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Isfahan
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{{about|the city of Isfahan||Isfahan (disambiguation)}}{{redirect|Espahan|the village in Razavi Khorasan Province|Espahan, Razavi Khorasan}}{{more citations needed|date=March 2017}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2014}}







factoids
Fathollah Moein| area_urban_km2 = 551date=January 2018 fix-attempted=yes }}| population_as_of = 2016 censusTITLE=تعداد جمعیت و خانوار به تفکیک تقسیمات کشوری براساس سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن سال ۱۳۹۵, | population_urban = 2,101,220| population_metro = 3,989,070| population_est =| population_est_as_of =| population_blank1_title = Population Rank in IranList of Iran cities by population>3rdpersian Language>PersianIran Standard Time>IRST| utc_offset = +3:30Iran Standard Time>IRDT 21 March – 20 September| utc_offset_DST = +4:3032N39region:IR|display=inline,title}}| elevation_m = 1574| elevation_ft = 5217Köppen climate classification>ClimateDesert climate#Cold desert climates>BWk| website = www.isfahan.ir| area_code = 031| area_source =| footnotes =}}Isfahan ( {{IPA-fa|esfæˈhɒːn||Esfahan.ogg}}), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located {{convert|406|km|0|abbr=off}} south of Tehran.The Greater Isfahan Region had a population of 2,101,220 in the 2016 Census, the third most populous metropolitan area in Iran after Tehran and Mashhad. Borkhar County, Najafabad County, Khomeyni Shahr County, Shahin Shahr and Meymeh County, Mobarakeh County, Falavarjan County, Tiran and Karvan County, Lenjan County and Isfahan CountyWEB,weblink Maziar Dehghan, all constitute the metropolitan city of Isfahan.Isfahan is located on the main north–south and east–west routes crossing Iran, and was once one of the largest cities in the world. It flourished from 1050 to 1722, particularly in the 16th and 17th centuries under the Safavid dynasty, when it became the capital of Persia for the second time in its history. Even today, the city retains much of its past glory. It is famous for its Persian–Islamic architecture, with many beautiful boulevards, covered bridges, palaces, mosques, and minarets. This led to the Persian proverb "Esfahān nesf-e- jahān ast" (Isfahan is half of the world)."Isfahan Is Half The World", Saudi Aramco World, Volume 13, Nr. 1, January 1962The Naghsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan is one of the largest city squares in the world. It has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The city also has a wide variety of historic monuments and is known for the paintings, history and architecture.

History

{{see also|Timeline of Isfahan}}

Etymology

See also: {{illm|Names of Isfahan|fa|پیشینه نام اصفهان}}
The name of the region derives from Middle Persian Spahān. Spahān is attested in various Middle Persian seals and inscriptions, including that of Zoroastrian Magi Kartir,WEB,weblink Isfahan, Pre-Islamic-Period, 15 December 2006, Encyclopædia Iranica, 31 December 2015, and is also the Armenian name of the city (Սպահան). The present-day name is the Arabicized form of Ispahan (unlike Middle Persian, and similar to Spanish, New Persian does not allow initial consonant clusters such as spStrazny, P. (2005). Encyclopedia of linguistics (p. 325). New York: Fitzroy Dearborn.). The region appears with the abbreviation GD (Southern Media) on Sasanian numismatics. In Ptolemy's Geographia it appears as Aspadana, translating to "place of gathering for the army". It is believed that Spahān derives from spādānām 'the armies', Old Persian plural of spāda (from which derives spāh 'army' and spahi (soldier – lit. of the army) in Middle Persian).

Prehistory

Human habitation of the Isfahan region can be traced back to the Palaeolithic period. In recent discoveries, archaeologists have found artifacts dating back to the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze and Iron ages.

