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Iquique
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{{Use mdy dates|date=April 2014}}







factoids
| coordinates_footnotes = | subdivision_type = CountryChile}}Regions of Chile>RegionTarapacá}}Provinces of Chile>ProvinceIquique Province>Iquique| established_title = Founded| established_date = 16th Century| established_title1 = | established_date1 =| founder =| named_for =| seat_type =| seat =ACCESSDATE=31 OCTOBER 2010, es, | government_type = Municipal council| leader_party =| leader_title = Alcalde| leader_name = Jorge Soria Quiroga| unit_pref = MetricACCESSDATE=9 SEPTEMBER 2010, es, | area_total_km2 = 2242.1| elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = 1| elevation_max_footnotes = | elevation_max_m =| population_footnotes =| population_total = 180601| population_as_of = 2012 Census| population_rank =| population_density_km2 = auto| population_est =| pop_est_as_of =| population_urban = 183997| population_density_rank =| demographics_type1 = | demographics1_footnotes =Time in Chile>CLT| utc_offset = −4Time in Chile>CLST| utc_offset_DST = −3| postal_code_type = Postal code| postal_code = 1100000| area_code_type = | area_code =| registration_plate =Köppen climate classification>ClimateDesert climate#Hot desert climates>BWh| website = Official website {{es icon}}| footnotes =}}Iquique ({{IPA-es|iˈkike}}) is a port city and commune in northern Chile, capital of both the Iquique Province and Tarapacá Region. It lies on the Pacific coast, west of the Pampa del Tamarugal, which is part of the Atacama Desert. It had a population of 180,601 according to the 2012 census. It is also the main commune of Greater Iquique. The city developed during the heyday of the saltpetre mining in the Atacama Desert in the 19th century. Originally a Peruvian city with a large Chilean population, it was conquered by Chile in the War of the Pacific (1879–1883). Today it is one of only two free ports of Chile.

History

{{unreferenced section|date=May 2013}}Although the city was founded in the 16th century, there is evidence of habitation in the area by the Chango people as early as 7,000 BC. During colonial times, Iquique was part of the Viceroyalty of Peru as much of South America was at the time, and remained part of Peruvian territory until the end of the 19th century. Iquique's early development was due in large part to the discovery of mineral riches, particularly the presence of large deposits of sodium nitrate in the Atacama Desert (then part of Peruvian territory).In July 1835, Charles Darwin, during his voyage on the Beagle, traveled to Iquique and described it as a town "very much in want of everyday necessities, such as water and firewood". These necessities had to be brought in from considerable distances. Darwin also visited the saltpeter works.The city has been devastated by several earthquakes, including the 1868 Arica earthquake, the 1877 Iquique earthquake, and the 2005 Tarapacá earthquake. The 2014 Iquique earthquake occurred with a moment magnitude of 8.2 on April 1, 2014.File:Sinking of the Esmeralda during the battle of Iquique.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Naval Battle of Iquique during the War of the PacificWar of the PacificTerritorial disputes between Bolivia and Chile triggered the War of the Pacific in 1879. The Battle of Iquique was fought in the harbor of Iquique on May 21, 1879, now commemorated as Navy Day, an annual public holiday in Chile. The outcome of the war gave Chile this portion of the Peruvian territory.Over the years there was substantial emigration from other parts of Chile to this area which was called the Norte Grande. In subsequent years the further exportation of Chilean saltpeter (mainly to European countries) significantly helped in the development of the city, attracting foreigners and rapidly expanding housing projects.In December 1907, the city was marred by the Santa María de Iquique Massacre when the Chilean Army, under the command of Gen. Roberto Silva Renard, opened fire on thousands of saltpeter miners, and their wives and children, who assembled inside the Santa María School. The workers had marched into town to protest their working conditions and wages. Somewhere between 500 and 2,000 people were killed. The folk group Quilapayún recorded an album in remembrance of the event (Cantata Santa María de Iquique) in 1970. In December 2007 a series of cultural and ceremonial activities were planned, culminating in the week between December 14 to 21, to commemorate the centenary year of the massacre.Mars 96 launched by Russia in 1996, but failed to leave Earth orbit, and re-entered the atmosphere a few hours later. The two RTGs onboard carried in total 200 g of plutonium and are assumed to have survived reentry as they were designed to do. They are thought to now lie somewhere in a northeast-southwest running oval {{convert|320|km|0|abbr=on}} long by {{convert|80|km|0|abbr=on}} wide which is centred {{convert|32|km|0|abbr=on}} east of Iquique, Chile.Mars 96 timeline, NASAPrior to becoming Chilean territory, Iquique was home to some of the greatest Peruvian heroes, namely Alfonso Ugarte (who was elected Mayor in 1876), Ramon Zavala, a rich saltpeter entrepreneur; Guillermo Billinghurst, later President of Peru (who after being overthrown in 1914 came to Iquique – then already under Chilean rule – to live out his last years), and Ramon Castilla, three times president of Peru, who was born in San Lorenzo de Tarapacá and died in the Desert of Tiviliche, Tarapacá, who lived in Iquique during his mandate as Governor of Tarapacá in 1825.

