jammu and Kashmir unless it was ratified by the state legislature of Jammu and Kashmir.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, States: Jammu & Kashmir: Repeating History:By Harinder Baweja (3 July 2000)India Today, 21 October 2007, The state was able to define the permanent residents of the state who alone had the privilege to vote in state elections, the right to seek government jobs and the ability to own land or property in the state.WEB,weblink Sorry,, 18 July 2010, {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}Jammu and Kashmir was the only Indian state to have its own official state flag, along with India's national flag,NEWS, Under BJP pressure, J&K withdraws flag order,weblink 28 April 2015, The Hindu, 14 March 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 4 September 2015, live, in addition to a separate constitution. Designed by the then ruling National Conference, the flag of Jammu and Kashmir featured a plough on a red background symbolising labour; it replaced the Maharaja's state flag. The three stripes represented the three distinct administrative divisions of the state, namely Jammu, Valley of Kashmir, and Ladakh.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, The Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, 7 May 2012, Like all the states of India, Jammu and Kashmir has a multi-party democratic system of governance with a bicameral legislature. At the time of drafting the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, 100 seats were earmarked for direct elections from territorial constituencies. Of these, 25 seats were reserved for the areas of Jammu and Kashmir state that came under Pakistani occupation; this was reduced to 24 after the 12th amendment of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir.WEB,weblink Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir Section 4 Read with Section 48(a),, 16 April 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 7 May 2013, After a delimitation in 1988, the total number of seats increased to 111, of which 87 were within Indian-administered territory.NEWS,weblink Online edition of The Hindu, dated 24 October 2002, The vacant seats, Luv Puri, 9 April 2009, Chennai, India, 24 October 2002,weblink" title="">weblink 6 November 2012, live, The Jammu and Kashmir Assembly has a 6-year term, in contrast to the norm of a 5-year term followed in every other state's Assembly.WEB,weblink The Hindu Businessline, 27 October 2005, It is introspection time for Congress in J&K, Rasheeda Bhagat, 9 April 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 January 2006, {{refn|group=note|This anomaly arose because Jammu and Kashmir accepted the provision in the Forty-second Amendment of the Constitution of India but did not accept its repeal in the Forty-fourth Amendment.No need for constitutional amendment to bring J&K under 'one nation, one election': BJP, Greater Kashmir, 22 June 2019.Meenakshi Lekhi, Why isn’t Kashmir ‘secular’, Cong & NC must answer, The Economic Times blog, 9 January 2014.}} In 2005, it was reported that the Indian National Congress-led government in the state intended to amend the term to bring parity with the other states.WEB,weblink The Tribune, 19 November 2005, Govt plans to reduce J&K Assembly's term to 5 years, 28 January 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 10 February 2009, dead,

Central provisions

In 1990, an Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act of India, which gave special powers to the Indian security forces, including the detaining of individuals for up to two years without presenting charges, was enforced in Jammu and Kashmir,weblink" title="">The Armed Forces (Jammu and Kashmir) Special Powers Act, 1990" Indian Ministry of Law and Justice Published by the Authority of New DeliWEB, Huey, Caitlin,weblink Amnesty International Cites Human Rights Abuse in Kashmir, U.S. News & World Report, 28 March 2011, 6 January 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2013, live, a decision which drew criticism from Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International for violating human rights."India: Repeal Armed Forces Special Powers Act {{Webarchive|url= |date=11 September 2008 }} Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 11 September 2008.WEB,weblink India: Accountability still missing for human rights violations in Jammu and Kashmir, Amnesty International, 16 November 2016,weblink 10 November 2016, live, Security forces claimed that many missing people were not detained, but had crossed into Pakistan-administered Kashmir to engage in militancy.NEWS, Kashmir graves: Human Rights Watch calls for inquiry,weblink 30 July 2012, BBC News, 25 August 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 25 August 2011, live,