Zoroastrian era

(File:Esfahan scheme middle ages fr.png|thumbnail|Isfahan at the end of 6th century (top), consisting of two separate areas of Sassanid Jay and Jewish Yahudia. At 11th century (bottom), these two areas are completely merged.)What was to become the city of Isfahan in later historical periods probably emerged as a locality and settlement that gradually developed over the course of the Elamite civilization (2700–1600 BCE).
Under Median rule, this commercial entrepôt began to show signs of a more sedentary urbanism, steadily growing into a noteworthy regional centre that benefited from the exceptionally fertile soil on the banks of the Zayandehrud River in a region called Aspandana or Ispandana.Once Cyrus the Great (reg. 559–529 BCE) unified Persian and Median lands into the Achaemenid Empire (648–330 BCE), the religiously and ethnically diverse city of Isfahan became an early example of the king's fabled religious tolerance. It is said that after Cyrus the Great freed the Jews from the Babylonian captivity, some Jews returned to Jerusalem whereas some others decided to live in Persia and settle in what is now known as Isfahan. Actually this happened later in the Sassanid period, when a Jewish colony was made in the vicinity.Historical Geography, Isfahan,weblink{{better source|date=March 2017}}The 10th-century Persian historian Ibn al-Faqih wrote:{{blockquote|"When the Jews emigrated from Jerusalem, fleeing from Nebuchadnezzar, they carried with them a sample of the water and soil of Jerusalem. They did not settle down anywhere or in any city without examining the water and the soil of each place. They did all along until they reached the city of Isfahan. There they rested, examined the water and soil and found that both resembled Jerusalem. Thereupon they settled there, cultivated the soil, raised children and grandchildren, and today the name of this settlement is Yahudia."Sacred Precincts: The Religious Architecture of Non-Muslim Communities Across the Islamic World, Gharipour Mohammad, BRILL, Nov 14, 2014 page 179.}}The Parthians (250 BCE – 226 CE) continued the tradition of tolerance after the fall of the Achaemenids, fostering the Hellenistic dimension within Iranian culture and political organization introduced by Alexander the Great's invading armies. Under the Parthians, Arsacid governors administered a large province from Isfahan, and the city's urban development accelerated to accommodate the needs of a capital city.File:Isfahancitycenter museum.jpg|thumb|left|An ancient artifact from Isfahan City CenterIsfahan City CenterThe next empire to rule Persia, the Sassanids (226–652 CE), presided over massive changes in their realm, instituting sweeping agricultural reform and reviving Iranian culture and the Zoroastrian religion. Both city and region were then called by the name Aspahan or Spahan. The city was governed by "Espoohrans" or the members of seven noble Iranian families who had important royal positions, and served as the residence of these noble families as well. Extant foundations of some Sassanid-era bridges in Isfahan suggest that the kings were also fond of ambitious urban planning projects. While Isfahan's political importance declined during the period, many Sassanid princes would study statecraft in the city, and its military role developed rapidly. Its strategic location at the intersection of the ancient roads to Susa and Persepolis made it an ideal candidate to house a standing army, ready to march against Constantinople at any moment. The words 'Aspahan' and 'Spahan' are derived from the Pahlavi or Middle Persian meaning 'the place of the army'.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2013-07-15, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131023052853weblink">weblink 23 October 2013, dmy-all, Although many theories have been mentioned about the origin of Isfahan, in fact little is known of Isfahan before the rule of the Sasanian dynasty (c. 224–c. 651 CE). The historical facts suggest that in the late 4th and early 5th centuries Queen Shushandukht, the Jewish consort of Yazdegerd I (reigned 399–420) settled a colony of Jews in Yahudiyyeh (also spelled Yahudiya), a settlement {{convert|3|km|abbr=off}} northwest of the Zoroastrian city of (the Achaemid and Parthian 'Gabae' or 'Gabai', the Sasanid 'Gay' and the Arabicized form 'Jay') that was located just on the northern bank of the Zayanderud River. The gradual population decrease of Gay (Jay) and the simultaneous population increase of Yahudiyyeh and its suburbs after the Islamic conquest of Iran resulted in the formation of the nucleus of what was to become the city of Isfahan. The words Aspadana, Ispadana, Spahan and Sepahan from which the word Isfahan is derived all referred to the region in which the city was located.The original plan of Isfahan and Jayy were both circular, which was a characteristic of other Parthian and Sasanian cities.BOOK, Salma, K. Jayyusi, Holod, Renata, Petruccioli, Attilio, André, Raymond, The City in the Islamic World, 2008, Brill, Leiden, 9789004162402, 174,

