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Internet Archive
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{{Other uses|Internet archive (disambiguation)}}{{selfref|For help citing the Wayback Machine (an Internet Archive service) in the English Wikipedia, see (Help:Using the Wayback Machine).}}{{Redirect-confused|archive.org|arXiv{{!}}arXiv.org}}{{short description|US non-profit organization founded in 1996 providing free public access to archives of digital and digitized media and advocating for a free and open Internet}}{{Primary sources|date=October 2015}}{{Use mdy dates|date=July 2017}}{{Coord|37.782321|-122.47161137|type:landmark|display=title}}







factoids
| ipv6 = 201904WEBSITE=WWW.ALEXA.COM LANGUAGE=EN, | registration = English language>English| footnotes = | company_type = 501(c)(3) nonprofitTITLE=INTERNET ARCHIVE: ABOUT THE ARCHIVE WAYBACK MACHINE >DATE=APRIL 8, 2000 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 8, 2000, HTTP://WHOIS.DOMAINTOOLS.COM/ARCHIVE.ORG>TITLE=ARCHIVE.ORG WHOIS, DNS, & DOMAIN INFO – DOMAINTOOLSWHOIS>DATE=, March 13, 2016, | key_people = | num_employees = 170+| subsid = | website_type = Digital library| num_users = FIRST=MIKE TIGAS, SISI WEI, KEN SCHWENCKE, ALEC GLASSFORDPUBLISHER=, }}
missing image!
- christian science church122908 02.jpg -
Current headquarters
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco-based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge."WEB,weblink Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions, Internet Archive, April 13, 2013, live,weblink October 21, 2009, WEB,weblink Internet Archive: Universal Access to all Knowledge, Internet Archive, April 13, 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130310204948weblink">weblink March 10, 2013, It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of public-domain books. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet.The Internet Archive allows the public to upload and download digital material to its data cluster, but the bulk of its data is collected automatically by its web crawlers, which work to preserve as much of the public web as possible. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains hundreds of billions of web captures.WEB, Internet Archive: Projects,weblink Internet Archive, March 6, 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130301174624weblink">weblink March 1, 2013, Grotke, A. (December 2011). "Web Archiving at the Library of Congress" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131215201723weblink |date=December 15, 2013 }}. Computers In Libraries, v.31 n.10, pp. 15–19. Information Today. The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects.

Operations

missing image!
- Internet Archive - Bibliotheca Alexandrina.jpg -
Mirror of the Internet Archive in the Bibliotheca Alexandrina|alt=
The Archive is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit operating in the United States. It has an annual budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources: revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the Kahle-Austin Foundation.JOURNAL,weblink 10, Spring 2003, Who Owns History?, David, Womack, Cabinet Magazine, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130319144336weblink">weblink March 19, 2013, Its headquarters are in San Francisco, California. From 1996 to 2009, headquarters were in the Presidio of San Francisco, a former U.S. military base. Since 2009, headquarters have been at 300 Funston Avenue in San Francisco, a former Christian Science Church.At some points in time, most of its staff worked in its book-scanning centers. The Archive has data centers in three Californian cities: San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond. To prevent losing the data in case of e.g. a natural disaster, the Archive attempts to create copies of (parts of) the collection at more distant locations, currently including the Bibliotheca Alexandrina"Donation to the new Library of Alexandria in Egypt" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140125175155weblink |date=January 25, 2014 }}; Alexandria, Egypt; April 20, 2002. Bibliotheca Alexandrina {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140902052347weblink |date=September 2, 2014 }}. Internet Archive. in Egypt and a facility in Amsterdam.WEB,weblink Brewster Kahle: Universal Access to All Knowledge – The Long Now, longnow.org, 45'47", October 18, 2016, The Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation ConsortiumWEB,weblink "Members", April 24, 2011, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100613021711weblink">weblink June 13, 2010, mdy-all, International Internet Preservation Consortium. Netpreserve.org and was officially designated as a library by the state of California in 2007."Internet Archive officially a library" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100204103557weblink |date=February 4, 2010 }}, May 2, 2007. Internet Archive

