Ismat Chughtai

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Ismat Chughtai
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| image = IsmatChughtaiPic.jpg| image_size = 200px| alt = | caption = | pseudonym = df=yes08|21}}| birth_place = Badayun, United Province, British Indiadf=yes10191515}}| death_place = Mumbai, India| resting_place = Writeressayist}}| language = Urdu| nationality = Indian| education = | alma_mater = Aligarh Muslim University| period = Short storiesplays}}| subject = | children = Seema Sawhny Sabrina Lateef| signature = | signature_alt = | website = | portaldisp = | imagesize = | spouse = Shaheed Latif (1942–1967)List of works by Ismat Chughtai>Works of Ismat Chughtai| relative(s) = | influenced = }}Ismat Chughtai (21 August 1915 – 24 October 1991) was an Indian Urdu language novelist, short story writer, and filmmaker. Beginning in the 1930s, she wrote extensively on themes including female sexuality and femininity, middle-class gentility, and class conflict, often from a Marxist perspective. With a style characterised by literary realism, Chughtai established herself as a significant voice in the Urdu literature of the twentieth century, and in 1976 was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India.


Early life and career beginnings (1915–41)

Ismat Chughtai was born on 21 August 1915 in Badayun, Uttar Pradesh to Nusrat Khanam and Mirza Qaseem Baig Chughtai; she was ninth of ten childrensix brothers, four sisters. The family shifted homes frequently as Chughtai's father was a civil servant; she spent her childhood in cities including Jodhpur, Agra, and Aligarh, mostly in the company of her brothers as her sisters had all got married while she was still very young. Chughtai described the influence of her brothers as an important factor which influenced her personality in her formative years. She thought of her second-eldest brother, Mirza Azim Beg Chughtai, a novelist, as a mentor. The family eventually settled in Agra, after Chughtai's father retired from the Indian Civil Services.WEB,weblink Essay: Ismat Chughtai: her life, thought and art, Parekh, Rauf, Dawn (newspaper), Dawn, 24 April 2018, 30 August 2015, live,weblink 6 December 2017, dmy-all, Chughtai received her primary education at the Women's College at the Aligarh Muslim University and graduated from Isabella Thoburn College with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1940.WEB,weblink The fine print of the AMU Library row, Bhandare, Namita, Mint (newspaper), Mint, 24 April 2018, 11 November 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink 12 October 2017, dmy-all, Despite strong resistance from her family, she completed her Bachelor of Education degree from the Aligarh Muslim University the following year. It was during this period that Chughtai became associated with the Progressive Writers' Association, having attended her first meeting in 1936 where she met Rashid Jahan, one of the leading female writers involved with the movement, who was later credited for inspiring Chughtai to write "realistic, challenging female characters".WEB,weblink Born on India’s future Independence Day, Ismat Chughtai wrote of the world she saw, not aspired to, Bahuguna, Urvashi,, 25 April 2017, 15 August 2017, live,weblink 16 October 2017, dmy-all, WEB, The Fantastic as Frontier: Realism, the Fantastic and Transgression in Mid-Twentiet century Urdu fiction,weblink McLain, Karline, University of Texas, Austin, 11 January 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 4 December 2013, dmy-all, Chughtai began writing in private around the same time, but did not seek publication for her work until much later.Chughtai wrote a drama entitled Fasādī (The Troublemaker) for the Urdu magazine Saqi in 1939, which was her first published work. Upon publication, readers mistook it as a play by Chughtai's brother Azeem Beg, written using a pseudonym.JOURNAL, Naqvi, Tahira, Ismat Chughtai–A Tribute, Annual of Urdu Studies Vol. 8, 1993,weblink 25 April 2018, University of Wisconsin, live,weblink 26 April 2018, dmy-all, Following that, she started writing for other publications and newspapers. Some of her early works included Bachpan (Childhood), an autobiographical piece, Kafir (Infidel), her first short-story, and Dheet (Stubborn), her only soliloquy, among others. In response to a story that she wrote for a magazine, Chughtai was told that her work was blasphemous and insulted the Quran.WEB,weblink Ismat Chughtai’s fearless pen, Patel, Aakar, Mint (newspaper), Livemint, 25 April 2018, 14 August 2015, live,weblink 26 April 2018, dmy-all, She, nonetheless, continued writing about "things she would hear of". Chughtai's continued association with the Progressive Writers' Movement had significant bearings on her writing style; she was particularly intrigued by Angaray, a compilation of short-stories written in Urdu by members of the group including Jahan, Sajjad Zaheer, Sahibzada Mahmuduzaffar and Ahmed Ali. Other early influences included such writers as William Sydney Porter, George Bernard Shaw, and Anton Chekhov. Kalyān (Buds) and Cōtēn (Wounds), two of Chughtai's earliest collections of short stories, were published in 1941 and 1942 respectively.WEB,weblink The emergence of feminist consciousness among Muslim women the case of Aligarh, Bano, Farhat, University of Calcutta, Shodhganga, 13 May 2018, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2018, dead, Chughtai's first novella Ziddi, which she had written on her early twenties was first published in 1941. The book chronicles the love affair between a woman, who works as domestic help in an affluent household and her employer's son. Chughtai later discussed the similarity in themes and style of the novel with the works of the romantic novelist Hijab Imtiaz Ali, citing her as another early influence. Commentators have praised the novella, both for its "compelling prose" and for providing "[glimpses] into a world where women try to break out of the shackles created by other women, rather than men"WEB,weblink The realm of the heart, Afif Siddiqi, Shams, The Telegraph (Calcutta), The Telegraph, 19 September 2019, 5 September 2014, . Critic and short story writer Aamer Hussein, in a 2015 retrospective review, likened Chughtai's "oracular voice, which didn’t comment or explain, but studded the narrative with poetic observations" to that of American author Toni Morrison. Ziddi was later translated into English as Wild at Heart and adapted into a 1948 feature film of the same name.

