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Israeli Jews
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6,556,000 74.6% of the Israelis>Israeli populationHTTP://WWW.JEWISHPRESS.COM/NEWS/ISRAEL/ISRAEL-BOASTS-8-8-MILLION-ON-EVE-OF-2018-74-6-JEWISH/2017/12/31/ >TITLE=ISRAEL BOASTS 8.8 MILLION ON EVE OF 2018, 74.6% JEWISH WEBSITE=JEWISH PRESS, HTTPS://WWW.YNETNEWS.COM/ARTICLES/0,7340,L-5064330,00.HTML >TITLE=NEARING NINE MILLION: ISRAEL IN NUMBERS ON EVE OF 2018 FIRST=AMIR WEBSITE=YNET NEWS, HTTPS://WWW.IDI.ORG.IL/HAREDI/2017/?CHAPTER=20058>SCRIPT-TITLE=HE:שנתון החברה החרדית לשנת 2017LANGUAGE=HE6,705,00079.3% of the Israelis>Israeli populationIsrael}} {{nbsp|6}}6,300,000{{efn>The official Israel Central Bureau of Statistics estimate of the Israeli Jewish population does not include Israelis who are not Jewish according to halakha>rabbinical law, but were eligible for Israeli citizenship under the Law of Return. They compose about 3–4% of Israeli citizens (300,000), and are mostly Russian immigration to Israel in the 1990s of Jewish origin or family members who are not considered Jewish by the rabbinate.YORAM ETTINGERURL=HTTP://WWW.ISRAELHAYOM.COM/SITE/NEWSLETTER_OPINION.PHP?ID=3913NEWSPAPER=ISRAEL HAYOMPUBLISHER=THE JEWISH PEOPLE POLICY INSTITUTE PUBLISHER=THE JEWISH PEOPLE POLICY INSTITUTE AUTHOR=DELLAPERGOLA, SERGIO, HTTP://WWW.ENCYCLOPEDIA.COM/TOPIC/ISRAEL_(PEOPLE).ASPX >TITLE=ISRAEL (PEOPLE) YEAR=2007, }} (September 2015)HTTP://WWW.TIMESOFISRAEL.COM/ISRAEL-POPULATION-HITS-8-4-MILLION-AHEAD-OF-JEWISH-NEW-YEAR/ >TITLE=ISRAEL POPULATION HITS 8.4 MILLION AHEAD OF JEWISH NEW YEAR THE TIMES OF ISRAEL >DATE=8 SEPTEMBER 2015 AUTHOR=RAOUL WOOTLIFF AND JOSEFIN DOLSTEN, United States}}URL=HTTP://WWW.JEWISHJOURNAL.COM/ISRAEL/ARTICLE/RUMORS_OF_MASS_ISRAELI_EMIGRATION_ARE_MUCH_EXAGGERATED_20120425NEWSPAPER=JEWISH JOURNAL OF GREATER LOS ANGELES>DATE=APRIL 25, 2012, GALLYA LAHAV >AUTHOR2=ASHER ARIAN EDITOR=REY KOSLOWSKI PUBLISHER=ROUTLEDGE PAGE=89 ISBN=0-415-25815-4, Russia}}|pop3 = 100,000 (80,000 in Moscow)|ref3 = "100,000 Former Soviet Jews In Israel Return To Russia", by Michael Mainville, The Toronto StarIsraelis Find A Lively Jewish Niche in Moscow by Rena Greenberg – Moscow, Russia, 19 March 2014.Canada}}PUBLISHER=2.STATCAN.CA ACCESSDATE=2 MAY 2012, –30,000United Kingdom}}URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=3 FEBRUARY 2014 DF=DMY-ALL, Australia}}|pop6=15,000FIRST=DANDATE=3 JULY 2012VIA=HAARETZ, Germany}}WORK=HAARETZ ACCESSDATE=18 MARCH 2013 WORK=THE TIMES OF ISRAEL ACCESSDATE=18 MARCH 2013 WORK=DER SPIEGEL ACCESSDATE=18 MARCH 2013, Doron Halutz, Historical Hebrew language>Hebrew, Jewish languagesYiddish language, Ladino language>Ladino, Judeo-Arabic and other Jewish languages (most endangered, and some now extinct)Liturgical languagesHebrew and AramaicPredominant spoken languages{{Citation needed|date=February 