Governance

As a commune, Iquique is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde who is directly elected every four years. The 2012–2016 alcalde is Jorge Soria.Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Iquique is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Mrs. Marta Isasi (Ind.) and Mr. Hugo Gutiérrez (PC) as part of the 2nd electoral district, which includes the entire Tarapacá Region.The commune is represented in the Senate by Fulvio Rossi Ciocca (PS) and Jaime Orpis Bouchon (UDI) as part of the 1st senatorial constituency (Arica and Parinacota Region and Tarapacá Region).

Economy

Iquique has one of the largest duty-free commercial port centers of South America, the Zona Franca of Iquique (free zone of Iquique) which has been traditionally called Zofri. There are around {{convert|2.4|km2|sqmi}} of warehouses, banking branches, and restaurants.Copper mining, mainly in Quebrada Blanca, Cerro Colorado, and Doña Inés de Collahuasí, is also an important industry in Iquique.

Demographics

(File:Vista de Iquique, Chile, 2016-02-11, DD 01-06 PAN.JPG|400px|thumb|Panoramic view of Iquique.)According to the 2002 census of National Statistics Institute (INE), the commune of Iquique had an area of {{convert|2835.3|sqkm|0|abbr=on}} and 216,419 inhabitants (108,897 men and 107,522 women). Of these, 214,586 (99.2%) lived in urban areas and 1,833 (0.9%) in rural areas. The township has an area of {{convert|2262.4|sqkm|0|abbr=on}} and a population of 166,204 inhabitants. The population grew by 42.7% (64,742 persons) between the 1992 and 2002 censuses. Iquique is home to 56% of the total population of the Tarapacá region. In 2008, the city had 226,204 habitants.Iquique commune is divided into the following districts:WEB,weblink PDF, Territorial division of Chile, 31 October 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130308201322weblink">weblink March 8, 2013, {| class = "wikitable" style = "font-size: 90%;"! District! 2002 Population Census! Area (km²)| Port 3,721 0.8| Industrial District 12,800 65.4| Hospital 11,087 5.1| Caupolicán 19,486 2.2| Playa Brava 18,580 2.1| Cavancha 13,729 1.4| Parque Balmaceda 10,843 1.1| Arturo Prat 10,773 1.0| Punta Lobos 1,592 2,127.8| Gómez Carreño 23,165 1.7| La Tirana 40,428 33.5(File:SRTM-W70.33E68.34S21.00N19.00.Iquique.png|thumb|300px | Iquique geographical position in the Region of Tarapaca.)There is a significant percentage of ethnic group colony residents. The most numerous communities are Croatian, Italian, Greek, Chinese, Arabic nationalities, Peruvians and Bolivians, British peoples (i.e. Scots), and the French.In the 1910s and 1920s, about a thousand East Indian (from India and Pakistani) saltpeter mine workers hired by British mine companies appeared in Iquique and today, their descendants mixed into the local population. {{Citation needed|date=August 2010}} Lately, a wave of North American and Australian immigrants came to retire and enjoy the city's beach climate. Immigrants currently correspond to 9.2% of the total populationweblink has almost 10% of its foreign population.{| class = "wikitable"! colspan = "25" | Population evolution of the commune of Iquique: Bgcolor = "# C0C0C0" 1992 2002 146,089 166,204{| Class = "wikitable"! colspan = "25" | Population evolution of the city of Iquique: Bgcolor = "# C0C0C0" 1992 2002 145,139 164,396