Islamic era

(File:Vanderaa1725.jpg|thumb|Isfahan, capital of the Kingdom of Persia)File:Isfahan to the south side by Eugène Flandin.jpg|thumb|Isfahan to the south side, drawing by Eugène FlandinEugène Flandin(File:RussianIsfahan.jpg|thumb|Russian army in Isfahan in the 1890s)File:Foolad Mobarakeh49.jpg|thumb|Mobarakeh Steel CompanyMobarakeh Steel CompanyWhen the Arabs captured Isfahan in 642, they made it the capital of al-Jibal ("the Mountains") province, an area that covered much of ancient Media. Isfahan grew prosperous under the Persian Buyid (Buwayhid) dynasty, which rose to power and ruled much of Iran when the temporal authority of the Abbasid caliphs waned in the 10th century. The Turkish conqueror and founder of the Seljuq dynasty, Toghril Beg, made Isfahan the capital of his domains in the mid-11th century; but it was under his grandson Malik-Shah I (r. 1073–92) that the city grew in size and splendour.WEB,weblink Britannica.com,
After the fall of the Seljuqs (c. 1200), Isfahan temporarily declined and was eclipsed by other Iranian cities such as Tabriz and Qazvin.Ibn Battuta during his visit in 1327, noted "The city of Isfahan is one of the largest and fairest of cities, but it is now in ruins for the greater part."BOOK, Battutah, Ibn, The Travels of Ibn Battutah, 2002, Picador, London, 9780330418799, 68, It regained its important position during the Safavid period (1501–1736). The city's golden age began in 1598 when the Safavid ruler Shah Abbas I (reigned 1588–1629) made it his capital and rebuilt it into one of the largest and most beautiful cities of the 17th century. In 1598 Shah Abbas the Great moved his capital from Qazvin to the more central and Persian Isfahan, called Ispahān in early New Persian, so that it wouldn't be threatened by his archrival, the Ottomans. This new importance ushered in a golden age for the (Abbas I of Persia#Isfahan: a new capital|city), with architecture, prestige, and Persian culture flourishing. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the city was also settled by thousands of deportees and migrants from the Caucasus that Abbas I and other Safavid rulers had settled en masse in Persia's heartland. Therefore, many of the city’s inhabitants were of Georgian, Circassian, and Daghistani descent.WEB,weblink ISFAHAN vii. SAFAVID PERIOD – Encyclopaedia Iranica, electricpulp.com, Engelbert Kaempfer, who was in Safavid Persia in 1684-85, estimated their number at 20,000.{{sfn|Matthee|2012|page=67}} During the Safavid era, the city would form a very large Armenian community as well. As part of Abbas' forced resettlement of peoples from within his empire, he resettled many hundreds of thousands of Armenians (up to 300,000BOOK, Aslanian, Sebouh, From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean: The Global Trade Networks of Armenian Merchants from New Julfa, 2011, University of California Press, California, 978-0520947573, 1, BOOK, Bournoutian, George, George Bournoutian, A Concise History of the Armenian People: (from Ancient Times to the Present), 2002, Mazda Publishers, 978-1568591414, 208, 2, ) from near the unstable Safavid-Ottoman border, and primarily from the very wealthy Armenian town of Jugha (also known as Old Julfa), in mainland Iran. In Isfahan, he ordered the foundation of a new quarter for the resettled Armenians, primarily meant for the Armenians from Old Julfa, and thus the Armenian Quarter of Isfahan was named New Julfa. Today, the New Jolfa district of Isfahan remains a heavily Armenian-populated district, with Armenian churches and shops, the Vank Cathedral being especially notable for its combination of Armenian Christian and Iranian Islamic elements. It is still one of the oldest and largest Armenian quarters in the world. Following an agreement between Shah Abbas I and his Georgian subject Teimuraz I of Kakheti ("Tahmuras Khan"), whereby the latter submitted to Safavid rule in exchange for being allowed to rule as the region’s wāli (governor) and for having his son serve as dāruḡa ("prefect") of Isfahan in perpetuity, the Georgian prince converted to Islam and served as governor. He was accompanied by a certain number of soldiers, and they spoke in Georgian among themselves. Some were also Georgian Orthodox Christians. The royal court in Isfahan had a great number of Georgian ḡolāms (military slaves) as well as Georgian women. Although they spoke Persian or Turkic, their mother tongue was Georgian. During the time of Abbas Isfahan was very famous in Europe, and many European travellers made an account of their visit to the city, such as Jean Chardin. This prosperity lasted until it was sacked by Afghan invaders in 1722 during a marked decline in Safavid influence.Thereafter, Isfahan experienced a decline in importance, culminating in a move of the capital to Mashhad and Shiraz during the Afsharid and Zand periods respectively until it was finally moved to Tehran in 1775 by Agha Mohammad Khan the founder of the Qajar dynasty.{{citation needed|date=December 2012}}In the early years of the 19th century, efforts were made to preserve some of Ifsahan's archeologically important buildings, first by Mohammad Hossein Khan during the reign of Fath Ali Shah.BOOK, Iran Almanac and Book of Facts, 8, 1969, Echo Institute, 71, 760026638,weblink In the 20th century Isfahan was resettled by a very large number of people from southern Iran, firstly during the population migrations in the early century, and again in the 1980s following the Iran–Iraq War.

