SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

Jacques Derrida

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Jacques Derrida
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{Redirect|Derrida|the documentary film|Derrida (film)|the physicist|Bernard Derrida}}{{Use mdy dates|date=June 2011}}







factoids
|birth_place = El Biar, French Algeria20040907|15}}|death_place = Paris, FranceMarguerite Aucouturier|1957}}Bachelor of Arts>B.A., Master of Arts, Doctoral candidate>Dr. cand.: École Normale SupérieurePostgraduate studies: Harvard UniversityDrE: University of Paris University of Paris École Normale Supérieure > École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales Collège international de philosophie > European Graduate School | University of California, Irvine}} Continental philosophy Post-structuralism > Deconstruction | Radical hermeneuticsJohn D. Caputo, Radical Hermeneutics: Repetition, Deconstruction, and the Hermeneutic Project, Indiana University Press, 1988, p. 5: "Derrida is the turning point for radical hermeneutics, the point where hermeneutics is pushed to the brink. Radical hermeneutics situates itself in the space which is opened up by the exchange between Heidegger and Derrida..."}} Deconstruction différance > phallogocentrism free play (Derrida)>free play archi-writing > metaphysics of presence invagination > pharmakon (philosophy) > trace (deconstruction) > hauntology}} Plato James Joyce > Friedrich Nietzsche Ferdinand de Saussure > Martin Heidegger Emmanuel Levinas > Sigmund Freud Edmund Husserl > Jean-Jacques Rousseau Karl Marx > Claude Lévi-Strauss Maurice Blanchot > Søren Kierkegaard Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel>G. W. F. Hegel Jean Genet > Franz Kafka}} Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak Paul de Man > Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe Geoffrey Hartman > John D. Caputo Catherine Malabou > Bernard Stiegler Béatrice Galinon-Mélénec > Peter Rollins}}|signature =}}Jacques Derrida ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|d|É›r|áµ»|d|É™}}; {{IPA-fr|Ê’ak dɛʁida|lang}}; born Jackie Élie Derrida;BOOK, Peeters, Benoît, Derrida: A Biography, 2012, Polity, 12–13, "Jackie was born at daybreak, on 15 July 1930, at El Biar, in the hilly suburbs of Algiers, in a holiday home. [...] The boy's main forename was probably chosen because of Jackie Coogan ... When he was circumcised, he was given a second forename, Elie, which was not entered on his birth certificate, unlike the equivalent names of his brother and sister.", . See also BOOK, Bennington, Geoffrey, Jacques Derrida, 1993, The University of Chicago Press, 325, "1930 Birth of Jackie Derrida, July 15, in El-Biar (near Algiers, in a holiday house).", . July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology."Jacques Derrida". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Britannica.com. Retrieved 19 May 2017.BOOK, Derrida on Religion: Thinker of Differance By Dawne McCance, Equinox, 7, BOOK, Derrida, Deconstruction, and the Politics of Pedagogy (Counterpoints Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education), Peter Lang Publishing Inc, 134, He is one of the major figures associated with post-structuralism and postmodern philosophy.Vincent B. Leitch Postmodernism: Local Effects, Global Flows, SUNY Series in Postmodern Culture (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1996), p. 27.During his career Derrida published more than 40 books, together with hundreds of essays and public presentations. He had a significant influence upon the humanities and social sciences, including—in addition to philosophy and literature—law,BOOK, Derrida, Jacques, translated by Mary Quaintance, eds., Drucilla Cornell, Michael Rosenfeld, and David Gray Carlson, Deconstruction and the Possibility of Justice, 1st, 1992, Routledge, New York, 0810103974, “Force of Law”, 3–67,weblink “A decision that did not go through the ordeal of the undecidable would not be a free decision, it would only be the programmable application or unfolding of a calculable process (...) deconstructs from the inside every assurance of presence, and thus every criteriology that would assure us of the justice of the decision., "Critical Legal Studies Movement" in "The Bridge"GERMAN LAW JOURNAL, SPECIAL ISSUE: A DEDICATION TO JACQUES DERRIDA {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130516144840weblink |date=May 16, 2013 }}, Vol. 6 No. 1, 1-243, 1 January 2005 anthropology,"Legacies of Derrida: Anthropology", Rosalind C. Morris, Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume: 36, pages: 355–389, 2007
historiography,"Deconstructing History", published 1997, (2nd. Edn. Routledge, 2006) applied linguistics,BOOK, Busch, Brigitt, Linguistic Repertoire Revisited, Applied Linguistics, 2012, Oxford University Press, Oxford,weblink sociolinguistics,"The sociolinguistics of schooling: the relevance of Derrida's Monolingualism of the Other or the Prosthesis of Origin", Michael Evans, 01/2012; {{ISBN|978-3-0343-1009-3}} In book: The Sociolinguistics of Language Education in International Contexts, Publisher: Peter Lang, Editors: Edith Esch and Martin Solly, pp. 31–46 psychoanalysis, political theory, religious studies, feminism, and gay and lesbian studies. His work still has a major influence in the academe of continental Europe, South America and all other countries where "continental philosophy" has been predominant, particularly in debates around ontology, epistemology (especially concerning social sciences), ethics, aesthetics, hermeneutics, and the philosophy of language. He also influenced architecture (in the form of deconstructivism), music,"Deconstruction in Music – The Jacques Derrida", Gerd Zacher Encounter, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2002 art,E.g., "Doris Salcedo", Phaidon (2004), "Hans Haacke", Phaidon (2000) and art criticism.E.g. "The return of the real", Hal Foster, October – MIT Press (1996); "Kant after Duchamp", Thierry de Duve, October – MIT Press (1996); "Neo-Avantgarde and Cultural Industry - Essays on European and American Art from 1955 to 1975", Benjamin H.D. Buchloh, October - MIT Press (2000); "Perpetual Inventory", Rosalind E. Krauss, October - MIT Press, 2010
Particularly in his later writings, Derrida addressed ethical and political themes in his work. Some critics consider Speech and Phenomena (1967) to be his most important work. Others cite Of Grammatology, Writing and Difference, and Margins of Philosophy. These writings influenced various activists and political movements. He became a well-known and influential public figure, while his approach to philosophy and the notorious difficulty of his work made him controversial.Lawlor, Leonard. "Jacques Derrida". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. plato.stanford.edu. November 22, 2006; last modified October 6, 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2017.

Life

Derrida was born on July 15, 1930, in a summer home in El Biar (Algiers), Algeria, into a Sephardic Jewish family (originally from Toledo) that became French in 1870 when the Crémieux Decree granted full French citizenship to the indigenous Arabic-speaking Jews of Algeria."I took part in the extraordinary transformation of the Algerian Jews; my great-grandparents were by language, custom, etc., still identified with Arabic culture. After the Cremieux Decree (1870), at the end of the 19th c., the following generation became bourgeois", Jacques Derrida The Last Interview {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090305215949weblink |date=March 5, 2009 }}, May 2003. His parents, Haïm Aaron Prosper Charles (Aimé) Derrida (1896–1970)WEB,weblink Haim, Aaron, Prosper, Charles, Aimé Aimé, Mémé - Arbre Familial des Zaffran (Zafran et Safran), Miguéres, Gharbi, Allouche, Safar, Temime etc... - GeneaNet, Gw4.geneanet.org, 18 January 2012, 21 October 2012, and Georgette Sultana Esther Safar (1901–1991),WEB,   Georgette, Sultana, Esther SAFAR,weblink Georgette, Sultana, Esther SAFAR - Arbre Familial des Zaffran (Zafran et Safran), Miguéres, Gharbi, Allouche, Safar, Temime etc... - GeneaNet, Gw4.geneanet.org, 18 January 2012, 21 October 2012, Bennington (1991), p. 325"Safar surname: occupational name from Arabic saffar which means worker in copper or brass", The Safar surname" named him "Jackie", "which they considered to be an American name", though he would later adopt a more "correct" version of his first name when he moved to Paris; some reports indicate that he was named Jackie after the American child actor Jackie Coogan, who had become well-known around the world via his role in the 1921 Charlie Chaplin film The Kid.Powell (2006), p. 12.Obituary in The Guardian, accessed August 2, 2007.Cixous (2001), p. vii; also see this interview with Derrida's long-term collaborator John Caputo {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050524102847weblink |date=2005-05-24 }}. He was also given the middle name Élie after his paternal uncle Eugène Eliahou, at his circumcision; this name was not recorded on his birth certificate unlike those of his siblings, and he would later call it his "hidden name".BOOK, Peeters, Benoît, Derrida: A Biography, 2012, Polity, 13, "When he was circumcised, he was given a second forename, Elie, which was not entered on his birth certificate, unlike the equivalent names of his brother and sister.", See also BOOK, Derrida, Jacques, Jacques Derrida, "Circumfession", 1993, The University of Chicago Press, 96, "'So I have borne, without bearing, without its ever being written (12-23-76)' the name of the prophet Élie, Elijah in English ... so I took myself toward the hidden name without its ever being written on the official records, the same name as that of the paternal uncle Eugène Eliahou Derrida ...", Derrida was the third of five children. His elder brother Paul Moïse died at less than three months old, the year before Derrida was born, leading him to suspect throughout his life his role as a replacement for his deceased brother. Derrida spent his youth in Algiers and in El-Biar.On the first day of the school year in 1942, French administrators in Algeria—implementing antisemitism quotas set by the Vichy government—expelled Derrida from his lycée. He secretly skipped school for a year rather than attend the Jewish lycée formed by displaced teachers and students, and also took part in numerous football competitions (he dreamed of becoming a professional player). In this adolescent period, Derrida found in the works of philosophers and writers (such as Rousseau, Nietzsche, and Gide) an instrument of revolt against family and society. His reading also included Camus and Sartre.In the late 1940s, he attended the {{Interlanguage link multi|Lycée Bugeaud|fr}}, in Algiers; in 1949 he moved to Paris, attending the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, where his professor of philosophy was Étienne Borne.Marc Goldschmidt, Jacques Derrida : une introduction, 2003, p. 231. At that time he prepared for his entrance exam to the prestigious École Normale Supérieure (ENS); after failing the exam on his first try, he passed it on the second, and was admitted in 1952. On his first day at ENS, Derrida met Louis Althusser, with whom he became friends. After visiting the Husserl Archive in Leuven, Belgium (1953–1954), he completed his master's degree in philosophy ({{Interlanguage link multi|diplôme d'études supérieures|fr}}) on Edmund Husserl (see below). He then passed the highly competitive agrégation exam in 1956. Derrida received a grant for studies at Harvard University, and he spent the 1956–57 academic year reading James Joyce's Ulysses at the Widener Library.Caputo (1997), p. 25. In June 1957, he married the psychoanalyst Marguerite Aucouturier in Boston. During the Algerian War of Independence of 1954–1962, Derrida asked to teach soldiers' children in lieu of military service, teaching French and English from 1957 to 1959.Following the war, from 1960 to 1964, Derrida taught philosophy at the Sorbonne, where he was an assistant of Suzanne Bachelard (daughter of Gaston), Georges Canguilhem, Paul RicÅ“ur (who in these years coined the term school of suspicion) and Jean Wahl.Bennington (1991), p. 330 His wife, Marguerite, gave birth to their first child, Pierre, in 1963. In 1964, on the recommendation of Louis Althusser and Jean Hyppolite, Derrida got a permanent teaching position at the ENS, which he kept until 1984. In 1965 Derrida began an association with the Tel Quel group of literary and philosophical theorists, which lasted for seven years.Powell (2006), p. 58 Derrida's subsequent distance from the Tel Quel group, after 1971, has been attributed{{by whom|date=April 2015}} to his reservations about their embrace of Maoism and of the Chinese Cultural Revolution.Leslie Hill, The Cambridge Introduction to Jacques Derrida, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007, p. 55.With "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences", his contribution to a 1966 colloquium on structuralism at Johns Hopkins University, his work began to gain international prominence. At the same colloquium Derrida would meet Jacques Lacan and Paul de Man, the latter an important interlocutor in the years to come.Jacques Derrida and Geoffrey Bennington, Jacques Derrida, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994, p. 331 A second son, Jean, was born in 1967. In the same year, Derrida published his first three books—Writing and Difference, Speech and Phenomena, and Of Grammatology.In 1980, he received his first honorary doctorate (from Columbia University) and was awarded his State doctorate (doctorat d'État) by submitting to the University of Paris ten of his previously published books in conjunction with a defense of his intellectual project under the title "L'inscription de la philosophie : Recherches sur l'interprétation de l'écriture" ("Inscription in Philosophy: Research on the Interpretation of Writing").Powell (2006), p. 145. The text of Derrida's defense was based on an abandoned draft thesis he had prepared in 1957 under the direction of Jean Hyppolite at the ENS titled "The Ideality of the Literary Object" ("L'idéalité de l’objet littéraire");Jacques Derrida - Editions de Minuit his 1980 dissertation was subsequently published in English translation as "The Time of a Thesis: Punctuations". In 1983 Derrida collaborated with Ken McMullen on the film Ghost Dance. Derrida appears in the film as himself and also contributed to the script.Derrida traveled widely and held a series of visiting and permanent positions. Derrida became full professor (directeur d'études) at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales in Paris from 1984 (he had been elected at the end of 1983). With François Châtelet and others he in 1983 co-founded the Collège international de philosophie (CIPH), an institution intended to provide a location for philosophical research which could not be carried out elsewhere in the academia. He was elected as its first president. In 1985 Sylviane Agacinski gave birth to Derrida's third child, Daniel."Obituary: Jacques Derrida", by Derek Attridge and Thomas Baldwin, The Guardian, October 11, 2004. Retrieved January 19, 2010.In 1986 Derrida became Professor of the Humanities at the University of California, Irvine, where he taught until shortly before his death in 2004. His papers were filed in the university archives. After Derrida's death, his widow and sons said they wanted copies of UCI's archives shared with the Institute of Contemporary Publishing Archives in France. The university had sued in an attempt to get manuscripts and correspondence from Derrida's widow and children that it believed the philosopher had promised to UC Irvine's collection, although it dropped the suit in 2007.UC Irvine drops suit over Derrida's personal papers {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120520021511weblink |date=May 20, 2012 }}Derrida was a regular visiting professor at several other major American and European universities, including Johns Hopkins University, Yale University, New York University, Stony Brook University, and The New School for Social Research.He was awarded honorary doctorates by the University of Cambridge (1992), Columbia University, The New School for Social Research, the University of Essex, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the University of Silesia, the University of Coimbra, the University of Athens, and many others around the world.Derrida was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Although his membership in Class IV, Section 1 (Philosophy and Religious Studies) was rejected,{{citation needed|date=March 2011}} he was subsequently elected to Class IV, Section 3 (Literary Criticism, including Philology).{{citation needed|date=January 2018}} He received the 2001 (:De:Theodor-W.-Adorno-Preis|Adorno-Preis) from the University of Frankfurt.Late in his life, Derrida participated in making two biographical documentaries, D'ailleurs, Derrida (Derrida's Elsewhere) by Safaa Fathy (1999),IMDb and Derrida by Kirby Dick and Amy Ziering Kofman (2002).IMDbDerrida was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer in 2003, which reduced his speaking and travelling engagements.philosophybasics.com He died during surgery in a hospital in Paris in the early hours of October 9, 2004.Jacques Derrida Dies; Deconstructionist Philosopher, accessed May 9, 2012.NEWS,weblink Jacques Derrida, Abstruse Theorist, Dies at 74, Kandell, Jonathan, The New York Times, October 10, 2004,
At the time of his death, Derrida had agreed to go for the summer to Heidelberg as holder of the Gadamer professorship,"The University of Heidelberg Mourns the Death of Jacques Derrida" whose invitation was expressed by the hermeneutic philosopher himself before his death. Peter Hommelhoff, Rector at Heidelberg by that time, would summarize Derrida's place as: "Beyond the boundaries of philosophy as an academic discipline he was a leading intellectual figure not only for the humanities but for the cultural perception of a whole age."