History

(File:Internet Archive headquarters exterior February 2008.jpg|thumb|2008 headquarters)Brewster Kahle founded the archive in May 1996 at around the same time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet.WEB,weblink Brewster Kahle . In Scientific American, Internet Archive, November 4, 1997, April 1, 2016, dead,weblink October 11, 1997, In October 1996, the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities,WEB,weblink Internet Archive: In the Collections, Wayback Machine, June 6, 2000, March 15, 2016, dead,weblink June 6, 2000, though it saved the earliest pages in May 1996.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/19960512183908weblink">weblink dead, May 12, 1996, MTV Online: Main Page – Wayback Machine, Wayback Machine, May 12, 1996, December 16, 2016, mdy-all, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/19960512212113weblink">weblink dead, May 12, 1996, Infoseek Guide – Wayback Machine, Wayback Machine, May 12, 1996, December 16, 2016, The archived content wasn't available to the general public until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine.In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, beginning with the Prelinger Archives. Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of other projects: the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It, and the wiki-editable library catalog and book information site Open Library. Soon after that, the archive began working to provide specialized services relating to the information access needs of the print-disabled; publicly accessible books were made available in a protected Digital Accessible Information System (DAISY) format."Daisy Books for the Print Disabled" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130104215902weblink |date=January 4, 2013 }}, February 25, 2013. Internet Archive.According to its website:WEB, Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions,weblink archive.org, July 7, 2015, live,weblink October 21, 2009, In August 2012, the archive announcedKahle, Brewster (August 7, 2012). "Over 1,000,000 Torrents of Downloadable Books, Music, and Movies" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140813025429weblink |date=August 13, 2014 }}. Internet Archive Blogs. that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for more than 1.3 million existing files, and all newly uploaded files.WEB,weblink Internet Archive Starts Seeding 1,398,875 Torrents, Ernesto, August 7, 2012, TorrentFreak, live,weblink August 8, 2012, "Hot List for bt1.us.archive.org (Updated August 7 2012, 7:31 pm PDT)" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120803014019weblink |date=August 3, 2012 }}. US Cluster. Internet Archive. This method is the fastest means of downloading media from the Archive, as files are served from two Archive data centers, in addition to other torrent clients which have downloaded and continue to serve the files."Welcome to Archive torrents" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160119064508weblink |date=January 19, 2016 }}. Internet Archive. On November 6, 2013, the Internet Archive's headquarters in San Francisco's Richmond District caught fire,WEB,weblink Part of Internet Archive building badly burned in early morning fire, Sarah, B, November 6, 2013, destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.NEWS,weblink Internet Archive's S.F. office damaged in fire, November 16, 2013, San Francisco Chronicle, Kurtis, Alexander, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131212061948weblink">weblink December 12, 2013, According to the Archive, it lost a side-building housing one of 30 of its scanning centers; cameras, lights, and scanning equipment worth hundreds of thousands of dollars; and "maybe 20 boxes of books and film, some irreplaceable, most already digitized, and some replaceable".WEB,weblink Fire Update: Lost Many Cameras, 20 Boxes. No One Hurt, November 6, 2013, Internet Archive Blogs, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131107150230weblink">weblink November 7, 2013, The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage.NEWS,weblink Internet Archive Seeking Donations To Rebuild Its Fire-Damaged Scanning Center, Catherine, Shu, November 6, 2013, TechCrunch, live,weblink July 6, 2017, In November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the archive to be based somewhere in Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build a backup archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump.WEB,weblink Help Us Keep the Archive Free, Accessible, and Reader Private, Kahle, Brewster, November 29, 2016, Internet Archive, December 2, 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170521080543weblink">weblink May 21, 2017, WEB,weblink Donald Trump scares Internet Archive into moving to Canada, Johnson, Tim, December 1, 2016, McClatchy DC, December 2, 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161202113547weblink">weblink December 2, 2016, WEB,weblink The Internet Archive Is Moving to Canada to Protect Itself from Trump, Rothschild, Mike, December 2, 2016, Attn:, December 2, 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161203060818weblink">weblink December 3, 2016, Kahle was quoted as saying:On November 9th in America, we woke up to a new administration promising radical change. It was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and perpetually accessible. It means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions. It means serving patrons in a world in which government surveillance is not going away; indeed it looks like it will increase. Throughout history, libraries have fought against terrible violations of privacy—where people have been rounded up simply for what they read. At the Internet Archive, we are fighting to protect our readers' privacy in the digital world.Since 2018, the Internet Archive visual arts residency, which is organized by Amir Saber Esfahani and Andrew McClintock, helps connect artists with the archive's over 48 petabytesWEB,weblink Used Paired Space, archive.org, 8 March 2019, 8 March 2019, of digitized materials. Over the course of the yearlong residency, visual artists create a body of work which culminates in an exhibition. The hope is to connect digital history with the arts and create something for future generations to appreciate online or off.WEB,weblink The Internet Archive is helping these artists get inspired by digital history, Locker, Melissa, 2018-07-03, Fast Company, en-US, 2018-12-29, Previous artists in residence include Taravat Talepasand, Whitney Lynn, and Jenny Odell.WEB, 2019-09-27, Jenny Odell - Neo-Surreal,weblink 30 May 2018, The Photographers' Gallery, In 2019, the main scanning operations were moved to Cebu in the Philippines and were planned to reach a pace of half a million books scanned per year, until an initial target of 4 million books. The Internet Archive acquires most materials from donations, such as a donation of 250 thousand books from Trent University and hundreds thousand 78rpms from Boston Public Library. All material is then digitized and retained in digital storage, while a digital copy is returned to the original holder and the Internet Archive's copy, if not in the public domain, is borrowed to patrons worldwide one at a time under the controlled digital lending (CDL) theory of the first-sale doctrine.WEB,weblink Internet Archive Expands Partnerships for Open Libraries Project, Matt Enis, 2019-05-02, Meanwhile in the same year its headquarters in San Francisco received a bomb threat which forced a temporary evacuation of the building.WEB, Internet Archive evacuated due to bomb threat,weblink www.msn.com, 14 July 2019,