Niche appreciation and transition to film (1942–60)

After completing her Bachelor's of Education degree, Chughtai successfully applied for the post of headmistress of an Aligarh-based Girls school. There, she met and developed a close friendship with Shaheed Latif, who was pursuing a master's degree at the Aligarh Muslim University at the time. Chughtai continued to write for various publications during her stay at Aligarh. She found success with such short-stories as Gainda and Khidmatgaar and the play Intikhab, all of which were published during the period. WEB,weblink The Short Stories, Gupta, Neeta, School of Open Learning, 27 April 2018, live,weblink 6 May 2018, dmy-all, She then moved to Bombay in 1942 and began working as an Inspectress of schools. Later that year, she married Latif, who was now working as a dialogue writer in Bollywood, in a private ceremony. Khwaja Ahmad Abbas was the legal witness to the ceremony.WEB,weblink Remembering a trailblazer, Kumar, Kuldeep, The Hindu, 8 May 2018, 20 January 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2018, dmy-all, Chughtai garnered widespread attention for her short-story Lihaaf (The Quilt), which appeared in a 1942 issue of Adab-i-Latif, a Lahore-based literary journal. Inspired by the rumoured affair of a begum and her masseuse in Aligarh, the story chronicles the sexual awakening of Begum Jan following her unhappy marriage with a nawab. Upon release, Lihaaf attracted criticism for its suggestion of female homosexuality and a subsequent trial, with Chughtai being summoned by the Lahore High Court to defend herself against the charges of "obscenity".WEB,weblink The same-sex appeal in literature, Mitra, Ipshita, The Times of India, 7 May 2018, 28 September 2012, Fellow writer and member of the Progressive Writers' Movement Sadat Hassan Manto was also charged with similar allegations for his short-story Bu (Odour) and accompanied Chughtai to Lahore.WEB,weblink Dude, it’s not lewd, Asaduddin, M, The Telegraph (Calcutta), The Telegraph, 7 May 2018, 1 April 2012, live,weblink 7 May 2018, dmy-all, The charges notwithstanding, both Chughtai and Manto were exonerated.WEB,weblink The feminist voice of Ismat Chughtai, Shamsie, Muneeza, Dawn (newspaper), Dawn, 7 May 2018, 27 November 2016, live,weblink 7 May 2018, dmy-all, The trial, which took place in 1945, itself drew much media and public attention and brought notoriety to the duo. Chughtai fared better in the public eye, having garnered support from such fellow members of the Progressive Writers' Movement as Majnun Gorakhpuri and Krishan Chander. Regardless, she detested the media coverage of the whole incident, which in her view weighted heavily upon her subsequent work; "[Lihaaf] brought me so much notoriety that I got sick of life. It became the proverbial stick to beat me with and whatever I wrote afterwards got crushed under its weight." Chughtai, however, is known to have made her peace with the whole fiasco, having met the woman who had inspired Begum Jan a few years after the publication of Lihaaf. The woman told Chughtai that she had since divorced her husband, remarried and was raising a child with her second husband. Chughtai's biographers recall the meeting between the two women in Ismat: Her life, Her times: "[Chughtai] felt greatly rewarded when the begum told [her that Lihaaf] had changed her life and it is because of her story now she was blessed with a child".BOOK, Paul Kumar, Sukrita, Sadique, Sadique, Ismat: Her Life, Her Times, 2000, Katha Books, 9788185586977, 65,weblink 18 September 2019, en, Chughtai, who had been apprehensive about the meeting at first, later expressed her delight in a memoir, writing, "flowers can be made to bloom among rocks. The only condition is that one has to water the plant with one’s heart’s blood".Chughtai's quasi-autobiographical novel Tedhi Lakeer (The Crooked Line) was released in 1943. She was pregnant with her daughter during the time. She recalled the difficult circumstances facing her during her work on the novel, in a 1972 interview with Mahfil: Journal of South Asian Literature: "[It was] during the war that I wrote my novel Terhi Lakeer, a big, thick novel. I was sick then, pregnant with my daughter. But I was always writing that novel".JOURNAL, Coppola, Carlo, Interview with Ismat Chughtai, Mahfil, 1972, Vol. 8 no. 2-3, 169,weblink 16 September 2019,weblink 1 August 2019, live, The book chronicles the lives of the Muslim community, women in particular, in the backdrop of the waning British Raj.WEB,weblink Ismat Chughtai birth anniversary: A look at her memorable work, The Indian Express, 17 September 2019, 21 August 2018,weblink 23 