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Jakarta
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{{other uses|Jakarta (disambiguation)}}{{EngvarB|date=April 2017}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2017}}







factoids
| native_name =Capital districts and territories>Special Capital Region| image_skyline = Jakarta Pictures-4.jpgJakarta Old Town, Hotel Indonesia>Hotel Indonesia Roundabout, Jakarta Skyline, Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, National Monument (Indonesia), Merdeka Palace, Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta>Istiqlal Mosque and Jakarta Cathedral| image_shield = Jakarta COA.svg| image_flag = Flag of Jakarta (vectorised).svg| seal_alt = Provincial emblemDurian>The Big Durian,HTTPS://TRAVEL.KOMPAS.COM/READ/2017/06/23/040300127/MENGAPA.JAKARTA.DISEBUT.THE.BIG.DURIAN.>TITLE=WHY IS JAKARTA CALLED "THE BIG DURIAN"?WORK=KOMPASLANGUAGE=ID, HTTP://WORLDSTEPPER-DAWORLDISNTENOUGH.BLOGSPOT.COM/2008/04/GO-JAKARTA-HOW-TO-APPRECIATE-BIG-DURIAN.HTML>TITLE=TRAVEL INDONESIA GUIDE – HOW TO APPRECIATE THE 'BIG DURIAN' JAKARTADATE=8 APRIL 2008LAST=SUNGKARPUBLISHER=JETSTAR MAGAZINEACCESSDATE=2 JANUARY 2013ARCHIVEDATE=1 AUGUST 2013, Jaya Raya (Sanskrit language>Sanskrit)(meaning: Victorious and Great)| image_map = {{#property:p242}}| map_caption1 = Location of Jakarta in Indonesia| pushpin_map = Indonesia Java#Indonesia| pushpin_label_position = right| pushpin_map_caption = Location in Java and Indonesia6S49region:ID|display=inline,title}}List of sovereign states>CountryIndonesia}}| established_title = Settled DKI JAKARTA>ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130219073545/WWW.KEMENDAGRI.GO.ID/PAGES/PROFIL-DAERAH/PROVINSI/DETAIL/31/DKI-JAKARTAACCESSDATE=14 AUGUST 2019MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS (INDONESIA)>MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS, id, | established_title2 = City status| established_date2 = 4 March 1621Provinces of Indonesia>Province status| established_date3 = 28 August 1961Administrative divisions of Indonesia>Special administrative areaList of Governors of Jakarta>Governor| leader_name = Anies Baswedan| area_total_km2 = 661.5| area_metro_km2 = 6392Provinces of Indonesia>34th| elevation_m = 8| elevation_ft = 26| population_total = 10,075,310| population_as_of = 2014| population_footnotes = | population_density_km2 = 14,464| population_metro = 31,689,592| population_density_metro_km2 = 4958Provinces of Indonesia>6th| population_density_blank1_km2 = Postal codes in Indonesia>Postal Code| postal_code = 1xxx0Telephone numbers in Indonesia>Area code| area_code = (+62) 21Vehicle registration plates of Indonesia>BHuman Development Index>HDIDarkgreen|Very High}})| blank1_name_sec1 = HDI rankList of Indonesian provinces by Human Development Index>1st (2018)| website = jakarta.go.id| leader_title1 = Deputy Governor| leader_name1 = Vacant| leader_title2 = Legislative| leader_name2 = Jakarta Regional People's Representative CouncilTime in Indonesia>Indonesia Western Time| utc_offset = +07:00Purchasing Power Parity>GDP PPP (2016)URL-STATUS=DEADTITLE=STATISTIK INDONESIA 2016FIRST=WEBSITE=LOCATION=JAKARTAFORMAT=PDFDF=DMY-ALL, | blank3_name = PoliceGreater Jakarta Metropolitan Regional Police>Polda Metro JayaJabodetabek#Demographics>table}}Jakarta ({{IPAc-en|dÊ’|É™|ˈ|k|É‘r|t|É™}}; {{IPA-id|dÊ’aˈkarta}}), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island of Java, it is the centre of economy, culture and politics of Indonesia with a population of more than ten million {{As of|2014|lc=y}}.WEB,weblink Data Jumlah Penduduk DKI Jakarta, 2014, 5 December 2015, Jakarta Open Data, Pemerintah Provinsi DKI Jakarta, Dinas Kependudukan dan Catatan Sipil, WEB,weblink Jumlah Penduduk Provinsi DKI Jakarta, Dinas Kependudukan dan Catatan Sipil, 27 February 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131227023825weblink">weblink 27 December 2013, The Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometres, and is the world's second most populous urban area after Tokyo, with a population of 30 million {{As of|2010|lc=y}}.WEB, Indonesia: Java, Regencies, Cities and Districts – Population Statistics, Charts and Map,weblink www.citypopulation.de, Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, have attracted migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, making it a melting pot of numerous cultures.Markus Taylor, Tales from the Big Durian, 2009 Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York (Big Apple).WEB,weblink Sojourn in the Big Durian, ThingsAsian, 14 March 2011, Established in the fourth century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies when it was known as Batavia. Jakarta is officially a province with special capital region status, though it is commonly referred to as a city. Its provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency. Jakarta is an alpha world cityWEB, The World According to GaWC 2016,weblink 24 April 2017, GaWC, 1 November 2018, and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat, making it an important city for international diplomacy.NEWS, ASEAN, an important regional and global partner,weblink VOV Online Newspaper, 5 August 2017, Financial institutions such as the Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, and corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city. Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok and Beijing.WEB,weblink Foke lebih yakin lembaga survei asing, Waspada Online, 24 April 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130831024245weblink">weblink 31 August 2013, id, dead, In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion.WEB,weblink Statistik Indonesia 2016, 2016, Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, Indonesian, PDF,weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20161113201922weblink">weblink 13 November 2016, dead, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Global Metro Monitor, Brookings Institution, 22 January 2015, 8 October 2016, Jakarta's prime challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlocked traffic, congestion, and flooding.WEB,weblink Jakarta – Urban Challenges Overview – Human Cities Coalition, www.humancities.co, 2017-12-03, Additionally, Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm (6.7 inches) per year, which, coupled with the rising of sea levels, has made the city more prone to flooding. It is also one of the fastest-sinking capitals in the world.NEWS,weblink Cure to sinking Jakarta?, The Jakarta Post, 23 August 2019, In August 2019, President Joko Widodo announced a move of the capital to East Kalimantan, an Indonesian province on the island of Borneo,NEWS,weblink Jakarta sinks as Indonesian capital and Borneo takes on mantle, The Sydney Morning Herald, 26 August 2019, pending parliamentary approval.NEWS,weblink Indonesia will build its new capital city in Borneo as Jakarta sinks into the Java Sea, CNN, Picheta, Rob, 26 August 2019, 26 August 2019,

Etymology

File:Replica of the Luso-Sundanese Padrão Monument 2.jpg|thumb|upright|Replica of the Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between the Portuguese Empire and the Sunda Kingdom, at Jakarta History MuseumJakarta History MuseumJakarta has been home to multiple settlements.
  • Sunda Kelapa (397–1527)
  • Jayakarta (1527–1619)
  • Batavia (1619–1942)
  • Djakarta (1942–1945)
  • Jakarta (1945–present)
Its current name 'Jakarta' derives from the word Jayakarta (Devanagari: जयकृत) which is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit जय jaya (victorious)WEB, Sanskrit Dictionary, jaya,weblink and कृत krta (accomplished, acquired),WEB, Sanskrit Dictionary, krta,weblink thus Jayakarta translates as 'victorious deed', 'complete act' or 'complete victory'. It was named after troops of Fatahillah successfully defeated and drove the Portuguese away from the city in 1527.WEB,weblink History of Jakarta, BeritaJakarta, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110820052725weblink">weblink 2011-08-20, Before it was called Jayakarta, the city was known as 'Sunda Kelapa'. Tomé Pires, a Portuguese apothecary during his journey to East Indies, wrote the city name on his magnum opus as Jacatra or Jacarta.Detailed information on this embassy in Tomé Pires, Armando Cortesão, Francisco Rodrigues, The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires: The Suma oriental of Tome Pires, books 1-5, Introduction p.27 - 32, Armando Cortesão, Publisher Asian Educational Services, 1990, {{ISBN|81-206-0535-7}}In the 17th century, the city was also known as Koningin van het Oosten (Queen of the Orient), for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals, mansions and ordered city layout.{{nl}} Kampen, N.F. van (1831). Geschiedenis der Nederlanders buiten Europa, p. 291. Haarlem: De Erven François Bohn. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs (e.g. Menteng and the area around Merdeka Square), with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas.{{nl}} "Batavia zoals het weent en lacht", (17 October 1939), Het Nieuws van den Dag voor Nederlandsch-Indië, p. 6 During the Japanese occupation, the city was renamed as Jakaruta Tokubetsu Shi (Jakarta Special Municipality).NEWS,weblink The capital's 'childhood' names, The Jakarta Post, 28 January 2019,

History

Pre-colonial era

{{further|Sunda Kelapa}}File:Prasasti tugu.jpg|thumb|upright|right|The 5th-century Tugu inscriptionTugu inscriptionThe north coast area of western Java including Jakarta was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD.BOOK, {{google books, y, xSRwAAAAMAAJ, |title=The Sunda kingdoms of West Java: from Tarumanagara to Pakuan Pajajaran with the royal center of Bogor : over 1000 years of prosperity and glory|last=Zahorka|first=Herwig|date=2007|publisher=Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka}} The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th-century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia.BOOK, {{google books, y, ggxvAAAAMAAJ, |title=Sundakala: cuplikan sejarah Sunda berdasarkan naskah-naskah "Panitia Wangsakerta" Cirebon|last=Ayatrohaedi|date=2005|publisher=Pustaka Jaya|isbn=978-979-419-330-3|language=id}} The area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement in the early 5th century. The Tugu inscription (probably written around 417 AD) discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, Koja, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects; the irrigation and water drainage project of the Chandrabhaga river and the Gomati river near his capital.BOOK, {{google books, y, wtJMDwAAQBAJ, 182, |title=Jakarta: Claiming spaces and rights in the city|last=Hellman|first=Jorgen|last2=Thynell|first2=Marie|last3=Voorst|first3=Roanne van|year=2018|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-351-62044-4}} Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century that Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java (Sunda).{{Citation needed|date=October 2018}} The source says the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture, and their houses were built on wooden piles.BOOK, Drs. R. Soekmono, Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed., Penerbit Kanisius, 1973, Yogyakarta, 60, The harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa, (Sundanese: {{Sund|ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ ᮊᮨᮜᮕ}}) and by the 14th century, it was an important trading port for the Sunda kingdom.The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 while looking for a route for spices.BOOK, Cipta Loka Caraka, Sumber-sumber asli sejarah Jakarta, Jilid I: Dokumen-dokumen sejarah Jakarta sampai dengan akhir abad ke-16, 1999, The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java.WEB,weblink History of Jakarta, BeritaJakarta, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110820052725weblink">weblink 20 August 2011, In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta and became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asian trading centre.Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the British East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post. This site became the centre of British trade in the Indonesian archipelago until 1682.BOOK, {{google books, y, oj9dDwAAQBAJA, |title=A History of Modern Indonesia: c. 1300 to the Present|date=1981|publisher=Macmillan International Higher Education|isbn=978-1-349-16645-9}} Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with the British merchants, rivals of the Dutch, by allowing them to build houses directly across from the Dutch buildings in 1615.BOOK, Heuken, Adolf, Sumber-sumber asli sejarah Jakarta Jilid II: Dokumen-dokumen Sejarah Jakarta dari kedatangan kapal pertama Belanda (1596) sampai dengan tahun 1619 (Authentic sources of History of Jakarta part II: Documents of history of Jakarta from the first arrival of Dutch ship (1596) to year 1619), Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka, 2000, Jakarta,

Colonial era

{{see also|Batavia, Dutch East Indies|List of colonial buildings and structures in Jakarta}}File:Andries Beeckman - The Castle of Batavia.jpg|thumb|left|Dutch Batavia built in what is now Jakarta, by Andries BeeckmanAndries BeeckmanWhen relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch deteriorated, his soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress. His army and the British, however, were defeated by the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen. The Dutch burned the British fort and forced them to retreat on their ships. The victory consolidated Dutch power, and they renamed the city Batavia in 1619.Commercial opportunities in the city attracted native and especially Chinese and Arab immigrants. This sudden population increase created burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. Following a revolt, 5,000 Chinese were massacred by the Dutch and natives on 9 October 1740, and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok outside the city walls.BOOK, Witton, Patrick, Indonesia, Lonely Planet Publications, 2003, Melbourne, 138–139, {{google books, y, dmDYLxcPDPoC, |isbn=978-1-74059-154-6}} At the beginning of the 19th century, around 400 Arabs and Moors lived in Batavia, a number that changed little during the following decades. Among the commodities traded are fabrics, mainly imported cotton, batik and clothing worn by Arab communities.P. Nas, Jakarta-Batavia: Socio-cultural Essays, 2000The city began to expand further south as epidemics in 1835 and 1870 forced residents to move away from the port. The Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square was completed in 1818, the housing park of Menteng was started in 1913,WEB,weblink Menteng: Pelopor Kota Taman, 3 November 2007, Badan Perencanaan Kotamadya Jakarta Pusat,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090220150339weblink">weblink 20 February 2009, id, and Kebayoran Baru was the last Dutch-built residential area. By 1930, Batavia had more than 500,000 inhabitants,Colonial Economy and Society, 1870–1940. Source: U.S. Library of Congress. including 37,067 Europeans.JOURNAL, 10.1016/j.worlddev.2007.09.015, Governance Failure: Rethinking the Institutional Dimensions of Urban Water Supply to Poor Households, 2008, Bakker, K., Kooy, M., Shofiani, N.E., Martijn, E. J., World Development, 36, 10, 1891, On 5 March 1942, the Japanese wrested Batavia from Dutch control, and the city was named Jakarta ({{Nihongo|Jakarta Special City|ジャカルタ特別市|Jakaruta tokubetsu-shi}}, in accordance with the special status that was assigned to the city). After the war, the Dutch name Batavia was internationally recognised until full Indonesian independence on 27 December 1949. The city, now renamed Jakarta, was officially proclaimed the national capital of Indonesia.