2011}}Modern Israeli Hebrew, English, Russian, Spanish, Arabic, French, AmharicAshkenazi Jews{{·}}Sephardic Jews{{·}}Mizrahi Jews, other Semitic people>Semites (Levantine Arabs, Assyrians) and other Jewish ethnic divisions}}{{Contains Hebrew text}}{{Jews and Judaism sidebar}}Israeli Jews (, Yehudim Yisraelim), also known as Jewish Israelis, refers toIsraeli citizens of the Jewish ethnicity or faith, and also the descendants of Israeli-Jewish emigrants outside of Israel. Israeli Jews are found mostly in Israel and the Western world, as well as other countries worldwide, not necessarily only in Jewish communities. Israeli Jews mostly speak Hebrew and most follow at least some religious Jewish practices. Israel, the Jewish state, currently has almost half the world's Jews.The Jewish population in Israel comprises all Jewish diaspora communities, including Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, Beta Israel, Cochin Jews, Bene Israel, Karaite Jews, and many other groups. The Israeli Jewish community manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, as well as encompassing the full spectrum of religious observance, from the haredi communities to the hilonim Jewish communities who live a secular lifestyle. Among the Jewish population, over 25% of the schoolchildren and over 35% of all newborns are of mixed ancestry of both Ashkenazi and Sephardi/Mizrahi descent and increases by 0.5% each year. Over 50% of the Jewish population is of at least a partial Sephardi/Mizrahi descent.My Promised Land, by Ari Shavit, (London 2014)Despite the ongoing debate over the question of who is a Jew among Israeli Jews, the Jewish status of a person, which is considered a matter of 'nationality' by the Israeli authorities, is registered and controlled by the Israeli Ministry of the Interior, which requires a person to meet the halakhic definition to be registered as a 'Jew'. Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics estimated the Israeli Jewish population was 6,556,000 as of December 2017 (74.6% of the total population if East Jerusalem and Golan Arab population are counted in).WEB,weblink Israel Boasts 8.8 Million on Eve of 2018, 74.6% Jewish, December 31, 2017, Jewish Press, WEB,weblink Nearing nine million: Israel in numbers on eve of 2018, Alon, Amir, December 31, 2017, Ynet News, An IDI Guttman Study of 2008 shows that a plurality of Israeli Jews (47%) identify themselves first as Jews and Israeli second, and that only 39% consider themselves first and foremost Israeli.WEB,weblink Poll: Most Israelis see themselves as Jewish first, Israeli second – Israel Jewish Scene, Ynetnews, Ynet.co.il, 26 May 2012, Jews living in the region prior to the establishment of the State of Israel were commonly referred to in English as "Palestinian Jews" and in Hebrew as HaYishuv HaYehudi Be'Eretz Yisra'el (The Jewish Community in the Land of Israel).