Modern age

Today Isfahan, the third largest city in Iran, produces fine carpets, textiles, steel, handicrafts, specific sweet and traditional delicious foods. Isfahan also has nuclear experimental reactors as well as facilities for producing nuclear fuel (UCF). Isfahan has one of the largest steel-producing facilities in the entire region, as well as facilities for producing special alloys. Mobarakeh Steel Company is the biggest steel producer in Middle East and Northern Africa and the biggest DRI producer in the worldWEB,weblink MSC at a Glance, 19 July 2017, and Isfahan Steel Company is the first and largest manufacturer of constructional steel products in Iran.WEB,weblink Esfahan Steel Company A Pioneer in The Steel Industry of Iran, 19 July 2017, The city has an international airport and a metro line.Isfahan contains a major oil refinery and a large airforce base. HESA, Iran's most advanced aircraft manufacturing plant, is located nearby.Hesaco.com (from the HESA official company website)WEB,weblink HESA Iran Aircraft Manufacturing Industrial Company, John, Pike, Isfahan is also becoming an attraction for international investments,WEB,weblink International conference held on investment opportunities in Iran tourism industry, like investments in Isfahan City CenterWEB,weblink صفحه اصلی بزرگترین مرکز خرید ایران, IT, DEPARTMENT-it@isfahancitycenter.com, which constitutes the largest shopping mall in Iran and the fifth largest in the world.WEB,weblink About Isfahan City Center, 16 August 2017, Isfahan hosted the International Physics Olympiad in 2007.