Independence era

File:Jakarta Panorama.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.35|Monas, which stands in the centre of Merdeka square, commemorates the Indonesian struggle for independence.]]Following World War II, Indonesian Republicans withdrew from Allied-occupied Jakarta during their fight for independence and established their capital in Yogyakarta. Indonesian nationalists declared independence on 17 August 1945,{{sfn|Waworoentoe|2013}} and the government of Jakarta City was changed into the Jakarta National Administration in the following month.In 1950, once independence was secured, Jakarta again became the national capital. Sukarno, envisaging Jakarta as a great international city, instigated large government-funded projects with openly nationalistic and modernist architecture.BOOK, Kusno, Abidin, 2000, Behind the Postcolonial: Architecture, Urban Space and Political Cultures, New York City, Routledge, {{google books, y, 1SSWwAtgkB8C, |isbn=978-0-415-23615-7}}BOOK, P., Schoppert, Damais, S., Java Style, 1997, Didier Millet, Paris, {{google books, y, 164BAAAACAAJ, |isbn= 978-962-593-232-3}} Projects included a clover-leaf highway, a major boulevard (Jalan MH Thamrin-Sudirman), monuments such as The National Monument, Hotel Indonesia, a shopping centre, and a new parliament building. In October 1965, Jakarta was the site of an abortive coup attempt in which six top generals were killed, precipitating a violent anti-communist purge which killed at least 500,000 people, including some ethnic Chinese."Why ethnic Chinese are afraid". BBC News. 12 February 1998. The event marked the beginning of Suharto's New Order. A monument stands where the generals' bodies were dumped.The first government was led by a mayor until the end of 1960 when the office was changed to that of a governor. The last mayor of Jakarta was Soediro until he was replaced by Soemarno Sosroatmodjo as governor. Based on UU No. 5/1974 relating to regional governments, Jakarta was confirmed as the capital of Indonesia and one of the country's then 26 provinces.File:Gouverneurskantoor 100415.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|The City Hall of Batavia (Stadhuis van Batavia), the seat of the Governor General of the VOC in the late 18th century by Johannes Rach c. 1770. The building now houses the Jakarta History Museum, Jakarta Old TownJakarta Old TownIn 1966, Jakarta was declared a 'special capital region' (Daerah Khusus Ibukota), with a status equivalent to that of a province.WEB, Jakarta, Encyclopædia Britannica Online,weblink 17 September 2007, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin served as governor from 1966 to 1977; he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built hospitals and a large number of schools. He cleared out slum dwellers for new development projects — some for the benefit of the Suharto familyJOURNAL, M., Douglas, 1989, The Environmental Sustainability of Development. Coordination, Incentives and Political Will in Land Use Planning for the Jakarta Metropolis, Third World Planning Review, 11, 2, 211–238, 10.3828/twpr.11.2.44113540kqt27180, JOURNAL, 10.1177/095624789200400203, M., Douglas, 1992, The Political Economy of Urban Poverty and Environmental Management in Asia: Access, Empowerment and Community-based Alternatives, Environment and Urbanization, 4, 2, 9–32, — and tried to eliminate rickshaws and ban street vendors. He began control of migration to the city to stem overcrowding and poverty.BOOK, Turner, Peter, Java (1st edition), Lonely Planet, 1997, Melbourne, 315, {{google books, y, SfQJAQAAMAAJ, 315, |isbn=978-0-86442-314-6}} Foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom that transformed the face of Jakarta.JOURNAL, Edsel E., Sajor, 2003, Globalization and the Urban Property Boom in Metro Cebu, Philippines, Development and Change, 34, 4, 713–742, 10.1111/1467-7660.00325, The boom ended with the 1997 Asian financial crisis, putting Jakarta at the centre of violence, protest and political manoeuvring. After three decades in power, support for President Suharto began to wane. Tensions peaked when four students were shot dead at Trisakti University by security forces. Four days of riots and violence ensued that killed an estimated 1,200, and destroyed or damaged 6,000 buildings, forcing Suharto to resign.BOOK, Friend, Theodore, Indonesian Destinies, Harvard University Press, 2003, {{google books, y, -m3engEACAAJ, 329, |isbn=978-0-674-01137-3}} Much of the rioting targeted Chinese Indonesians.Wages of Hatred {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160307100321weblink|date= 7 March 2016 }}. Michael Shari. Business Week. In the post-Suharto era, Jakarta has remained the focal point of democratic change in Indonesia.BOOK, Friend, T., Indonesian Destinies, Harvard University Press, 2003, {{google books, y, -m3engEACAA, |isbn=978-0-674-01137-3}} Jemaah Islamiah-connected bombings occurred almost annually in the city between 2000 and 2005, with another in 2009.WEB, Minggu, 19 July 2009,weblink Daftar Serangan Bom di Jakarta, Poskota, 27 April 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090812063627weblink">weblink 12 August 2009, In August 2007, Jakarta held its first-ever election to choose a governor as part of a nationwide decentralisation program that allows direct local elections in several areas.NEWS,weblink Jakarta holds historic election, 8 August 2007, BBC News, BBC, Previously, governors were elected by the members of Jakarta Council (DPRD).

Government and politics

{{See also|Governor of Jakarta}}(File:City Hall Jakarta.jpg|thumb|Jakarta DPD Parliament Building)Jakarta is administratively equal to a province with special status. The executive branch is headed by an elected governor and a deputy governor, while the Jakarta Regional People's Representative Council (, abbreviated DPRD DKI (Jakarta)) is the legislative branch with 106 directly elected members. Jakarta City Hall at the south of Merdeka Square houses the office of the governor and the vice governor, and the main administrative office.Executive governance consists of five administrative cities/Kota Administratif, each headed by a mayor—and one administrative regency/Kabupaten Administratif headed by a regent/Bupati. Unlike other cities and regencies in Indonesia where the mayor or regent are directly elected, Jakarta's mayors and regent are chosen by the governor of Jakarta. Each city and regency is divided into administrative districts.Aside from representatives to the Regional Representative Council, Jakarta sends 21 members to the People's Representative Council. The representatives are elected from Jakarta's three national electoral districts, which also includes overseas voters.NEWS, Ini 21 Caleg DPR yang Terpilih dari DKI Jakarta,weblink 14 August 2018, detiknews, 14 May 2014, id, The Jakarta Smart City (JSC) program was launched on 14 December 2014 with a goal for smart governance, smart people, smart mobility, smart economy, smart living and a smart environment in the city using the web and various smartphone-based apps.NEWS,weblink Four years on, Ahok's 'Smart City' legacy lives on, The Jakarta Post, 14 January 2019, Polda Metro Jaya maintains the law, security and order of Jakarta. It is led by a Regional Chief of police Kapolda, who holds the rank of Inspector General of Police.

Municipal finances

The Jakarta provincial government relies on transfers from the central government for the bulk of its income. Local (non-central government) sources of revenue are incomes from various taxes such as vehicle ownership and vehicle transfer fees, among others.'Taxpayer money for the city', The Jakarta Post, 16 July 2011. The ability of the regional government to respond to Jakarta's many problems is constrained by limited finances.The provincial government consistently runs a surplus of between 15–20% of planned spending, primarily because of delays in procurement and other inefficiencies.Sita W. Dewi, 'Jokowi spends less, provides more than Foke, say observers', The Jakarta Post, 9 December 2013. Regular under-spending is a matter of public comment.NEWS,weblink Editorial: Regional budgets underspent, Post, The Jakarta, The Jakarta Post, 8 October 2016, In 2013, the budget was around Rp 50 trillion ($US5.2 billion), equivalent to around $US380 per citizen. Spending priorities were on education, transport, flood control, environment and social spending (such as health and housing).Sita W. Dewi, 'Council approves city budget for 2013, higher than proposed', The Jakarta Post, 29 January 2013. Jakarta's regional budget (APBD) was Rp 77.1 trillion ($US5.92 billion), Rp 83.2 trillion ($US6.2 billion), and Rp 89 trillion ($US6.35 billion) for the year of 2017, 2018 and 2019 respectively.NEWS,weblink 2019 draft city budget to be set at Rp 89 trillion, The Jakarta Post, 17 August 2019, NEWS,weblink Jakarta Proposes Rp95 Trillion Regional Budget Plan for 2020, Tempo, 17 August 2019, NEWS,weblink Jakarta revised budget estimated at Rp 72 trillion, The Jakarta Post, 17 August 2019,

Administrative divisions

File:Jakarta districts.png|thumb|right|Map of the municipalities (Kota administrasi) in Jakarta province. Each city is divided into districts (KecamatanKecamatanJakarta consists of five Kota Administratif (Administrative cities/municipalities), each headed by a mayor, and one Kabupaten Administratif (Administrative regency). Each city and regency is divided into districts/Kecamatan. The administrative cities/municipalities of Jakarta are:
  • Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat) is Jakarta's smallest city and the administrative and political centre. It is divided into eight districts. It is characterised by large parks and Dutch colonial buildings. Landmarks include the National Monument (Monas), Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta Cathedral and museums.WEB,weblink Central Jakarta Profile, The City Jakarta Administration, Jakarta.go.id, 19 December 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090911220356weblink">weblink 11 September 2009,
  • West Jakarta (Jakarta Barat) has the city's highest concentration of small-scale industries. It has eight districts. The area includes Jakarta's Chinatown and Dutch colonial landmarks such as the Chinese Langgam building and Toko Merah. It contains part of Jakarta Old Town.WEB,weblink West Jakarta Profile, The City Jakarta Administration, Jakarta.go.id, 24 February 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090911220346weblink">weblink 11 September 2009,
  • South Jakarta (Jakarta Selatan), originally planned as a satellite city, is now the location of upscale shopping centres and affluent residential areas. It has ten districts and functions as Jakarta's groundwater buffer,WEB,weblink South Jakarta Profile, The City Jakarta Administration, Jakarta.go.id, 19 December 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090705203755weblink">weblink 5 July 2009, but recently the green belt areas are threatened by new developments. Much of the central business district is concentrated in Setiabudi, South Jakarta, bordering the Tanah Abang/Sudirman area of Central Jakarta.
  • East Jakarta (Jakarta Timur) territory is characterised by several industrial sectors.WEB,weblink East Jakarta Profile, The City Jakarta Administration, Jakarta.go.id, 19 December 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091014184630weblink">weblink 14 October 2009, Also located in East Jakarta are Taman Mini Indonesia Indah and Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport. This city has ten districts.
  • North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara) is bounded by the Java Sea. It is the location of Port of Tanjung Priok. Large- and medium-scale industries are concentrated there. It contains part of Jakarta Old Town and was the centre of VOC trade activity during the colonial era. Also located in North Jakarta is Ancol Dreamland (Taman Impian Jaya Ancol), the largest integrated tourism area in South East Asia.WEB,weblink North Jakarta Profile, The City Jakarta Administration, Jakarta.go.id, 19 December 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090913084331weblink">weblink 13 September 2009, North Jakarta is divided into six districts.
The only administrative regency (kabupaten) of Jakarta is the Thousand Islands (Kepulauan Seribu), formerly a district within North Jakarta. It is a collection of 105 small islands located on the Java Sea. It is of high conservation value because of its special ecosystems. Marine tourism, such as diving, water bicycling, and windsurfing, are the primary tourist activities in this territory. The main mode of transportation between the islands is speed boats or small ferries.WEB,weblink "Thousand Island" Profile, The City Jakarta Administration, Jakarta.go.id, 19 December 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090616124511weblink">weblink 16 June 2009, {|class="wikitable sortable" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; border: none;"|+ Jakarta's cities/municipalities (Kota Administrasi/Kotamadya)!City/regency!width="70"|Area (km2)! style="width:100px;"|Total population (2010 Census)! style="width:100px;"|Total population (2014)! style="width:100px;"|Population density(per km2)in 2010!Population density(per km2)in 2014!HDIWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161003150603weblink">weblink dead, 2016-10-03, BPS Provinsi DKI Jakarta, 2015 estimates style="text-align:right;"! South Jakarta|14,561green|Very High}}) style="text-align:right;"! East Jakarta|14,290green|Very High}}) style="text-align:right;"! Central Jakarta|18,676green|High}}) style="text-align:right;"! West Jakarta|17,592green|High}}) style="text-align:right;"! North Jakarta|11,219green|High}}) style="text-align:right;"! Thousand Islands|2,422#fc0|Medium}})

Geography

Jakarta covers {{Convert|699.5|km2|}}, the smallest among Indonesian provinces. However Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometres, which extends into two of the bordering provinces of West Java and Banten.WEB,weblink Publikasi Provinsi dan Kabupaten Hasil Sementara SP2010, Bps.go.id, 2011-06-07, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101013091507weblink">weblink 2010-10-13, The Greater Jakarta area includes three bordering regencies (Bekasi Regency, Tangerang Regency and Bogor Regency) and five adjacent cities (Bogor, Depok, Bekasi, Tangerang and South Tangerang).