September 2018, live, Chughtai's exploration of the "inner realms of women’s lives" was well received by critics who variously described her work in Tedhi Lakeer as "probing and pertinent"WEB,weblink Ismat Chughtai: The inner worlds of educated women, Zakaria, Rafia, Dawn (newspaper), Dawn, 5 May 2018, 26 October 2013, live,weblink 20 April 2018, dmy-all, and "empowering".WEB,weblink Ismat Chughtai, thank you for being our Tedhi Lakeer, Gautam, Nishtha, DailyO, 5 May 2018, 22 August 2015, live,weblink 6 May 2018, dmy-all, She herself recalled her creative process in the 1972 interview, saying she found inspiration from the small incidents that she would witness around her and even the personal conversations that took place amongst the women in her family, "I write about people I know or have known. What should a writer write about anyway"? In the years following their marriage, Latif also introduced Chughtai to the Hindi film industry. She began writing scripts in the late 1940s and made her debut as a screenwriter for Latif's drama film Ziddi. Starring Kamini Kaushal, Pran, and Dev Anand in his first major film role, Ziddi became one of the biggest commercial successes of 1948. It was based on the 1941 eponymous short story; Chughtai had rewritten the narrative in form of a screenplay for the production.BOOK, Rajadhyaksha, Ashish, Willemen, Paul, Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema, 2014, Routledge, 9781135943189,weblink en, 80, live,weblink 7 May 2018, dmy-all, She then wrote the dialogue and screenplay for the 1950 romance drama film Arzoo, starring Kaushal and Dilip Kumar. Chughtai expanded her career into directing with the 1953 film Fareb, which featured an ensemble cast of Amar, Maya Daas, Kishore Kumar, Lalita Pawar, and Zohra Sehgal. Having again written the screenplay based on one of her short stories, Chughtai co-directed the film with Latif. Upon release, both Arzoo and Fareb garnered positive response from the audience and performed well at the box-office.WEB,weblink Ismat Chughtai dared to raise the veil of hypocrisies in Indian society, Hyder, Qurratulain, DailyO, 11 May 2018, 25 August 2017, live,weblink 12 May 2018, dmy-all, Chughtai's association with film solidified when she and Latif co-founded the production company Filmina. Her first project as a filmmaker was the 1958 drama film Sone Ki Chidiya, which she wrote and co-produced. Starring Nutan and Talat Mahmood in lead roles, it told the story of a child actor, who was abused and exploited over the course of her career. The film was well received by audiences and the success translated directly into a rise in Chughtai's popularity, as noted by writer and critic Shams Kanwal.BOOK, Sadique, Daktar, Paul Kumar, Sukrita, Ismat: Her Life, Her Times, 2000, Katha Books, 9788185586977,weblink 11 May 2018, 92, en, live,weblink 12 May 2018, dmy-all, Sone Ki Chidiya has been described as a significant production for "[chronicling] a heady time in Indian cinema" and showcasing the "grime behind the glamour" of the film industry.BOOK, Gahlot, Deepa, Take-2: 50 Films That Deserve a New Audience, 2015, Hay House, Inc, 9789384544850,weblink 11 May 2018, en, live,weblink 12 May 2018, dmy-all, Nutan, who garnered a good response for her performance in the film, herself described it as one of her favorite projects.WEB,weblink Forever Nutan,, 11 May 2018, live,weblink 12 May 2018, dmy-all, Also in 1958, Chughtai produced the Mahmood-Shyama starrer romance drama Lala Rukh.BOOK, Somaaya, Bhawana, Once Upon a Time in India: A Century of Indian Cinema, 2016, Random House India, 9789385990403,weblink en, live,weblink 12 May 2018, dmy-all, Chughtai continued writing short-stories during the time despite her commitment to film projects. Her fourth collection of short-stories Chui Mui (Touch-me-not) was released in 1952 to an enthusiastic response.BOOK, Tharu, Susie J., Lalita, Ke, Women Writing in India: The twentieth centvcbvcbvury, 1991, The Feminist Press, 128, 9781558610293,weblink en, The eponymous short-story has been noted for its "pertinent dissection of our society"WEB,weblink Ismat Apa Kay Naam: The Shahs take the stage, Mahmood, Rafay, The Express Tribune, 14 May 2018, 6 March 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 September 2015, dmy-all, and contesting the venerated tradition of motherhood, especially itsequation of womanhood. Rafay Mahmood highlighted, in a 2014 editorial, the relevance of the story in the twenty-first century. Chui Mui was adapted for stage by Naseeruddin Shah as a part of a commemorative series Ismat Apa Kay Naam, with his daughter Heeba Shah playing the central character in the production.