Philosophy

Derrida referred to himself as a historian.Derrida (1989) This Strange Institution Called Literature, p. 54: {{quotation|Contrary to what some people believe or have an interest in making believe, I consider myself very much a historian, very historicist [...] Deconstruction calls for a highly "historian's" attitude (Of Grammatology, for example, is a history book through and through).}} He questioned assumptions of the Western philosophical tradition and also more broadly Western culture. By questioning the dominant discourses, and trying to modify them, he attempted to democratize the university scene and to politicize it.Derrida (1992) Cambridge Review, pp. 404, 408–13. Derrida called his challenge to the assumptions of Western culture "deconstruction". On some occasions, Derrida referred to deconstruction as a radicalization of a certain spirit of Marxism.Derrida (1976) Where a Teaching Body Begins, English translation 2002, p. 72JOURNAL, Derrida, Jacques, 1993, Spectres of Marx, 92, French, ., With his detailed readings of works from Plato to Rousseau to Heidegger, Derrida frequently argues that Western philosophy has uncritically allowed metaphorical depth models to govern its conception of language and consciousness. He sees these often unacknowledged assumptions as part of a "metaphysics of presence" to which philosophy has bound itself. This "logocentrism," Derrida argues, creates "marked" or hierarchized binary oppositions that have an effect on everything from our conception of speech's relation to writing to our understanding of racial difference. Deconstruction is an attempt to expose and undermine such "metaphysics."Derrida approaches texts as constructed around binary oppositions which all speech has to articulate if it intends to make any sense whatsoever. This approach to text is, in a broad sense, influenced by the semiology of Ferdinand de Saussure.Royle, Nicholas (2004), Jacques Derrida, pp. 62–63Derrida and Ferraris (1997), p. 76:{{quotation|I take great interest in questions of language and rhetoric, and I think they deserve enormous consideration, but there is a point where the authority of final jurisdiction is neither rhetorical nor linguistic, nor even discursive. The notion of trace or of text is introduced to mark the limits of the linguistic turn. This is one more reason why I prefer to speak of 'mark' rather than of language. In the first place, the mark is not anthropological; it is prelinguistic; it is the possibility of language, and it is everywhere there is a relation to another thing or relation to another. For such relations, the mark has no need of language.}} Saussure, considered to be one of the fathers of structuralism, posited that terms get their meaning in reciprocal determination with other terms inside language.BOOK, Saussure, Ferdinand de, Course in General Linguistics, 1916 [trans. 1959], New York Philosophical Library, New York, 121–22,weblink {{quotation|In language there are only differences. Even more important: a difference generally implies positive terms between which the difference is set up; but in language, there are only differences without positive terms. Whether we take the signified or the signifier, language has neither ideas nor sounds that existed before the linguistic system, but only conceptual and phonic differences that have issued from the system. The idea or phonic substance that a sign contains is of less importance than the other signs that surround it. [...] A linguistic system is a series of differences of sound combined with a series of differences of ideas; but the pairing of a certain number of acoustical signs with as many cuts made from the mass thought engenders a system of values.}}Perhaps Derrida's most quoted and famous assertion, which appears in an essay on Rousseau in his book Of Grammatology (1967),Derrida (1967) Of Grammatology, Part II Introduction to the "Age of Rousseau," section 2 "...That Dangerous Supplement...", title The Exorbitant. Question of Method, pp. 158–59, 163 is the statement that "there is no out-of-context" (il n'y a pas de hors-texte). Critics of Derrida have been often accused of having mistranslated the phrase in French to suggest he had written "Il n'y a rien en dehors du texte" ("There is nothing outside the text") and of having widely disseminated this translation to make it appear that Derrida is suggesting that nothing exists but words.Reilly, Brian J. (2005) Jacques Derrida, in Kritzman (2005), p. 500.Coward, Harold G. (1990) Derrida and Indian philosophy, pp. 83, 137Pidgen, Charles R. (1990) On a Defence of Derrida, in The Critical review (1990) Issues 30–32, pp. 40–41Sullivan, Patricia (2004) Jacques Derrida Dies; Deconstructionist Philosopher, in Washington Post, October 10, 2004, p. C11, accessed August 2, 2007. Derrida once explained that this assertion "which for some has become a sort of slogan, in general so badly understood, of deconstruction (...) means nothing else: there is nothing outside context. In this form, which says exactly the same thing, the formula would doubtless have been less shocking."Derrida (1988) Afterword, p. 136BOOK, Glendinning, Simon, Jacques Derrida: A Very Short Introduction, 2011, Oxford University Press,

Early works

Derrida began his career examining the limits of phenomenology. His first lengthy academic manuscript, written as a dissertation for his diplôme d'études supérieures and submitted in 1954, concerned the work of Edmund Husserl.The dissertation was eventually published in 1990 with the title Le problème de la genèse dans la philosophie de Husserl. English translation: The Problem of Genesis in Husserl's Philosophy (2003). In 1962 he published Edmund Husserl's Origin of Geometry: An Introduction, which contained his own translation of Husserl's essay. Many elements of Derrida's thought were already present in this work. In the interviews collected in Positions (1972), Derrida said: "In this essay the problematic of writing was already in place as such, bound to the irreducible structure of 'deferral' in its relationships to consciousness, presence, science, history and the history of science, the disappearance or delay of the origin, etc. [...] this essay can be read as the other side (recto or verso, as you wish) of Speech and Phenomena."J. Derrida (1967), interview with Henri Ronse, p. 5.Derrida first received major attention outside France with his lecture, "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences," delivered at Johns Hopkins University in 1966 (and subsequently included in Writing and Difference). The conference at which this paper was delivered was concerned with structuralism, then at the peak of its influence in France, but only beginning to gain attention in the United States. Derrida differed from other participants by his lack of explicit commitment to structuralism, having already been critical of the movement. He praised the accomplishments of structuralism but also maintained reservations about its internal limitations;Jacques Derrida, "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences," in Writing and Difference, trans. Alan Bass (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), p. 278. this has led US academics to label his thought as a form of post-structuralism.Bensmaïa, Réda, "Poststructuralism", in Kritzman (2005), pp. 92–93.Poster (1988), pp. 5–6.{{quotation|(...) the entire history of the concept of structure, before the rupture of which we are speaking, must be thought of as a series of substitutions of centre for centre, as a linked chain of determinations of the centre. Successively, and in a regulated fashion, the centre receives different forms or names. The history of metaphysics, like the history of the West, is the history of these metaphors and metonymies. Its matrix [...] is the determination of Being as presence in all senses of this word. It could be shown that all the names related to fundamentals, to principles, or to the centre have always designated an invariable presence – eidos, archē, telos, energeia, ousia (essence, existence, substance, subject), alētheia, transcendentality, consciousness, God, man, and so forth.|"Structure, Sign and Play" in Writing and Difference, p. 353.}}The effect of Derrida's paper was such that by the time the conference proceedings were published in 1970, the title of the collection had become The Structuralist Controversy. The conference was also where he met Paul de Man, who would be a close friend and source of great controversy, as well as where he first met the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, with whose work Derrida enjoyed a mixed relationship.