Climate

Iquique has a rare desert climate (Köppen BWh) with low extremes of temperatures all year round and almost no rainfall. Being characterized by abundant cloudiness, it is sometimes classified as BWn, with indicating a coastal desert climate with abundant cloudiness as the n denotes a climate with frequent fog.JOURNAL, Cereceda, P., Larrain, H., osses, P., Farias, M., Egaña, I., 2008, The climate of the coast and fog zone in the Tarapacá Region, Atacama Desert, Chile,weblink Atmospheric Research, 87, 3-4, 301-311, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2007.11.011, 21 January 2018, 2008AtmRe..87..301C, It is common for there to be not one rainy day in a year. It is one of the driest cities in the world, along with Arica.{{Weather box|location = Iquique (1970–2000, extremes 1981–present)|metric first = Yes|single line = Yes|Jan record high C = 31.2|Feb record high C = 30.6|Mar record high C = 31.1|Apr record high C = 28.4|May record high C = 27.0|Jun record high C = 24.1|Jul record high C = 22.6|Aug record high C = 31.0|Sep record high C = 23.4|Oct record high C = 29.0|Nov record high C = 25.5|Dec record high C = 27.8|year record high C = |Jan high C = 25.3|Feb high C = 25.5|Mar high C = 24.9|Apr high C = 22.7|May high C = 20.7|Jun high C = 19.0|Jul high C = 18.0|Aug high C = 18.0|Sep high C = 18.8|Oct high C = 20.1|Nov high C = 21.7|Dec high C = 23.7|year high C = 21.5|Jan mean C = 22.2|Feb mean C = 22.2|Mar mean C = 21.5|Apr mean C = 19.7|May mean C = 18.0|Jun mean C = 16.7|Jul mean C = 15.9|Aug mean C = 15.8|Sep mean C = 16.4|Oct mean C = 17.5|Nov mean C = 18.9|Dec mean C = 20.7|year mean C = 18.8|Jan low C = 19.2|Feb low C = 19.0|Mar low C = 18.4|Apr low C = 16.9|May low C = 15.7|Jun low C = 14.7|Jul low C = 14.0|Aug low C = 14.2|Sep low C = 14.6|Oct low C = 15.4|Nov low C = 16.5|Dec low C = 17.8|year low C = 16.4|Jan record low C = 14.8|Feb record low C = 14.7|Mar record low C = 13.0|Apr record low C = 11.7|May record low C = 9.9|Jun record low C = 8.5|Jul record low C = 8.0|Aug record low C = 7.6|Sep record low C = 9.0|Oct record low C = 8.5|Nov record low C = 12.2|Dec record low C = 12.4|year record low C = 7.6|Jan precipitation mm = 0.0|Feb precipitation mm = 0.0|Mar precipitation mm = 0.0|Apr precipitation mm = 0.0|May precipitation mm = trace|Jun precipitation mm = trace|Jul precipitation mm = trace|Aug precipitation mm = 0.5|Sep precipitation mm = 0.4|Oct precipitation mm = 0.0|Nov precipitation mm = 0.0|Dec precipitation mm = 0.1|year precipitation mm = 1.0|Jan humidity = 68|Feb humidity = 68|Mar humidity = 69|Apr humidity = 71|May humidity = 72|Jun humidity = 73|Jul humidity = 72|Aug humidity = 73|Sep humidity = 72|Oct humidity = 71|Nov humidity = 70|Dec humidity = 69|year humidity = 71|Jan precipitation days = 0.0|Feb precipitation days = 0.0|Mar precipitation days = 0.0|Apr precipitation days = 0.0|May precipitation days = 0.2|Jun precipitation days = 0.3|Jul precipitation days = 0.2|Aug precipitation days = 0.1|Sep precipitation days = 0.1|Oct precipitation days = 0.0|Nov precipitation days = 0.0|Dec precipitation days = 0.1|year precipitation days = 1.0|Jan sun = 316.2|Feb sun = 288.2|Mar sun = 294.5|Apr sun = 240.0|May sun = 213.9|Jun sun = 177.0|Jul sun = 164.3|Aug sun = 161.2|Sep sun = 183.0|Oct sun = 241.8|Nov sun = 279.0|Dec sun = 313.1|year sun = 2872.2|Jand sun = 10.2|Febd sun = 10.2|Mard sun = 9.5|Aprd sun = 8.0|Mayd sun = 6.9|Jund sun = 5.9|Juld sun = 5.3|Augd sun = 5.2|Sepd sun = 6.1|Octd sun = 7.8|Novd sun = 9.3|Decd sun = 10.1|yeard sun = |source 1 = Dirección Meteorológica de ChileWEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170630032343weblink">weblink 30 June 2017,weblink Estadistica Climatologica Tomo I, January 4, 2013, Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil, Spanish, March 2001, WEB
,weblink
, Temperatura Mensual Histórica de Diego Aracena Iquique Ap, (200006)
, Sistema de Administración de Datos Climatológicos
, April 23, 2016
, Dirección Meteorológica de Chile
, Spanish
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160603004431weblink">weblink
, June 3, 2016
, |source 2 = Universidad de Chile (sunshine hours only)WEB,weblink Tabla 4.6: Medias mensuales de horas de sol diarias extraídas del WRDC ruso (en (hrs./dia)), Elementos Para La Creación de Un Manual de Buenas Prácticas Para Instalaciones Solares Térmicas Domiciliarias, Universidad de Chile, Spanish, PDF, 81, 21 January 2015, September 2007, |date=May 2013}}