History

Origins

File:Herzl-balcony.jpg|right|thumb|upright|Theodor HerzlTheodor HerzlJews have long considered The Land of Israel to be their homeland, even while living in the diaspora. According to the Hebrew Bible the connection to the Land of Israel began in the covenant of the pieces when the region, which it called the land of Canaan, was promised to Abraham by God. Abraham settled in the region, where his son Isaac and grandson Jacob grew up with and their families. Later on, Jacob and his sons went to Egypt. Decades later their descendants were led out of Egypt by Moses and Aaron, given the Tablets of Stone, returned to the land of Canaan and conquered it under the leadership of Joshua. After the period of the judges, in which the Israelites did not have an organized leadership, the Kingdom of Israel was established, which constructed the first temple. This kingdom was soon split into two—the Kingdom of Judah and the Kingdom of Israel. After the destruction of these kingdoms and the destruction of the first Temple, the Israelites were exiled to Babylon. After about 70 years parts of the Israelites were permitted to return to the region and soon thereafter they built the Second Temple. Later on they established the Hasmonean Kingdom. The region was conquered by the Roman Empire in 63 BC. During the 2nd century CE a series of rebellions against the Roman Empire ended up with the destruction of the second temple and a general expulsion of Jews from their homeland.The area was later conquered by migrant Arabs from the Byzantine Empire who established a Muslim Caliphate in the 7th century during the rise of Islam. Throughout the centuries the size of Jewish population in the land fluctuated. Before the birth of modern Zionism in the 1880s, by the early 19th century, more than 10,000 Jews were still living in the area that is today modern Israel.Following centuries of Jewish diaspora, the 19th century saw the rise of Zionism, a Jewish Nationalist Movement that had a desire to see the self-determination of the Jewish people through a creation of a homeland for the Jews in Palestine. Significant numbers of Jews immigrated to Palestine since the 1880s. Zionism remained a minority movement until the rise of Nazism in 1933 and the subsequent attempted extermination of the Jewish people in Nazi occupied areas of Europe in the Holocaust.BOOK, Lucy S. Dawidowicz, The war against the Jews, 1933–1945,weblink 1976, Bantam Books, 978-0-553-20534-3, 403, In the late 19th century large numbers of Jews began moving to the Ottoman and later British-controlled region. In 1917, the British endorsed a National Home for Jews in Mandate Palestine by passing the Balfour Declaration. The Jewish population in the region increased from 11% of the population in 1922 to 30% by 1940NEWS,weblink BBC News, The birth of Israel, 27 April 1998, 5 May 2010, In 1937, following the Great Arab Revolt, the partition plan proposed by the Peel Commission was rejected by the Palestinian Arab leadership, but accepted tentatively by Zionist leader David Ben-Gurion. As a result, in 1939, the British caved to Arab pressure because of support needed for World War II, abandoned the idea of a Jewish national homeland, and abandoned partition and negotiations in favour of the unilaterally-imposed White Paper of 1939, which capped Jewish immigration, and put subject to review under further agreement with the Arabs. Its other stated policy was to establish a system under which both Jews and Arabs were to share one government. The policy was viewed as a significant defeat for the Jewish side as it placed severe restrictions on Jewish immigration, while placing no restriction on Arab immigration.In 1947, following increasing levels of violence, the British government decided to withdraw from Mandatory Palestine. The 1947 UN Partition Plan split the mandate into two states, Jewish and Arab, giving about 56% of Mandatory Palestine to the Jewish state. Immediately following the adoption of the Partition Plan by the United Nations General Assembly, the Palestinian Arab leadership rejected the plan to create the as-yet-unnamed Jewish State and launched a guerrilla war.File:Declaration of State of Israel 1948 2.jpg|thumb|right|upright|David Ben-Gurion proclaiming Israeli independence from the United Kingdom on 14 May 1948, below a portrait of Theodor HerzlTheodor HerzlOn 14 May 1948, one day before the end of the British Mandate of Palestine, the leaders of the Jewish community in Palestine led by prime minister David Ben-Gurion, made a declaration of independence, of the State of Israel though without any reference to defined borders.Harris, J. (1998) The Israeli Declaration of Independence The Journal of the Society for Textual Reasoning, Vol. 7

1948 Arab–Israeli War

The armies of Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq invaded the territory partitioned for the Arab state, thus starting the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. The nascent Israeli Defense Force repulsed the Arab nations from part of the occupied territories, thus extending its borders beyond the original UNSCOP partition.BOOK, Charles D. Smith, Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A History with Documents,weblink 2007, Bedford/St. Martin's, 978-0-312-43736-7, 198, By December 1948, Israel controlled most of the portion of Mandate Palestine west of the Jordan River. The remainder of the Mandate consisted of Jordan, the area that came to be called the West Bank (controlled by Jordan), and the Gaza Strip (controlled by Egypt). Prior to and during this conflict, 711,000General Progress Report and Supplementary Report of the United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine, Covering the period from 11 December 1949 to 23 October 1950, GA A/1367/Rev.1 23 October 1950. Palestinians Arabs fled their original lands to become Palestinian refugees. The reasons for this are disputed, and range from claims that the major cause of Palestinian flight was military actions by the Israel Defense Forces and fear of events such as Deir Yassin to an encouragement to leave by Arab leaders so that they could return when the war was won.Most Israeli Jews refer to the 1948 Arab–Israeli War as the War of Independence, while most of the Arab citizens of Israel refer to it as the Nakba (catastrophe), a reflection of differences in perception of the purpose and outcomes of the war.BOOK, M. Amara, Abd Al-Rahman Mar'i, Language Education Policy: The Arab Minority in Israel,weblink 31 May 2002, Springer, 978-1-4020-0585-5,