Web archiving

Wayback Machine

(File:Wayback Machine logo 2010.svg|right|thumb|Wayback Machine logo, used since 2001)The Internet Archive capitalized on the popular use of the term "WABAC Machine" from a segment of The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoon (specifically Peabody's Improbable History), and uses the name "Wayback Machine" for its service that allows archives of the World Wide Web to be searched and accessed.NEWS,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20020601134105weblink">weblink June 1, 2002, A Library as Big as the World, Green, Heather, February 28, 2002, Business Week Online, This service allows users to view some of the archived web pages. The Wayback Machine was created as a joint effort between Alexa Internet and the Internet Archive when a three-dimensional index was built to allow for the browsing of archived web content.WEB,weblink Internet Archive. (2012). Frequently Asked Questions, Internet Archive, April 13, 2013, live,weblink October 21, 2009, Millions of web sites and their associated data (images, source code, documents, etc.) are saved in a database. The service can be used to see what previous versions of web sites used to look like, to grab original source code from web sites that may no longer be directly available, or to visit web sites that no longer even exist. Not all web sites are available because many web site owners choose to exclude their sites. As with all sites based on data from web crawlers, the Internet Archive misses large areas of the web for a variety of other reasons. A 2004 paper found international biases in the coverage, but deemed them "not intentional".JOURNAL, Thelwall, Mike, Vaughan, Liwen, 10.1016/j.lisr.2003.12.009, A fair history of the Web? Examining country balance in the Internet Archive, Library & Information Science Research, 26, 2, 162–176, Spring 2004,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924095411weblink">weblink September 24, 2015, (File:Incoming additional storage at Internet Archive.jpg|thumb|left|A purchase of additional storage at the Internet Archive)The use of the term "Wayback Machine" in the context of the Internet Archive has become common in popular culture; e.g., in the television show (Law & Order: Criminal Intent|Law and Order: Criminal Intent) ("Legacy", first run August 3, 2008), a computer tech uses the "Wayback Machine" to find an archive of a student's Facebook-style web site.{{Citation needed|date=February 2018}}Snapshots used to take at least 6{{ndash}}18 months to be added, but sites eventually were able to be added in real time by request.{{Citation needed|date = July 2015}} A "Save Page Now" archiving feature was made available in October 2013,WEB,weblink Fixing Broken Links on the Internet, October 25, 2013, Rossi, Alexis, Internet Archive, December 29, 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141107193437weblink">weblink November 7, 2014, accessible on the lower right of the Wayback Machine's main page.WEB,weblink Wayback Machine main page, Internet Archive, December 30, 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140103004344weblink">weblink January 3, 2014, Once a target URL is entered and saved, the web page will become part of the Wayback Machine.Through the Internet address web.archive.org,WEB,weblink Web.archive.org directory, users can upload to the Wayback Machine a large variety of contents, including .pdf and data compression file formats. The Wayback Machine creates a permanent local URL of the upload content, that is accessible in the web, even if not listed while searching in theweblink official website.May 12, 1996, is the date of the oldest archived pages on the archive.org WayBack Machine, such as weblink/" title="web.archive.org/web/19960512212113weblink/">infoseek.com.WEB, https:archive.org/post/60275/what-is-the-oldest-page-on-the-wayback-machine, Internet Archive Forums: What is the oldest page on the Wayback Machine?, archive.org, October 6, 2019, In October 2016, it was announced that the way web pages are counted would be changed, resulting in the decrease of the archived pages counts shown.WEB,weblink Defining Web pages, Web sites and Web captures, October 23, 2016, Goel, Vinay, Internet Archive, December 9, 2018, live,weblink December 9, 2018, {| class="wikitable sortable"!Year|2005|2006|2007|2008|2009|2010|2011|2012|2013|2014|20152016|2017|2018!Archived pages (billions)PUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVE URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=DECEMBER 31, 2005, PUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVE URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=DECEMBER 28, 2006, PUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVE URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=DECEMBER 28, 2007, PUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVE URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=DECEMBER 24, 2008, PUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVE URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=DECEMBER 20, 2009, PUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVE URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=DECEMBER 30, 2010, PUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVE URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=AUGUST 30, 2011, PUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVE URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=DECEMBER 31, 2012, PUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVE URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=DECEMBER 31, 2013, website=blog.archive.orgaccess-date=2018-06-10weblink>archive-date=July 7, 2018df=mdy-all}}PUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVE URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=MAY 31, 2015, old counting systemA}}HTTPS://ARCHIVE.ORG/ >TITLE=INTERNET ARCHIVE ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 9, 2018 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160930054303/HTTPS://ARCHIVE.ORG/, September 30, 2016, new counting systemB}}PUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVE URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=JUNE 1, 2017, PUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVE URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=DECEMBER 9, 2018, {| style="margin: 1em auto;"old counting systemA}} Using the old counting system used before October 2016new counting systemB}} Using the new counting system used after October 2016{{Clear}}