Transport

Iquique is served by Diego Aracena International Airport (Spanish: Aeropuerto Internacional Diego Aracena) (IATA: IQQ, ICAO: SCDA). The airport is on the Pacific coast 48 kilometres (30 mi) south of the city.

Sport

Iquique is home to football team Deportes Iquique. It hosted the 2016 FIRS Women's Roller Hockey World Cup.

Gallery

File:Paseo Baquedano.JPG|Baquedano BoulevardFile:Plaza Prat Iquique.jpg|Downtown IquiqueFile:Iquique theater.jpg|Municipal Theater of IquiqueFile:Teatro Municipal Noche.jpg|Iquique Municipal Theatre at nightFile:Plaza Prat.jpg|Plaza PratFile:Zofrinight.jpg|Mall Zofri at NightFile:21 may Square.jpg|21-May SquareFile:Train of Tour in Iquique.jpg|Trans-Atacama Tour TrainFile:Universidad Arturo Prat.jpg|Arturo Prat University (Main campus from Chile)File:Universidad Arturo Prat (Escuela de Arquitectura).jpg|Arturo Prat University's Architecture-Faculty campus.File:Universidad Santo Tomás.jpg|Santo Tomas University Iquique campus.File:Plaza Slava.jpg|Slava Square .File:Iquique Skatepark.jpg|Iquique Skatepark.File:Feria Artesanal.jpg|Cavancha Beach's Craft Market.File:Cavancha Beach.jpg|Cavancha beach at the end of Cavancha peninsulaFile:Cavancha sub-aqua wall painting.jpg|The underwater-themed mural situated in Cavancha Peninsula

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{Commons}}
  • {{Wikivoyage-inline|Iquique}}
  • NSRW, Iquique, x,
{{Communes in Tarapacá Region}}{{Large cities of Chile}}{{American Capital of Culture}}{{Authority control}}

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