The economy of Jammu and Kashmir is predominantly dependent on agriculture and related activities.WEB,weblink CHAPTER III : Socio-Economic and Administrative Development, Jammu & Kashmir Development Report, State Plan Division, Planning Commission, Government of India, 5 August 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 30 November 2012, live, Horticulture played a vital role in the economic development of the state; produce included apples, apricots, cherries, pears, plums, almonds and walnuts.WEB,weblink CHAPTER IV : Potential Sectors of State Economy, Jammu & Kashmir Development Report, State Plan Division, Planning Commission, Government of India, 5 August 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 2 September 2009, live, The Doda district, rich in high-grade sapphire, had active mines until the 1989 insurgency; in 1998, the government discovered that smugglers had occupied these mines and stolen much of the resource.NEWS,weblink Sapphire-rich Kashmir, Haroon Mirani, The Hindu Business Line, 20 June 2008, 5 August 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 November 2009, Industrial development was constrained by the extreme mountainous landscape and power shortage.WEB,weblink Power shortage to hit India Inc, 2 April 2008, Rediff News, 25 January 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 26 October 2012, live, dmy-all, Jammu and Kashmir was one of the largest recipients of grants from India; in 2004, this amounted to US$812 million.NEWS,weblink Border Tension a Growth Industry for Kashmir, Amy Waldman, The New York Times, 18 October 2002, 5 August 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 30 August 2009, live, Tourism, which was integral to the economy, witnessed a decline owing to the insurgency, but foreign tourism later rebounded, and in 2009, the state was one among the top tourist destinations in India.NEWS,weblink Online edition of The Hindu, dated 18 March 2009, Foreign tourists flock Kashmir, 18 March 2009, Chennai, India, 18 March 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 9 November 2012, live, The economy was also benefited by Hindu pilgrims from India who visited the shrines of Vaishno Devi and Amarnath Temple annually.NEWS,weblink Online edition of The Hindu, dated 13 September 2007, Amarnath Board to study yatra impact on Kashmir economy, 6 June 2009, Chennai, India, 13 September 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 9 November 2012, live, The British government had reiterated its advise against all travel to Jammu and Kashmir in 2013, with certain exceptions.WEB,weblink India travel advice â€“ GOV.UK,, 9 April 2013, 16 April 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 25 March 2013, live,

See also







  • {{citation |last=Korbel |first=Josef |authorlink=Josef Korbel |title=The Kashmir dispute after six years |journal=International Organization |volume=7 |pages=498–510 |number=4 |year=1953 |doi=10.1017/S0020818300007256 }}
  • {{citation |last=Korbel |first=Josef |authorlink=Josef Korbel |title=Danger in Kashmir |publisher=Princeton University Press |edition=second |year=1966 |origyear=first published 1954 |url= |ref={{sfnref|Korbel, Danger in Kashmir|1966}}|isbn=9781400875238 }}
  • {{citation| last = Schofield| first = Victoria| year = 2003| title = Kashmir in Conflict| publisher = I.B.Tauris| isbn = 978-1-86064-898-4| url =weblink| ref = harv| postscript =
  • {{citation |last1=Snedden |first1=Christopher |date=2003 |title=Kashmir: The Untold Story |url= |location=New Delhi |publisher=HarperCollins Publishers |isbn=9780143030874}}
  • {{citation |last=Varshney |first=Ashutosh |authorlink=Ashutosh Varshney |chapter=Three Compromised Nationalisms: Why Kashmir has been a Problem |editor=Raju G. C. Thomas |title=Perspectives on Kashmir: the roots of conflict in South Asia |year=1992 |publisher=Westview Press |isbn=978-0-8133-8343-9 |pp=191–234 |chapterurl= |ref=harv |url= }}

Further reading

  • {{citation |first=Sumantra |last=Bose |authorlink=Sumantra Bose |title=Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace |publisher=Harvard University Press |year=2003 |isbn=978-0-674-01173-1 |url= }}
  • {{citation |title=Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir |first=Mridu |last=Rai | publisher=C. Hurst & Co |year=2004 |isbn=978-1850656616}}

External links

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