Geography and climate

The city is located in the lush plain of the Zayanderud River, at the foothills of the Zagros mountain range. The nearest mountain is Mount Soffeh (Kuh-e Soffeh) which is situated just south of Isfahan. No geological obstacles exist within {{convert|90|km|0|abbr=off}} north of Isfahan, allowing cool northern winds to blow from this direction. Situated at {{convert|1590|m|0}} above sea level on the eastern side of the Zagros Mountains, Isfahan has an arid climate (Köppen BWk). Despite its altitude, Isfahan remains hot during the summer with maxima typically around {{convert|35|C|F|0}}. However, with low humidity and moderate temperatures at night, the climate can be very pleasant. During the winter, days are mild while nights can be very cold. Snow has occurred at least once every winter except 1986/1987 and 1989/1990.WEB,weblink Snowy days for Esfahan, Irimo.ir, 2012-04-23, {{Weather box| location = Isfahan (1961–1990, extremes 1951–2010)| metric first = yes| single line = yes| Jan record high C = 20.4| Feb record high C = 23.4| Mar record high C = 29.0| Apr record high C = 32.0| May record high C = 37.6| Jun record high C = 41.0| Jul record high C = 43.0| Aug record high C = 42.0| Sep record high C = 39.0| Oct record high C = 33.2| Nov record high C = 26.8| Dec record high C = 21.2|year record high C = 43.0| Jan high C = 8.8| Feb high C = 11.9| Mar high C = 16.8| Apr high C = 22.0| May high C = 28.0| Jun high C = 34.1| Jul high C = 36.4| Aug high C = 35.1| Sep high C = 31.2| Oct high C = 24.4| Nov high C = 16.9| Dec high C = 10.8|year high C = 23.0| Jan mean C = 2.7| Feb mean C = 5.5| Mar mean C = 10.4| Apr mean C = 15.7| May mean C = 21.3| Jun mean C = 27.1| Jul mean C = 29.4| Aug mean C = 27.9| Sep mean C = 23.5| Oct mean C = 16.9| Nov mean C = 9.9| Dec mean C = 4.4|year mean C = 16.2| Jan low C = −2.4| Feb low C = −0.2| Mar low C = 4.5| Apr low C = 9.4| May low C = 14.2| Jun low C = 19.1| Jul low C = 21.5| Aug low C = 19.8| Sep low C = 15.1| Oct low C = 9.3| Nov low C = 3.6| Dec low C = −0.9|year low C = 9.4| Jan record low C = −19.4| Feb record low C = −12.2| Mar record low C = −8.0| Apr record low C = −4.0| May record low C = 4.5| Jun record low C = 10.0| Jul record low C = 13.0| Aug record low C = 11.0| Sep record low C = 5.0| Oct record low C = 0.0| Nov record low C = −8.0| Dec record low C = −13.0|year record low C = -19.4| precipitation colour = green| Jan precipitation mm = 17.1| Feb precipitation mm = 14.1| Mar precipitation mm = 18.2| Apr precipitation mm = 19.2| May precipitation mm = 8.8| Jun precipitation mm = 0.6| Jul precipitation mm = 0.7| Aug precipitation mm = 0.2| Sep precipitation mm = 0.0| Oct precipitation mm = 4.1| Nov precipitation mm = 9.9| Dec precipitation mm = 19.6|year precipitation mm = 112.5|unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm| Jan precipitation days = 4.0| Feb precipitation days = 2.9| Mar precipitation days = 3.8| Apr precipitation days = 3.5| May precipitation days = 2.0| Jun precipitation days = 0.2| Jul precipitation days = 0.3| Aug precipitation days = 0.1| Sep precipitation days = 0.0| Oct precipitation days = 0.8| Nov precipitation days = 2.2| Dec precipitation days = 3.7|year precipitation days = 23.5| Jan snow days = 3.2| Feb snow days = 1.7| Mar snow days = 0.7| Apr snow days = 0.1| May snow days = 0.0| Jun snow days = 0.0| Jul snow days = 0.0| Aug snow days = 0.0| Sep snow days = 0.0| Oct snow days = 0.0| Nov snow days = 0.2| Dec snow days = 1.9|year snow days = 7.8| Jan humidity = 60| Feb humidity = 51| Mar humidity = 43| Apr humidity = 39| May humidity = 33| Jun humidity = 23| Jul humidity = 23| Aug humidity = 24| Sep humidity = 26| Oct humidity = 36| Nov humidity = 48| Dec humidity = 57|year humidity = 39| Jan sun = 205.3| Feb sun = 213.3| Mar sun = 242.1| Apr sun = 244.5| May sun = 301.3| Jun sun = 345.4| Jul sun = 347.6| Aug sun = 331.2| Sep sun = 311.6| Oct sun = 276.5| Nov sun = 226.1| Dec sun = 207.6|year sun = 3252.5|source 1 = NOAAWEB,weblink Esfahan Climate Normals 1961-1990, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 8 April 2015, |source 2 = Iran Meteorological Organization (records)WEB,weblink Highest record temperature in Esfahan by Month 1951–2010, Iran Meteorological Organization, 8 April 2015, WEB,weblink Lowest record temperature in Esfahan by Month 1951–2010, Iran Meteorological Organization, 8 April 2015, | date = November 2011}}

