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Jammu
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{{other uses|Jammu (disambiguation)}}{{Use Indian English|date=June 2016}}







factoids
| settlement_type = City|image_skyline = {{Photomontage| photo1a = | photo2a = Jammu skyline.jpg| photo3a = Bahu Fort 02.jpg| photo4a = Hari_niwas.jpg| spacing = 2| position = center| color_border = white| color = white| size = 266| foot_montage =Tawi bridge, Bahu Fort and Amar Mahal Palace}}| image_alt =| image_caption =| nickname =| map_alt =| map_caption =| pushpin_map = India Jammu and Kashmir#India| pushpin_label_position = right| pushpin_map_alt =| pushpin_map_caption =32.7374.87display=inline,title}}| subdivision_type1 = CountryStates and territories of India>StateList of districts of India>DistrictIndia}}| subdivision_name2 = Jammu and KashmirJammu district>Jammu| established_title = Settled| named_for =| government_type = Municipal Corporation| governing_body = Jammu Municipal Corporation and Jammu Development Authority| unit_pref = Metric| area_footnotes =| area_total_km2 = 26.64| area_rank =LAST=AKHTAR PUBLISHER=CONCEPT PUBLISHING COMPANY PAGE=1, | elevation_m = 300| population_total = 502,197| population_as_of = 2011| population_footnotes =| population_density_km2 = 45| population_metro = 657,314List of most populous cities in India>92nd| population_demonym = Jammuties| demographics_type1 = Language| demographics1_title1 = OfficialUrdu52ND REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIAWEBSITE=NCLM.NIC.INMINISTRY OF MINORITY AFFAIRS>ACCESSDATE=23 JANUARY 2019 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170525141614/HTTP://NCLM.NIC.IN/SHARED/LINKIMAGES/NCLM52NDREPORT.PDFDF=DMY-ALL, | demographics1_title2 = OtherDogri, Hindi, Punjabi language>PunjabiIndian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset1 = +5:30Postal Index Number>PINURL=HTTPS://DATA.GOV.IN/RESOURCES/VILLAGELOCALITY-BASED-PIN-MAPPING-16TH-MARCH-2017 ACCESSDATE=4 OCTOBER 2018, | registration_plate = JK-02Human sex ratio>Sex ratiofemale>♀/ 1000 ♂Climate of India>ClimateHumid subtropical climate>Cwa (Köppen)jammu.nic.in}}| footnotes =| blank2_name_sec1 = Literacy| blank2_info_sec1 = 90.14%| blank3_name_sec1 = Distance from Delhi575mi|abbr=on}} NW| blank4_name_sec1 = Distance from Mumbai1971miIndian highways>land)Precipitation (meteorology)>Precipitation710in|abbr=on}}| blank3_name_sec2 = Avg. summer temperature29.6°F}}| blank4_name_sec2 = Avg. winter temperature17.7°F}}}}Jammu {{Audio|Jammu.ogg|pronunciation}} ( also called the City of Temples) is a city in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Jammu is the winter capital of the state. It is situated on the banks of the Tawi River and the foothills of HimalayasBOOK,weblink A State In Turbulence Jammu & Kashmir, Sehgal, Narender, 2013-01-01, Prabhat Prakashan, 9788184302424, en, , Jammu is known for its ancient temples and famous Hindu shrines. Jammu is also known as Gateway to KashmirBOOK,weblink Jammu & Kashmir: Travel Guide, Mitra, Swati, 2013, Eicher Goodearth Limited, 9789380262451, en, It is administered by a municipal corporation.WEB,weblink Jammu Municipal Corporation (Homepage), Official website of Jammu Municipal Corporation, 4 December 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081010181614weblink">weblink 10 October 2008,

Etymology

According to local tradition, Jammu is named after its founder, Raja Jambulochan, who is believed to have ruled the area in the 9th century.Priya Sethi lays foundation stone of statue of Jambu Lochan, Daily Excelsior, 1 August 2016. The local tradition in fact holds the city to be 3000 years old but this is not supported by historians.{{sfn|Kapur, History of Jammu and Kashmir State|1980|p=9}}

Geography

Jammu is located at {{coord|32.73|N|74.87|E|}}.WEB,weblink Maps, Weather, and Airports for Jammu, India, It has an average elevation of {{convert|300|m|abbr=on}}. Jammu city lies at uneven ridges of low heights at the Shivalik hills. It is surrounded by the Shivalik range to the north, east and southeast while the Trikuta Range surrounds it in the north-west. It is approximately {{convert|600|km|mi}} from the national capital, New Delhi.The city spreads around the Tawi river with the old city overlooking it from the north (right bank) while the new neighbourhoods spread around the southern side (left bank) of river. There are five bridges on the river. The city is built on a series of ridges.