Archive-It{{anchor|Archive-It}}

File:Internet-archive-brewster-kahle-2013-0329.webm|thumb|thumbtime=20|Brewster KahleBrewster KahleCreated in early 2006, Archive-ItWEB,weblink archive-it.org, archive-it.org, April 13, 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130414092416weblink">weblink April 14, 2013, is a web archiving subscription service that allows institutions and individuals to build and preserve collections of digital content and create digital archives. Archive-It allows the user to customize their capture or exclusion of web content they want to preserve for cultural heritage reasons. Through a web application, Archive-It partners can harvest, catalog, manage, browse, search, and view their archived collections.WEB,weblink Truman, Gail. 2016. Web Archiving Environmental Scan. Harvard Library Report, 2016, In terms of accessibility, the archived web sites are full text searchable within seven days of capture."What is the Difference between the General Archive (sometimes called the Wayback Machine) and Archive-It?" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161015113110weblink |date=October 15, 2016 }}. Archive-It How to FAQ. Archive-It. – via Jira.com. Content collected through Archive-It is captured and stored as a WARC file. A primary and back-up copy is stored at the Internet Archive data centers. A copy of the WARC file can be given to subscribing partner institutions for geo-redundant preservation and storage purposes to their best practice standards.WEB,weblink About Archive-It, Archive-It., March 3, 2014, live,weblink February 21, 2014, Periodically, the data captured through Archive-It is indexed into the Internet Archive's general archive.{{As of|2014|03}}, Archive-It had more than 275 partner institutions in 46 U.S. states and 16 countries that have captured more than 7.4 billion URLs for more than 2,444 public collections. Archive-It partners are universities and college libraries, state archives, federal institutions, museums, law libraries, and cultural organizations, including the Electronic Literature Organization, North Carolina State Archives and Library, Stanford University, Columbia University, American University in Cairo, Georgetown Law Library, and many others.