Environment pollution

Air pollution is one of the major environmental issues in Isfahan . Air pollution is due to increase of number of cars in the commuting in the city and the polluting industries such as thermal power plants, petrochemical complexes and the oil refinery in the west of the city, air pollution levels increased continuously in the second half of the 20th century. With a mandate of national environmental codes by heavy industries the industrial air pollution is reduced in recent years. However the air quality in the city is far away from world norms for clean air. It has been reported despite lower population and number of there cars compared capital Tehran it has higher air pollution. In fact Isfahan has the highest air pollution index of any other major cities in Iran. This has been reported to be related to its climate and geography.WEB,weblink چرا آلودگی هوای اصفهان از تهران بیشتر است؟, 29 June 2018, Main places{{see also| Tourism in Iran}}{{see also|List of historical structures in Isfahan Province}}(File:Iranian Handicraft.JPG|thumb|A handicraft shop)(File:Esfahan Craftsman Art.jpg|thumb|A handicraft from Isfahan)File:Masjid Shah, view of the courtyard by Pascal Coste.jpg|thumb|Shah Mosque. Painting by the French architect, Pascal CostePascal Coste.File:Si-o-se-Pol.jpg|thumb|right|Si-o-se PolSi-o-se PolFile:Naghshe Jahan Square Isfahan modified.jpg|thumb|Naghsh-e-Jahan Square, Isfahan, IranIranFile:Ali-qapu-rooz.jpg|thumb|View of Ali Qapu Palace]]File:Carpet bazzar.JPG|thumb|A carpet shop in Grand Bazaar, IsfahanGrand Bazaar, Isfahan(File:Khaju Bridje at night.jpg|thumb|Khaju Bridge)(File:Khaju-Bridge-Esfahan.jpg|thumb|Detail of Khaju Bridge)File:Isfahan aquarium 08.jpg|thumb|Isfahan aquariumaquariumFile:Esfahan armenian Barry Kent.JPG|thumb|Armenian Vank CathedralVank CathedralThe city core consists of an older section, revolving around the Jameh Mosque, and the Safavid expansion around Naqsh-e Jahan Square, with the surrounding worship places, palaces, and bazaars.Assari, A., Mahesh, T., Emtehani, M., & Assari, E. (2011). Comparative sustainability of bazaar in Iranian traditional cities: Case studies in Isfahan and Tabriz. International Journal on Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE)(9), 18-24.

Bazaars

Bridges

The Zayande River starts in the Zagros Mountains, flows from west to east through the heart of Isfahan, and dries up in the (:fa:گاوخونی|Gavkhooni) wetland.The bridges over the river include some of the finest architecture in Isfahan. The oldest bridge is the Shahrestan bridge, whose foundations was built by the Sasanian Empire (3rd-7th century Sassanid era) and has been repaired during the Seljuk period. Further upstream is Khaju bridge, which was built by Shah Abbas II in 1650. It is {{convert|123|m|abbr=off}} long with 24 arches, and also serves as a sluice gate.The next bridge is Choobi (Joui) bridge. It was originally built as an aqueduct to supply the palace gardens on the north bank of the river. Further upstream again is the Si-o-Seh Pol or bridge of 33 arches. Built during the rule of Shah Abbas the Great, it linked Isfahan with the Armenian suburb of New Julfa. It is by far the longest bridge in Isfahan at {{convert|295|m|2|abbr=on}}.Other bridges include Marnan Bridge.