History

(File:Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu and Kashmir.jpg|thumb|left||Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu and Kashmir)(File:Maharaja of Kashmir, Hari Singh (1895 - 1961).jpg|thumb|left|Maharaja of Kashmir, Hari Singh (1895 - 1961))Jammu has historically been the capital of Jammu Province and the winter capital of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir (1846–1952).The early history of Jammu is relatively unknown. According to Tarikh-i-Azmi, Jammu came into existence around 900 CE. The state of Durgara (modern forms "Duggar" and "Dogra)") is also attested from around this time.{{sfn|Kapur, History of Jammu and Kashmir State|1980|pp=9–10}}{{sfn|Charak & Billwaria, Pahāṛi Styles of Indian Murals|1998|p=6}} The capital of the Durgara state at that time is believed to have been Vallapura (identified with modern Billawar). Its rulers are repeatedly mentioned in Kalhana's Rajatarangini.{{sfn|Bamzai, Culture and Political History of Kashmir|1994|p=184}} Babbapura (modern Babor) is another state mentioned in Rajatarangini, some of whose rulers occur in the Vamshavali (family chronicles) of later Jammu rulers. These rulers are believed to have enjoyed almost independent status and allied themselves with the Sultans of Delhi. Raja Bhim Dev is prominently mentioned in the Delhi chronicles as a supporter of Mubarah Shah ({{reign|1421|1434}}).{{sfn|Charak & Billwaria, Pahāṛi Styles of Indian Murals|1998|pp=6–7}}Jammu is mentioned by name in the chronicles of Timur ({{reign|1370|1406}}), who invaded Delhi in 1398 and returned to Samarkand via Jammu. In the Mughal chronicles of Babur in the early 16th century, Jammu is mentioned as a powerful state in the Punjab hills. It is said to have been ruled by Manhas Rajputs. Emperor Akbar brought the hill kingdoms of the region under Mughal suzerainty, but the kings enjoyed considerable political autonomy. In addition to Jammu, other kingdoms of the region such as Kishtwar and Rajauri were also prominently mentioned. It is evident that the Mughal empire treated these hill chiefs as allies and partners in the empire.{{sfn|Jigar Mohammad, Raja Ranjit Dev's Inclusive Policies|2010|pp=40–42}}After the decline of the Mughal power in the 18th century, the Jammu state under Raja Dhruv Dev of the Jamuwal (Jamwal) family asserted its supremacy among all the Dugar states. Its ascent reached its peak under his successor Raja Ranjit Dev (r. 1728–1780), who was widely respected among the hill states.{{sfn|Jeratha, Dogra Legends of Art & Culture|1998|p=187}}{{sfn|Panikkar, Gulab Singh|1930|p=10}} Ranjit Dev promoted religious freedom and security, which attracted a large number of craftsmen and traders to settle in Jammu, contributing to its economic prosperity.{{sfn|Rai, Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects|2004|pp=94–95}}Towards the end of Ranjit Dev's rule, the Sikh clans of Punjab (misls) gained ascendency, and Jammu began to be contested by the Bhangi, Kanhaiya and Sukerchakia misls. Around 1770, the Bhangi misl attacked Jammu and forced Ranjit Dev to become a tributary. Brij Lal Dev, Ranjit Dev's successor, was defeated by the Sukerchakia chief Mahan Singh, who sacked Jammu and plundered it. Thus Jammu lost its supremacy over the surrounding country.{{sfn|Panikkar, Gulab Singh|1930|p=10–12}} In 1808, Jammu itself was annexed to the Sikh Empire by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the son of Mahan Singh.{{sfn|Panikkar, Gulab Singh|1930|p=15–16}}In 1818 Raja Kishore Singh Father of Raja Gulab Singh was appointed and annointed the ruler of Jammu Principality hence started the Jamwal Dynasty, aka Dogra dynasty. The rulers built great temples, renovated old shrines, built educational institutes and many more. A 43 km long railway line connecting Jammu with Sialkot was laid in 1897WEB,weblink Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 14, page 49 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library, After the partition of India, Jammu continues as the winter capital of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