Topography

{{See also|Flooding in Jakarta|Jakarta Flood Canal|Giant Sea Wall Jakarta}}Jakarta is situated on the northwest coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, an inlet of the Java Sea. The northern part of Jakarta is plain land, some areas of which are below sea levelWEB,weblink The Tides: Efforts Never End to Repel an Invading Sea, Jakarta Globe, 15 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151117024056weblink">weblink 17 November 2015, dead, dmy-all, and subject to frequent flooding. The southern parts of the city are hilly. It is one of only two Asian capital cities located in the southern hemisphere (along with East Timor's Dili). Officially, the area of the Jakarta Special District is {{convert|662|km2|0|abbr=on}} of land area and {{convert|6977|km2|0|abbr=on}} of sea area.Based on Governor Decree 2007, No. 171. taken from Statistics DKI Jakarta Provincial Office, Jakarta in Figures, 2008, BPS, the province of DKI Jakarta The Thousand Islands, which are administratively a part of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta Bay, north of the city.(File:Tanjung priok2.jpg|thumb|left|250px|Aerial view of North Jakarta)Jakarta lies in a low and flat alluvial plain, ranging from {{convert|-2|to|50|m|0}} with an average elevation of {{convert|8|m|0}} above sea level with historically extensive swampy areas. Thirteen rivers flow through Jakarta. They are Ciliwung River, Kalibaru, Pesanggrahan, Cipinang, Angke River, Maja, Mookervart, Krukut, Buaran, West Tarum, Cakung, Petukangan, Sunter River and Grogol River.NEWS, Simanjuntak, T. P. Moan, Maja River in Pegadungan Strewn with Water Hyacinth and Mud, 16 July 2014, Berita Resmi Pemprov,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150318155453weblink">weblink 18 March 2015, live, NEWS, Elyda, Corry, BPK slams city's efforts to manage liquid waste, 27 December 2014, The Jakarta Post,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402191855weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, live, They flow from the Puncak highlands to the south of the city, then across the city northwards towards the Java Sea. The Ciliwung River divides the city into the western and eastern districts.File:Banjir Kanal Barat.jpg|thumb|right|Banjir Kanal Barat (west flood-control canal)]]These rivers, combined with the wet season rains and insufficient drainage due to clogging, make Jakarta prone to flooding. Moreover, Jakarta is sinking about {{convert|5|to|10|cm|abbr=off}} each year, and up to {{convert|20|cm|abbr=off}} in the northern coastal areas. After a feasibility study, a ring dyke is under construction around Jakarta Bay to help cope with the threat from the sea. The dyke will be equipped with a pumping system and retention areas to defend against seawater and function as a toll road. The project, known as Giant Sea Wall Jakarta, is expected to be completed by 2025.WEB,weblink Dutch to study new dike for Jakarta Bay, The Jakarta, Post, In January 2014, the central government agreed to build two dams in Ciawi, Bogor and a {{convert|1.2|km|mi|adj=on|abbr=off}} tunnel from Ciliwung River to Cisadane River to ease flooding in the city.WEB,weblink New Ciliwung River Dams Planned as Jakarta Struggles With Latest Floods, 20 January 2014, 5 December 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150925103037weblink">weblink 25 September 2015, dead, dmy-all, Nowadays, a {{convert|1.2|km|mi|adj=on|abbr=off}}, with capacity {{convert|60|m3|abbr=off}} per second, underground water tunnel between Ciliwung River and the East Flood Canal is being worked on to ease the Ciliwung River overflows.WEB,weblink Jatinegara residents complain about underground tunnel project, 24 April 2015,

Climate

Jakarta has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) according to the Köppen climate classification system. The wet season in Jakarta covers the majority of the year, running from October through May. The remaining four months (June through September) constitute the city's drier season (each of these four months has an average monthly rainfall of fewer than {{convert|100|mm}}). Located in the western part of Java, Jakarta's wet season rainfall peaks in January and February with average monthly rainfall of {{convert|299.7|mm}}, and its dry season's low point is in August with a monthly average of {{convert|43.2|mm|abbr=on}}.{{Weather box|location=Halim Perdanakusuma Airport, Jakarta, Indonesia (temperature: 1924–1994, precipitation: 1931–1994)|metric first=yes|single line=yes|Jan record high C=33.3|Feb record high C=32.8|Mar record high C=33.3|Apr record high C=33.3|May record high C=33.3|Jun record high C=33.3|Jul record high C=34.4|Aug record high C=35.6|Sep record high C=35.6|Oct record high C=35.6|Nov record high C=35.6|Dec record high C=33.9|Jan high C=28.9|Feb high C=28.9|Mar high C=29.4|Apr high C=30.0|May high C=30.6|Jun high C=30.0|Jul high C=30.0|Aug high C=30.6|Sep high C=31.1|Oct high C=31.1|Nov high C=30.6|Dec high C=29.4|year high C=30.1|Jan mean C=26.1|Feb mean C=26.1|Mar mean C=26.4|Apr mean C=27.0|May mean C=27.2|Jun mean C=26.7|Jul mean C=26.4|Aug mean C=26.7|Sep mean C=27.0|Oct mean C=27.2|Nov mean C=27.0|Dec mean C=26.4|year mean C=26.7|Jan low C=23.3|Feb low C=23.3|Mar low C=23.3|Apr low C=23.9|May low C=23.9|Jun low C=23.3|Jul low C=22.8|Aug low C=22.8|Sep low C=22.8|Oct low C=23.3|Nov low C=23.3|Dec low C=23.3|year low C=23.3|Jan record low C=20.6|Feb record low C=20.6|Mar record low C=20.6|Apr record low C=20.6|May record low C=21.1|Jun record low C=19.4|Jul record low C=19.4|Aug record low C=19.4|Sep record low C=18.9|Oct record low C=20.6|Nov record low C=20.0|Dec record low C=19.4|precipitation colour=green|Jan precipitation mm=299.7|Feb precipitation mm=299.7|Mar precipitation mm=210.8|Apr precipitation mm=147.3|May precipitation mm=132.1|Jun precipitation mm=96.5|Jul precipitation mm=63.5|Aug precipitation mm=43.2|Sep precipitation mm=66.0|Oct precipitation mm=111.8|Nov precipitation mm=142.2|Dec precipitation mm=203.2|Jan humidity=85|Feb humidity=85|Mar humidity=83|Apr humidity=82|May humidity=82|Jun humidity=81|Jul humidity=78|Aug humidity=76|Sep humidity=75|Oct humidity=77|Nov humidity=81|Dec humidity=82|Jan sun=189|Feb sun=182|Mar sun=239|Apr sun=255|May sun=260|Jun sun=255|Jul sun=282|Aug sun=295|Sep sun=288|Oct sun=279|Nov sun=231|Dec sun=220|source 1=Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática MundialWEB,weblink Indonesia – Halim Perdanakus, Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas, 26 June 2016, |source 2=Danish Meteorological Institute (humidity and sun only)WEB,weblink Stations Number 96745, Ministry of Energy, Utilities and Climate, 26 June 2016, unfit,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116071752weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, }}{|style="width:100%;text-align:center;line-height:1.2em;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto" class="wikitable mw-collapsible"!Colspan=14|Climate data for Jakarta!Month!Jan!Feb!Mar!Apr!May!Jun!Jul!Aug!Sep!Oct!Nov!Dec!style="border-left-width:medium"|Year!Average sea temperature °C (°F)28.0(82.0)28.0(82.0)29.0(84.0)30.0(86.0)30.0(86.0)29.0(84.0)29.0(84.0)29.0(84.0)29.0(84.0)29.0(84.0)29.0(84.0)29.0(84.0)29.0(84.0)!Mean daily daylight hours12.012.012.012.012.012.012.012.012.012.012.012.012.0!Average Ultraviolet index11+11+11+11+11101011+11+11+11+11+10.8!Colspan=14 style="background:#f8f9fa;font-weight:normal;font-size:95%;"|Source: Weather Atlas WEB,weblink Jakarta, Indonesia - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data, Weather Atlas, 8 February 2019,

Demographics

{{Historical populations|1950|1,452,000|1960|2,678,740|1970|3,915,406|1980|5,984,256|1990|8,174,756|2000|8,389,759|2010|9,625,579|2019|10,638,689|align=right|footnote=source:Jakarta population}}Jakarta attracts people from across Indonesia, often in search of employment. The 1961 census showed that 51% of the city's population was born in Jakarta.Cybriwsky and Ford, City profile – Jakarta, 2001 Inward immigration tended to negate the effect of family planning programs.WEB, Post, BPS Jakarta, Jakarta, Statistics of DKI Jakarta Province 2008,weblink Between 1961 and 1980, the population of Jakarta doubled, and during the period 1980–1990, the city's population grew annually by 3.7%.Jabotabek, the Jakarta metropolitan area The 2010 census counted some 9.58 million people, well above government estimates."After census city plans for 9.6 million". Jakarta Pos The population rose from 4.5 million in 1970 to 9.5 million in 2010, counting only legal residents, while the population of Greater Jakarta rose from 8.2 million in 1970 to 28.5 million in 2010. As per 2014, the population of Jakarta stood at ten millionweblink with a population density of 15,174 people/km2.BRT – Case StudyA 5 – Annex 5 Case Studies and Lessons – Module 2: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): Toolkit for Feasibility Studies. Sti-india-uttoolkit.adb.org. Retrieved 12 June 2011.Puslitbang Ekonomi dan Pembangunan, Perubahan Pemanfaatan Tanah di Jabotabek, Jakarta: Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, 1998 As per 2014, the population of Greater Jakarta was 30 million, accounting for 11% of Indonesia's overall population.WEB, Post, The Jakarta, Population growth of Greater Jakarta and its impact,weblink The Jakarta Post, It is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity.WEB,weblink These are the megacities of the future, 11 October 2018, 2018-10-09, The gender ratio was 102.8 (males per 100 females) in 2010WEB, Free data & statistics, Data collection, analysis, visualization and sharing,weblink Knoema, and 101.3 in 2014.WEB, Post, BPS Jakarta, Statistics of DKI Jakarta Province 2017,weblink

Ethnicity

{{Bar boxID=NFCKUNEBBRI, last=Suryadinatalast2=Arifinlast3=Anantayear=2003isbn=978-981-230-212-0}}|left1=Ethnic group|right1=Percentage|float=right|bars={{Bar percent|Javanese|#89CFF0|36.17}}{{Bar percent|Betawi|#FFA07A|28.29}}{{Bar percent|Sundanese|#FFCBA4|14.61}}{{Bar percent|Chinese|DarkGray|6.62}}{{Bar percent|Batak|Black|3.42}}{{Bar percent|Minangkabau|Magenta|2.85}}{{Bar percent|Malays|DarkViolet|0.96}}{{Bar percent|Others|DarkRed|7.08}}}}Jakarta is a pluralistic and religiously diverse city. As of the 2010 Census, 36.17% of the city's population were Javanese, 28.29% Betawi, 14.61% Sundanese, 6.62% Chinese, 3.42% Batak, 2.85% Minangkabau, 0.96% Malays, Indo and others 7.08%.The 'Betawi' (Orang Betawi, or 'people of Batavia') are the descendants of the people living in and around Batavia and became recognised as an ethnic group around the 18th–19th century. They mostly descend from Southeast Asian ethnic groups brought or attracted to Batavia to meet labour needs.BOOK, {{google books, y, y_IAxzcSX7YC, |title=Kreolität und postkoloniale Gesellschaft: Integration und Differenzierung in Jakarta|last=Knörr|first=Jacqueline|date=2007|publisher=Campus Verlag|isbn=978-3-593-38344-6|language=de|ref=harv}}The Betawi—due to their diverse origins—play a vital role concerning ethnic and national identity in contemporary Jakarta; {{harvnb|Knörr|2007}} Betawi people are a creole ethnic group who came from various parts of Indonesia and intermarried with Chinese, Arabs and Europeans.Rogelio Sáenz, David G. Embrick, Néstor P. Rodríguez; The International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity, 2015 Betawi form a minority in the city; most lived in the fringe areas of Jakarta with hardly any Betawi-dominated regions of central Jakarta.Alessandra Iyer, Indonesian Performing Arts: Tradition and Transition, 2001File:Jin De Yuan, Chinese Indonesian.jpg|thumb|220px|right|The Chinese in Jakarta praying during Chinese New YearChinese New YearA significant Chinese community has lived in Jakarta for many centuries. They traditionally reside around old urban areas, such as Pinangsia, Pluit and Glodok (Jakarta Chinatown) areas. They also can be found in the old Chinatowns of Senen and Jatinegara. Officially, they make up 5.53% of the Jakarta population, although this number may be under-reported.NEWS,weblink Chinese diaspora: Indonesia, BBC News, BBC, Johnston, Tim, 3 March 2005, The Sumatran residents are diverse. According to the 2010 Census, roughly 346,000 Batak, 305,000 Minangkabau and 155,000 Malays lived there. The Batak and Minangkabau are spread throughout the city. The Batak ethnic group has increased in ranking, from eighth in 1930 to fifth in 2000. Toba Batak is the largest sub-ethnic Batak group in Jakarta.Anthony Reid, Imperial Alchemy: Nationalism and Political Identity in Southeast Asia, 2010 Minangkabau people generally work as merchants, peddlers, and artisans, with more in white-collar professions, such as doctors, teachers and journalists.Board of Editors, Contributions to Southeast Asian Ethnography, 1987Mochtar Naim, Merantau: Causes and Effects of Minangkabau Voluntary Migration, 1971

Language

Indonesian is the official and dominant language of Jakarta, while many elderly people speak Dutch and Portuguese. Also English is widely used for communication.NEWS,weblink As English Spreads, Indonesians Fear for Their Language, The New York Times, 11 August 2019, Each of the ethnic groups uses their mother language at home, such as Betawi, Javanese, and Sundanese. The Betawi language is distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese, forming itself as a language island in the surrounding area. It is mostly based on the East Malay dialect and enriched by loan words from Dutch, Portuguese, Sundanese, Javanese, Minangkabau, Chinese, and Arabic.