Success with writing novels (1961–90)

Beginning in the 1960s, Chughtai wrote a total of eight novels, the first of which was Masooma (The Innocent Girl), published in 1962. The film follows the life of a young actress, Nilofar, who is forced to work as call girl to sustain her family once her father abandons them. Set in the Bombay of 1950s, the novel delves into the themes of sexual exploitation and social and economic injustice.WEB,weblink Sexploitation, cops and verse, Wadehra, Randeep, The Tribune, 7 August 2011, 16 September 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 13 February 2016, live, WEB,weblink Masooma by Ismat Chughtai - A review, Jalil, Rakhshanda, The Biblio, 12 June 2012, 16 September 2019, WEB,weblink Aamer Hussein reviews Ismat Chughtai's Short Stories, Hussein, Aamer, Asymptote (journal), Asymptote, 16 September 2019,weblink 24 June 2019, live, Her next work, the 1966 novella Saudai (Obsession) was based on the screenplay of 1951 film Buzdil, which she co-wrote with Latif.BOOK, Chughtai, Ismat, A Chughtai Quartet: Obsession, The Wild One, Wild Pigeons, The Heart Breaks Free, 2015, Women Unlimited, 9789385606045, 3,weblink en, Commentators have noted that Saudai could never shed its structure and still read like a screenplay despite Chughtai's efforts.WEB,weblink Four Novellas By Ismat Chughtai Now Available in Collection, 27 June 2014, Outlook (Indian magazine), Outlook, 17 September 2019, Following a lukewarm reception for both Masooma and Saudai, Chughtai received significant praise for her fifth novel Dil ki Duniya (The Heart Breaks Free). Reviewing the novel, observers have placed it second only to Tedhi Lakeer in the canon of her work.WEB, Four Novellas By Ismat Chughtai Now Available in Collection,weblink Outlook (Indian magazine), Outlook, 6 October 2019, 27 June 2014, Comparing the two, Hussein says, "if Tedhi Lakeer impressed me with its boldness, range and its credentials as a major novel, Dil ki Duniya{{’}}s influence would linger with me forever, and I’d find its thematic and stylistic echoes in my own stories".