Climate

Jammu, like the rest of north-western India, features a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cwa),WEB, Climate: Jammu - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table,weblink Climate-Data.org, 29 August 2013, with extreme summer highs reaching {{convert|46|C|F}}, and temperatures in the winter months occasionally falling below {{convert|4|C|F}}. June is the hottest month with average highs of {{convert|40.6|C|F}}, while January is the coldest month with average lows reaching {{convert|7|C|F}}. Average yearly precipitation is about {{convert|42|in|mm}} with the bulk of the rainfall in the months from June to September, although the winters can also be rather wet. In winter dense smog causes much inconvenience and temperature even drops to {{convert|2|C|F}}. In summer, particularly in May and June, extremely intense sunlight or hot winds can raise the mercury to {{convert|46|C|F}}. Following the hot season, the monsoon lashes the city with heavy downpours along with thunderstorms: rainfall may total up to {{convert|669|mm|in|abbr=on}} in the wettest months.{{Weather box|metric first = yes|single line = yes|location = Jammu (1971–2000)|Jan record high C = 28.0|Feb record high C = 31.7|Mar record high C = 37.2|Apr record high C = 43.9|May record high C = 47.4|Jun record high C = 47.2|Jul record high C = 45.0|Aug record high C = 41.7|Sep record high C = 38.9|Oct record high C = 37.9|Nov record high C = 34.2|Dec record high C = 28.1|year record high C = 47.4|Jan high C = 18.9|Feb high C = 21.6|Mar high C = 25.6|Apr high C = 32.0|May high C = 37.2|Jun high C = 38.7|Jul high C = 34.0|Aug high C = 33.1|Sep high C = 33.1|Oct high C = 31.2|Nov high C = 26.6|Dec high C = 21.2|year high C = 29.6|Jan low C = 7.8|Feb low C = 9.8|Mar low C = 13.9|Apr low C = 18.9|May low C = 23.3|Jun low C = 26.0|Jul low C = 25.3|Aug low C = 24.8|Sep low C = 23.1|Oct low C = 18.1|Nov low C = 13.0|Dec low C = 9.0|year low C = 17.7|Jan record low C = 0.6|Feb record low C = 1.1|Mar record low C = 4.4|Apr record low C = 8.5|May record low C = 9.8|Jun record low C = 13.8|Jul record low C = 14.0|Aug record low C = 15.0|Sep record low C = 15.0|Oct record low C = 11.3|Nov record low C = 6.1|Dec record low C = 0.9|year record low C = 0.6|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 52.4|Feb precipitation mm = 79.0|Mar precipitation mm = 74.9|Apr precipitation mm = 47.1|May precipitation mm = 34.8|Jun precipitation mm = 87.3|Jul precipitation mm = 371.5|Aug precipitation mm = 370.2|Sep precipitation mm = 140.9|Oct precipitation mm = 25.1|Nov precipitation mm = 10.1|Dec precipitation mm = 38.3|year precipitation mm = 1331.6|Jan rain days = 3.1|Feb rain days = 4.2|Mar rain days = 4.8|Apr rain days = 3.2|May rain days = 3.2|Jun rain days = 5.3|Jul rain days = 12.5|Aug rain days = 13.1|Sep rain days = 6.1|Oct rain days = 1.8|Nov rain days = 1.1|Dec rain days = 2.3|year rain days = 60.6|source 1 = India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)WEB,weblink Jammu Climatological Table Period: 1971–2000, India Meteorological Department, April 10, 2015, WEB
,weblink
, PDF
, Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010
, India Meteorological Department
, April 10, 2015
, yes
,weblink
, 21 May 2013
,
, }}