Religion

{{bar boxBADAN PUSAT STATISTIK>BPSURL=HTTP://DATA.JAKARTA.GO.ID/DATASET/JUMLAH-PENDUDUK-DKI-JAKARTA-BERDASARKAN-AGAMA, |titlebar=|left1=Religion|right1=Percentage|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Islam|Green|83.43}}{{bar percent|Protestant|Blue|8.63}}{{bar percent|Roman Catholic|purple|4.00}}{{bar percent|Buddhism|yellow|3.74}}{{bar percent|Hinduism|orange|0.19}}{{bar percent|Confucianism|magenta|0.01}}{{bar percent|Folk|grey|0.00}}}}In 2017, Jakarta's religious composition was distributed over Islam (83.43%), Protestantism (8.63%), Catholicism (4.0%), Buddhism (3.74%), Hinduism (0.19%), and Confucianism (0.01%). About 231 people claimed to follow folk religions.Most pesantren (Islamic boarding schools) in Jakarta are affiliated with the traditionalist Nahdlatul Ulama,Pemerintah Provinsi Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta, Ensiklopedi Jakarta: Culture & Heritage, Vol. 1, Dinas Kebudayaan dan Permuseuman, 2005 modernist organisations mostly catering to a socioeconomic class of educated urban elites and merchant traders. They give priority to education, social welfare programs and religious propagation.Donald Porter, Managing Politics and Islam in Indonesia, 2002 Many Islamic organisations have headquarters in Jakarta, including Nahdlatul Ulama, Indonesian Ulema Council, Muhammadiyah, Jaringan Islam Liberal, and Front Pembela Islam.The Roman Catholic community has a Metropolis, the Archdiocese of Jakarta that includes West Java as part of the ecclesiastical province. There is also a Bahá'í community.WEB, Bahá'í International Community,weblink 2015-04-21, File:Jakarta Indonesia Istiqlal-Mosque-02a.jpg|Istiqlal Mosque, the largest mosque in Southeast AsiaFile:Jakarta Indonesia Jakarta-Cathedral-10.jpg|The Jakarta Cathedral, one of the oldest churches in JakartaFile:Klenteng Jin De Yuan, Glodok, Jakarta.jpg|Kim Tek Ie, the oldest Taoist and Buddhist temple in JakartaFile:Pura Aditya Jaya 1.jpg|Aditya Jaya Hindu temple, Rawamangun, East JakartaFile:Sikh Temple Pasar Baru.JPG|Sikh Gurdwara in Pasar Baru, Jakarta

Culture

As the capital of Indonesia, Jakarta is the melting point of cultures of all ethnic groups of the country. Though Betawi people are considered as an indigenous community of Jakarta, the culture of the city represents many languages and ethnic groups, support differences in regard to religion, traditions and linguistics, rather than any single and dominant culture.

Arts and festivals

The Betawi culture is distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese, forming a language island in the surrounding area. Betawi arts have a low profile in Jakarta, and most Betawi people have moved to the suburbs, displaced by new migrants. It is easier to find Java or Minang-based wedding ceremonies rather than Betawi weddings in Jakarta. It is easier to find Javanese Gamelan instead of Tanjidor (a mixture between Betawi and Portuguese music), Marawis (a mixture between Betawi and Yemeni music) or Gambang Kromong (a mixture between Betawi and Chinese music). The Chinese influenced Betawi culture, reflected in the popularity of Chinese cakes and sweets, firecrackers and Betawi wedding attire that demonstrates Chinese and Arab influences.Some festivals such as the Jalan Jaksa Festival, Kemang Festival, Festival Condet and Lebaran Betawi include efforts to preserve Betawi arts by inviting artists to display performances.NEWS,weblink Lebaran Betawi: An event to maintain bonds and traditions, The Jakarta Post, 27 July 2019, NEWS,weblink Festival Condet 2019, Upaya untuk Lestarikan Budaya Betawi, Kompas, 27 July 2019, BOOK, Knörr, Jacqueline, Kreolität und postkoloniale Gesellschaft. Integration und Differenzierung in Jakarta, Campus Verlag, Frankfurt, 2007, {{google books, y, y_IAxzcSX7YC, |isbn=978-3-593-38344-6}} Jakarta has several performing art centres, such as the classical concert hall Aula Simfonia Jakarta in Kemayoran, Taman Ismail Marzuki (TIM) art centre in Cikini, Gedung Kesenian Jakarta near Pasar Baru, Balai Sarbini in the Plaza Semanggi area, Bentara Budaya Jakarta in the Palmerah area, Pasar Seni (Art Market) in Ancol, and traditional Indonesian art performances at the pavilions of some provinces in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah. Traditional music is often found at high-class hotels, including Wayang and Gamelan performances. Javanese Wayang Orang performances can be found at Wayang Orang Bharata theatre.Arts and culture festivals and exhibitions include the annual Jakarta International Film Festival (JiFFest), Djakarta Warehouse Project, Jakarta Fashion Week, Jakarta Fashion & Food Festival (JFFF), Jakarnaval, Jakarta Night Festival, Kota Tua Creative Festival, Indonesia International Book Fair (IIBF), Indonesia Creative Products and Jakarta Arts and Crafts exhibition. Art Jakarta is a contemporary art fair, which is held annually. Flona Jakarta is a flora-and-fauna exhibition, held annually in August at Lapangan Banteng Park, featuring flowers, plant nurseries, and pets. Jakarta Fair is held annually from mid-June to mid-July to celebrate the anniversary of the city and is mostly centred around a trade fair. However, this month-long fair also features entertainment, including arts and music performances by local musicians. Jakarta International Java Jazz Festival (JJF) is one of the largest jazz festivals in the world and arguably the biggest in the Southern hemisphere, and is held annually in March.Several foreign art and culture centres are established in Jakarta and mainly serve to promote culture and language through learning centres, libraries and art galleries. These include the Chinese Confucius Institute, the Dutch Erasmus Huis, the British Council, the French Alliance Française, the German Goethe-Institut, the Japan Foundation, and the Jawaharlal Nehru Indian Cultural Center.File:Ondel-Ondel Betawi.jpg|Ondel-Ondel, often used as a symbol of Betawi cultureFile:Mangga Dua Jakarta's Chinatown.jpg|Chinese paifang in Mangga Dua, Central JakartaFile:Keong Emas.jpg|The Golden Snail IMAX theatre at Taman Mini Indonesia IndahFile:Gambir Expo Jakarta Fair.JPG|Jakarta FairFile:Kodomo mikoshi, Ennichisai, Blok M, Jakarta.jpg|Japanese community celebrating Ennichisai in Blok M, South JakartaFile:Tari Yapong.jpg|Traditional Betawi dance,Tari Yapong

Cuisine

File:Gado-gado in Jakarta.JPG|thumb|right|Gado-gado is a popular Indonesian saladsaladAll varieties of Indonesian cuisine have a presence in Jakarta. The local cuisine is Betawi cuisine, which reflects various foreign culinary traditions. Betawi cuisine is heavily influenced by Malay-Chinese Peranakan cuisine, Sundanese and Javanese cuisine, which is also influenced by Indian, Arabic and European cuisines. One of the most popular local dishes of Betawi cuisine is Soto Betawi which is prepared from chunks of beef and offal in rich and spicy cow's milk or coconut milk broth. Other popular Betawi dishes include soto kaki, nasi uduk, kerak telor (spicy omelette), nasi ulam, asinan, ketoprak, rujak and gado-gado Betawi (salad in peanut sauce).Jakarta cuisine can be found in modest street-side warung food stalls and kaki lima (five legs) travelling vendors to high-end fine dining restaurants.NEWS,weblink Where to go for a drink and to dress up to impress, The Jakarta Post, 10 December 2017, Live music venues and exclusive restaurants are abundant.NEWS,weblink 36 Hours in... Jakarta, The Telegraph, 10 December 2017, Many traditional foods from far-flung regions in Indonesia can be found in Jakarta. For example, traditional Padang restaurants and low-budget Warteg (Warung Tegal) food-stalls are ubiquitous in the capital. Other popular street foods include nasi goreng (fried rice), sate (skewered meats), pecel lele (fried catfish), bakso (meatballs), bakpau (Chinese bun) and siomay (fish dumplings).Jalan Sabang,NEWS,weblink Jakpost guide to Jl. Sabang, The Jakarta Post, 2017-08-09, NEWS,weblink Jakarta Travel Tips: Where to go and what to do in 48 hours, The Independent, 2018-04-23, Jalan Sidoarjo, Jalan Kendal at Menteng area, Kota Tua, Blok S, Blok M,NEWS,weblink The legendary eateries you must visit in Blok M, The Jakarta Post, 2017-08-09, Jalan TebetNEWS,weblink 7 tantalizing eateries in Tebet, The Jakarta Post, 2017-08-09, are all popular destinations for street-food lovers.Trendy restaurants, cafe and bars can be found at Menteng, Kemang,NEWS,weblink JakPost guide to Jl. Kemang Raya: Part 1, The Jakarta Post, 2017-08-09, Jalan Senopati,NEWS,weblink Fenomena Bisnis Kuliner di Jalan Senopati Jakarta, Kompas, 2017-08-09, Kuningan, Senayan, Pantai Indah Kapuk,NEWS,weblink Jakpost guide to Pantai Indah Kapuk, The Jakarta Post, 2017-08-09, and Kelapa Gading. Chinese street-food is plentiful at Jalan Pangeran, Manga Besar and Petak Sembilan in the old Jakarta area, while the Little Tokyo area of Blok M has many Japanese style restaurants and bars.NEWS,weblink A Trip to Melawai's Little Tokyo in Jakarta, Jakarta Globe, 2017-12-10, Lenggang Jakarta is a food court, accommodating small traders and street vendors,Lenggang Jakarta Tempat Nongkrong Baru di Monas. Detik where Indonesian foods are available within a single compound. At present, there are two such food courts, located at Monas and Kemayoran.NEWS,weblink Lenggang Jakarta Kemayoran Resmi Dibuka, Kawasan Sentra Kuliner Baru di Pusat Ibu Kota, Tribnnews, 2017-11-02, Global fast-food chains like McDonald's, KFC, Burger King, Carl's Jr., Wendy's, A&W, Fatburger, Johnny Rockets, Starbucks, Dunkin' Donuts are present, along with local brands like J'CO, Es Teler 77, Kebab Turki, CFC, and Japanese HokBen.NEWS,weblink Superhot fried chicken eats into KFC's dominance in Indonesia, Nikkei Asian Review, 23 May 2018, Foreign cuisines such as Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, Indian, American, French, Mediterranean cuisine's like Turkish, Italian, Middle-Eastern cuisine, and modern fusion food restaurants can all be found in Jakarta.

Museums

{{See also|List of museums and cultural institutions in Indonesia}}File:Jakarta Indonesia National-Museum-01.jpg|thumb|National Museum of Indonesia in Central JakartaCentral JakartaJakarta hosts 142 museums,NEWS,weblink Anies to offer free entry to museums, The Jakarta Post, 24 November 2017, clustered around the Central Jakarta's Merdeka Square area, Jakarta Old Town and Taman Mini Indonesia Indah. The Old Town contains museums in former institutional buildings of colonial Batavia, including Jakarta History Museum (former City Hall of Batavia), Wayang Museum (Puppet Museum) (former Church of Batavia), the Fine Art and Ceramic Museum (former Court House of Justice of Batavia), the Maritime Museum (former Sunda Kelapa warehouse), Bank Indonesia Museum (former Javasche Bank) and Bank Mandiri Museum (former Nederlandsche Handels Maatschappij).Museums clustered in central Jakarta around the Merdeka Square area include National Museum of Indonesia which also known as Gedung Gajah (the Elephant Building), National Gallery of Indonesia, National History Museum at National Monument, Istiqlal Islamic Museum in Istiqlal Mosque and Jakarta Cathedral Museum on the second floor of Jakarta Cathedral. Also in central is the Taman Prasasti Museum (former cemetery of Batavia), and Textile Museum in Tanah Abang area. Museum MACAN is an art museum of modern and contemporary Indonesian and international art located at West Jakarta.NEWS,weblink Museum Macan named one of world’s greatest places, The Jakarta Post, 27 August 2018, The recreational area of Taman Mini Indonesia Indah in East Jakarta contains fourteen museums, such as Indonesia Museum, Purna Bhakti Pertiwi Museum, Asmat Museum, Bayt al-Qur'an Islamic Museum, Pusaka (heirloom) Museum, and other science-based museum such as Research & Technology Information Center, Komodo Indonesian Fauna Museum, Insect Museum, Petrol and Gas Museum, plus the Transportation Museum. Other museums include Satria Mandala Military Museum, Museum Sumpah Pemuda, and Lubang Buaya (Crocodile Well).