1949–present

File:Jerusalem Western Wall BW 2010-09-21 07-45-49.JPG|thumb|right|upright|The Western WallWestern WallImmigration of Holocaust survivors and Jewish refugees from Arab lands doubled Israel's population within one year of its independence. Over the following years approximately 850,000 Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews fled or were expelled from surrounding mostly due persecution in Arab countries, and in smaller numbers from Turkey, India, Afghanistan, and Iran. Of these, about 680,000 settled in Israel (see also Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries).Israel's Jewish population continued to grow at a very high rate for years, fed by waves of Jewish immigration from round the world, most notably the massive immigration wave of Soviet Jews, which arrived to Israel in the early 1990s following the dissolution of the USSR, who, according to the Law of Return, were entitled to become Israeli citizens upon arrival. About 380,000 arrived in 1990–1991 alone. At the same time some 80,000–100,000 Ethiopian Jews have immigrated to Israel since the early 1980s.Since 1948, Israel has been involved in a series of major military conflicts, including the 1956 Suez War, 1967 Six-Day War, 1973 Yom Kippur War, 1982 Lebanon War, and 2006 Lebanon War, as well as a nearly constant series of ongoing minor conflicts. Israel has been also embroiled in an ongoing conflict with the Palestinians in the Israeli-occupied territories, which have been under Israeli control since the Six-Day War, despite the signing of the Oslo Accords on 13 September 1993, and the ongoing efforts of Israeli, Palestinian and global peacemakers.

Population

(File:Flickr - Israel Defense Forces - Female Soldiers Unload their Weapons.jpg|thumb|Israeli soldiers){{See also|Demographics of Israel|Ashkenazi Jews|Mizrahi Jews|Sephardi Jews|Jewish ethnic divisions}}According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics, as of February 2013, of Israel's 8 million people, 75.4% were Jews of any background.WEB,weblink Population, by Population Group, 7 March 2013, Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, 11 March 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131203033245weblink">weblink 3 December 2013, dmy-all, Among them, 68% were Sabras (Israeli-born), mostly second- or third-generation Israelis, and the rest are olim (Jewish immigrants to Israel)—22% from Europe and the Americas, and 10% from Asia and Africa, including the Arab countries.WEB,weblink Jews and others, by origin, continent of birth and period of immigration, 8 April 2006, Government of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, PDF, Nearly half of all Israeli Jews are descended from Jews who made aliyah from Europe, while around the same number are descended from Jews who made aliyah from Arab countries, Iran, Turkey and Central Asia. Over two hundred thousand are, or are descended from, Ethiopian and Indian Jews.WEB, JEWS AND OTHERS(1), BY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN(2) AND AGE,weblink 24 January 2014,