Phenomenology vs structuralism debate (1959)

In the early 1960s, Derrida began speaking and writing publicly, addressing the most topical debates at the time. One of these was the new and increasingly fashionable movement of structuralism, which was being widely favoured as the successor to the phenomenology approach, the latter having been started by Husserl sixty years earlier. Derrida's countercurrent takes on the issue, at a prominent international conference, was so influential that it reframed the discussion from a celebration of the triumph of structuralism to a "phenomenology vs structuralism debate."Phenomenology, as envisioned by Husserl, is a method of philosophical inquiry that rejects the rationalist bias that has dominated Western thought since Plato in favor of a method of reflective attentiveness that discloses the individual's "lived experience;" for those with a more phenomenological bent, the goal was to understand experience by comprehending and describing its genesis, the process of its emergence from an origin or event.{{Citation needed|date=October 2010}} For the structuralists, this was a false problem, and the "depth" of experience could in fact only be an effect of structures which are not themselves experiential.{{Citation needed|date=October 2010}}In that context, in 1959, Derrida asked the question: Must not structure have a genesis, and must not the origin, the point of genesis, be already structured, in order to be the genesis of something?Jacques Derrida, "'Genesis' and 'Structure' and Phenomenology," in Writing and Difference (London: Routledge, 1978), paper originally delivered in 1959 at Cerisy-la-Salle, and originally published in Gandillac, Goldmann & Piaget (eds.), Genèse et structure (The Hague: Morton, 1964), p. 167:{{quotation|All these formulations have been possible thanks to the initial distinction between different irreducible types of genesis and structure: worldly genesis and transcendental genesis, empirical structure, eidetic structure, and transcendental structure. To ask oneself the following historico-semantic question: "What does the notion of genesis in general, on whose basis the Husserlian diffraction could come forth and be understood, mean, and what has it always meant? What does the notion of structure in general, on whose basis Husserl operates and operates distinctions between empirical, eidetic, and transcendental dimensions mean, and what has it always meant throughout its displacements? And what is the historico-semantic relationship between Genesis and structure in general?" is not only simply to ask a prior linguistic question. It is to ask the question about the unity of the historical ground on whose basis a transcendental reduction is possible and is motivated by itself. It is to ask the question about the unity of the world from which transcendental freedom releases itself, in order to make the origin of this unity appear.}} In other words, every structural or "synchronic" phenomenon has a history, and the structure cannot be understood without understanding its genesis.If in 1959 Derrida was addressing this question of genesis and structure to Husserl, that is, to phenomenology, then in "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences" (also in Writing and Difference; see below), he addresses these same questions to Lévi-Strauss and the structuralists. This is clear from the very first line of the paper (p. 278):{{quotation|Perhaps something has occurred in the history of the concept of structure that could be called an "event," if this loaded word did not entail a meaning which it is precisely the function of structural—or structuralist—thought to reduce or to suspect.}}Between these two papers is staked Derrida's philosophical ground, if not indeed his step beyond or outside philosophy. At the same time, in order that there be movement or potential, the origin cannot be some pure unity or simplicity, but must already be articulated—complex—such that from it a "diachronic" process can emerge. This original complexity must not be understood as an original positing, but more like a default of origin, which Derrida refers to as iterability, inscription, or textuality.Derrida (1971), Scarpetta interview, quote from pp. 77–8:{{quotation|If the alterity of the other is posed, that is, only posed, does it not amount to the same, for example in the form of the "constituted object" or of the "informed product" invested with meaning, etc.? From this point of view, I would even say that the alterity of the other inscribes in this relationship that which in no case can be "posed." Inscription, as I would define it in this respect, is not a simple position: it is rather that by means of which every position is of itself confounded (différance): inscription, mark, text and not only thesis or theme-inscription of the thesis.}}On the phrase "default of origin" as applied to Derrida's work, cf. Bernard Stiegler, "Derrida and Technology: Fidelity at the Limits of Deconstruction and the Prosthesis of Faith," in Tom Cohen (ed.) Jacques Derrida and the Humanities (Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001). Stiegler understands Derrida's thinking of textuality and inscription in terms of a thinking of originary technicity, and in this context speaks of "the originary default of origin that arche-writing constitutes" (p. 239). See also Stiegler, (Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus) (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998). It is this thought of originary complexity that sets Derrida's work in motion, and from which all of its terms are derived, including "deconstruction".It is opposed to the concept of original purity, which destabilises the thought of both "genesis" and "structure", cf. Rodolphe Gasché, The Tain of the Mirror (Cambridge, Massachusetts, & London: Harvard University Press, 1986), p. 146:{{quotation|It is an opening that is structural or the structurality of an opening. Yet each of these concepts excludes the other. It is thus as little a structure as it is an opening; it is as little static as it is genetic, as little structural as it is historical. It can be understood neither from a genetic nor from a structuralist and taxonomic point of view, nor from a combination of both points of view.}}And note that this complexity of the origin is thus not only spatial but temporal, which is why différance is a matter not only of difference but of delay or deferral. One way in which this question is raised in relation to Husserl is thus the question of the possibility of a phenomenology of history, which Derrida raises in Edmund Husserl's Origin of Geometry: An Introduction (1962).Derrida's method consisted in demonstrating the forms and varieties of this originary complexity, and their multiple consequences in many fields. He achieved this by conducting thorough, careful, sensitive, and yet transformational readings of philosophical and literary texts, to determine what aspects of those texts run counter to their apparent systematicity (structural unity) or intended sense (authorial genesis). By demonstrating the aporias and ellipses of thought, Derrida hoped to show the infinitely subtle ways in which this originary complexity, which by definition cannot ever be completely known, works its structuring and destructuring effects.Cf. Rodolphe Gasché, "Infrastructures and Systematicity," in John Sallis (ed.), Deconstruction and Philosophy (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1987), pp. 3–4:{{quotation|One of the more persistent misunderstandings that have thus far forestalled a productive debate with Derrida's philosophical thought is the assumption, shared by many philosophers as well as literary critics, that within that thought just anything is possible. Derrida's philosophy is more often than not construed as a license for arbitrary free play in flagrant disregard of all established rules of argumentation, traditional requirements of thought, and ethical standards binding upon the interpretative community. Undoubtedly, some of the works of Derrida may not have been entirely innocent in this respect and may have contributed, however obliquely, to fostering to some extent that very misconception. But deconstruction which for many has come to designate the content and style of Derrida's thinking, reveals to even a superficial examination, a well-ordered procedure, a step-by-step type of argumentation based on an acute awareness of level-distinctions, a marked thoroughness and regularity. [...] Deconstruction must be understood, we contend, as the attempt to "account," in a certain manner, for a heterogeneous variety or manifold of nonlogical contradictions and discursive equalities of all sorts that continues to haunt and fissure even the successful development of philosophical arguments and their systematic exposition.}}

1967–1972

Derrida's interests crossed disciplinary boundaries, and his knowledge of a wide array of diverse material was reflected in the three collections of work published in 1967: Speech and Phenomena, Of Grammatology (initially submitted as a Doctorat de spécialité thesis under Maurice de Gandillac),Alan D. Schrift (2006), Twentieth-Century French Philosophy: Key Themes And Thinkers, Blackwell Publishing, p. 120. and Writing and Difference.Derrida (1967) interview with Henri Ronse, pp. 4–5: "[Speech and Phenomena] is perhaps the essay which I like most. Doubtless, I could have bound it as a long note to one or the other of the other two works. Of Grammatology refers to it and economizes its development. But in a classical philosophical architecture, Speech... would come first: in it is posed, at a point which appears juridically decisive for reasons that I cannot explain here, the question of the privilege of the voice and of phonetic writing in their relationship to the entire history of the West, such as this history can be represented by the history of metaphysics and metaphysics in its most modern, critical and vigilant form: Husserl's transcendental phenomenology."On several occasions, Derrida has acknowledged his debt to Husserl and Heidegger, and stated that without them he would not have said a single word.Derrida (1967) interview with Henri Ronse, p. 8On the influence of Heidegger, Derrida claims in his "Letter to a Japanese Friend" (Derrida and différance, eds. Robert Bernasconi and David Wood) that the word "déconstruction" was his attempt both to translate and re-appropriate for his own ends the Heideggerian terms Destruktion and Abbau, via a word from the French language, the varied senses of which seemed consistent with his requirements. This relationship with the Heideggerian term was chosen over the Nietzschean term "demolition," as Derrida shared Heidegger's interest in renovating philosophy. Among the questions asked in these essays are "What is 'meaning', what are its historical relationships to what is purportedly identified under the rubric 'voice' as a value of presence, presence of the object, presence of meaning to consciousness, self-presence in so called living speech and in self-consciousness?" In another essay in Writing and Difference entitled "Violence and Metaphysics: An Essay on the Thought of Emmanuel Levinas", the roots of another major theme in Derrida's thought emerges: the Other as opposed to the SameDerrida, J. Violence and Metaphysics: An Essay on the Thought of Emmanuel Levinas, Writing and Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago. 97–192. "Deconstructive analysis deprives the present of its prestige and exposes it to something tout autre, "wholly other," beyond what is foreseeable from the present, beyond the horizon of the "same"."Caputo (1997), p. 42 Other than Rousseau, Husserl, Heidegger and Levinas, these three books discussed, and/or relied upon, the works of many philosophers and authors, including linguist Saussure,Linguistics and Grammatology in Of Grammatology, pp. 27–73 Hegel,"From Restricted to General Economy: A Hegelianism without Reserve" in Writing and Difference Foucault,"Cogito and the History of Madness" in Writing and Difference Bataille, Descartes, anthropologist Lévi-Strauss,The Violence of the Letter: From Lévi-Strauss to Rousseau in Of Grammatology, pp. 101–140"Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences" in Writing and Difference paleontologist Leroi-Gourhan,Of Grammatology, pp. 83–86. psychoanalyst Freud,"Freud and the Scene of Writing" in Writing and Difference and writers such as Jabès"Edmond Jabès and the Question of the Book" and "Ellipsis" in Writing and Difference, pp. 64-78 and 295-300. and Artaud."La Parole soufflée" and "The Theater of Cruelty and the Closure of Representation" in Writing and DifferenceThis collection of three books published in 1967 elaborated Derrida's theoretical framework. Derrida attempts to approach the very heart of the Western intellectual tradition, characterizing this tradition as "a search for a transcendental being that serves as the origin or guarantor of meaning". The attempt to "ground the meaning relations constitutive of the world in an instance that itself lies outside all relationality" was referred to by Heidegger as logocentrism, and Derrida argues that the philosophical enterprise is essentially logocentric,Lamont '87, pp. 590, 602–606 (Lamont, Michele How to Become a Dominant French Philosopher: The Case of Jacques Derrida. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 93, No. 3 [November 1987]) and that this is a paradigm inherited from Judaism and Hellenism. He in turn describes logocentrism as phallocratic, patriarchal and masculinist.Hélène Cixous, Catherine Clément [1975] La jeune née Derrida contributed to "the understanding of certain deeply hidden philosophical presuppositions and prejudices in Western culture",Wayne A. Borody (1998) pp. 3, 5 Figuring the Phallogocentric Argument with Respect to the Classical Greek Philosophical Tradition Nebula: A Netzine of the Arts and Science, Vol. 13 (pp. 1–27). arguing that the whole philosophical tradition rests on arbitrary dichotomous categories (such as sacred/profane, signifier/signified, mind/body), and that any text contains implicit hierarchies, "by which an order is imposed on reality and by which a subtle repression is exercised, as these hierarchies exclude, subordinate, and hide the various potential meanings." Derrida refers to his procedure for uncovering and unsettling these dichotomies as deconstruction of Western culture.{{Citation needed|date=August 2010}}In 1968, he published his influential essay "Plato's Pharmacy" in the French journal Tel Quel .Spurgin, Tim (1997) Reader's Guide to Derrida's "Plato's Pharmacy" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110224024836weblink |date=February 24, 2011 }}Graff (1993) This essay was later collected in Dissemination, one of three books published by Derrida in 1972, along with the essay collection Margins of Philosophy and the collection of interviews entitled Positions.