Media

Jakarta has numerous newspapers, television and radio stations. Daily newspapers include Kompas, Koran Tempo, Media Indonesia, and Republika. English-language newspapers are also published daily, for example, The Jakarta Post and The Jakarta Globe. Chinese language newspapers also circulate, such as Indonesia Shang Bao (印尼商报), Harian Indonesia (印尼星洲日报), and Guo Ji Ri Bao (国际日报). The only Japanese language newspaper is The Daily Jakarta Shimbun (じゃかるた新聞). Jakarta also has the daily newspapers segment such as Pos Kota, Warta Kota, Koran Jakarta, Berita Kota for local readers; Bisnis Indonesia, Investor Daily, Kontan, Harian Neraca (business news) as well as Top Skor and Soccer (sports news).Jakarta is the headquarters for Indonesia's state media, TVRI as well as private national television networks, such as Metro TV, tvOne, Kompas TV, Trans TV, Trans 7, RCTI, MNC, SCTV, GTV, Indosiar, ANTV, RTV and NET. Jakarta has local television channels such as Jak TV, O Channel, Elshinta TV, and DAAI TV Indonesia. The city is home to the country's leading pay television service. Cable channels available includes First Media and TelkomVision. Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance in Jakarta. Prominent DTH entertainment services are Indovision, Okevision, Yes TV, Transvision, and Aora TV. Many TV stations are analogue PAL, but some are now converting to digital signals using DVB-T2 following a government plan to digital television migration.WEB,weblink TV Digital Indonesia – Siaran TV Digital, 7 March 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120701193202weblink">weblink 1 July 2012, dead, dmy-all, File:Merdeka Square Monas News Van.JPG|thumb|right|A Metro TV news van parked in Merdeka Square, JakartaMerdeka Square, JakartaFile:TVRITower.jpg|thumb|right|The TVRI Tower in Senayan, South Jakarta]]{|class="wikitable sortable"!Channel!Name!Type!Language!Country of region|22 UHFINTV)|LocalIndonesian{{flagcountry|Indonesia}}|23 UHFRajawali Televisi>RTVNational|25 UHF|Kompas TV|26 UHFCTV Banten)|Local|27 UHF|NET.|National|28 UHFKTV)|Local|29 UHF|Trans TVNational|30 UHFINews>iNews TV|31 UHFTVRI>TVRI Jakarta & BantenLocal|33 UHFO Channel)|35 UHFElshinta TV)|37 UHF|MNCTVNational|39 UHFTVRI>TVRI Nasional|41 UHF|Indosiar|43 UHF|RCTI|45 UHFSCTV (Indonesia)>SCTV|47 UHF|antv|49 UHF|Trans7|51 UHFGTV (Indonesia)>GTV|53 UHFTvOne (Indonesia)>tvOne|55 UHF|JakTV|Local|57 UHFMetro TV (Indonesia)>Metro TV|National|59 UHFDAAI TV)Local|60 UHFJawa Pos TV)75 radio stations broadcast in Jakarta, 52 on the FM band, and 23 on the AM band.

Economy

Indonesia is the largest economy of ASEAN, and Jakarta is the economic nerve centre of the Indonesian archipelago. Jakarta's nominal GDP was US$483.8 billion in 2016, which is about 17.5% of Indonesia's.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20161113201922weblink">weblink dead, 13 November 2016, Statistik Indonesia 2016, 2016, Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, Indonesian, PDF, dmy-all, According to Japan Center for Economic Research, GRP per capita of Jakarta will rank 28th among the 77 cities in 2030 from 41st in 2015, the largest in Southeast Asia.NEWS,weblink Shenzhen and Jakarta shine in city economy forecasts for 2030, Nekkei Asian Review, 6 December 2018, Savills Resilient Cities Index has predicted Jakarta to be within the top 20 cities in the world by 2028.NEWS,weblink Jakarta makes top 20 for resilient cities in global real estate index, The Jakarta Post, 3 July 2019, NEWS,weblink 2028, Jakarta Diperkirakan Masuk Daftar Kota Tangguh Dunia, Kompas, 3 July 2019, Jakarta's economy depends highly on manufacturing and service sectors such as banking, trading and financial. Industries include electronics, automotive, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences. The head office of Bank Indonesia and Indonesia Stock Exchange are located in the city. Most of the SOE include Pertamina, PLN, PGN, Angkasa Pura, BULOG, Telkomsel, and Waskita operate head offices in the city, as do major Indonesian conglomerates, such as Salim Group, Sinar Mas Group, Astra International, Lippo Group, Gudang Garam, Kompas-Gramedia, and MNC Group. Headquarter of Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry and Indonesian Employers Association are also located in the city. As of 2017, the city is home to six Forbes Global 2000, two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies.WEB,weblink Six Indonesian Companies Make Forbes Global 2000 List, WEB,weblink Fortune 500, NEWS,weblink Indonesia expects to have more than 5 unicorns by 2019: minister, Reuters, 22 June 2018, (File:Jakarta skyline at night. Business District area at Jalan Rasuna Said, South Jakarta, as seen from Kuningan District, South Jakarta, Indonesia.jpg|thumb|360px|left|Jakarta skyline at night: Business District area at Jalan Rasuna Said, South Jakarta, as seen from Kuningan District, South Jakarta)As of 2018, Jakarta contributes about 17% of Indonesia's GRDP (Gross Regional Domestic Product).NEWS,weblink City administration launches Jakarta Investment Center, The Jakarta Post, 2 August 2018, In 2017, the economic growth was 6.22%.NEWS,weblink Jakarta economy grows 6.22% in 2017, The Jakarta Post, 26 June 2018, Throughout the same year, the total value of investment was Rp 108.6 trillion (US$8 billion), an increase of 84.7% from the previous year.NEWS,weblink Realisasi Investasi di DKI Jakarta 2017 Capai Rp108,6 Triliun, OKEZONE, 26 June 2018, In 2015, GDP per capita was estimated at Rp 194.87 million (US$14,570).NEWS,weblink Jakarta Economy Slows Down in 2015, Tempo, 2017-06-13, The most significant contributions to GRDP were by finance, ownership and business services (29%); trade, hotel and restaurant sector (20%), and manufacturing industry sector (16%). In 2007, the increase in per capita GRDP of Jakarta inhabitants was 11.6% compared to the previous year Both GRDP by at current market price and GRDP by at 2000 constant price in 2007 for the Municipality of Central Jakarta, which was Rp 146 million and Rp 81 million, was higher than other municipalities in Jakarta.File:Bank Indonesia Lama.jpg|thumb|right|Bank Indonesia head office in Central JakartaCentral JakartaThe Wealth Report 2015 by Knight Frank reported that 24 individuals in Indonesia in 2014 had wealth at least US$1 billion and 18 live in Jakarta.WEB,weblink 18 Konglomerat Indonesia Tinggal di Jakarta, Hilda B Alexander, 19 March 2015, The cost of living continues to rise. Both land price and rents have become expensive. Mercer's 2017 Cost of Living Survey ranked Jakarta as 88th costliest city in the world for expatriates.WEB,weblink Mercer's annual Cost of Living Survey finds African, Asian, and European cities dominate the list of most expensive locations for working abroad, 2017-06-21, Industrial development and the construction of new housing thrive on the outskirts, while commerce and banking remain concentrated in the city centre.WEB, Encyclopedia Britannica, Britannica,weblink www.britannica.com, Jakarta has a bustling luxury property market. Knight Frank, a global real estate consultancy based in London, reported in 2014 that Jakarta offered the highest return on high-end property investment in the world in 2013, citing a supply shortage and a sharply depreciated currency as reasons.Josua Gantan (13 February 2013). "Jakarta: The Luxury Property Capital of the World" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141101075747weblink |date=1 November 2014 }}, The Jakarta Globe, Retrieved 27 May 2014

Shopping

File:Jakarta7.JPG|thumb|left|Grand Indonesia Shopping TownGrand Indonesia Shopping TownJakarta has numerous shopping malls and markets. With a total of 550 hectares, the city has the world's largest shopping mall floor area within a single city.WEB,weblink Jakarta, Kota dengan Lahan Mal Terluas di Dunia, 22 October 2015, NEWS,weblink Jakarta, a city with many shopping centers, The Jakarta Post, 15 August 2017, The annual Jakarta Great Sale Festival is held every year in June and July to celebrate Jakarta's anniversary, with about 83 participating shopping malls in 2018.NEWS,weblink Jakarta malls hold 2nd Great Sale this year for Asian Gamesnewspaper=The Jakarta PostPlaza Indonesia, Grand Indonesia, Plaza Senayan, Senayan City and Pacific Place Jakarta>Pacific Place, Mall Taman Anggrek, and Pondok Indah Mall.HTTP://WWW.EXPAT.OR.ID/INFO/JAKARTAMALLSSHOPPINGCENTERS.HTML>TITLE=JAKARTA MALLS AND SHOPPING CENTERS – LUXURY SHOPPING IN JAKARTA, INDONESIAACCESSDATE=27 APRIL 2010, Most of the world-renowned fashion retail brands have a presence in Jakarta. Department stores in Senayan City and Lippo Mall Kemang Village use the Debenhams brand under licence,WEB,weblink International Franchise Stores, 2013, Debenhams plc, 4 June 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170612071803weblink">weblink 12 June 2017, dead, dmy-all, while the Japanese Sogo department store has about seven stores.WEB,weblink SOGO, Seibu flagship store is located in Grand Indonesia Shopping Town, and French luxury department store, Galeries Lafayette opened its doors for the first time in Southeast Asia at the Pacific Place. The Satrio-Casablanca corridor, 3.5-kilometre street is a new shopping belt in Jakarta.Kompas.com Jalan Satrio Dijadikan "Shopping Belt" Jakarta Many multistorey shopping centres are located there, such as Kuningan City, Mal Ambassador, Kota Kasablanka, and Lotte Shopping Avenue.Traditional markets include Blok M, Tanah Abang, Senen, Pasar Baru, Glodok, Mangga Dua, Cempaka Mas, and Jatinegara. Special markets sell antique goods at Surabaya Street and gemstones in Rawabening Market.NEWS,weblink Special Transjakarta buses to serve city shoppers, The Jakarta Post, 20 July 2018, {{Clear}}

Tourism

{{See also|Tourism in Indonesia}}File:Sepa Island Jakarta.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Sepa Island beach in Kepulauan Seribu ]]Jakarta has been named the most popular location as per tag storiesNEWS,weblink Jakarta named the most popular location tag on Instagram Stories, The Jakarta Post, 12 December 2017, and ranked eighth most-posted among the cities in the world in 2017 on image-sharing site Instagram.NEWS,weblink Jakarta among top 10 cities on Instagram, The Jakarta Post, 12 December 2017, It is not a top international tourist destination, although it ranked as the fifth fastest-growing destination among 132 cities according to MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index published in September 2017. 59.1% of visitors came for business, while the other 40.9% were visiting for leisure.NEWS,weblink Jakarta in big five world's fastest growing destinations, The Jakarta Post, 27 September 2017, According to Euromonitor International's latest Top 100 City Destinations Ranking, Jakarta ranked at 83 with more than 3.5 million international tourists visited in a year, 48.5% higher in comparison to the previous year.WEB,weblink Euromonitor International's Top 100 City Destinations Ranking, In 2017, World Travel and Tourism Council listed Jakarta as among the top ten fastest-growing tourism cities in the worldNEWS,weblink Jakarta among 10 fastest growing tourist cities in the world, The Jakarta Post, 7 December 2018, and categorised it as an emerging performer, which will see a significant increase in tourist arrivals in less than ten years.NEWS,weblink Jakarta likely to see tourist influx in 2027, study says, The Jakarta Post, 8 July 2019, Most of the visitors attracted to Jakarta are domestic tourists. As the gateway of Indonesia, Jakarta often serves as a stop-over for foreign visitors on their way to other Indonesian tourist destinations such as Bali, Lombok, Komodo Island and Yogyakarta. Jakarta is trying to attract more international tourist by MICE tourism, by arranging increasing numbers of conventions.NEWS,weblink Jakarta preps MICE tourism to lure more tourists, The Jakarta Post, 2017-06-16, NEWS,weblink Ministry holds national convention to develop MICE tourism, The Jakarta Post, 2017-06-16, In 2012, the tourism sector contributed Rp. 2.6 trillion (US$268.5 million) to the city's total direct income of Rp. 17.83 trillion (US$1.45 billion), a 17.9% increase from the previous year 2011.(File:Jakarta Indonesia Post-office-at-Fatahillah-Square-01.jpg|thumb|250px|left|Jakarta Old City Post Office at Fatahillah Square, Central Jakarta)The popular heritage tourism attractions are in KotaNEWS,weblink Jakpost guide to Kota Tua, The Jakarta Post, 2017-08-09, and around Merdeka square. Kota is the centre of old Jakarta, with its Maritime Museum, Kota Intan Bridge, Gereja Sion, Wayang Museum, Stadhuis Batavia, Fine Art and Ceramic Museum, Toko Merah, Bank Indonesia Museum, Bank Mandiri Museum, Jakarta Kota Station, and Glodok (Chinatown).NEWS,weblink 36 Hours in... Jakarta, The Telegraph, 23 April 2018, Kota Tua was named the most-visited destination in Indonesia in 2017 by Instagram.NEWS,weblink Kota Tua named most-visited destination in Indonesia in 2017, The Jakarta Post, 12 December 2017, In the old ports of Sunda Kelapa, the tall-masted pinisi ships are still anchored. The Jakarta Cathedral with neo-gothic architecture in Central Jakarta also attracts architecture enthusiasts.Other tourist attractions include the Thousand Islands, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Setu Babakan, Ragunan Zoo, Sunda Kelapa old port and the Ancol Dreamland complex on Jakarta Bay, which houses Dunia Fantasi (Fantasy World) theme park, Sea World, Atlantis Water Adventure, and Gelanggang Samudra. Thousand Islands, which is north to the coast of the city and in the Java Sea is also a popular tourist destination.Most international hotel chains have a presence in the city. Jalan Jaksa and surrounding areas are popular among backpackers for cheaper accommodation, travel agencies, second-hand bookstores, money changers, laundries and pubs.{{Citation|last1=Baskoro |first1=Bra|title=Wisata kota Jalan Jaksa : sebuah kajian sosiologi pariwisata|date=2010|publisher=Penerbit Koekoesan|edition=Cet. 1|url={{google books |plainurl=y |id=hg34cQAACAAJ}}|isbn=978-979-1442-31-2 }} PIK is a relatively new suburb for hangout,NEWS,weblink Travel Black Book: Jakarta, city of contrasts, The Straits Time, 23 April 2018, while Kemang is a popular suburb for expats.