Growth

Israel is the only country in the world with a consistently growing Jewish population due to natural population increase unlike the Jewish communities in the Diaspora in which the Jewish population in general is either declining or steady, with the exception of the Orthodox and Haredi Jewish communities around the world, whose members often shun birth control for religious reasons, have experienced rapid population growth.Gartner (2001), pp. 400–401. Haredi women have 7.7 children on average while the average Israeli Jewish woman has over 3 children.WEB,weblink Israeli women do it by the numbers, The Jewish Chronicle, 7 April 2014, 20 May 2014, Paul Morland, When Israel was first established in 1948, it had the third-largest Jewish population in the world, after the United States and Soviet Union. In the 1970s, Israel surpassed the Soviet Union as having the second-largest Jewish population.WEB,weblink Star-News - Google News Archive Search, news.google.com, In 2003, The Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics reported that Israel had surpassed the United States as the nation with the world's largest Jewish population. The report was contested by Professor Sergio DellaPergola of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Considered the greatest demographic expert on Jews, Della Pergola said it would take another three years to close the gap.Statistics bureau: Israeli Jews outnumber Jews in the U.S. Haaretz In January 2006, Della Pergola stated that Israel now had more Jews than the United States, and Tel Aviv had replaced New York as the metropolitan area with the largest Jewish population in the world,WEB,weblink Israel´s Jewish Population Surpasses United States, Israel National News, 17 January 2006, 26 May 2012, while a major demographic study found that Israel's Jewish population surpassed that of the United States in 2008.BOOK, Stuart E. Eizenstat, The Future of the Jews: How Global Forces are Impacting the Jewish People, Israel, and Its Relationship with the United States,weblink 3 May 2012, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 978-1-4422-1629-7, Due to the decline of Diaspora Jewry as a result of intermarriage and assimilation, along with the steady growth of the Israeli Jewish population, it has been speculated that within about 20 years, most of the world's Jews will live in Israel.Bayme, Steven: Jewish Arguments and Counterarguments: Essays and Addresses (Page 385) In March 2012, the Israeli Census Bureau of Statistics reported on behalf of Ynet has forecast that in 2019, Israel will be home to 6,940,000 Jews, 5.84 million which are non-haredi Jews living in Israel, compared with 5.27 million in 2009. The number is expected to grow to anywhere between 6.09 million and 9.95 million by 2059, marking a 16%–89% increase with the 2011 population. The Bureau also forecasts that the ultra-Orthodox population will number 1.1 million people by 2019, compared with 750,000 in 2009. By 2059, the projected Haredi Jewish population is estimated to between 2.73 million and 5.84 million, marking a 264%–686% increase. Thus the total projected Israeli Jewish population by 2059 is estimated to between 8.82 million and 15.790 million.WEB,weblink CBS predicts Arab-haredi majority in 2059 Haredim, Arabs will outnumber Jewish secular population in 47 years, Ynet, 28 March 2012, 9 April 2013, In January 2014, it was reported by demographer Joseph Chamie that the projected population of Israeli Jews is expected to reach between 9.84 million by the year 2025 and 11.40 million by 2035.WEB,weblink Israeli-Palestinian Population Growth and Its Impact on Peace, PassBlue, 2 February 2014, 13 July 2015, {| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align: right" 1st century estimate 2,500,00weblink p:5 7th century estimate 300,000–400,000Israel Cohen (1950). Contemporary Jewry: A Survey of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political Conditions. Methuen p. 310 1800 estimate 6,700"Arab–Israel Conflict." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002. pp. 58–121.Y. Gorny, 1987, 'Zionism and the Arabs, 1882–1948', p. 5 (italics from original) 1880 estimate 24,000 1915 estimate 87,500 1931 estimate 174,000 1936 estimate > 400,000 1947 estimate 630,000 1949 census 1,013,900Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics "Statistical Abstract of Israel, No. 55, 2004 {{webarchiveweblink >date=28 September 2011}}", and "Statistical Abstract of Israel 2007: Population by district, sub-district and religion {{webarchiveweblink >date=28 September 2011}}" ICBS website 1953 census 1,483,600ALEXANDER BERLER>TITLE=NEW TOWNS IN ISRAELDATE=1 JANUARY 1970ISBN=978-1-4128-2969-4, 5–, 1957 census 1,762,700HTTP://WWW1.CBS.GOV.IL/PUBLICATIONS13/YARHON0913/PDF/B1.PDF>TITLE=POPULATION, BY POPULATION GROUP WORK=MONTHLY BULLETIN OF STATISTICS ACCESSDATE=15 OCTOBER 2013, 1962 census 2,068,900 1967 census 2,383,600 1973 census 2,845,000 1983 census 3,412,500 1990 census 3,946,700 1995 census 4,522,300 2000 census 4,955,400 2006 census 5,393,400 2009 census 5,665,100 2010 census 5,802,000EGLASH >FIRST=RUTH TITLE=ON EVE OF 2012, ISRAEL'S POPULATION SURP... JPOST – NATIONAL NEWS DATE=29 DECEMBER 2011, 26 May 2012, 2017 census 6,556,000HTTP://WWW.JEWISHPRESS.COM/NEWS/ISRAEL/ISRAEL-BOASTS-8-8-MILLION-ON-EVE-OF-2018-74-6-JEWISH/2017/12/31/ >TITLE=ISRAEL BOASTS 8.8 MILLION ON EVE OF 2018, 74.6% JEWISH WEBSITE=JEWISH PRESS, HTTPS://WWW.YNETNEWS.COM/ARTICLES/0,7340,L-5064330,00.HTML >TITLE=NEARING NINE MILLION: ISRAEL IN NUMBERS ON EVE OF 2018 FIRST=AMIR WEBSITE=YNET NEWS, ">

Significant Jewish population centers {|class"wikitable"|+Israeli Jews by District