Churches and cathedrals

Emamzadehs

Gardens and parks

Houses

Mausoleums and tombs

Minarets

Mosques

Museums

Schools (madresse)

Palaces and caravanserais

Squares and streets

File:Aghigh Square esfahan 201312 06.jpg|thumb|A view of Meydan Kohne ]]

Synagogues

Tourist attractions

The central historical area in Isfahan is called Seeosepol (the name of a famous bridge).WEB, Seifolddini-Faranak; M. S. Fard; Hosseini Ali,weblink PDF, thescipub.com, JOURNAL, Assari, Ali, T.M. Mahesh, Conservation of historic urban core in traditional Islamic culture: case study of Isfahan city, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, January 2012, 5, 1, 1970–1976,weblink 7 January 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121027112204weblink">weblink 27 October 2012,

Other sites

Education

(File:Esfahan Central Library.jpg|thumb|Central Municipal Library of Esfahan)(File:جاذبه های گردشگری تاریخی شهر زیبای اصفهان 04.jpg|thumb|Front Facade of the Central Municipal Library of Esfahan)Aside from the seminaries and religious schools, the major universities of the Esfahan metropolitan area are: There are also more than 50 technical and vocational training centers under the administration of Esfahan TVTO which provide non-formal training programs freely throughout the province.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071008230645weblink">weblink 8 October 2007, Isfahan Technical and Vocational Training Organization, Web.archive.org, 8 October 2007, 2012-04-23,

Transportation

{{see also| Transport in Iran}}(File:Isfahan Municipality.jpg|thumb|Old building of Isfahan city hall)

Road transport

Isfahan's internal highway network is currently under heavy expansion which began during the last decade. Its lengthy construction is due to concerns of possible destruction of valuable historical buildings. Outside the city, Isfahan is connected by modern highways to Tehran which spans a distance of nearly {{convert|400|km|2|abbr=on}} to North and to Shiraz at about {{convert|200|km|2|abbr=on}} to the south. The highways also service satellite cities surrounding the metropolitan area.JOURNAL, Assari, Ali, Erfan Assari, Urban spirit and heritage conservation problems: case study Isfahan city in Iran, Journal of American Science, 2012, 8, 1, 203–209,weblink 7 January 2013,

Culture

(File:Esfhan market(1).jpg|thumb|upright|An old master of hand-printed carpets in Isfahan bazaar)File:Rosa damascena0.jpg|thumb|The Damask rose 'Ispahan', reputedly developed in Ispahan]]

Notable people

(File:Persian-Potteries-17th-Century-Isfahan.jpg|thumb|Persian pottery from the city Isfahan, 17th century)
Music
  • Jalal Taj Eesfahani (1903-1981), musician, singer and vocalistWEB,weblink نگاهی به زندگی Ùˆ کارنامه هنری استاد جلال تاج, 14 July 2017,
  • Mohammad Esfahani (1966– ), singer and songwriterNEWS,weblink بیوگرافی محمد اصفهانی Ùˆ همسرش, 18 May 2018,
  • Alireza Eftekhari (1956– ), singerWEB,weblink بیوگرافی علیرضا افتخاری, 14 July 2017,
  • (:de:Fard (Rapper)|Fard)
  • Leila Forouhar, pop singerWEB,weblink بیوگرافی لیلا فروهر / عکس · جدید 96 -گهر, 14 July 2017,
  • Hassan Kassai (1928-2012), musicianWEB,weblink Hassan Kassai, 14 July 2017,
  • Nasrollah Moein (1951– ), pop singerNEWS,weblink بیوگرافی Ùˆ شرح زندگی معین, 13 August 2017,
  • Hesameddin Seraj, musician, singer and vocalistWEB,weblink بیوگرافی حسام الدین سراج, 14 July 2017,
  • Hassan Shamaizadeh, songwriter and singerWEB,weblink بیوگرافی حسن شماعی زاده, 31 August 2017,
  • Jalil Shahnaz (1921-2013), soloist of tar, a traditional Persian instrumentWEB,weblink شهسوار تار, 15 July 2017,