Infrastructure

Water supply

{{details|Water privatisation in Jakarta}}(File:Menara H (30490188105).jpg|thumb|A private hospital in Jakarta)Two private companies, PALYJA and Aetra, provide piped water in the western and eastern half of Jakarta respectively under 25-year concession contracts signed in 1998. A public asset holding company called PAM Jaya owns the infrastructure. 80% of the water distributed in Jakarta comes through the West Tarum Canal system from Jatiluhur reservoir on the Citarum River, {{convert|70|km|0|abbr=on}} southeast of the city. The water supply was privatised by President Suharto in 1998 to the French company Suez Environnement and the British company Thames Water International. Both companies subsequently sold their concessions to Indonesian companies. Customer growth in the first seven years of the concessions had been lower than before, possibly because of substantial inflation-adjusted tariff increases during this period. In 2005, tariffs were frozen, leading the private water companies to cut down on investments.According to PALYJA in its western half of the concession, the service coverage ratio increased substantially from 34% in 1998 to 59% in 2007 and 65% in 2010.WEB, PALYJA, Key Figures,weblink 20 November 2011, dead,weblink 18 January 2012, dmy, According to data by the Jakarta Water Supply Regulatory Body, access in the eastern half of the city served by PTJ increased from about 57% in 1998 to about 67% in 2004 but stagnated afterwards.WEB, Iwan, Renalia, Ten Years of Public Private Partnership in Jakarta Drinking Water Service (1998–2007) Eastern Jakarta Drinking Water Service by Thames PAM Jaya,weblink Master Thesis, School of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, 20 November 2011, 42–44, November 2008, However, other sources cite much lower access figures for piped water supply to houses, excluding access provided through public hydrants: one study estimated access as low as 25% in 2005,WEB, Karen Bakker, Michelle Kooy, Nur Endah Shofiani, Ernst-Jan Martijn, Disconnected: Poverty, Water Supply and Development in Jakarta, Indonesia,weblink Human Development Report 2006, Occasional Paper, UNDP, 20 November 2011, 2006, quoting a Personal Communication from Kris Tutuko, Technical Director PAM JAYA, Jakarta, Indonesia, while another source estimates it to be as low as 18.5% in 2011.WEB, KRuHA People's coalition for the rights to water, Poor Water Service, Most of Jakarta People Threatened by E-Coli,weblink 20 November 2011, 7 June 2011, Those without access to piped water get water mostly from wells that are often salty and unsanitary. As of 2017, according to the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Jakarta had a crisis over clean water.NEWS, Nababan, Christine Novita, Kementerian ESDM: Jakarta Krisis Air Bersih,weblink 13 June 2017, CNN Indonesia, 11 June 2017,

Healthcare

Jakarta has many of the country's best-equipped private and public facilities in healthcare. In January 2014, the Indonesian government launched a universal health care called the Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (JKN). It is the world's most extensive insurance system today that covers around 250 million people.BOOK, Britnell, Mark, In Search of the Perfect Health System, 2015, Palgrave, London, {{google books, y, ZhEnswEACAAJ, 47, |isbn=978-1-137-49661-4|page=47}} It is expected that the entire population will be covered in 2019.NEWS,weblink Indonesia's universal health scheme: one year on, what's the verdict?, The Guardian, 21 December 2017, WEB, Hutton, Jeffrey, Indonesia launches world's largest health insurance system,weblink Christian Science Monitor, 10 March 2014, NEWS,weblink A country of a quarter-billion people is trying to provide health care for all, The Washington Post, 21 December 2017, Hospitals are of a good standard; however, they are often overcrowded. Government-run specialised hospitals include Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Gatot Soebroto Army Hospital as well as community hospitals Puskesmas. Private hospitals and clinics are the other options for healthcare services. The private healthcare sector has seen significant changes, as the government began allowing foreign investment in the private sector in 2010. While some private facilities are run by nonprofit or religious organizations, most are for-profit. Hospital chains such as Siloam, Mayapada, Mitra Keluarga, Medika, Medistra, Ciputra, Hermina operate in the city.NEWS,weblink Indonesia's health care industry is on the rise, The Jakarta Post, 21 December 2017, NEWS,weblink Mayapada Hospital Jakarta Selatan Diresmikan, Tribun News, 21 December 2017,

Transport

Despite a variety of transport systems,NEWS, Hours to Go, Just to Get to Work: Indonesians Cope With Infuriating Traffic and Inefficient Public Transit,weblink 5 August 2013, The New York Times, 4 August 2013, Joe Cochrane, Jakarta faces traffic congestion during rush hours.NEWS, BBC News, Jakarta begins river boat service, Williamson, Lucy, 6 June 2007,weblink The city prioritised development of road networks, which were designed to accommodate private vehicles.WEB,weblink Transportation Issues and Future Condition in Tokyo, Jakarta, Manila and Hiroshima, 11 May 2010, According to the National Development Planning Agency, or Bappenas, traffic congestion in Greater Jakarta wastes about $7.4 billion each year due to congestion.NEWS,weblink 1.38 million commute into Jakarta daily, The Jakarta Post, 11 December 2017, As of 2018, there are over 13 million motorcycles and 4.4 million cars run on the roads of Jakarta.NEWS,weblink Jakarta’s anti-macet policy, The Asean Post, 8 January 2019, About 3.6 million commuters commute from the outskirts.NEWS,weblink KCI: Commuting behemoth, The Jakarta Post, 28 July 2018, 58% of these commuters use motorcycles, 12.8% use cars and only 27% use public transportation.NEWS,weblink Jakarta Transportation Body Lays Out Strategies to Fix the Capital's $7b Traffic Problem, Jakarta Globe, 11 December 2017, The city's 9.5% average annual growth rate of motorised vehicles far exceeds the 0.01% increase in road length between 2005 and 2010.As of 2010, public transportation in Jakarta serves only 56% of commuter trips.WEB, United Nations Forum On Climate Change Mitigation, Fuel Economy And Sustainable Development Of Urban Transport,weblink Urban Public Transport System in Jakarta, 2017-12-01, The first public transport system in the city was Jakarta Tramline, which opened in 1869 and ceased operation in 1962.{{sfn|Merrillees|2015|p=61}}{{sfn|Teeuwen|2010|p=1}}{{sfn|Merrillees|2015|p=58}} At present, public transit consists of BRT TransJakarta, rail transit KRL Commuterline, Jakarta MRT, Jakarta LRT and Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link. Another transit system under construction is the Greater Jakarta LRT, which is expected to be operational by 2021.NEWS,weblink LRT Jabodebek to Have First Trial Run in June, Tempo, 14 January 2019, There are several transit oriented development now under construction like Dukuh Atas TOD to facilitate commuters to transfer between different mode of public transportation. The city administration is also implementing a one-fare integrated payment public transportation system by for all public transportation using Jak Lingko card.NEWS,weblink Jak Lingko sees jump in card sales, The Jakarta Post, 12 December 2018,

Road

{{See also|List of toll roads in Indonesia}}File:Jkt tollroad.jpg|thumb|Part of Jakarta Inner Ring RoadJakarta Inner Ring RoadA structured road network was developed in the early 19th century as a part of the Java Great Post Road by former Governor-General Daendels. It connects most cities throughout Java. During the following decades, the expanding road network could not keep up with the increasing numbers of motorised vehicles. A toll road network composed of an inner and outer ring road and five toll roads radiating outwards provides inner as well as outer city connections. Jakarta Outer Ring Road 2 is a toll road encircling greater Jakarta area, parallel with Jakarta Outer Ring Road. Jakarta Elevated Toll Road with a dedicated public transportation lane, connecting Jakarta Inner Ring Toll Road which is 69.77 kilometres in length is under construction.WEB,weblink Ahok Sudah Dapat Izin Amdal Dua Tol Dalam Kota, 5 June 2018, Many attempts have been made to reduce traffic congestion, including a 'three-in-one' rush-hour law, during which cars with fewer than three passengers were prohibited, a ban on trucks passing main avenues during the day,WEB,weblink Urai Kemacetan, PR Terbesar Kapolda Metro, 29 June 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150616093225weblink">weblink 16 June 2015, dead, dmy-all, and an 'odd-even' policy that permitted cars with either odd or even-numbered registration plates to drive on alternate days.NEWS,weblink Odd-even policy working, decreasing traffic jams, Post, The Jakarta, The Jakarta Post, 2017-07-07, Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) is expected to be operational by 2019 along with the opening of the Jakarta MRT.NEWS,weblink Jakarta Police request evaluation of odd-even policy, Post, The Jakarta, The Jakarta Post, 2017-07-07, NEWS,weblink ERP will be implemented in Jakarta next year: Sandiaga, The Jakarta Post, 24 March 2018, File:Jakarta Car Free Day.jpg|thumb|right| A TransJakarta bus at a station on Thamrin Avenue during Car-Free Day]]Many bus routes connect neighbourhoods within the city limit to other areas of Greater Jakarta area and to cities across the island. The biggest bus terminal in the city, and arguably in Southeast Asia as well, is the Pulo Gebang Bus Terminal.NEWS,weblink Pulo Gebang, Terminal Terbesar se-ASEAN Diresmikan 28 Desember, Liputan6, 2017-06-12, In 1971, cycle rickshaws (becak) were banned from major roads. Shortly thereafter, the government attempted a total ban, which substantially reduced their numbers.Azuma, Yoshifumi (2003). Urban peasants: beca drivers in Jakarta. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan. From the early 1940s to 1991, Bajaj auto-rickshaws were common, later allowed only in the back streets of some parts of the city.(File:Jakarta Doubledecker Tourist Bus at Sarinah Thamrin.jpg|thumb|left|230px|Jakarta doubledecker tourists bus passing in front of Sarinah Thamrin building, Central Jakarta)Although ojek (motorcycle taxis) are not an official form of public transport, they can be found throughout. Recently, most ojeks are operated by transportation network companies such as Go-Jek and Grab. Angkot micro-buses play a major role in connecting neighbourhoods of the city. There are plenty of taxicabs along with Go-Jek and Grab.TransJakarta serves as the bus rapid transit service, including the world's longest bus rapid transit routes ({{convert|210|km|abbr=off}} in length). TransJakarta had a total of 128 routes as of April 2018 (corridor, cross route & feeder route) – a significant increase from 41 in 2015. TransJakarta targeted to serve one million passengers per day by the end of 2018.NEWS,weblink Transjakarta operates new Palmerah Station-Senayan traffic circle route, The Jakarta Post, 26 April 2018, WEB,weblink With more buses on the streets, a surge in Transjakarta passengers, Other private owned bus systems like Kopaja, MetroMini, (:id:Mayasari Bakti|Mayasari Bakti) and etc.Jakarta city government provides free double-decker City tour bus service that offers sightseeing. Tourists can catch the double-decker bus—free of charge, in several designated bus stops in front of the city's points of interest. Several routes cover tourist attractions such as Monas, Istiqlal Mosque, the Cathedral, National Museum, Sarinah, Hotel Indonesia crossing, Kota Tua and Kalijodo Park.NEWS,weblink Lukewarm response on first day of double-decker buses, The Jakarta Post, 25 February 2014, NEWS, Jakartans take advantage of double-decker tour buses, Dewanti A. Wardhani, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta, 30 September 2014,weblink The service includes Kota Tua in the north, Kalijodo Park in the west and Gelora Bung Karno Stadium in Senayan area in the south, via Sudirman avenue.WEB, Wisata Kota, Transjakarta,weblink Indonesian, 10 March 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170310015016weblink">weblink 10 March 2017, dead, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Ada 3 Bus Tingkat Wisata untuk Rute Balai Kota-Kalijodo, Kompas, 24 March 2018, TransJakarta operates free tour buses every Saturday from 5 PM to 11 PM to popular culinary destinations in Central Jakarta.NEWS,weblink What to do on Transjakarta's Saturday night food tour, The Jakarta Post, 2017-11-06, TransJakarta has special bus service to move shoppers from one mall to another, including Grand Indonesia, Plaza Indonesia, Plaza Senayan, Senayan City and fX Sudirman.NEWS,weblink Special Transjakarta buses to serve city shoppers, The Jakarta Post, 8 August 2018,