1973–1980

Starting in 1972, Derrida produced on average more than one book per year. Derrida continued to produce important works, such as Glas (1974) and (The Post Card: From Socrates to Freud and Beyond) (1980).Derrida received increasing attention in the United States after 1972, where he was a regular visiting professor and lecturer at several major American universities. In the 1980s, during the American culture wars, conservatives started a dispute over Derrida's influence and legacy upon American intellectuals, and claimed that he influenced American literary critics and theorists more than academic philosophers.Sven Ove Hansson WEB,weblink Philosophical Schools, 2008-02-24, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060718054747weblink">weblink July 18, 2006, – Editorial From Theoria'' vol. 72, Part 1 (2006).{{Request quotation|date=August 2010}}

Of Spirit (1987)

On March 14, 1987, Derrida presented at the CIPH conference titled "Heidegger: Open Questions" a lecture which was published in October 1987 as Of Spirit: Heidegger and the Question. It follows the shifting role of Geist (spirit) through Heidegger's work, noting that, in 1927, "spirit" was one of the philosophical terms that Heidegger set his sights on dismantling.Derrida (1989) Of Spirit, pp.vii-1 With his Nazi political engagement in 1933, however, Heidegger came out as a champion of the "German Spirit," and only withdrew from an exalting interpretation of the term in 1953. Derrida asks, "What of this meantime?"Derrida (1989) Of Spirit, p. 1 His book connects in a number of respects with his long engagement of Heidegger (such as "The Ends of Man" in Margins of Philosophy, his Paris seminar on philosophical nationality and nationalism in the mid-1980s, and the essays published in English as Geschlecht and Geschlecht II).Derrida (1989) Of Spirit, p. 7, 11, 117–118 He considers "four guiding threads" of Heideggerian philosophy that form "the knot of this Geflecht [braid]": "the question of the question," "the essence of technology," "the discourse of animality," and "epochality" or "the hidden teleology or the narrative order."Derrida (1989) Of Spirit, pp. 8–12Of Spirit is an important contribution to the long debate on Heidegger's Nazism and appeared at the same time as the French publication of a book by a previously unknown Chilean writer, Victor Farías, who charged that Heidegger's philosophy amounted to a wholehearted endorsement of the Nazi Sturmabteilung (SA) faction. Derrida responded to Farías in an interview, "Heidegger, the Philosopher's Hell" and a subsequent article, "Comment donner raison? How to Concede, with Reasons?" He called Farías a weak reader of Heidegger's thought, adding that much of the evidence Farías and his supporters touted as new had long been known within the philosophical community.Powell (2006), p. 167.

1990s: political and ethical themes

Some have argued that Derrida's work took a "political turn" in the 1990s. Texts cited as evidence of such a turn include Force of Law (1990), as well as Specters of Marx (1994) and Politics of Friendship (1994). Others, however, including Derrida himself, have argued that much of the philosophical work done in his "political turn" can be dated to earlier essays.BOOK, Nussbaum, Martha C., Love's Knowledge: Essays on Philosophy and Literature, 1st, 1990, Oxford University Press, New York, 0195074858, “Form and Content, Philosophy and Literature”, 29,weblink “[He] chose to address the American Philosophical Association on the topic of Aristotle's theory of friendship ("Journal of Philosophy" 85 (1988), 632-44); Barbara Johnson's "A World of Difference" (Baltimore, 1987) argues that Deconstruction can make valuable ethical and social contributions; and in generalthere seems to be a return to the ethical and practical..., Derrida develops an ethicist view respecting to hospitality, exploring the idea that two types of hospitalities exist, conditional and unconditional. Though this contributed to the works of many scholars, Derrida was seriously criticized for this.Rorty, R. (1995). Habermas, Derrida, and the functions of philosophy. Revue internationale de philosophie, 49(194 (4), 437-459.Rorty, R. (1989). Is Derrida a transcendental philosopher?. The Yale Journal of Criticism, 2(2), 207.McCumber, J. (2000). Philosophy and Freedom: Derrida, Rorty, Habermas, Foucault. Indiana University Press.Those who argue Derrida engaged in an "ethical turn" refer to works such as The Gift of Death as evidence that he began more directly applying deconstruction to the relationship between ethics and religion. In this work, Derrida interprets passages from the Bible, particularly on Abraham and the Sacrifice of Isaac,Jack Reynolds, Jonathan Roffe (2004) Understanding Derrida p. 49Gift of Death, pp. 57–72 and from Søren Kierkegaard's Fear and Trembling. Derrida's contemporary readings of Emmanuel Levinas, Walter Benjamin, Carl Schmitt, Jan Patočka, on themes such as law, justice, responsibility, and friendship, had a significant impact on fields beyond philosophy. Derrida and Deconstruction influenced aesthetics, literary criticism, architecture, film theory, anthropology, sociology, historiography, law, psychoanalysis, theology, feminism, gay and lesbian studies and political theory. Jean-Luc Nancy, Richard Rorty, Geoffrey Hartman, Harold Bloom, Rosalind Krauss, Hélène Cixous, Julia Kristeva, Duncan Kennedy, Gary Peller, Drucilla Cornell, Alan Hunt, Hayden White, Mario Kopić, and Alun Munslow are some of the authors who have been influenced by deconstruction.Derrida delivered a eulogy at Levinas' funeral, later published as Adieu à Emmanuel Lévinas, an appreciation and exploration of Levinas's moral philosophy. Derrida used Bracha L. Ettinger's interpretation of Lévinas' notion of femininity and transformed his own earlier reading of this subject respectively.B. L. Ettinger in conversation with Emmanuel Lévinas, "Que dirait Eurydice?" / "What would Eurydice Say?" (1991-93). Reprinted to coincide with Kabinet exhibition at Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam. Paris: BLE Atelier, 1997. This is a reprint of Le féminin est cette différence inouïe (Livre d'artiste, 1994, and it includes the text of Time is the Breath of the Spirit, MOMA, Oxford, 1993.) Reprinted in Athena: Philosophical Studies. Vol. 2, 2006.Derrida continued to produce readings of literature, writing extensively on Maurice Blanchot, Paul Celan, and others.In 1991 he published The Other Heading, in which he discussed the concept of identity (as in cultural identity, European identity, and national identity), in the name of which in Europe have been unleashed "the worst violences," "the crimes of xenophobia, racism, anti-Semitism, religious or nationalist fanaticism."The Other Heading, pp. 5–6At the 1997 Cerisy Conference, Derrida delivered a ten-hour address on the subject of "the autobiographical animal" entitled The Animal That Therefore I Am (More To Follow). Engaging with questions surrounding the ontology of nonhuman animals, the ethics of animal slaughter and the difference between humans and other animals, the address has been seen as initiating a late "animal turn" in Derrida's philosophy, although Derrida himself has said that his interest in animals is, in fact, present in his earliest writings.Derrida (2008), 15

The Work of Mourning (1981–2001)

Beginning with "The Deaths of Roland Barthes" in 1981, Derrida produced a series of texts on mourning and memory occasioned by the loss of his friends and colleagues, many of them new engagements with their work. Memoires for Paul de Man, a book-length lecture series presented first at Yale and then at Irvine as Derrida's Wellek Lecture, followed in 1986, with a revision in 1989 that included "Like the Sound of the Sea Deep Within a Shell: Paul de Man's War". Ultimately, fourteen essays were collected into The Work of Mourning (2001), which was expanded in the 2003 French edition, Chaque fois unique, la fin du monde (literally, "The end of the world, unique each time"), to include essays dedicated to Gérard Granel and Maurice Blanchot.

2002

In October 2002, at the theatrical opening of the film Derrida, he said that, in many ways, he felt more and more close to Guy Debord's work, and that this closeness appears in Derrida's texts. Derrida mentioned, in particular, "everything I say about the media, technology, the spectacle, and the 'criticism of the show', so to speak, and the markets – the becoming-a-spectacle of everything, and the exploitation of the spectacle."Derrida (2002) Q&A session at Film Forum Among the places in which Derrida mentions the Spectacle, is a 1997 interview about the notion of the intellectual.JOURNAL, Derrida, 1997, Les Intellectuels, 2005, 39–40, French, {{inconsistent citations, }}

Politics

{{Prose|section|date=March 2018}}Derrida engaged with many political issues, movements, and debates:
  • Although Derrida participated in the rallies of the May 1968 protests, and organized the first general assembly at the École Normale Superieure, he said "I was on my guard, even worried in the face of a certain cult of spontaneity, a fusionist, anti-unionist euphoria, in the face of the enthusiasm of a finally "freed" speech, of restored "transparence," and so forth."Derrida (1991) "A 'Madness' Must Watch Over Thinking", pp. 347–9. During May '68, he met frequently with Maurice Blanchot.Bennington (1991), p. 332
  • He registered his objections to the Vietnam War in delivering "The Ends of Man" in the United States.
  • In 1977, he was among the intellectuals, with Foucault and Althusser, who signed the petition against age of consent laws.
  • In 1981 Derrida, on the prompting of Roger Scruton and others, founded the French Jan Hus association with structuralist historian Jean-Pierre Vernant. Its purpose was to aid dissident or persecuted Czech intellectuals. Derrida became vice-president.Powell (2006), p. 151
  • In late 1981 he was arrested by the Czechoslovakian government upon leading a conference in Prague that lacked government authorization, and charged with the "production and trafficking of drugs", which he claimed were planted as he visited Kafka's grave. He was released (or "expelled", as the Czechoslovakian government put it) after the interventions of the Mitterrand government, and the assistance of Michel Foucault, returning to Paris on January 1, 1982.Jacques Derrida, "'To Do Justice to Freud': The History of Madness in the Age of Psychoanalysis," Resistances of Psychoanalysis (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998) pp. 70–1.
  • He registered his concerns against the proliferation of nuclear weapons in 1984.Derrida, Jacques. "No Apocalypse, Not Now (full speed ahead, seven missiles, seven missives)". Diacritics, 1984
  • He was active in cultural activities against the Apartheid government of South Africa and on behalf of Nelson Mandela beginning in 1983.
  • He met with Palestinian intellectuals during a 1988 visit to Jerusalem. He was active in the collective "89 for equality", which campaigned for the right of foreigners to vote in local elections.
  • He protested against the death penalty, dedicating his seminar in his last years to the production of a non-utilitarian argument for its abolition, and was active in the campaign to free Mumia Abu-Jamal.
  • Derrida was not known to have participated in any conventional electoral political party until 1995, when he joined a committee in support of Lionel Jospin's Socialist candidacy, although he expressed misgivings about such organizations going back to Communist organizational efforts while he was a student at ENS.{{Citation needed|date=December 2010}}
  • In the 2002 French presidential election he refused to vote in the run-off between far-right candidate Jean-Marie Le Pen and center-right Jacques Chirac, citing a lack of acceptable choices.BOOK,weblink Derrida: A Biography, Peeters, Benoit, 2013-08-27, John Wiley & Sons, 9780745663029, en,
  • While supportive of the American government in the wake of the terrorist attacks of 9/11, he opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq (see Rogues and his contribution to Philosophy in a Time of Terror with Giovanna Borradori and Jürgen Habermas).
Beyond these explicit political interventions, however, Derrida was engaged in rethinking politics and the political itself, within and beyond philosophy. Derrida insisted that a distinct political undertone had pervaded his texts from the very beginning of his career. Nevertheless, the attempt to understand the political implications of notions of responsibility, reason of state, the other, decision, sovereignty, Europe, friendship, difference, faith, and so on, became much more marked from the early 1990s on. By 2000, theorizing "democracy to come," and thinking the limitations of existing democracies, had become important concerns.