!Rank!!District!!Total Jewish Population(2008)!!% Jews(2008)|1Central District (Israel)>Central District|1,592,000|92%|2|Tel Aviv District|1,210,000|99%|3Southern District (Israel)>Southern District|860,000|86%|4|Haifa District|652,000|76%|5|Jerusalem District|621,000|69%|6Northern District (Israel)>Northern District|562,000|46%|7|Judea and Samaria Area|304,569|≈15–20%File:Jerusalem Dome of the rock BW 14.JPG|thumb|JerusalemJerusalemFile:Tel Aviv la ville.JPG|thumb|Tel AvivTel AvivFile:Haifa Bay.JPG|thumb|HaifaHaifa{|class="wikitable"|+Significant population centers!Rank!!City!!Population(2009)!!% Jews(2008)!!District|1|Jerusalem|773,800|63.4%|Jerusalem District|2|Tel Aviv|393,900|91.4%|Tel Aviv District|3|Haifa|265,600|80.9%|Haifa District|4|Rishon Lezion|227,600|93.9%Central District (Israel)>Central District|5|Ashdod|211,300|91.0%Southern District (Israel)>Southern District|6|Petah Tikva|197,800|92.5%Central District (Israel)>Central District|7|Netanya|181,200|93.4%Central District (Israel)>Central District|8|Beersheba|187,900|87.9%Southern District (Israel)>Southern District|9|Holon|172,400|92.8%|Tel Aviv District|10|Bnei Brak|155,600|98.6%|Tel Aviv District|11|Ramat Gan|135,300|95.2%|Tel Aviv District|12|Bat Yam|128,900|84.9%|Tel Aviv District|13|Rehovot|109,500|94.8%Central District (Israel)>Central District|14|Ashkelon|111,700|88.4%Southern District (Israel)>Southern District|15|Herzliya|85,300|96.3%|Tel Aviv DistrictFor statistical purposes, there are three main metropolitan areas in Israel. The majority of the Jewish population in Israel is located in the central area of Israel within the Metropolitan area of Tel Aviv. The Metropolitan area of Tel Aviv is currently the largest Jewish population center in the world.{|class="wikitable"! style="background:#efefef;"|Rank! style="background:#efefef;"|Metropolitan area! style="background:#efefef;"|Total population(2009)! style="background:#efefef;"|Jewish population(2009)! style="background:#efefef;"|% Jews(2009)Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area>Metropolitan area of Tel Aviv3,206,4003,043,50094.9%Haifa metropolitan area>Metropolitan area of Haifa1,021,000 719,50070.5%Beersheba metropolitan area>Metropolitan area of Beersheba559,700356,00063.6%It has been argued that Jerusalem, Israel's proclaimed capital and largest city with a population of 732,100, and an urban area with a population of over 1,000,000 (including 280,000 Palestinian East Jerusalemites who are not Israeli citizens), with over 700,000 Israeli JewsWEB,weblink Jerusalem: From Town to Metropolis, 8 April 2008, University of Southern Maine,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080307180639weblink">weblink 7 March 2008, and Nazareth with a population of 65,500, and an urban area of nearly 200,000 people of which over 110,000 are Israeli JewsWEB,weblink Initiated Development in the Nazareth Region, 8 April 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071112165815weblink">weblink 12 November 2007, should also be classified as metropolitan areas.

Jewish communities in Israel

By the time the State of Israel was proclaimed, the majority of Jews in the state and the region were Ashkenazi. Following the declaration of the state, a flood of Jewish migrants and refugees entered Israel—both from Europe and America and also from Arab and Muslim countries. Most of the Jewish immigrants in the 1950s and 1960s were Jewish Holocaust survivors, as well as Sephardic Jews and Mizrahi Jews (mostly Moroccan Jews, Algerian Jews, Tunisian Jews, Yemenite Jews, Bukharan Jews, Iranian Jews, Iraqi Jews, Kurdish Jews, and smaller communities, principally from Lebanon, Syria, Libya, Egypt, India, Turkey and Afghanistan). In recent decades other Jewish communities have also immigrated to Israel including Ethiopian Jews, Russian Jews and Bnei Menashe.Among Israeli Jews, 75% are Sabras (Israeli-born), mostly second- or third-generation Israelis, and the rest are olim (Jewish immigrants to Israel)—19% from Europe, Americas and Oceania, and 9% from Asia and Africa, mostly the Muslim world.The Israeli government does not trace the diaspora origin of Israeli Jews.