Rail

File:Tram 1 van Djakarta naar Djatinegara, Bestanddeelnr 156-3-5.jpg|thumb|right|Electric TramElectric TramLong-distance railways and local tram services were introduced during the colonial era. The first station was built in 1887 by a private railway company, which later became Jakarta Kota station.WEB, Beos, Stasiun,weblink Jakarta.go.id, Indonesian, 12 June 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171105154718weblink">weblink 5 November 2017, dead, dmy-all, The trams were replaced with buses in the post-colonial era, while long-distance railways continued to connect the city to its neighbouring regions as well as cities throughout Java. The main terminals for long-distance train services are Gambir and Pasar Senen. High-speed railways are under construction connecting Jakarta to Bandung,NEWS,weblink Japan loses Indonesian high-speed railway contract to China, 2015-09-30, The Japan Times Online, 2017-07-07, 0447-5763, while a line between Jakarta and Surabaya is in planning.NEWS,weblink Japan selected as partner for Jakarta-Surabaya railway project, Post, The Jakarta, The Jakarta Post, 2017-07-07, {{multiple image| perrow = 2KRL Jabotabek>Commuter rail, Jakarta MRT, Jakarta LRT>Light Rail Transit, and Airport Railink| align = left| width = 170| image1 = KRL Jabotabek 6115 Gambir 20111126.JPG| alt1 = KRL| image2 = MRT Jakarta train in Lebak Bulus Depot.jpg| alt2 = MRT| image3 = LRT Jakarta - Hyundai Rotem LRV in Boulevard Utara Station.jpg| alt3 = LRT| image4 = Railink EA203 set 7.jpg| alt4 = Railink}}KRL Commuterline is a commuter rail system that reaches Rangkasbitung in Banten and Cikarang in Bekasi Regency. The rail system uses rolling stock of rapid transit standard and operates at high frequency with a minimum headway. Daily ridership average was about 1 million,NEWS,weblink Tahun Ini, KRL Commuter Line Bidik 1,2 Penumpang/Hari, March 10, 2019, CNBC Indonesia, 2019-04-15, id, totalling 336.7 million passengers in 2018.NEWS,weblink Tahun 2018, Penumpang Kereta Api Naik Delapan Persen, 2019-01-10, Tribunnews, 2019-04-15, id, Jakarta MRT is constructing a north–south line metro between Kota and Lebak Bulus, and an east–west line that will connect to the north–south line at Sawah Besar station. The first, 15.2 km-long line between Hotel Indonesia and Lebak Bulus is opened at March 2019 with 13 stations (seven elevated and six underground). When complete, the network will stretch approximately {{convert|110.8|km|abbr=off}}.WEB,weblink MRT Jakarta, www.jakartamrt.co.id, 5 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161006060510weblink">weblink 6 October 2016, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblink City launches two busway routes, The Jakarta Post, 14 March 2011, The MRT operates 285 trips daily from 5 AM until midnight, with 5 minutes headway.NEWS,weblink MRT Jakarta cuts train operations by half over Idul Fitri, The Jakarta Post, 3 May 2019, Greater Jakarta LRT was aimed to tackle Jakarta's high road traffic congestion. The northern section of the LRT project partly replaces the Jakarta Monorail project that has been cancelled.NEWS,weblink Ahok confirms cancellation of monorail project, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta, 10 September 2015, 21 September 2015, The system is planned to connect Jakarta city centre with suburbs such as Bekasi, Bogor and Depok.NEWS,weblink Rencana LRT di Jakarta, Kompas, Jakarta, 11 September 2015, Indonesian, 28 May 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151011150858weblink">weblink 11 October 2015, dead, dmy-all, The first phase will connect east Bekasi and Cibubur with Dukuh, passing through Cawang intersection. This phase will be {{convert|42.1|km|abbr=off}} long, with 18 stations.NEWS,weblink Jokowi kicks off LRT construction, Raditya Margi, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta, 9 September 2015, 21 September 2015, Another Jakarta LRT line connecting Kelapa Gading district and Jakarta International Velodrome opened for public trial in June 2019 and is not yet fully operational.NEWS,weblink Uji coba LRT Jakarta dengan rute Kelapa Gading ke Rawa Mangun: 'LRT tidak akan bermakna jika tidak segera disambung ke rute-rute lain', Callistasia Wijaya, BBC News Indonesia, 12 June 2019, 22 September 2019, Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link is a commuter train service connecting the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport to the city centre. Another express train service is now in planning to connect Soekarno-Hatta International Airport with Halim Perdanakusuma Airport. Completion of this line is expected to be in 2019.WEB,weblink Pemerintah Kaji Ulang Kontrak KA Ekspres Halim-Soetta, 6 December 2017,

Air

File:CGK Terminal 3 10.jpg|thumb|right|Soekarno–Hatta International AirportSoekarno–Hatta International AirportSoekarno–Hatta International Airport (CGK) is the main airport, located in Tangerang, Banten. The airport was ranked 18th busiest by Airports Council International, with about 63 million passengers in 2017.NEWS,weblink List: The world's 20 busiest airports (2017), USA Today, 2018-05-02, The Soekarno–Hatta Airport Rail Link connects the airport to Sudirman Baru railway station, Central Jakarta.NEWS,weblink Airport train kicks off services with promotional fare, The Jakarta Post, 26 December 2017, A second airport, Halim Perdanakusuma Airport (HLP) serves domestic low-cost airlines, private and VIP flights. Other airports include Pondok Cabe Airport and an airfield on Pulau Panjang, part of the Thousand Island archipelago (Kepulauan Seribu).

Water transport

Jakarta's main seaport Tanjung Priok offers ferry connections. Tanjung Priok is Indonesia's busiest port, and the 21st busiest port in the world in 2013, handling over 6.59 million TEUs.WEB, Top 50, World Container Ports {{!, World Shipping Council |url=http://www.worldshipping.org/about-the-industry/global-trade/top-50-world-container-ports |website=www.worldshipping.org}} To boost port capacity, the two-phase 'New Tanjung Priok' extension project was undertaken. When fully operational in 2023, it will triple the existing capacity. Muara Angke port is used as a public port, while Ancol marina port is used as a tourist port to connect to the Thousand Islands.WEB,weblink Pelabuhan Muara Angke Siap Digunakan, 9 December 2011, On 6 June 2007, the city administration introduced the Waterway (officially Angkutan Sungai), a riverboat service along the Ciliwung River.WEB,weblink Jakarta gets its first klong taxis, Bangkok Post, The Post Publishing Public Co, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080118230208weblink">weblink 18 January 2008, However, because of varying water levels during the dry and wet seasons plastic garbage that came from upstream during heavy rain, this service was discontinued.

Cityscape

{{See also|Colonial architecture in Jakarta|List of tallest buildings in Jakarta|Golden Triangle of Jakarta}}

Architecture

File:Javasche Bank-2010.JPG|thumb|right|Facade of the Museum Bank Indonesia in Kota TuaKota TuaJakarta has architecturally significant buildings spanning distinct historical and cultural periods. Architectural styles reflect Malay, Javanese, Arabic, Chinese and Dutch influences.BOOK, Jacqueline, Knörr, {{google books, y, Bo0dDAAAQBAJ, |title=Creole Identity in Postcolonial Indonesia|date=2014|publisher=Berghahn Books|isbn=978-1-78238-268-3|jstor=j.ctt9qcwb1}} External influences inform the architecture of the Betawi house. The houses were built of nangka wood (Artocarpus integrifolia) and comprise three rooms. The shape of the roof is reminiscent of the traditional Javanese joglo. Additionally, a number of registered cultural heritage buildings has increased.NEWS,weblink Number of cultural heritage buildings in Jakarta increased, The Jakarta Post, 20 February 2018, Colonial buildings and structures include those that were constructed during the colonial period. The dominant colonial styles can be divided into three periods: the Dutch Golden Age (17th to late 18th century), the transitional style period (late 18th century – 19th century), and Dutch modernism (20th century). Colonial architecture is apparent in houses and villas, churches, civic buildings and offices, mostly concentrated in the Jakarta Old Town and Central Jakarta. Architects such as J.C. Schultze and Eduard Cuypers designed some of the significant buildings. Schultze's works include Jakarta Art Building, the Indonesia Supreme Court Building and Ministry of Finance Building, while Cuypers designed Bank Indonesia Museum and Bank Mandiri Museum.File:BNI Building.JPG|thumb|right|upright|Wisma 46Wisma 46In the early 20th century, most buildings were built in Neo-Renaissance style. By the 1920s, the architectural taste had begun to shift in favour of rationalism and modernism, particularly art deco architecture. The elite suburb Menteng, developed during the 1910s, was the city's first attempt at creating an ideal and healthy housing for the middle class. The original houses had a longitudinal organisation, with overhanging eaves, large windows and open ventilation, all practical features for a tropical climate.WEB,weblink Building on the Past, Willy, Wilson, The Jakarta Post, 11 July 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160305084422weblink">weblink 5 March 2016, These houses were developed by N.V. de Bouwploeg, and established by P.A.J. Moojen.After independence, the process of nation-building in Indonesia and demolishing the memory of colonialism was as important as the symbolic building of arterial roads, monuments, and government buildings. The National Monument in Jakarta, designed by Sukarno, is Indonesia's beacon of nationalism. In the early 1960s, Jakarta provided highways and super-scale cultural monuments as well as Senayan Sports Stadium. The parliament building features a hyperbolic roof reminiscent of German rationalist and Corbusian design concepts.BOOK, Ryan, Bishop, John, Phillips, Wei Wei, Yeo, {{google books, y, MKjePLS19uQ, |title=Postcolonial Urbanism: Southeast Asian Cities and Global Processes|date=2003|publisher=Psychology Press|isbn=978-0-415-93250-9}} The office tower Wisma 46 soars to a height of {{convert|262|m|abbr=off}} with 48 stories and its nib-shaped top celebrates technology and symbolises stereoscopy.The urban construction booms continued in the 21st century. The Golden Triangle of Jakarta is one of the fastest evolving CBD's in the Asia-Pacific region.WEB,weblink Where are the fastest evolving Central Business Districts in Asia Pacific?, 2017-06-20, According to CTBUH and Emporis, there are 88 skyscrapers that reach or exceed {{convert|150|m|abbr=off}}, which puts the city in the top 10 of world rankings.WEB,weblink CTBUH Tall Building Database, The Skyscraper Center, 27 October 2015, It has more buildings taller than 150 metres than any other Southeast Asian or Southern Hemisphere cities.

Landmarks

File:Monumen nasional jakarta.jpg|thumb|left|Night view of Monas, the Jakarta landmark]]Most landmarks, monuments and statues in Jakarta were built during the Sukarno era, beginning in the 1960s, then completed in the Suharto era, while some originated in the colonial period. Although many of the projects were completeld during later period, Sukarno (who was an architect) is credited for planning Jakarta's monuments and landmarks, who desired the city to be the beacon of a powerful new nation. Many monumental projects were built, initiated, and planned during his administration, which include National Monument, Istiqlal mosque, National Parliament, and Gelora Bung Karno stadium. Sukarno also built many nationalistic monuments and statues in the capital city.BOOK, Planning the Megacity: Jakarta in the Twentieth Century - Planning, History and Environment Series, Christopher, Silver, Routledge, 2007, 9781135991227,weblink 101, The most famous landmark, which became the symbol of the city is the {{convert|132|m|ft|adj=mid|abbr=off|-tall}} obelisk of the National Monument (Monumen Nasional or Monas) in the centre of Merdeka Square. On its southwest corner stands a Mahabharata-themed Arjuna Wijaya chariot statue and fountain. Further south through Jalan M.H. Thamrin, one of the main avenues, the Selamat Datang monument stands on the fountain in the centre of Hotel Indonesia roundabout. Other landmarks include the Istiqlal Mosque, the Jakarta Cathedral and Immanuel Church. The former Batavia Stadhuis, Sunda Kelapa port in Jakarta Old Town is also the city's landmark. The Gama Tower building in South Jakarta is currently, at 310 metres, the tallest building in Indonesia.Some of statues and monuments are nationalist, such as the West Irian Liberation monument, Youth statue and (:id:Patung Dirgantara|Dirgantara statue). Some statues are commemorated Indonesian national heroes, such as Diponegoro and Kartini statues in Merdeka Square, Sudirman and Thamrin statues are located on the streets bearing their names. Also, Sukarno and Hatta statues stand at the Proclamation Monument at the entrance of Soekarno–Hatta International Airport.

Parks and lakes

File:Boat ride at TMII.jpg|thumb|right|Boat ride at Indonesian archipelago lake in Taman Mini Indonesia IndahTaman Mini Indonesia IndahIn June 2011, Jakarta had only 10.5% green open spaces (Ruang Terbuka Hijau) although this grew to 13.94%. Public parks are included in public green open spaces.NEWS,weblink Ruang Terbuka Hijau Terus Ditambah, Poskotanews.com, 25 June 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110626213931weblink">weblink 26 June 2011, id, As of 2014, 183 water reservoirs and lakes supported the greater Jakarta area.NEWS,weblink 30 lakes and reservoirs in Greater Jakarta disappear, The Jakarta Post, 26 February 2018,
  • Merdeka Square () is an almost 1 km2 field housing the symbol of Jakarta, Monas or Monumen Nasional (National Monument). Until 2000, it was the world's largest city square. The square was created by Dutch Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels (1810) and was originally named Koningsplein (King's Square). On 10 January 1993, President Soeharto started the beautification of the square. Features including a deer park and 33 trees that represent the 33 provinces of Indonesia.WEB,weblink Taman Medan Merdeka, Indonesian, deskominfomas, Jakarta.go.id, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100523124534weblink">weblink 23 May 2010,
  • Lapangan Banteng (Buffalo Field) is located in Central Jakarta near Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta Cathedral, and Jakarta Central Post Office. It covers about 4.5 hectares. Initially, it was called Waterlooplein and functioned as the ceremonial square during the colonial period. Colonial monuments and memorials erected on the square during the colonial period were demolished during the Sukarno era. The most notable monument in the square is the Monumen Pembebasan Irian Barat (Monument of the Liberation of West Irian). During the 1970s and 1980s, the park was used as a bus terminal. In 1993, the park was again turned into a public space. It became a recreation place for people and now serves as an exhibition place or for other events.WEB,weblink Taman Lapangan Banteng, Indonesian, deskominfomas, Jakarta.go.id, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100524033529weblink">weblink 24 May 2010, 'Jakarta Flona' (Flora dan Fauna), a flower and decoration plants and pet exhibition, is held in this park around August annually.
File:Cable car Gondola Ancol Jakarta Bay City.jpg|thumb|AncolAncol
  • Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (Miniature Park of Indonesia), in East Jakarta, has ten mini parks.
  • Suropati Park is located in Menteng, Central Jakarta. The park is surrounded by Dutch colonial buildings. Taman Suropati was known as Burgemeester Bisschopplein during the colonial time. The park is circular-shaped with a surface area of {{convert|16,322|m2|abbr=off}}. Several modern statues were made for the park by artists of ASEAN countries, which contributes to its nickname Taman persahabatan seniman ASEAN ('Park of the ASEAN artists friendship').WEB,weblink Taman Suropati, Indonesian, deskominfomas, Jakarta.go.id, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100523131155weblink">weblink 23 May 2010,
  • Menteng Park was built on the site of the former Persija football stadium. Situ Lembang Park is also located nearby, which has a lake at the centre.
  • Kalijodo Park is the newest park, in Penjaringan subdistrict, with {{convert|3.4|ha|abbr=off}} beside the Krendang River. It formally opened on 22 February 2017. The park is open 24 hours as green open space (RTH) and child-friendly integrated public space (RPTRA) and has international-standard skateboard facilities.WEB,weblink Kalijodo Park Expected to be New Tourism Icon in Indonesia, Egi Adyatama, 5 March 2017,
  • Muara Angke Wildlife Sanctuary and Angke Kapuk Nature Tourism Park at Penjaringan in North Jakarta.WEB,weblink Taman Wisata Alam Angke Kapuk, Permata di Utara Jakarta,
  • Ragunan Zoo is located in Pasar Minggu, South Jakarta. It is the world's third-oldest zoo and is the second-largest with the most diverse animal and plant populations.WEB,weblink Ragunan Zoo Mulls Safari Night, Ninis Chairunnisa, 21 September 2014,
  • Setu Babakan is a 32-hectare lake surrounded by Betawi cultural village, located at Jagakarsa, South Jakarta.NEWS,weblink Metro Madness: A Day of Betawi Culture at Setu Babakan, The Jakarta Globe, 2017-06-18,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101001231616weblink">weblink 1 October 2010, dead, dmy-all, Dadap Merah Park is also found in this area.
  • Ancol Dreamland is the largest integrated tourism area in South East Asia. It is located along the bay, at Ancol in North Jakarta.
  • Taman Waduk Pluit/Pluit Lake park and Putra Putri Park at Pluit, North Jakarta.NEWS,weblink Hidden parks in the concrete jungle, The Jakarta Post, 9 January 2019,
  • Tebet Honda Park, Puring Park, Mataram Park, Taman Langsat and Taman Ayodya in South JakartaNEWS,weblink Travel: Must-visit public parks in the capital, The Jakarta Post, 2017-06-11, NEWS,weblink City allocates Rp 140 billion to revamp five parks, The Jakarta Post, 9 January 2019,