Influences on Derrida

Crucial readings in his adolescence were Rousseau's Reveries of a Solitary Walker and Confessions, André Gide's journal, La porte étroite, Les nourritures terrestres and The Immoralist; and the works of Friedrich Nietzsche.Derrida (1989) This Strange Institution Called Literature, pp. 35, 38–9 The phrase Families, I hate you! in particular, which inspired Derrida as an adolescent, is a famous verse from Gide's Les nourritures terrestres, book IV.Gide's Les nourritures terrestres, book IV: «Familles, je vous hais! Foyers clos; portes refermées; possessions jalouses du bonheur.» In a 1991 interview Derrida commented on a similar verse, also from book IV of the same Gide work: "I hated the homes, the families, all the places where man thinks to find rest" (Je haïssais les foyers, les familles, tous lieux où l'homme pense trouver un repos).1991 Interview with Francois Ewald Wahn muß übers Denken wachen published in: Werner Kolk (Translator). Literataz. 1992, p. 1-2. (German), as quoted inweblink influences upon Derrida are Martin Heidegger, Plato, Søren Kierkegaard, Alexandre Kojève, Maurice Blanchot, Antonin Artaud, Roland Barthes, Georges Bataille, Edmund Husserl, Emmanuel Lévinas, Ferdinand de Saussure, Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, Claude Lévi-Strauss, James Joyce, Samuel Beckett, J. L. AustinDerrida (1988) Afterword, pp. 130–1 and Stéphane Mallarmé.BOOK,weblink Stéphane Mallarmé, Pearson, Roger, 2010-05-15, Reaktion Books, 9781861897275, 217, en, His book, Adieu à Emmanuel Lévinas, reveals his mentorship by this philosopher and Talmudic scholar who practiced the phenomenological encounter with the Other in the form of the Face, which commanded human response.{{Citation needed|date=August 2013}}

Peers and contemporaries

Derrida's philosophical friends, allies, students and the heirs of Derrida's thought include Paul de Man, Jean-François Lyotard, Michel Foucault, Louis Althusser, Emmanuel Levinas, Maurice Blanchot, Gilles Deleuze, Jean-Luc Nancy, Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Sarah Kofman, Hélène Cixous, Bernard Stiegler, Alexander García Düttmann, Joseph Cohen, Geoffrey Bennington, Jean-Luc Marion, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Raphael Zagury-Orly, Jacques Ehrmann, Avital Ronell, Judith Butler, Béatrice Galinon-Mélénec, Ernesto Laclau, Samuel Weber and Catherine Malabou.

Nancy and Lacoue-Labarthe

Jean-Luc Nancy and Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe were among Derrida's first students in France and went on to become well-known and important philosophers in their own right. Despite their considerable differences of subject, and often also of a method, they continued their close interaction with each other and with Derrida, from the early 1970s.Derrida wrote on both of them, including a long book on Nancy: Le Toucher, Jean-Luc Nancy (On Touching—Jean-Luc Nancy, 2005).

Paul de Man

Derrida's most prominent friendship in intellectual life was with Paul de Man, which began with their meeting at Johns Hopkins University and continued until de Man's death in 1983. De Man provided a somewhat different approach to deconstruction, and his readings of literary and philosophical texts were crucial in the training of a generation of readers.Shortly after de Man's death, Derrida authored a book Memoires: pour Paul de Man and in 1988 wrote an article in the journal Critical Inquiry called "Like the Sound of the Sea Deep Within a Shell: Paul de Man's War". The memoir became cause for controversy, because shortly before Derrida published his piece, it had been discovered by the Belgian literary critic Ortwin de Graef that long before his academic career in the US, de Man had written almost two hundred essays in a pro-Nazi newspaper during the German occupation of Belgium, including several that were explicitly antisemitic.Derrida complicated the notion that it is possible to simply read de Man's later scholarship through the prism of these earlier political essays. Rather, any claims about de Man's work should be understood in relation to the entire body of his scholarship. Critics of Derrida have argued that he minimizes the antisemitic character of de Man's writing. Some critics have found Derrida's treatment of this issue surprising, given that, for example, Derrida also spoke out against antisemitism and, in the 1960s, broke with the Heidegger disciple Jean Beaufret over Beaufret's instances of antisemitism, about which Derrida (and, after him, Maurice Blanchot) expressed shock.

Michel Foucault

Derrida's criticism of Foucault appears in the essay Cogito and the History of Madness (from Writing and Difference). It was first given as a lecture on March 4, 1963, at a conference at Wahl's Collège philosophique, which Foucault attended, and caused a rift between the two men that was never fully mended.Powell (2006) pp. 34–5In an appendix added to the 1972 edition of his History of Madness, Foucault disputed Derrida's interpretation of his work, and accused Derrida of practicing "a historically well-determined little pedagogy [...] which teaches the student that there is nothing outside the text [...]. A pedagogy which inversely gives to the voice of the masters that infinite sovereignty that allows it indefinitely to re-say the text."Foucault, Michel, History of Madness, ed. Jean Khalfa, trans. Jonathan Murphy and Jean Khalfa (London: Routledge, 2006), p. xxiv,573. According to historian Carlo Ginzburg, Foucault may have written The Order of Things (1966) and The Archaeology of Knowledge partly under the stimulus of Derrida's criticism.Carlo Ginzburg [1976], Il formaggio e i vermi, translated in 1980 as The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller, trans. Anne Tedeschi (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press), xviii. {{ISBN|978-0-8018-4387-7}} Carlo Ginzburg briefly labeled Derrida's criticism in Cogito and the History of Madness, as "facile, nihilistic objections," without giving further argumentation.

Derrida's translators

Geoffrey Bennington, Avital Ronell and Samuel Weber belong to a group of Derrida translators. Many of Derrida's translators are esteemed thinkers in their own right. Derrida often worked in a collaborative arrangement, allowing his prolific output to be translated into English in a timely fashion.Having started as a student of de Man, Gayatri Spivak took on the translation of Of Grammatology early in her career and has since revised it into a second edition. Barbara Johnson's translation of Derrida's Dissemination was published by The Athlone Press in 1981. Alan Bass was responsible for several early translations; Bennington and Peggy Kamuf have continued to produce translations of his work for nearly twenty years. In recent years, a number of translations have appeared by Michael Naas (also a Derrida scholar) and Pascale-Anne Brault.Bennington, Brault, Kamuf, Naas, Elizabeth Rottenberg, and David Wills are currently engaged in translating Derrida's previously unpublished seminars, which span from 1959 to 2003.WEB,weblink Derrida Seminar Translation Project, Derridaseminars.org, 21 October 2012, Volumes I and II of The Beast and the Sovereign (presenting Derrida's seminars from December 12, 2001 to March 27, 2002 and from December 11, 2002 to March 26, 2003), as well as The Death Penalty, Volume I (covering December 8, 1999 to March 22, 2000), have appeared in English translation. Further volumes currently projected for the series include Heidegger: The Question of Being and History (1964-1965), Death Penalty, Volume II (2000–2001), Perjury and Pardon, Volume I (1997–1998), and Perjury and Pardon, Volume II (1998–1999).WEB,weblink Derrida Seminar Translation Project, Derridaseminars.org, 1 January 2014, With Bennington, Derrida undertook the challenge published as Jacques Derrida, an arrangement in which Bennington attempted to provide a systematic explication of Derrida's work (called the "Derridabase") using the top two-thirds of every page, while Derrida was given the finished copy of every Bennington chapter and the bottom third of every page in which to show how deconstruction exceeded Bennington's account (this was called the "Circumfession"). Derrida seems to have viewed Bennington in particular as a kind of rabbinical explicator, noting at the end of the "Applied Derrida" conference, held at the University of Luton in 1995 that: "everything has been said and, as usual, Geoff Bennington has said everything before I have even opened my mouth. I have the challenge of trying to be unpredictable after him, which is impossible... so I'll try to pretend to be unpredictable after Geoff. Once again."WEB,weblink Lovely Luton, Hydra.humanities.uci.edu, 21 October 2012,

Marshall McLuhan

Derrida was familiar with the work of Marshall McLuhan, and since his early 1967 writings (Of Grammatology, Speech and Phenomena), he speaks of language as a "medium,"Speech and Phenomena, Introduction of phonetic writing as "the medium of the great metaphysical, scientific, technical, and economic adventure of the West."Of Grammatology, Part I.1He expressed his disagreement with McLuhan in regard to what Derrida called McLuhan's ideology about the end of writing.Poster (2010), pp. 3–4, 12–13 In a 1982 interview, he said:, with Paul Brennan, On the Beach (Glebe NSW, Australia). No.1/1983: p. 42}}And in his 1972 essay Signature Event Context he said:

Criticism

Criticism from Marxists

In a paper entitled Ghostwriting,JOURNAL, Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, Ghostwriting, Diacritics, 25, 2, 64–84, 1995, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 465145, 10.2307/465145, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak—the translator of Derrida's De la grammatologie (Of Grammatology) into English—criticised Derrida's understanding of Marx.|Jacques Derrida|Marx & Sons|BOOK, Sprinker, Michael, chapter by Jacques Derrida, Ghostly Deamarctations: A Symposium On Jacques Derrida's "Specters of Marx", 2008, Verso isbn = 9781844672110 page = 223,weblink Commenting on Derrida's Specters of Marx, Terry Eagleton wrote "The portentousness is ingrained in the very letter of this book, as one theatrically inflected rhetorical question tumbles hard on the heels of another in a tiresomely mannered syntax which lays itself wide open to parody."SPRINKER> EDITOR1-FIRST = MICHAEL TITLE = GHOSTLY DEAMARCTATIONS: A SYMPOSIUM ON JACQUES DERRIDA'S "SPECTERS OF MARX" PUBLISHER = VERSO ISBN = 9781844672110 PAGES = 83–7,weblink

Criticism from analytic philosophers

Though Derrida addressed the American Philosophical Association on at least one occasion in 1988,JOURNAL, Newton, Garver, 1991,weblink Derrida's language-games, 10, 187–98, 10.1007/BF00141339, 2, Topoi, {{inconsistent citations, }} and was highly regarded by some contemporary philosophers like Richard Rorty, Alexander Nehamas,"Truth and Consequences: How to Understand Jacques Derrida," The New Republic 197:14 (October 5, 1987). and Stanley Cavell, his work has been regarded by other analytic philosophers, such as John Searle and Willard Van Orman Quine,J.E. D'Ulisse, Derrida (1930–2004), New Partisan, December 24, 2004. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160310180410weblink |date=March 10, 2016 }} as pseudophilosophy or sophistry.Some analytic philosophers have in fact claimed, since at least the 1980s, that Derrida's work is "not philosophy." One of the main arguments they gave was alleging that Derrida's influence had not been on US philosophy departments but on literature and other humanities disciplines.In his 1989 Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity, Richard Rorty argues that Derrida (especially in his book, (The Post Card: From Socrates to Freud and Beyond), one section of which is an experiment in fiction) purposefully uses words that cannot be defined (e.g., différance), and uses previously definable words in contexts diverse enough to make understanding impossible, so that the reader will never be able to contextualize Derrida's literary self. Rorty, however, argues that this intentional obfuscation is philosophically grounded. In garbling his message Derrida is attempting to escape the naïve, positive metaphysical projects of his predecessors.Rorty, Richard. Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. {{ISBN|0-521-36781-6}}. Ch. 6: "From ironist theory to private allusions: Derrida"Philosopher Sir Roger Scruton wrote in 2004, "He's difficult to summarise because it's nonsense. He argues that the meaning of a sign is never revealed in the sign but deferred indefinitely and that a sign only means something by virtue of its difference from something else. For Derrida, there is no such thing as meaning – it always eludes us and therefore anything goes."NEWS,weblink Deconstructing Jacques, 12 October 2004, The Guardian, On Derrida's scholarship and writing style, Noam Chomsky wrote "I found the scholarship appalling, based on pathetic misreading; and the argument, such as it was, failed to come close to the kinds of standards I've been familiar with since virtually childhood".WEB, Chomsky, Noam, Postmodernism?, ZCommunications,weblink 27 September 2014, August 2012, Paul R. Gross and Norman Levitt also criticized his work for misusing scientific terms and concepts in (Higher Superstition: The Academic Left and Its Quarrels With Science) (1994).{{citation needed|date=November 2015}}Three quarrels (or disputes) in particular went out of academic circles and received international mass media coverage: the 1972–88 quarrel with John Searle, the analytic philosophers' pressures on Cambridge University not to award Derrida an honorary degree, and a dispute with Richard Wolin and the NYRB.