Transport

File:Jammu Tawi to Delhi - Rail side views 02.JPG|thumb|right|Jammu TawiJammu TawiJammu city has a railway station called Jammu Tawi (station code JAT) that is connected with major cities of India. The old railway link to Sialkot was broken after the Partition of India and Jammu had no rail services until 1971, when the Indian Railways laid the Pathankot - Jammu Tawi Broad Gauge line. The new Jammu Tawi station was opened in October 1972 and is an origination point for Express trains.With the commencement of the Jammu–Baramulla line, all trains to the Kashmir Valley will pass through Jammu Tawi. A part of the Jammu–Baramulla project has been executed and the track has been extended to Katra. Jalandhar - Pathankot - Jammu Tawi section has been doubled and electrified.File:National Highway 1A (India).png|thumb|150px|right|National Highway 1A ]]National Highway 1A which passes through Jammu connects it to the Kashmir valley. National Highway 1B connects Jammu with Poonch town. Jammu is just {{convert|80|km|mi}} from Kathua town, while it is {{convert|68|km|mi}} from Udhampur city. Katra is also {{convert|49|km|mi}} away.Jammu Airport is in the middle of Jammu. It has direct flights to Srinagar, Delhi, Amritsar, Chandigarh, Leh and Mumbai and Bengaluru. Jammu Airport operate daily 30 arrival and departure flights which is Goair, Air India, Spicejet and Indigo running daily flights.The city has JKSRTC city buses under and mini buses for local transport which run on some defined routes. These mini buses are called "Matadors". Besides this auto-rickshaw and cycle-rickshaw service is also available. Local taxis are also available.

Administration

{{See also|Darbar Move}}Jammu city serves as the winter capital of Jammu & Kashmir state from November to April when all the offices move from Srinagar to Jammu. Srinagar serves as the summer capital from May to October.WEB,weblink Scheme for voting by postal ballot by a person holding any office under the Govt. and verified to be moving along with the headquarters of the Govt. from Kashmir Province to Jammu Province or vice-versa., Office of the Chief Electoral Officer, Jammu and Kashmir, 8 December 2008, 1, ...the State Govt. functions for six months (November to April) in the winter capital Jammu after which it moves to the summer capital Srinagar..., Jammu was a municipal committee during 2001 census of India. With effect from 5 September 2003, it has upgraded status of a municipal corporation.WEB
,weblink
, History of Jammu Municipal Corporation
, Official website of Jammu Municipal Corporation
, 4 December 2008
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090410050036weblink">weblink
, 10 April 2009
,
,

Economy

Jammu city is the main cultural and economic centre of the administrative division of Jammu. The city has a number of small industries. {{vague|date=July 2015}} Jammu has a number of woodgrain mills to cater to the local population. One of the most famous local Basmati Rice is produced in RS Pura area near jammu, which is then processed in rice mills in Jammu. Apart from Rice Mills scattered all around Jammu, industrial estate at Bari Brahamna has a large presence of Industrial units manufacturing a variety of products right from carpets, electronic goods, electric goods etc. The local government gives incentives for new units by foregoing taxes for a few initial years of establishment. Bari Brahamna also has a freight rail link that helps carry the goods manufactured here to other parts of India.

Tourism

{{#switch: {{#expr: {{CURRENTDAYOFYEAR}} mod 4}}thumb|Bahu Fort )thumb|Hari Market Jammu)thumb|Jammu Tawi to Delhi)thumb|Hari Niwas,Jammu)}}Tourism is the largest industry in Jammu as in the rest of the state. It is also a focal point for the pilgrims going to Vaishno Devi and Kashmir valley as it is second last railway terminal in North India. All the routes leading to Kashmir, Poonch, Doda and Laddakh start from Jammu city. So throughout the year the city remains full of people from all the parts of India. Places of interest include old historic palaces like Mubarak Mandi Palace, Purani Mandi, Rani Park, Amar Mahal, Bahu Fort, Raghunath Temple, Ranbireshwar Temple, Karbala, Peer Meetha, Old city.