Paternal country of diaspora origin

The CBS traces the paternal country of diaspora origin of Israeli Jews (including non–Halachically Jewish immigrants who arrived on the Law of Return) as of 2010 is as follows.WEB,weblink Jews, by Country of Origin and Age, 26 September 2011, Statistical Abstract of Israel, Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, English, Hebrew, 11 February 2012, {| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align: right"! style="text-align:center;"| Country of origin! style="text-align:center;"| Bornabroad! style="text-align:center;"| Israeliborn! style="text-align:center;"| Total! style="text-align:center;"| % Total| 1,610,900| 4,124,400| 5,753,300| 100.0% Asia| 201,000| 494,200| 695,200| 12.0% Turkey| 25,700| 52,500| 78,100| 1.4% Iraq| 62,600| 173,300| 235,800| 4.1% Yemen| 28,400| 111,100| 139,500| 2.4% Persian Jews/History of the Jews in Afghanistan>Afghanistan| 49,300| 92,300| 141,600| 2.5% History of the Jews in India/History of the Jews in Pakistan>Pakistan| 17,600| 29,000| 46,600| 0.8% Syrian Jews/History of the Jews in Lebanon>Lebanon| 10,700| 25,000| 35,700| 0.6% Other| 6,700| 11,300| 18,000| 0.3% Africa| 315,800| 572,100| 887,900| 15.4% Morocco| 153,600| 339,600| 493,200| 8.6% History of the Jews in Algeria/History of the Jews in Tunisia>Tunisia| 43,200| 91,700| 134,900| 2.3% Libya| 15,800| 53,500| 69,400| 1.2% Egypt| 18,500| 39,000| 57,500| 1.0% Ethiopia| 81,600| 38,600| 110,100| 1.9% Other| 13,100| 9,700| 22,800| 0.4% ''Jews and Judaism in Europe/Americas/History of the Jews in Oceania>Oceania| 1,094,100| 829,700| 1,923,800| 33.4%'' Soviet Union| 651,400| 241,000| 892,400| 15.5% Poland| 51,300| 151,000| 202,300| 3.5% Romania| 88,600| 125,900| 214,400| 3.7% History of the Jews in Bulgaria/History of the Jews in Greece>Greece| 16,400| 32,600| 49,000| 0.9% History of the Jews in Germany/History of the Jews in Austria>Austria| 24,500| 50,600| 75,200| 1.3% History of the Jews in the Czech Republic/History of the Jews in Slovakia>Slovakia/Hungary| 20,000| 45,000| 64,900| 1.1% France| 41,100| 26,900| 68,000| 1.2% United Kingdom| 21,000| 19,900| 40,800| 0.7% Europe, other| 27,000| 29,900| 56,900| 1.0% North America/Oceania| 90,500| 63,900| 154,400| 2.7% Argentina| 35,500| 26,100| 61,600| 1.1% Latin America, other| 26,900| 17,000| 43,900| 0.8% Israel —| 2,246,300| 2,246,300| 39.0%In Israel there are approximately 300,000 citizens with Jewish ancestry who are not Jewish according to Orthodox interpretations of Jewish law. Of this number approximately 10% are Christian and 89% are either Jewish or non-religious. The total number of conversions under the Nativ program of IDF was 640 in 2005 and 450 in 2006. From 2002 to 1 October 2007, a total of 2,213 soldiers have converted under Nativ.NEWS, Rabbis Blamed for Fewer 'IDF Converts',weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131226091828weblink">weblink 26 December 2013, 18 July 2017, In 2003, 437 Christians converted to Judaism; in 2004, 884; and in 2005, 733.NEWS, Palter, Nurit, 2006: More Jews converting to Islam,weblink 24 January 2014, Ynet, Recently several thousand conversions conducted by the Chief Rabbinate under the leadership of Rabbi Chaim Drukman have been annulled, and the official Jewish status over several thousand people who converted through the conversion court of the Chief Rabbinate since 1999 hangs in limbo as the proceedings continue regarding these individuals Jewish status. The vast majority of these individuals are former Soviet Union immigrants.NEWS, Thousands of conversions questioned,weblink 24 January 2014, Ynet, In his book from 2001 "The Invention and Decline of Israeliness: State, Culture and Military in Israel", the Israeli sociologist Baruch Kimmerling identified and divided the modern Israeli society into seven population groups (seven subcultures): The secular upper-middle class group, the national religious group, the traditionalist Mizrahim group, the Orthodox religious group, the Arab citizens of Israel, the Russian immigrants group and the Ethiopian immigrants group. According to Kimmerling, each of these population groups have distinctive characteristics, such as place of resident, consumption patterns, education systems, communications media and more.BOOK, The Invention and Decline of Isræliness: State, Society, and the Military, University of California Press, Baruch Kimmerling, 13 December 2005, 978-0-520-24672-0,