Dispute with John Searle

In the early 1970s, Searle had a brief exchange with Jacques Derrida regarding speech-act theory. The exchange was characterized by a degree of mutual hostility between the philosophers, each of whom accused the other of having misunderstood his basic points.Derrida, Jacques. Limited, Inc. Northwestern University Press, 1988. p. 29: "...I have read some of his [Searle's] work (more, in any case, than he seems to have read of mine)"{{Citation needed|date=September 2012}} Searle was particularly hostile to Derrida's deconstructionist framework and much later refused to let his response to Derrida be printed along with Derrida's papers in the 1988 collection Limited Inc. Searle did not consider Derrida's approach to be legitimate philosophy or even intelligible writing and argued that he did not want to legitimize the deconstructionist point of view by dedicating any attention to it. Consequently, some criticsMaclean, Ian. 2004. "un dialogue de sourds? Some implications of the Austin–Searle–Derrida debate", in Jacques Derrida: critical thought. Ian Maclachlan (ed.) Ashgate Publishing, 2004 have considered the exchange to be a series of elaborate misunderstandings rather than a debate, while others"Another Look at the Derrida-Searle Debate". Mark Alfino. Philosophy & Rhetoric, Vol. 24, No. 2 (1991), pp. 143–152 weblink have seen either Derrida or Searle gaining the upper hand. The level of hostility can be seen from Searle's statement that "It would be a mistake to regard Derrida's discussion of Austin as a confrontation between two prominent philosophical traditions", to which Derrida replied that that sentence was "the only sentence of the "reply" to which I can subscribe".Simon Glendinning. 2001. Arguing with Derrida. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 18 Commentators have frequently interpreted the exchange as a prominent example of a confrontation between analytical and continental philosophy.The debate began in 1972, when, in his paper "Signature Event Context", Derrida analyzed J. L. Austin's theory of the illocutionary act. While sympathetic to Austin's departure from a purely denotational account of language to one that includes "force", Derrida was sceptical of the framework of normativity employed by Austin. He argued that Austin had missed the fact that any speech event is framed by a "structure of absence" (the words that are left unsaid due to contextual constraints) and by "iterability" (the constraints on what can be said, given by what has been said in the past). Derrida argued that the focus on intentionality in speech-act theory was misguided because intentionality is restricted to that which is already established as a possible intention. He also took issue with the way Austin had excluded the study of fiction, non-serious or "parasitic" speech, wondering whether this exclusion was because Austin had considered these speech genres governed by different structures of meaning, or simply due to a lack of interest. In his brief reply to Derrida, "Reiterating the Differences: A Reply to Derrida", Searle argued that Derrida's critique was unwarranted because it assumed that Austin's theory attempted to give a full account of language and meaning when its aim was much narrower. Searle considered the omission of parasitic discourse forms to be justified by the narrow scope of Austin's inquiry.Gregor Campbell. 1993. "John R. Searle" in Irene Rima Makaryk (ed). Encyclopedia of contemporary literary theory: approaches, scholars, terms. University of Toronto Press, 1993John Searle, "Reiterating the Différences: A Reply to Derrida", Glyph 2 (Baltimore MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977). Searle agreed with Derrida's proposal that intentionality presupposes iterability, but did not apply the same concept of intentionality used by Derrida, being unable or unwilling to engage with the continental conceptual apparatus. This, in turn, caused Derrida to criticize Searle for not being sufficiently familiar with (wikt:phenomenological|phenomenological) perspectives on intentionality.Marian Hobson. 1998. Jacques Derrida: opening lines. Psychology Press. pp. 95-97 Searle also argued that Derrida's disagreement with Austin turned on his having misunderstood Austin's type–token distinction and his failure to understand Austin's concept of failure in relation to performativity. Some critics have suggested that Searle, by being so grounded in the analytical tradition that he was unable to engage with Derrida's continental phenomenological tradition, was at fault for the unsuccessful nature of the exchange.The substance of Searle's criticism of Derrida in relation to topics in the philosophy of language—referenced in Derrida's Signature Event Context—was that Derrida had no apparent familiarity with contemporary philosophy of language nor of contemporary linguistics in Anglo-Saxon countries. Searle explains, "When Derrida writes about the philosophy of language he refers typically to Rousseau and Condillac, not to mention Plato. And his idea of a "modern linguist" is Benveniste or even Saussure."JOURNAL, Searle, John R., Literary Theory and Its Discontents, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 25, 3, 637–67, 1994, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 469470, 10.2307/469470, Searle describes Derrida's philosophical knowledge as pre-Wittgensteinian—that is to say, disconnected from analytic tradition—and consequently, in his perspective, naive and misguided, concerned with issues long-since resolved or otherwise found to be non-issues.Searle also wrote in The New York Review of Books that he was surprised by "the low level of philosophical argumentation, the deliberate obscurantism of the prose, the wildly exaggerated claims, and the constant striving to give the appearance of profundity by making claims that seem paradoxical, but under analysis often turn out to be silly or trivial."WEB, Searle, John R., The Word Turned Upside Down, The New York Review of Books, NYREV, Inc,weblink 27 October 1983, 21 August 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121013010523weblink">weblink October 13, 2012, Derrida, in his response to Searle ({{nowrap|"a b c ..."}} in Limited Inc), ridiculed Searle's positions. Claiming that a clear sender of Searle's message could not be established, he suggested that Searle had formed with Austin a société à responsabilité limitée (a "limited liability company") due to the ways in which the ambiguities of authorship within Searle's reply circumvented the very speech act of his reply. Searle did not reply. Later in 1988, Derrida tried to review his position and his critiques of Austin and Searle, reiterating that he found the constant appeal to "normality" in the analytical tradition to be problematic from which they were only paradigmatic examples.Farrell, F. B. (1988), Iterability and meaning: the Searle–Derrida debate. Metaphilosophy, 19: 53–64. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9973.1988.tb00701 weblink"With the Compliments of the Author: Reflections on Austin and Derrida". Stanley E. Fish. Critical Inquiry, Vol. 8, No. 4 (Summer 1982), pp. 693-721."Derrida, Searle, Contexts, Games, Riddles". Edmond Wright. New Literary History, Vol. 13, No. 3 ("Theory: Parodies, Puzzles, Paradigms"), Spring 1982, pp. 463-477."Convention and Meaning: Derrida and Austin". Jonathan Culler. New Literary History, Vol. 13, No. 1 ("On Convention: I"), Autumn 1981, pp. 15-30."Language, philosophy and the risk of failure: rereading the debate between Searle and Derrida". Hagi Kenaan. Continental Philosophy Review. Volume 35, Number 2, 117-133, DOI: 10.1023/A:1016583115826."Understanding Each Other: The Case of the Derrida-Searle Debate". Stanley Raffel. Human Studies, Volume 34, Number 3, 277-292, DOI: 10.1007/s10746-011-9189-6 Theoretical/Philosophical Paper.{{quotation| In the description of the structure called "normal," "normative," "central," "ideal," this possibility must be integrated as an essential possibility. The possibility cannot be treated as though it were a simple accident-marginal or parasitic. It cannot be, and hence ought not to be, and this passage from can to ought reflects the entire difficulty. In the analysis of so-called normal cases, one neither can nor ought, in all theoretical rigor, to exclude the possibility of transgression. Not even provisionally, or out of allegedly methodological considerations. It would be a poor method, since this possibility of transgression tells us immediately and indispensable about the structure of the act said to be normal as well as about the structure of law in general.}}He continued arguing how problematic was establishing the relation between "nonfiction or standard discourse" and "fiction," defined as its "parasite", "for part of the most original essence of the latter is to allow fiction, the simulacrum, parasitism, to take place-and in so doing to 'de-essentialize' itself as it were".Jacques Derrida, "Afterwords" in Limited, Inc. (Northwestern University Press, 1988), p. 133 He would finally argue that the indispensable question would then become:{{quotation|what is "nonfiction standard discourse," what must it be and what does this name evoke, once its fictionality or its fictionalization, its transgressive "parasitism," is always possible (and moreover by virtue of the very same words, the same phrases, the same grammar, etc.)? This question is all the more indispensable since the rules, and even the statements of the rules governing the relations of "nonfiction standard discourse" and its fictional "parasites," are not things found in nature, but laws, symbolic inventions, or conventions, institutions that, in their very normality as well as in their normativity, entail something of the fictional.}}In the debate, Derrida praises Austin's work but argues that he is wrong to banish what Austin calls "infelicities" from the "normal" operation of language. One "infelicity," for instance, occurs when it cannot be known whether a given speech act is "sincere" or "merely citational" (and therefore possibly ironic, etc.). Derrida argues that every iteration is necessarily "citational," due to the graphematic nature of speech and writing, and that language could not work at all without the ever-present and ineradicable possibility of such alternate readings. Derrida takes Searle to task for his attempt to get around this issue by grounding final authority in the speaker's inaccessible "intention". Derrida argues that intention cannot possibly govern how an iteration signifies, once it becomes hearable or readable.{{Citation needed|date=December 2016}} All speech acts borrow a language whose significance is determined by historical-linguistic context, and by the alternate possibilities that this context makes possible. This significance, Derrida argues, cannot be altered or governed by the whims of intention.In 1994, Searle argued that the ideas upon which deconstruction is founded are essentially a consequence of a series of conceptual confusions made by Derrida as a result of his outdated knowledge or are merely banalities. He insisted that Derrida's conception of iterability and its alleged "corrupting" effect on meaning stems from Derrida's ignorance of the type–token distinction that exists in current linguistics and philosophy of language. As Searle explains, "Most importantly, from the fact that different tokens of a sentence type can be uttered on different occasions with different intentions, that is, different speaker meanings, nothing of any significance follows about the original speaker meaning of the original utterance token."In 1995, Searle gave a brief reply to Derrida in The Construction of Social Reality. He called Derrida's conclusion "preposterous" and stated that "Derrida, as far as I can tell, does not have an argument. He simply declares that there is nothing outside of texts..."Searle The Construction of Social Reality (1995) pp. 157–160. Searle's reference here is not to anything forwarded in the debate, but to a mistranslation of the phrase "il n'y a pas dehors du texte" ("there is no outside-text"), which appears in Derrida's Of Grammatology.Tr. by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, 1976, 158–59According to Searle, the consistent pattern of Derrida's rhetoric is: (a) announce a preposterous thesis, e.g. "there is no outside-text" (il n'y a pas de hors-texte); (b) when challenged on (a) respond that you have been misunderstood and revise the claim in (a) such that it becomes a truism, e.g. "'il n'y a pas de hors-texte{{'}} means nothing else: there is nothing outside contexts";BOOK, Derrida, Jacques, Limited Inc., 1st, 1988, Northwestern University Press, Illinois, 0810107880, Afterword: Toward An Ethic of Discussion, 136,weblink The phrase which for some has become a sort of slogan, in general so badly understood, of deconstruction ("there is no outside-text" [it n y a pas de hors-texte]), means nothing else: there is nothing outside context. In this form, which says exactly the same thing, the formula would doubtless have been less shocking. I am not certain that it would have provided more to think about., (c) when the reformulation from (b) is acknowledged then proceed as if the original formulation from (a) was accepted. The revised idea—for example—that everything exists in some context is a banality but a charade ensues as if the original claim—nothing exists outside of text [sic]—had been established.