Film


Craftsmen and painters
  • Reza Badrossama (1949–), painter and miniaturistWEB,weblink Reza Badrossama Biography, 17 July 2017,
  • Mahmoud Dehnavi (1927–), craftsman and artistWEB,weblink استاد محمود دهنوی, 17 July 2017,
  • Mahmoud Farshchian (1930–), painter and miniaturistWEB,weblink مروري كوتاه بر زندگي‌نامه استاد محمود فرشچيان, 15 July 2017,
  • Freydoon Rassouli (1943–), American painter born and raised in IsfahanWEB,weblink Abstract paintings and conceptual spiritual art by Freydoon Rassouli, 15 July 2017,
  • Bogdan Saltanov (1630s–1703), Russian icon painter of Isfahanian Armenian origin


Political figures


Religious figures


Sportspeople


Writers and poets


Others

Sports

Both Zob Ahan and Sepahan are the only Iranian clubs to reach the final of the new AFC Champions League.Isfahan has three association football clubs that play professionally. These are: Sepahan has won the most league titles among the Iranian clubs (2002–03, 2009–10, 2010–11, 2011–12 and 2014–15).NEWS,weblink گزارشی از تاریخ قهرمانان ایران؛ پرسپولیس بهترین تیم تاریخ، سپاهان برترین تیم لیگ/ یک آبی‌ در صدر, 3 September 2017, Giti Pasand also has a futsal team, Giti Pasand FSC, one of the best teams in Asia and Iran. They won the AFC Futsal Club Championship in 2012 and were runners-up in 2013.

Twin towns – sister cities

File:Isfahankualalumpur.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Esfahan Street in Kuala LumpurKuala LumpurIsfahan is twinned with:{| class="wikitable"! colspan="2" |Country!City!State / province / region / governorate!SinceChina}}|China|Xi'anShaanxi>Shaanxi ProvinceLAST=DATE=ARCHIVE-URL=DEAD-URL=, 10 July 2017, Malaysia}}|Malaysia|Kuala Lumpur|Kuala Lumpur|1997Germany}}|GermanyFreiburg im Breisgau>FreiburgBaden-Württemberg>Baden-Württemberg State|2000Italy}}|Italy|FlorenceMetropolitan City of Florence>Florence Province|1998Romania}}|Romania|Iași|Iași County|1999Spain}}|Spain|BarcelonaProvince of Barcelona>Barcelona Province|2000Armenia}}|Armenia|Yerevan|Yerevan|2000Kuwait}}|Kuwait|Kuwait CityAl Asima Governorate (Kuwait)>Al Asimah Governorate|2000Cuba}}|Cuba|Havana|La Habana Province|2001Pakistan}}|Pakistan|LahorePunjab, Pakistan>Punjab Province|2004Russia}}|Russia|Saint Petersburg|Northwestern Federal District|2004Senegal}}|Senegal|Dakar|Dakar Region|2009Lebanon}}|Lebanon|Baalbek|Baalbek-Hermel Governorate|2010South Korea}}|South Korea|Gyeongju|North Gyeongsang ProvinceLAST=DATE=11 MARCH 2017ACCESS-DATE=ARCHIVE-DATE=,

See also

References

Notes
{{reflist|30em}weblink
  • BOOK, Dehghan, Maziar, 2014, Management in IRAN, 978-600-04-1573-0,

Sources

{{See also|Timeline of Isfahan#Bibliography|l1=Bibliography of the history of Isfahan}}
  • Yves Bomati and Houchang Nahavandi,Shah Abbas, Emperor of Persia,1587-1629, 2017, ed. Ketab Corporation, Los Angeles, {{ISBN|978-1595845672}}, English translation by Azizeh Azodi.
  • BOOK, Matthee, Rudi, Persia in Crisis: Safavid Decline and the Fall of Isfahan, 2012, I.B.Tauris, 978-1845117450, harv,

External links

{{Commons|Isfahan}}{{Wikivoyage-inline|Isfahan}} Merv {{small|(Eastern capital)}}|years=1051–1118}}{{Isfahan County}}{{Largest cities of Iran}}{{Iranian Architecture}}{{Authority control}}

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