Sports

File:Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, Asia Cup 2007.jpg|thumb|right|Football match at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium]]Jakarta hosted the 1962 Asian GamesWEB,weblink Olympic Council of Asia: Games, Ocasia.org, 27 September 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160101050016weblink">weblink 1 January 2016, dead, dmy-all, and the 2018 Asian Games, co-hosted by Palembang.WEB,weblink Olympic Council of Asia: Games, Ocasia.org, 27 September 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141005210655weblink">weblink 5 October 2014, dead, dmy-all, Jakarta also hosted the Southeast Asian Games in 1979, 1987, 1997 and 2011 (supporting Palembang). Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, the biggest in the city with a capacity of 77,193 seatsweblink hosted the group stage, quarterfinal and final of the 2007 AFC Asian Cup along with Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam.WEB,weblink Asian Cup 2007 Host nations, 11 September 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090723093055weblink">weblink 23 July 2009, WEB,weblink Football stadiums of the world – Stadiums in Indonesia, Fussballtempel.net, 27 April 2010, The Senayan sports complex has several sports venues, including the Bung Karno football stadium, Madya Stadium, Istora Senayan, aquatic arena, baseball field, basketball hall, a shooting range, several indoor and outdoor tennis courts. The Senayan complex was built in 1960 to accommodate the 1962 Asian Games. For basketball, the Kelapa Gading Sport Mall in Kelapa Gading, North Jakarta, with a capacity of 7,000 seats, is the home arena of the Indonesian national basketball team. The BritAma Arena serves as a playground for Satria Muda Pertamina Jakarta, the 2017 runner-up of the Indonesian Basketball League. Jakarta International Velodrome is a sporting facility located at Rawamangun, which was used as a venue for the 2018 Asian Games. It has a seating capacity of 3,500 for track cycling, and up to 8,500 for shows and concerts,NEWS,weblink Lintasan Sudah 90 Persen Rampung, Timnas Sepeda Jajal Venue Velodrome Awal Mei, NYSN Media, 5 June 2018, which can also be used for various sports activities such as volleyball, badminton and futsal. Jakarta International Equestrian Park is an equestrian sports venue located at Pulomas, which was also used as a venue for 2018 Asian Games.NEWS,weblink Equestrian Park Pulomas Ditargetkan Rampung November 2017, Berita Satu, 6 June 2018, File:Penutupan Para Asian Games 2018.jpg|thumb|left|250px|Asian Para GamesAsian Para GamesJakarta Car-Free Days are held weekly on Sunday on the main avenues of the city, Jalan Sudirman, and Jalan Thamrin, from 6 AM to 11 AM. The briefer Car-Free Day, which lasts from 6 AM to 9 AM, is held on every other Sunday. The event invites local pedestrians to do sports and exercise and have their activities on the streets that are usually full of cars and traffic. Along the road from the Senayan traffic circle on Jalan Sudirman, South Jakarta, to the "Selamat Datang" Monument at the Hotel Indonesia traffic circle on Jalan Thamrin, north to the National Monument in Central Jakarta, cars are blocked from entering. During the event, morning gymnastics, callisthenics and aerobic exercises, futsal games, jogging, bicycling, skateboarding, badminton, karate, on-street library and musical performances take over the roads and the main parks.NEWS,weblink Car-Free Day reduces air pollution: Tests, 25 June 2008, Jakarta's most popular home football club is Persija, which plays in Indonesia Super League and uses Bung Karno Stadium as a home venue. Another football team in Jakarta is Persitara who compete in 2nd Division Football League and play in Kamal Muara Stadium and Soemantri Brodjonegoro Stadium.Jakarta Marathon is said to be the "biggest running event of Indonesia". It is recognised by AIMS and IAAF. It was established in 2013 to promote Jakarta sports tourism. In the 2015 edition, more than 15,000 runners from 53 countries participated.NEWS,weblink Thousands of runners to join Jakarta Marathon 2015 on Sunday, The Jakarta Post, 23 October 2015, 19 November 2015, WEB,weblink Here are the New Routes for Jakarta Marathon 2015 | GIVnews.com – Indonesian Perspective to Global Audience, Globalindonesianvoices.com, 26 September 2015, 19 November 2015, WEB,weblink Wonderful Indonesia – Jakarta Marathon 2014 : Indonesia's Biggest Running Event, Indonesia.travel, 19 November 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151119080400weblink">weblink 19 November 2015, WEB,weblink AIMS – Calendar of Races, Aimsworldrunning.org, 19 November 2015, WEB,weblink IAAF Approves Jakarta Marathon's Route | Metro | Tempo.Co :: Indonesian News Portal, En.tempo.co, 28 October 2013, 19 November 2015,

Education

{{See also|List of universities in Indonesia|List of schools in Indonesia}}File:Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia.JPG|thumb|right|Faculty of Medicine, University of IndonesiaUniversity of IndonesiaJakarta is home to colleges and universities. The University of Indonesia (UI) is the largest and oldest tertiary-level educational institution in Indonesia. It is a public institution with campuses in Salemba (Central Jakarta) and in Depok.WEB,weblink Profile | Universitas Indonesia, Ui.ac.id, 27 April 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100419010540weblink">weblink 19 April 2010, The three other public universities in Jakarta are Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, the State University of Jakarta (UNJ)State University of Jakarta and the University of Pembangunan Nasional 'Veteran' Jakarta (UPN "Veteran" Jakarta).University of Pembangunan Nasional "Veteran" Jakarta Some major private universities in Jakarta are Trisakti University, The Christian University of Indonesia, Mercu Buana University, Tarumanagara University, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Pelita Harapan University, Bina Nusantara University,Bina Nusantara University Jayabaya University,Jayabaya University and Pancasila University.Pancasila UniversitySTOVIA (School tot Opleiding van Indische Artsen) was the first high school in Jakarta, established in 1851.WEB,weblink Print Artikel, Majalah-farmacia.com, 27 April 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110714022424weblink">weblink 14 July 2011, dmy-all, Jakarta houses many students from around Indonesia, many of whom reside in dormitories or home-stay residences. For basic education, a variety of primary and secondary schools are available, tagged with the public (national), private (national and bi-lingual national plus) and international labels. Four of the major international schools are the Gandhi Memorial International School, IPEKA International Christian SchoolIPEKA International Christian School Jakarta Intercultural School and the British School Jakarta. Other international schools include the Jakarta International Korean School, Bina Bangsa School, Jakarta International Multicultural School,WEB,weblink Jakarta International Multicultural School, Jimsch.org, 14 March 2011, Australian International School,WEB,weblink Welcome to Australian International School Indonesia, Ais-indonesia.com, 14 March 2011, New Zealand International School,WEB,weblink Welcome to New Zealand International School, Nzis.net, 14 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130216070318weblink">weblink 16 February 2013, dead, dmy-all, Singapore International School and Sekolah Pelita Harapan.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20091020172648weblink">weblink dead, 20 October 2009, Sekolah Pelita Harapan, Sph.edu, 14 March 2011, {{Clear}}

International relations

{{see also|List of embassies in Jakarta}}File:ASEAN HQ 1.jpg|thumb|right|The Secretariat of ASEAN at Jalan Sisingamangaraja No.70A, South Jakarta, Indonesia]]Jakarta hosts foreign embassies. Jakarta serves as the seat of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat and is ASEAN's diplomatic capital.WEB, Jakarta is Affirmed to be a Diplomatic Capital City, Association of Southeast Asian Nations,weblink Jakarta is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21, C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and ASEAN Smart Cities Network.

Sister cities

{{See also|Sister cities of Jakarta}}Jakarta signed sister city agreements with other cities, including Casablanca. To promote friendship between two cities, the main avenue famous for its shopping and business centres was named after Jakarta's Moroccan sister city. No street in Casablanca is named after Jakarta. However, the Moroccan capital city of Rabat has an avenue named after Sukarno, Indonesia's first president, to commemorate his visit in 1960 and as a token of friendship.NEWS,weblink Morocco seeks to boost business ties with RI: Envoy, Veeramalla Anjaiahnewspaper =The Jakarta Post, 14 June 2013, Jakarta has established a partnership with Rotterdam, especially on integrated urban water management, including capacity-building and knowledge exchange.NEWS, Jakarta and Rotterdam strengthen ties on urban water management, 16 September 2014, Neso Indonesia,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160807135334weblink">weblink 7 August 2016, This cooperation is mainly because both cities are dealing with similar problems; they lie in low-lying flat plains and are prone to flooding. Additionally, for below sea-level areas, they have both implemented drainage systems involving canals, dams, and pumps vital for both cities.{|class="wikitable" valign="top"|
Asia
  1. {{flagicon|Japan}} Tokyo, JapanWEB,weblink Sister Cities (States) of Tokyo – Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 9 May 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100916005920weblink">weblink 16 September 2010,
  2. {{flagicon|China}} Beijing, ChinaWEB,weblink Sister Cities, Beijing Municipal Government, 23 June 2009, NEWS, Weekly 5: Jakarta's sister cities, The Jakarta Post, 6 March 2015,weblink
  3. {{flagicon|China}} Shanghai, China
  4. {{flagicon|South Korea}} Seoul, South KoreaWEB,weblink Seul Metropolitan Government, International Cooperation: Sister Cities, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071210175055weblink">weblink 10 December 2007, dmy, WEB,weblink International Cooperation: Sister Cities, 26 January 2008, Seoul Metropolitan Government, www.seoul.go.kr,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071210175055weblink">weblink 10 December 2007, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120325052520weblink">weblink dead, 25 March 2012, Seoul -Sister Cities [via WayBackMachine], 23 August 2013, Seoul Metropolitan Government (archived 2012-04-25),
  5. {{flagicon|North Korea}} Pyongyang, North KoreaNEWS, Ahok Berencana Kunjungi Pyongyang, LB Ciputri Hutabarat, MetroTV News, 12 February 2016,weblink Indonesian,
  6. {{flagicon|Philippines}} Manila, PhilippinesWEB,weblink About Manila: Sister Cities, City of Manila, 2 September 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160611173109weblink">weblink 11 June 2016, dead, dmy-all,
  7. {{flagicon|Thailand}} Bangkok, Thailand
  8. {{flagicon|Vietnam}} Hanoi, Vietnam
  9. {{flagicon|Pakistan}} Islamabad, Pakistan
  10. {{flagicon|Iran}} Yazd, Iran
  11. {{flagicon|Saudi Arabia}} Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  12. {{flagdeco|IND}} Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India WEB,weblink Vijayawada -sister city of Jakarta, 18 May 2019, |


Europe
  1. {{flagicon|Netherlands}} Rotterdam, NetherlandsWEB,weblink Rotterdam: Een Sterkinterational Merk, Dutch, City of Rotterdam, 2008, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, PDF, 37, 20 March 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304215004weblink">weblink 4 March 2016,
  2. {{flagicon|Germany}} Berlin, GermanyWEB,weblink Berlin – City Partnerships, 17 September 2013, Der Regierende Bürgermeister Berlin,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130521054019weblink">weblink 21 May 2013, WEB, Jakarta Berlin Art Festival 2014: Bringing Jakarta's Multiculturalism to Berlindate=14 November 2014, Indonesian Embassy in Berlin,weblink
  3. {{flagicon|Russia}} Moscow, RussiaNEWS, KONI DKI Jalin Kerja Sama "Sister City" dengan 21 Kota Dunia, 26 June 2014, Beruta Satu,weblink Indonesian,
  4. {{flagicon|Hungary}} Budapest, HungaryNEWS,weblink The Jakarta Post – Hungarian envoy builds new links with RI, The Jakarta Post,
  5. {{flagicon|Turkey}} Istanbul, Turkey
|
Africa
  1. {{flagicon|Egypt}} Cairo, EgyptWEB, DKI-Kairo Jalin Kerjasama Sister City, 28 January 2016, Jakarta.go.id,weblink Indonesian, 4 May 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170911120447weblink">weblink 11 September 2017, dead, dmy-all,
  2. {{flagicon|Morocco}} Casablanca, MoroccoNEWS, Ahok Kesulitan Kunjungi 21 "Sister City" Jakarta, Aulia Bintang Pratama, CNN Indonesia, 26 January 2016,weblink Indonesian,
|
America and Oceania
  1. {{flagicon|United States}} Los Angeles, United StatesWEB,weblink Sister Cities of Los Angeles, 18 December 2009, WEB, Jakarta – Indonesia, Los Angeles–Jakarta Sister City,weblink
  2. {{flagicon|Australia}} Sydney, Australia

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

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