Cambridge honorary doctorate

In 1992 some academics at Cambridge University, ?mostly not from the philosophy faculty, proposed that Derrida be awarded an honorary doctorate. This was opposed by, among others, the university's Professor of Philosophy, David Mellor. Eighteen other philosophers from US, Austrian, Australian, French, Polish, Italian, German, Dutch, Swiss, Spanish, and UK institutions, including Barry Smith, Willard Van Orman Quine, David Armstrong, Ruth Barcan Marcus, and René Thom, then sent a letter to Cambridge claiming that Derrida's work "does not meet accepted standards of clarity and rigour" and describing Derrida's philosophy as being composed of "tricks and gimmicks similar to those of the Dadaists." The letter concluded that:In the end the protesters were outnumbered—336 votes to 204—when Cambridge put the motion to a vote;John Rawlings (1999) Presidential Lectures: Jacques Derrida: Introduction at Stanford University though almost all of those who proposed Derrida and who voted in favour were not from the philosophy faculty.JOURNAL, Richmond, Sarah, Derrida and Analytical Philosophy: Speech Acts and their Force, European Journal of Philosophy, April 1996, 4, 1, 38–62, Derrida suggested in an interview that part of the reason for the attacks on his work, was that it questioned and modified "the rules of the dominant discourse, it tries to politicize and democratize education and the university scene." To answer the question about the "exceptional violence," the compulsive "ferocity," and the "exaggeration" of the "attacks," he would say that these critics organize and practice in his case "a sort of obsessive personality cult which philosophers should know how to question and above all to moderate".BOOK, Derrida, Jacques, Points . .: Interviews, 1974-1994, 1st, 1995, Stanford University Press, New York, 0810103974, “Honoris Causa: 'This is also very funny'”, 409–413,weblink If it were only a question of "my" work, of the particular or isolated research of one individual, this wouldn't happen. Indeed, the violence of these denunciations derives from the fact that the work accused is part of a whole ongoing process. What is unfolding here, like the resistance it necessarily arouses, can't be limited to a personal "oeuvre," nor to a discipline, nor even to the academic institution. Nor in particular to a generation: it's often the active involvement of students and younger teachers which makes certain of our colleagues nervous to the point that they lose their sense of moderation and of the academic rules they invoke when they attack me and my work. If this work seems so threatening to them, this is because it isn't simply eccentric or strange, incomprehensible or exotic (which would allow them to dispose of it easily), but as I myself hope, and as they believe more than they admit, competent, rigorously argued, and carrying conviction in its re-examination of the fundamental norms and premises of a number of dominant discourses, the principles underlying many of their evaluations, the structures of academic institutions, and the research that goes on within them. What this kind of questioning does is modify the rules of the dominant discourse, it tries to politicize and democratize the university scene. ... In short, to answer your question about the "exceptional violence," the compulsive "ferocity," and the "exaggeration" of the "attacks," I would say that these critics organize and practice in my case a sort of obsessive personality cult which philosophers should know how to question and above all to moderate.,

Dispute with Richard Wolin and the NYRB

Richard Wolin has argued since 1991 that Derrida's work, as well as that of Derrida's major inspirations (e.g., Bataille, Blanchot, Levinas, Heidegger, Nietzsche), leads to a corrosive nihilism.{{Page needed|date=November 2010}} For example, Wolin argues that the "deconstructive gesture of overturning and reinscription ends up by threatening to efface many of the essential differences between Nazism and non-Nazism".Richard Wolin, Preface to the MIT press edition: Note on a missing text. In R. Wolin (ed.) The Heidegger Controversy: A Critical Reader. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 1993, p. xiii. {{ISBN|0-262-73101-0}}In 1991, when Wolin published a Derrida interview on Heidegger in the first edition of The Heidegger Controversy, Derrida argued that the interview was an intentionally malicious mistranslation, which was "demonstrably execrable" and "weak, simplistic, and compulsively aggressive". As French law requires the consent of an author to translations and this consent was not given, Derrida insisted that the interview not appear in any subsequent editions or reprints. Columbia University Press subsequently refused to offer reprints or new editions. Later editions of The Heidegger Controversy by MIT Press also omitted the Derrida interview. The matter achieved public exposure owing to a friendly review of Wolin's book by the Heideggerian scholar Thomas Sheehan that appeared in The New York Review of Books, in which Sheehan characterised Derrida's protests as an imposition of censorship. It was followed by an exchange of letters.NYBooks.com: 2658 and NYBooks.com: 2591 Derrida in turn responded to Sheehan and Wolin, in "The Work of Intellectuals and the Press (The Bad Example: How the New York Review of Books and Company do Business)", which was published in the book Points....Derrida, "The Work of Intellectuals and the Press (The Bad Example: How the New York Review of Books and Company do Business)", published in the book Points... (1995; see the footnote about {{ISBN|0-226-14314-7}}, here) (see also the [1992] French version (Points de suspension: entretiens) ({{ISBN|0-8047-2488-1}}) there).Twenty-four academics, belonging to different schools and groups – often in disagreement with each other and with deconstruction – signed a letter addressed to The New York Review of Books, in which they expressed their indignation for the magazine's behaviour as well as that of Sheenan and Wolin.Points, p. 434

Critical obituaries

Critical obituaries of Derrida were published in The New York Times, The Economist,The Economist. Obituary: Jacques Derrida, French intellectual, October 21, 2004 and The Independent.The Independent The magazine The Nation responded to the New York Times obituary saying that "even though American papers had scorned and trivialized Derrida before, the tone seemed particularly caustic for an obituary of an internationally acclaimed philosopher who had profoundly influenced two generations of American humanities scholars."Ross Benjamin Hostile Obituary for Derrida, The Nation, November 24, 2004Jonathan Culler (2008) Why deconstruction still matters: A conversation with Jonathan Culler, interviewed by Paul Sawyer for The Cornell Chronicle, January 24, 2008

Works by Derrida

Selected translations of works by Derrida
  • "Speech and Phenomena" and Other Essays on Husserl's Theory of Signs, trans. David B. Allison (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1973).
  • Of Grammatology, trans. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak (Baltimore & London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976) (hardcover: {{ISBN|0-8018-1841-9}}, paperback: {{ISBN|0-8018-1879-6}}, corrected edition: {{ISBN|0-8018-5830-5}}).WEB, Jacques Derrida,weblink Of Grammatology by Jacques Derrida, Marxists.org, 21 October 2012,
  • Writing and Difference, trans. Alan Bass (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978) {{ISBN|978-0-226-14329-3}}.
  • Spurs: Nietzsche's Styles, trans. Barbara Harlow (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1979, {{ISBN|978-0-226-14333-0}}).
  • The Archeology of the Frivolous: Reading Condillac, trans. John P. Leavey Jr. (Lincoln & London: University of Nebraska Press, 1980).
  • Dissemination, trans. Barbara Johnson (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981, {{ISBN|978-0-226-14334-7}}).
  • Positions, trans. Alan Bass (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981, {{ISBN|978-0-226-14331-6}}) [Paris, Minuit, 1972].
  • Margins of Philosophy, trans. Alan Bass (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1982, {{ISBN|978-0-226-14326-2}}).
  • Signsponge, trans. Richard Rand (New York: Columbia University Press, 1984).
  • The Ear of the Other, trans. Peggy Kamuf (Lincoln & London: University of Nebraska Press, 1985).
  • Glas, trans. John P. Leavey, Jr. & Richard Rand (Lincoln & London: University of Nebraska Press, 1986).
  • Memoires for Paul de Man (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986; revised edn., 1989).
  • (The Post Card: From Socrates to Freud and Beyond), trans. Alan Bass (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1987, {{ISBN|978-0-226-14322-4}}).
  • The Truth in Painting, trans. Geoffrey Bennington & Ian McLeod (Chicago & London: Chicago University Press, 1987, {{ISBN|978-0-226-14324-8}}).
  • Limited Inc (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1988).
  • Edmund Husserl's Origin of Geometry: An Introduction, trans. John P. Leavey, Jr. (Lincoln & London: University of Nebraska Press, 1989).
  • Of Spirit: Heidegger and the Question, trans. Geoffrey Bennington & Rachel Bowlby (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1989, {{ISBN|978-0-226-14319-4}}).
  • Cinders (book)|Cinders, trans. Ned Lukacher (Lincoln & London: University of Nebraska Press, 1991).
  • Acts of Literature (New York & London: Routledge, 1992).
  • Given Time|Given Time: I. Counterfeit Money, trans. Peggy Kamuf (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1992, {{ISBN|978-0-226-14314-9}}).
  • The Other Heading|The Other Heading: Reflections on Today's Europe, trans. Pascale-Anne Brault & Michael B. Naas (Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1992).
  • Aporias, trans. Thomas Dutoit (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1993).
  • Jacques Derrida (book)|Jacques Derrida, co-author & trans. Geoffrey Bennington (Chicago & London: Chicago University Press, 1993, {{ISBN|978-0-226-04262-6}}).
  • Memoirs of the Blind|Memoirs of the Blind: The Self-Portrait and Other Ruins, trans. Pascale-Anne Brault & Michael Naas (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1993, {{ISBN|978-0-226-14308-8}}).
  • (Specters of Marx|Specters of Marx: The State of the Debt, the Work of Mourning, and the New International), trans. Peggy Kamuf (New York & London: Routledge, 1994).
  • (Archive Fever|Archive Fever: A Freudian Impression), trans. Eric Prenowitz (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1995, {{ISBN|978-0-226-14367-5}}).
  • The Gift of Death, trans. David Wills (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1995, {{ISBN|978-0-226-14306-4}}).
  • On the Name, trans. David Wood, John P. Leavey, Jr., & Ian McLeod (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995).
  • (Points...: Interviews 1974-1994), trans. Peggy Kamuf and others, (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995) (see also the footnote about {{ISBN|0-226-14314-7}}, here) (see also the [1992] French Version (Points de suspension: entretiens) ({{ISBN|0-8047-2488-1}}) there).
  • Chora L Works, with Peter Eisenman (New York: Monacelli, 1997).
  • Politics of Friendship, trans. George Collins (London & New York: Verso, 1997).
  • Monolingualism of the Other; or, The Prosthesis of Origin, trans. Patrick Mensah (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998).
  • Resistances of Psychoanalysis, trans. Peggy Kamuf, Pascale-Anne Brault and Michael Naas (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998).
  • The Secret Art of Antonin Artaud, with Paule Thévenin, trans. Mary Ann Caws (Cambridge, Mass., & London: MIT Press, 1998).
  • Adieu: To Emmanuel Levinas, trans. Pascale-Anne Brault & Michael Naas (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999).
  • Rights of Inspection, trans. David Wills (New York: Monacelli, 1999).
  • Demeure: Fiction and Testimony, with Maurice Blanchot, The Instant of My Death, trans. Elizabeth Rottenberg (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000).
  • Of Hospitality, trans. Rachel Bowlby (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000).
  • Deconstruction Engaged: The Sydney Seminars (Sydney: Power Publications, 2001).
  • On Cosmopolitanism and Forgiveness, trans. Mark Dooley & Michael Hughes (London & New York: Routledge, 2001).
  • A Taste for the Secret, with (:It:Maurizio Ferraris|Maurizio Ferraris), trans. Giacomo Donis (Cambridge: Polity, 2001).
  • The Work of Mourning, trans. Pascale-Anne Brault & Michael Naas (Chicago & London: Chicago University Press, 2001, {{ISBN|978-0-226-14281-4}}).
  • Acts of Religion (New York & London: Routledge, 2002).
  • (Echographies of Television|Echographies of Television: Filmed Interviews), with Bernard Stiegler, trans. Jennifer Bajorek (Cambridge: Polity, 2002).
  • Ethics, Institutions, and the Right to Philosophy, trans Peter Pericles Trifonas (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002).
  • Negotiations: Interventions and Interviews, 1971–2001, trans. Elizabeth Rottenberg (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002).
  • (Who's Afraid of Philosophy?: Right to Philosophy 1), trans. Jan Plug (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002).
  • Without Alibi, trans. Peggy Kamuf (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002).
  • Philosophy in a Time of Terror|Philosophy in a Time of Terror: Dialogues with Jürgen Habermas and Jacques Derrida, with Jürgen Habermas (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 2003, {{ISBN|978-0-226-06666-0}}).
  • The Problem of Genesis in Husserl's Philosophy, trans. Marian Hobson (Chicago & London: Chicago University Press, 2003, {{ISBN|978-0-226-14315-6}}).
  • Counterpath, with Catherine Malabou, trans. David Wills (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004).
  • (Eyes of the University: Right to Philosophy 2), trans. Jan Plug (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004).
  • For What Tomorrow...: A Dialogue, with Elisabeth Roudinesco, trans. Jeff Fort (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004).
  • Rogues: Two Essays on Reason, trans. Pascale-Anne Brault & Michael Naas (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004).
  • On Touching—Jean-Luc Nancy, trans. Christine Irizarry (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005).
  • Paper Machine, trans. Rachel Bowlby (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005).
  • Sovereignties in Question|Sovereignties in Question: The Poetics of Paul Celan, trans. Thomas Dutoit (New York: Fordham University Press, 2005).
  • H. C. for Life: That Is to Say..., trans. Laurent Milesi & Stefan Herbrechter (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006).
  • Geneses, Genealogies, Genres, and Genius|Geneses, Genealogies, Genres, And Genius: The Secrets of the Archive, trans. Beverly Bie Brahic (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006).
  • Learning to Live Finally: The Last Interview, with Jean Birnbaum, trans. Pascale-Anne Brault & Michael Naas (Melville House, 2007).
  • Psyche: Inventions of the Other, Volume I (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007).
  • Psyche: Inventions of the Other, Volume II (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008).
  • The Animal That Therefore I Am, trans. David Wills (New York: Fordham University Press, 2008).
  • The Beast and the Sovereign, Volume I, trans. Geoffrey Bennington (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009, {{ISBN|978-0-226-14428-3}}).
  • Copy, Archive, Signature: A Conversation on Photography, ed. Gerhard Richter, trans. Jeff Fort (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2010).
  • Athens, Still Remains: The Photographs of Jean-François Bonhomme, trans. Michael Naas (New York: Fordham University Press, 2010).
  • Parages, ed. John P. Leavey, trans. Tom Conley, James Hulbert, John P. Leavey, and Avital Ronell (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011).
  • The Beast and the Sovereign, Volume II, trans. Geoffrey Bennington (Chicago: University of Chicago Press {{ISBN|978-0-226-14430-6}}).
  • Signature Derrida, ed. Jay Williams (Chicago: University of Chicago Press {{ISBN|978-0-226-92452-6}}).
  • The Death Penalty, Volume I (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014, {{ISBN|978-0-226-14432-0}}).
  • Heidegger: The Question of Being and History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016, {{ISBN|978-0-226-35511-5}}).
  • Body of Prayer, co-authored with David Shapiro and Michal Govrin (New York: The Irwin S. Chanin School of Architecture, 2001).