Later years, critical reappraisals and subsequent acclaim (1990s and beyond)

Chughtai was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in the late 1980s, which limited her work thereafter.WEB,weblink Remembering Midnight's Magnificent Daughter Ismat Chughtai on Her Birth Anniversary, The Wire (India), The Wire, 19 September 2019, 15 August 2017, She died at her house in Mumbai on 24 October 1991, following the prolonged illness.WEB,weblink Ismat Chughtai — her life and ideals, Shah, Noor, The Milli Gazette, 19 September 2019, 15 February 2005, Chughtai was known to have been averse of getting a burial, the common funeral practice in Islam. Rakhshanda Jalil quotes one of Chughtai's conversations with Qurratulain Hyder, a friend and contemporary writer in An Uncivil Woman: Writings on Ismat Chughtai, "I am very scared of the grave. They bury you beneath a pile of mud. One would suffocate [...] I’d rather be cremated."WEB,weblink Ismat Chughtai dared to raise the veil of hypocrisies in Indian society, Hyder, Qurratulain, DailyO, 19 September 2019, As per most accounts, Chughtai was cremated at the Chandanwadi crematorium, in accordance with her last wishes.WEB,weblink The Beguiling Ismat Chugtai, Through Her Own Words, Naqvi, Tahira, The Wire (India), The Wire, 19 September 2019, 14 August 2015, Following the translation of numerous of her works into English, a renewed interest in the Urdu literature of the twentieth century, and subsequent critical reappraisals, Chughtai's status as a writer rose.{{efn|Sources.WEB,weblink The Crooked Line, Jalil, Rakhshanda, Kindle Magazine , 8 May 2018, 4 August 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 May 2018, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The powerful isms of Ismat, Bhagat, Rasheeda, Hindu Business Line, 15 September 2019, 29 March 2012, WEB,weblink Rediscovering the rebel, Nair, Malini, The Times of India, 17 September 2019, 15 March 2015,weblink 25 December 2017, live, }} Critical reappraisals for her works began with rereadings of Lihaaf, which in the intervening years has attached a greater significance; it was noted for its portrayal of the insulated life of a neglected wife in the feudal society and became a landmark for its early depiction of sex, still a taboo in modern Indian literature.BOOK, Sisir, Kumar Das, History of Indian Literature: 1911-1956, struggle for freedom : triumph and tragedy,weblink 1 January 1995, Sahitya Akademi, 978-81-7201-798-9, 348, Lihaaf has since been widely anthologised, and following the critical reappraisals, has become one of Chughtai's most appreciated works.BOOK, Priyamvada, Gopal, Literary Radicalism in India: Gender, Nation and the Transition to Independence,weblink 2012, Routledge Press, 978-1-134-33253-3, 83–84, 26 April 2018,weblink 23 October 2018, live, With more of her work being made available for reading to a wider audience over the years, criticism centered around the limited scope of Chughtai's writing has also subsided. In a 1993 retrospective piece, Naqvi also countered the perceived scope of Chughtai's writings, saying that her work was "neither confined to nor exhausted" by the themes central to Lihaaf: "she had much, much more to offer".Tedhi Lakeer, which has come to be regarded as Chughtai's magnum opus is now considered to be one of the most significant works of Urdu literature by commentators and various media outlets.WEB,weblink Who was Ismat Chughtai, The Indian Express, 21 August 2018, 17 September 2019,weblink 15 April 2019, live, Critic and dramatist Shamim Hanfi gives it highest praise, saying that the novel, its first half in particular, matches up to the highest standards of world literature.WEB,weblink Shamim Hanfi on Chughtai, Sahapedia, 11 February 2016, 17 September 2019, YouTube, Hussein comparably calls it one of the best novels of Urdu language and notes that Chughtai combines all her literary influences and her own lived experiences to create a radical text. He likened the novel's framework to that of a bildungsroman and praised its examination of the nationalist and feminist issues of the period.WEB,weblink How long can a river be held back by a dam?, Hussein, Aamer, Kindle Magazine, 4 August 2015, 17 September 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 4 September 2018, live, Commentators have also compared Chughtai's writing style in the novel to that of French writer and intellectual Simone de Beauvoir, based on the duo's existentialist and humanist affiliations.

Influences and writing style

Chughtai was a liberal Muslim whose daughter, nephew & niece were married to Hindus. In her own words, Chughtai came from a family of "Hindus, Muslims and Christians who all live peacefully".WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2007-09-27, live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 January 2008, dmy-all, She said she read not only the Qur’an, but also the Gita and the Bible with openness.Chughtai's short stories reflected the cultural legacy of the region in which she lived. This was well demonstrated in her story "Sacred Duty", where she dealt with social pressures in India, alluding to specific national, religious and cultural traditions.WEB,weblink Ismat Chughtai, Goodreads, 24 March 2018, live,weblink 25 April 2018, dmy-all, WEB,weblink How Ismat Chughtai Stood Up for Freedom of Speech, The Wire, 24 April 2018, live,weblink 25 April 2018, dmy-all, In Chughtai's formative years, Nazar Sajjad Hyder had established herself an independent feminist voice, and the short stories of two very different women, Hijab Imtiaz Ali and Rashid Jehan, were also a significant early influence.WEB, Ismat Chughtai,weblink, 11 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 7 January 2012, dmy-all, Many of her writings, including Angarey and Lihaaf, were banned in South Asia because their reformist and feminist content offended conservatives (for example, her view that the Niqab, the veil worn by women in Muslim societies, should be discouraged for Muslim women because it is oppressive and feudalWEB,weblink Archived copy, 2017-09-09, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 August 2014, dmy-all, ). Many of her books have been banned at various times.{{citation needed|date=January 2018}}