Demographics

{{bar box|width = 300px
|barwidth = 250px |cellpadding="0"
|title=Religion in Jammu District (2011)WEB,weblink Jammu City Population Census 2011 - Jammu and Kashmir, |titlebar=#Fcd116|left1=Religion|right1=Percent|float=right|bars=
{{bar percent|Hinduism|#FF6600|81.19}}{{bar percent|Sikhism|#FFFF00|8.83}}{{bar percent|Islam|#009000|7.95}}{{bar percent|Christianity|#9955BB|1.35}}{{bar percent|Others|#9955BB|0.68}}}}As of 2011 census,WEB,weblink Census of India, Jammu Municipal Corporation Demographics, 25 April 2017, the population of Jammu city was 502,197. Males constituted 52.7% of the population; females numbered constituted 47.3% of the population. The sex ratio was 898 females per 1,000 males against national average of 940. Jammu had an average literacy rate of 89.66%, much higher than the national average of 74.4%: male literacy was 93.13% and female literacy was 85.82%. 8.47% of the population were under 6 years of age. The urban agglomeration of Jammu had a population of 657,314.WEB,weblink Jammu & Kashmir (India): State, Major Agglomerations & Cities – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts, City Population, 25 April 2017, Most of Jammu and Kashmir's Hindus live in the Jammu region and are closely related to the Punjabi-speaking peoples in the Punjab state; many speak Dogri,WEB,weblink Jammu and Kashmir, Encyclopædia Britannica, earlier considered a dialect of Punjabi; Dogri is a dialect of Punjabi on the basis of grammar and vocabulary.File:Malika Pukhraj (1912-2004) in 1920s.jpg|thumb|right|100px|Singer Malika PukhrajMalika Pukhraj{| class="wikitable"!|Rank!|Language!|1961WEB,weblink District Census Handbook, Jammu & Kashmir: Jammu, India Superintendent of Census Operations, Jammu and, Kashmir, M. H., Kamili, Google Books, | 1! Dogri| 55%| 2! Punjabi| 22%| 3! Hindi| 11.6%| —! Other|11.4%

Muslim communities

The Jammu city and the Jammu district had a significant Muslim population prior to the Partition of India, 37 per cent by the 1941 census. During the 1947 Jammu massacres, which preceded and continued during the Pakistan tribal invasion of Kashmir, a large number of Muslims were killed and the rest driven away to Pakistan. The estimates of the number killed vary between 20,000–100,000. The killings were carried out by extremist Hindus and Sikhs, allegedly orchestrated by the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, and aided and abetted by the State Forces and the Maharaja Hari Singh.NEWS,weblink Jammu 1947, Ved Bhasin, 17 November 2015, Kashmir Life, 4 June 2017, {{sfn|Chattha, Partition and its Aftermath|2009|p=182, 183}}BOOK,weblink Revisiting India's Partition: New Essays on Memory, Culture, and Politics, Singh, Amritjit, Iyer, Nalini, Gairola, Rahul K., 2016-06-15, Lexington Books, 9781498531054, 149, en, As a result of the violence and migration, by 1961, less than 10 per cent of the population in the Jammu district was Muslim.{{sfn|Luv Puri, Across the Line of Control|2012|p=30}} The displaced Muslims took refuge in the Sialkot District and other parts of Pakistani Punjab. Many prominent Punjab residents in Pakistan, including politician Chaudhry Amir Hussain, economist Mahbub ul Haq, Air Marshal Asghar Khan, journalist Khalid Hasan and singer Malika Pukhraj were from Jammu.{{sfn|Luv Puri, Across the Line of Control|2012|pp=3, 31}}

Education

In the 2014–2015 General Budget of India, Arun Jaitley, the Finance Minister of India, proposed an Indian Institute of Technology and an Indian Institute of Management for the division. List of some educational institutions is provided below.Engineering Colleges in Jammu:- Medical Institutions:- General Degree Courses (colleges):- Universities:-