Israeli Jews who immigrated from European and American countries

Today, Jews whose family immigrated from European countries and the Americas, on their paternal line, constitute the largest single group among Israeli Jews and consist of about 3,000,000WEB, Skip Navigation Links Home What is HUGR HUGR's Diseases Scientific Publications Pricing & Ordering Contact Us Ashkenazi Jews,weblink The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 24 January 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131020004618weblink">weblink 20 October 2013, people living in Israel. About 1,200,000 of them are descended from or are immigrants from the former Soviet Union who returned from the diaspora after the fall of the Former Soviet Union 1991 (about 300,000 of them are not considered to be Jewish under halakha). Most of the other 1,800,000 are descended from the first Zionist settlers in the Land of Israel, as well as Holocaust survivors and their descendants, with an additional 200,000 having immigrated or descended from immigrants from English-speaking countries and South America. They have played a prominent role in various fields including the arts, entertainment, literature, sports, science and technology, business and economy, media, and politics of Israel since its founding, and tend to be the most affluent of Israeli Jews.Not all Jews immigrating to Israel from European countries are of Ashkenazi origin (the majority of French Jews are of Sephardic, and some Jews from the Asian Republics of the USSR are Mizrahi), and the Israeli government does not distinguish between Jewish communities in its census.During the first decades of Israel as a state, strong cultural conflict was going on between Mizrahi, Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews (mainly east European Ashkenazim). The roots of this conflict, which still exists to a much smaller extent in present-day Israeli society, stems from the many cultural differences between the various Jewish communities; this happened despite of the government's encouragement of the "melting pot". That is to say, all Jewish immigrants in Israel were strongly encouraged to "melt down" their own particular exile identities within the general social "pot" in order to become Israeli.The current most prominent European countries of origin of the Israeli Jews are as follows:{{Citation needed|date=February 2010}}{|

Israeli Jews who immigrated from North African and Asian countries

The majority of Israeli Jews are Mizrahi.My Promised Land, by Ari Shavit, (London 2014), page 288 The exact proportion of Mizrahi and Sephardic Jewish populations in Israel is unknown (since it is not included in the census); some estimates place Jews of Mizrahi origin at up to 61% of the Israeli Jewish population,Ducker, Clare Louise, 2006. Jews, Arabs, and Arab Jews: The Politics of Identity and Reproduction in Israel, Institute of Social Studies, The Hague, Netherlands with hundreds of thousands more having mixed Ashkenazi heritage due to cross-cultural intermarriage.Jews from North Africa and Asia have come to be called "Mizrahi Jews".Most African and Asian Jewish communities use the Sephardic prayer ritual and abide by the rulings of Sephardic rabbinic authorities, and therefore consider themselves to be "Sephardim" in the broader sense of "Jews of the Spanish rite", though not in the narrower sense of "Spanish Jews". Of late, the term Mizrahi has come to be associated with all Jews in Israel with backgrounds in Islamic lands.Cultural and/or "racial" biases against the newcomers were compounded by the fledgling state's lack of financial resources and inadequate housing to handle the massive population influx. Thus, hundreds of thousands of new Sephardic immigrants were sent to live in tent cities in outlying areas. Sephardim (in its wider meaning) were often victims of discrimination, and were sometimes called schwartze (meaning "black" in Yiddish).Some believe that even worse than the housing discrimination was the differential treatment accorded the children of these immigrants, many of whom were tracked by the largely European education establishment into dead-end "vocational" high schools, without any real assessment of their intellectual capacities. Mizrahi Jews protested their unfair treatment, and even established the Israeli Black Panthers movement with the mission of working for social justice.The effects of this early discrimination still linger a half-century later, as documented by the studies of the Adva Center, a think tank on social equality, and by other Israeli academic research (cf., for example, Tel Aviv University Professor Yehuda Shenhav's article in Hebrew documenting the gross under-representation of Sephardic Jewry in Israeli high school history textbooks.) All Israeli Prime Ministers have been Ashkenazi, although Sephardim and Mizrahim have attained high positions including ministerial positions, chief of staffs and presidency. The student bodies of Israel's universities remain overwhelmingly Ashkenazi in origin, despite the fact that roughly half the country's population is non-Ashkenazi. And the tent cities of the 1950s morphed into so-called "development towns". Scattered over border areas of the Negev Desert and the Galilee, far from the bright lights of Israel's major cities, most of these towns never had the critical mass or ingredients to succeed as places to live, and they continue to suffer from high unemployment, inferior schools, and chronic brain drain.While the Israeli Black Panthers no longer exist, the Mizrahi Democratic Rainbow Coalition and many other NGOs carry on the struggle for equal access and opportunity in housing, education, and employment for the country's underprivileged populace—still largely composed of Sephardim and Mizrahim, joined now by newer immigrants from Ethiopia and the Caucasus Mountains.Today over 2,500,000 Mizrahi Jews,NEWS,weblink Israel Studies, Mizrahi and Russian challenges to Israel's dominant culture: divergences and convergences, 22 September 2007, and Sephardic Jews live in Israel with the majority of them being descendants of the 680,000 Jews who fled Arab countries (

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