See also

Notes

{{Reflist}}

Works cited

Further reading

Introductory works

  • Adleman, Dan (2010) "Deconstricting Derridean Genre Theory" (PDF)
  • Culler, Jonathan (1975) Structuralist Poetics.
  • Culler, Jonathan (1983) On Deconstruction: Theory and Criticism after Structuralism.
  • Descombes, Vincent (1980) Modern French Philosophy.
  • Deutscher, Penelope (2006) How to Read Derrida ({{ISBN|978-0-393-32879-0}}).
  • Mark Dooley and Liam Kavanagh (2007) The Philosophy of Derrida, London: Acumen Press, 2006; Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
  • Goldschmit, Marc (2003) ''Jacques Derrida, une introduction" Paris, Agora Pocket, {{ISBN|2-266-11574-X}}.
  • Hill, Leslie (2007) The Cambridge introduction to Jacques Derrida
  • Jameson, Fredric (1972) The Prison-House of Language.
  • Leitch, Vincent B. (1983) Deconstructive Criticism: An Advanced Introduction.
  • Lentricchia, Frank (1980) After the New Criticism.
  • Moati Raoul (2009), Derrida/Searle, déconstruction et langage ordinaire
  • Norris, Christopher (1982) Deconstruction: Theory and Practice.
  • Thomas, Michael (2006) (The Reception of Derrida: Translation and Transformation).
  • Wise, Christopher (2009) Derrida, Africa, and the Middle East.

Other works

  • Agamben, Giorgio. "Pardes: The Writing of Potentiality," in Giorgio Agamben, Potentialities: Collected Essays in Philosophy, ed. and trans. Daniel Heller-Roazen, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2005. 205-19.
  • Beardsworth, Richard, Derrida and the Political ({{ISBN|0-415-10967-1}}).
  • Bennington, Geoffrey, Legislations ({{ISBN|0-86091-668-5}}).
  • Bennington, Geoffrey, Interrupting Derrida ({{ISBN|0-415-22427-6}}).
  • Critchley, Simon, BOOK, 18 March 2014, The Ethics of Deconstruction: Derrida and Levinas, 3rd Edition,weblink Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 352, 9780748689323,
  • Caputo, John D., The Prayers and Tears of Jacques Derrida.
  • Coward, Harold G. (ed) Derrida and Negative theology, SUNY 1992. {{ISBN|0-7914-0964-3}}
  • de Man, Paul, "The Rhetoric of Blindness: Jacques Derrida's Reading of Rousseau," in Paul de Man, Blindness and Insight: Essays in the Rhetoric of Contemporary Criticism, second edition, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983. 102-41.
  • El-Bizri, Nader, 'Qui-êtes vous Khôra?: Receiving Plato's Timaeus', Existentia Meletai-Sophias 11 (2001), pp. 473–490.
  • Fabbri, Lorenzo. "Chronotopologies of the Exception. Agamben and Derrida before the Camps", "Diacritics," Volume 39, Number 3 (2009): 77-95.
  • Foucault, Michel, "My Body, This Paper, This Fire," in Michel Foucault, History of Madness, ed. Jean Khalfa, trans. Jonathan Murphy and Jean Khalfa, London: Routledge, 2006. 550-74.
  • Fradet, Pierre-Alexandre, Derrida-Bergson. Sur l'immédiateté, Hermann, Paris, coll. "Hermann Philosophie", 2014. {{ISBN|9782705688318}}
  • Gasché, Rodolphe, Inventions of Difference: On Jacques Derrida.
  • Gasché, Rodolphe, The Tain of the Mirror.
  • Goldschmit, Marc, Une langue à venir. Derrida, l'écriture hyperbolique Paris, Lignes et Manifeste, 2006. {{ISBN|2-84938-058-X}}
  • Habermas, Jürgen, "Beyond a Temporalized Philosophy of Origins: Jacques Derrida's Critique of Phonocentrism," in Jürgen Habermas, The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity: Twelve Lectures, trans. Frederick G. Lawrence, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990. 161-84.
  • Hägglund, Martin, Radical Atheism: Derrida and the Time of Life, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008.
  • Hamacher, Werner, Lingua amissa, Buenos Aires: Miño y Dávila editores, 2012.
  • JOURNAL, Kierans, Kenneth, Beyond Deconstruction, Animus (journal), Animus, 1997, 2,weblink 1209-0689, August 17, 2011, .,
  • Kopić, Mario, Izazovi post-metafizike, Sremski Karlovci - Novi Sad: Izdavačka knjižarnica, 2007. ({{ISBN|978-86-7543-120-6}})
  • Kopić, Mario, Nezacjeljiva rana svijeta, Zagreb: Antibarbarus, 2007. ({{ISBN|978-953-249-035-0}})
  • Mackey, Louis, "Slouching Toward Bethlehem: Deconstructive Strategies in Theology," in Anglican Theological Review, Volume LXV, Number 3, July, 1983. 255–272.
  • Mackey, Louis, "A Nicer Knowledge of Belief" in Loius Mackey, An Ancient Quarrel Continued: The Troubled Marriage of Philosophy and Literature, Lanham, University Press of America, 2002. 219–240 ({{ISBN|978-0761822677}})
  • Magliola, Robert, Derrida on the Mend, Lafayette: Purdue UP, 1984; 1986; rpt. 2000 ({{ISBN|0-911198-69-5}}). (Initiated what has become a very active area of study in Buddhology and comparative philosophy, the comparison of Derridean deconstruction and Buddhist philosophy, especially Madhyamikan and Zen Buddhist philosophy.)
  • Magliola, Robert, On Deconstructing Life-Worlds: Buddhism, Christianity, Culture, Atlanta: Scholars P, American Academy of Religion, 1997; Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000 ({{ISBN|0-7885-0296-4}}). (Further develops comparison of Derridean thought and Buddhism.)
  • Marder, Michael, The Event of the Thing: Derrida's Post-Deconstructive Realism, Toronto: Toronto UP, 2009. ({{ISBN|0-8020-9892-4}})
  • Miller, J. Hillis, For Derrida, New York: Fordham University Press, 2009.
  • Mouffe, Chantal (ed.), Deconstruction and Pragmatism, with essays by Simon Critchley, Ernesto Laclau, Richard Rorty, and Derrida.
  • Norris, Christopher, Derrida ({{ISBN|0-674-19823-9}}).
  • Park, Jin Y., ed., Buddhisms and Deconstructions, Lanham: Rowland and Littlefield, 2006 ({{ISBN|978-0-7425-3418-6}}; {{ISBN|0-7425-3418-9}}). (Several of the collected papers specifically treat Derrida and Buddhist thought.)
  • Rapaport, Herman, Later Derrida ({{ISBN|0-415-94269-1}}).
  • Rorty, Richard, "From Ironist Theory to Private Allusions: Derrida," in Richard Rorty, Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. 121-37.
  • Ross, Stephen David, Betraying Derrida, for Life, Atropos Press, 2013.
  • Roudinesco, Elisabeth, Philosophy in Turbulent Times: Canguilhem, Sartre, Foucault, Althusser, Deleuze, Derrida, Columbia University Press, New York, 2008.
  • Sallis, John (ed.), Deconstruction and Philosophy, with essays by Rodolphe Gasché, John D. Caputo, Robert Bernasconi, David Wood, and Derrida.
  • BOOK, Sallis, John, The Verge of Philosophy, University of Chicago Press, 2009, 978-0-226-73431-6, John Sallis, {{inconsistent citations, }}
  • Salvioli, Marco, Il Tempo e le Parole. Ricoeur e Derrida a "margine" della fenomenologia, ESD, Bologna 2006.
  • Smith, James K. A., Jacques Derrida: Live Theory.
  • Sprinker, Michael, ed. Ghostly Demarcations: A Symposium on Jacques Derrida's Specters of Marx, London and New York: Verso, 1999; rpt. 2008. (Includes Derrida's reply, "Marx & Sons.")
  • Stiegler, Bernard, "Derrida and Technology: Fidelity at the Limits of Deconstruction and the Prosthesis of Faith," in Tom Cohen (ed.), Jacques Derrida and the Humanities ({{ISBN|0-521-62565-3}}).
  • Wood, David (ed.), Derrida: A Critical Reader.
  • Zlomislic, Marko, Jacques Derrida's Aporetic Ethics, Lexington Books, 2004.

External links

{{Jaques Derrida}}{{philosophy of language}}{{continental philosophy}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Jacques Derrida" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 12:08pm EDT - Fri, Jul 20 2018
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 18 AUG 2014
Wikinfo
Culture
CONNECT