In popular culture

Publications on Ismat Chughtai

  • Ismat: Her Life, Her Times. Sukrita Paul Kumar, Katha, New Delhi,2000. {{ISBN|81-85586-97-7}}.
  • Ismat Chughtai, A Fearless Voice. Manjulaa Negi, Rupa and Co, 2003.81-29101-53-X.
  • "Torchbearer of a literary revolution". The Hindu, Sunday, 21 May 2000.weblink
  • Kashmir Uzma Urdu weekly, Srinagar, 27 December 2004, 2 January 2005.weblink
  • "Ismat Chughtai – Pakistan-India (1915–1991)", World People, 5 May 2006.weblink" title="https:/-/">weblink
  • weblink" title="">Eyad N. Al-Samman, "Ismat Chughtai: An Iconoclast Muslim Dame of Urdu Fiction", Yemem Times, 13 April 2009


Filmography{| class"wikitable sortable plainrowheaders"|+Film

style="background:#ccc; text-align:center;"!scope="col"| Year!scope="col"| Title!scope="col"| Role!scope="col" class="unsortable" | Notes|1948!scope="row"| Shikayat|Dialogue writer| 1948!scope="row"|Ziddi||1950!scope="row"|Arzoo ||1951!scope="row"|Buzdil||1952!scope="row"|Sheesha||1953!scope="row"|Fareb|Also co-director|1954!scope="row"|Darwaza||1955!scope="row"|Society||1958!scope="row"| Sone Ki Chidiya|Also producer|1958!scope="row"|Lala Rukh|Also co-director and producer|1966!scope="row"|Baharen Phir Bhi Ayengi||1973!scope="row"|Garam Hawa|Filmfare Best Story Award (shared with Kaifi Azmi)|1978!scope="row"|Junoon|Miriam Labadoor|Cameo appearance">

Awards and honours{| class"wikitable sortable plainrowheaders"

!scope="col"| Year!scope="col"| Work!scope="col"| Award!scope="col"| Category!scope="col"| Result!scope="col" class="unsortable"| {{Abbr|Ref.|Reference}}1974| Terhi Lakeer| Ghalib Award| Best Urdu Drama| {{won}}HTTP://WWW.GHALIBINSTITUTE.COM/AWARDS.HTM >TITLE= LIST OF WINNERS OF GHALIB AWARD IN URDU, 1976 ONWARDS ARCHIVE-DATE= 20 OCTOBER 2013 ACCESSDATE= 15 MAY 2018, 1974/75Garam Hawa21st National Film Awards>National Film AwardsNational Film Award for Best Story>Best Story| {{won}}||Filmfare AwardFilmfare Best Story Award>Best Story|{{won}}|Government of India State Award|{{won}}1976Indian honours system#civilian award>Indian civilian awards|Padma Shri |{{won}}HTTP://WWW.DASHBOARD-PADMAAWARDS.GOV.IN/?YEAR=1976-1976&AWARD=PADMA%20SHRI&FIELD=LITERATURE%20AND%20EDUCATION>TITLE=PREVIOUS AWARDEESPADMA AWARDS>ACCESSDATE=23 APRIL 2018ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180423232512/HTTP://WWW.DASHBOARD-PADMAAWARDS.GOV.IN/?YEAR=1976-1976&AWARD=PADMA%20SHRI&FIELD=LITERATURE%20AND%20EDUCATIONDF=DMY-ALL, |1979| Andhra Pradesh Urdu Akademi Award|Makhdoom Literary Award|{{won}}|1982|Soviet Land Nehru Award|{{won}}KHAN, HAFIZA NILOFAR>YEAR=2008SERIES=(THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI, PHD DISSERTATION)11>OCLC=420600128, |1990 |Rajasthan Urdu Akademi|Iqbal Samman|{{won}}






External links

{{National Film Award Best Story}}{{FilmfareAwardBestStory}}{{Authority control}}

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