Refugees and migration

{{See also| Exodus of Kashmiri Hindus|2015 Rohingya refugee crisis}}Being comparatively safe from terrorism, Jammu city has become a hub of refugees. These primarily include Kashmiri Hindus who migrated from Kashmir Valley in 1989. Hindus from Pakistan administered Kashmir who migrated to India have also settled in Jammu city. As per the records approximately 31,619 Hindu families had migrated from Pakistan administered Kashmir to India, out of them 26,319 families are settled in Jammu. Rohingyas who fled Myanmar during 2016 have also currently setteled in Jammu.NEWS,weblink As Jammu becomes home for refugees from four communities, govt has to deal with complex issue of rights, 2019-02-28, NEWS,weblink BBC World Service | World Agenda - Give me land, 2019-02-28,

Cuisine

Jammu is known for its sund panjeeri, patisa , rajma with rice and Kalari cheese. Dogri food specialties include ambal, khatta meat, kulthein di dal, dal patt, maa da madra, rajma, and auriya. Pickles typical of Jammu are made of kasrod, girgle, mango with saunf, jimikand, tyaoo, seyoo, and potatoes. Auriya is a dish made with potatoes. Jammu cuisine features various chaats, especially gol gappas, kachalu, Chole bhature, gulgule, rajma kulche and dahi palla, among various others.WEB,weblink Jammu Pincode, citypincode.in, 2014-05-19,

References

{{reflist}}

Bibliography

  • {{citation |last=Bamzai |first=P. N. K. |authorlink=P. N. K. Bamzai |title=Culture and Political History of Kashmir: Ancient Kashmir |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=1eMfzTBcXcYC&pg=PA13 |date=1994 |publisher=M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. |ISBN=978-81-85880-31-0 |ref={{sfnref|Bamzai, Culture and Political History of Kashmir|1994}}}}
  • {{citation |first1=Sukh Dev Singh |last1=Charak |first2=Anita K. |last2=Billawaria |title=Pahāṛi Styles of Indian Murals |publisher=Abhinav Publications |year=1998 |isbn=978-8-17017-356-4 |url=https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Kugq3wEh-W4C&pg=PA7 |ref={{sfnref|Charak & Billwaria, Pahāṛi Styles of Indian Murals|1998}}}}
  • {{citation |last=Jeratha |first=AÅ›oka |title=Dogra Legends of Art & Culture |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ToONShWeEB0C&pg=PA22 |year=1998 |publisher=Indus Publishing |ISBN=978-81-7387-082-8 |ref={{sfnref|Jeratha, Dogra Legends of Art & Culture|1998}}}}
  • {{citation |last=Kapur |first=Manohar Lal |title=History of Jammu and Kashmir State: The making of the State |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=fWw8AAAAIAAJ |year=1980 |publisher=Kashmir History Publications |ref={{sfnref|Kapur, History of Jammu and Kashmir State|1980}}}}
  • {{citation |last=Mohammad |first=Jigar |title=Raja Ranjit Dev's Inclusive Policies and Politico-economic developments in Jammu |newspaper=Epilogue |volume=4 |number=11 |date=November 2010 |url=https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=TMxJzb7N_8wC&pg=PA40 |pp=40-42 |ref={{sfnref|Jigar Mohammad, Raja Ranjit Dev's Inclusive Policies|2010}}}}
  • {{citation |first=K. M. |last=Panikkar |authorlink=K. M. Panikkar |title=Gulab Singh |publisher=Martin Hopkinson Ltd |year=1930 |location=London |url=https://archive.org/details/gulabsingh179218031570mbp |ref={{sfnref|Panikkar, Gulab Singh|1930}}}}
  • {{citation |last=Puri |first=Luv |authorlink=Luv Puri |title=Across the Line of Control: Inside Azad Kashmir |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=kYVcuqYr5FIC |date=2012 |publisher=Columbia University Press |ISBN=978-0-231-80084-6 |ref={{sfnref|Luv Puri, Across the Line of Control|2012}}}}
  • {{citation |first=Mridu |last=Rai|title=Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir | publisher=C. Hurst & Co |year=2004 |ISBN=1850656614 |ref={{sfnref|Rai, Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects|2004}}}}

External links

{{commons category|Jammu}}
  • {{wikivoyage-inline|Jammu}}
  • EB1911, Jammu, x,
{{clear}}{{State and Union Territory capitals of India}}{{Jammu and Kashmir topics}}{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2011}}

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