Book collections

Text collection

File:Scribe Machine Acquisition 3.jpg|thumb|right|Internet Archive "Scribe" book scanningbook scanningThe Internet Archive Text Archive collection includes digitized books and special collections from various libraries and cultural heritage institutions from around the world.{{citation needed|date=March 2016}} The Internet Archive operates 33 scanning centers in five countries, digitizing about 1,000 books a day for a total of more than 2 million books, financially supported by libraries and foundations.Kahle, Brewster (May 23, 2008). "Books Scanning to be Publicly Funded" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090924105740weblink |date=September 24, 2009 }}. Internet Archive Forums. {{As of|2013|07}}, the collection included 4.4 million books with more than 15 million downloads per month. {{As of|2008|11}}, when there were approximately 1 million texts, the entire collection was greater than 0.5 petabytes, which includes raw camera images, cropped and skewed images, PDFs, and raw OCR data."Bulk Access to OCR for 1 Million Books" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081206124013weblink |date=December 6, 2008 }}. Open Library Blog. November 24, 2008. Between about 2006 and 2008, Microsoft had a special relationship with Internet Archive texts through its Live Search Books project, scanning more than 300,000 books that were contributed to the collection, as well as financial support and scanning equipment. On May 23, 2008, Microsoft announced it would be ending the Live Book Search project and no longer scanning books.WEB,weblink Book search winding down, May 23, 2008, MSDN Live Search Blog,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080820220749weblink">weblink August 20, 2008, Microsoft made its scanned books available without contractual restriction and donated its scanning equipment to its former partners.(File:A Real Page-Turner.jpg|thumb|left|An Internet Archive in-house scan ongoing)Around October 2007, Archive users began uploading public domain books from Google Book Search."Google Books at Internet Archive" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/19971011064403weblink |date=October 11, 1997 }}. Internet Archive. {{as of|2013|November}}, there were more than 900,000 Google-digitized books in the Archive's collection;"List of Google scans" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140126055407weblink |date=January 26, 2014 }} (search). Internet Archive. the books are identical to the copies found on Google, except without the Google watermarks, and are available for unrestricted use and download.Books imported from Google have a metadata tag of scanner:google for searching purposes. The archive provides a link to Google for PDF copies, but also maintains a local PDF copy, which is viewable under the "All Files: HTTPS" link. As all the other books in the collection, they also provide OCR text and images in open formats, particularly DjVu, which Google Books doesn't offer. Brewster Kahle revealed in 2013 that this archival effort was coordinated by Aaron Swartz, who with a "bunch of friends" downloaded the public domain books from Google slow enough and from enough computers to stay within Google's restrictions. They did this to ensure public access to the public domain. The Archive ensured the items were attributed and linked back to Google, which never complained, while libraries "grumbled". According to Kahle, this is an example of Swartz's "genius" to work on what could give the most to the public good for millions of people.Brewster Kahle, Aaron Swartz memorial at the Internet Archive {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150629062022weblink |date=June 29, 2015 }}, 2013-01-24, via The well-prepared mind, via S.I.Lex. {{anchor|RECAP US Federal Court Documents}}Besides books, the Archive offers free and anonymous public access to more than four million court opinions, legal briefs, or exhibits uploaded from the United States Federal Courts' PACER electronic document system via the RECAP web browser plugin. These documents had been kept behind a federal court paywall. On the Archive, they had been accessed by more than six million people by 2013.The Archive's BookReader web app,WEB, Internet Archive BookReader,weblink archive.org, 2019-06-21, built into its website, has features such as single-page, two-page, and thumbnail modes; fullscreen mode; page zooming of high-resolution images; and flip page animation.WEB, Kaplan, Jeff, 10 December 2010, New BookReader!,weblink blog.archive.org, 2019-06-21,

Number of texts for each language

{| class="wikitable"!Number of all texts (June 2, 2016)PUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVE URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 5, 2016, {| class="wikitable sortable"!style="text-align:center;"|Language!Number of texts (November 27, 2015)English language>EnglishPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 15, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, French language>FrenchPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 17, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, German language>GermanPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=JANUARY 14, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, Spanish language>SpanishPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 8, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, Chinese language>ChinesePUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 8, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |ArabicPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 22, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, Dutch language>DutchPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 8, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, Portuguese language>PortuguesePUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 15, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, Russian language>RussianPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 19, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |UrduPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 15, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, Japanese language>JapanesePUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 8, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, ">

Number of texts for each decade{| style"vertical-align: top;"|{| class"wikitable"|+XIX century

!Decade!Number of texts (November 27, 2015)1800s (decade)>1800sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 9, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1810sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 26, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1820sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 15, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1830sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 9, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1840sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 26, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1850sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 17, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1860sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 13, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1870sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 15, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1880sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 16, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1890sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 11, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |{| class="wikitable"|+XX century!Decade!Number of texts (November 27, 2015)|1900sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 18, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1910sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 19, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1920sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 9, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1930sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 9, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1940sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 26, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1950sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 16, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1960sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 15, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1970sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 9, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1980sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 9, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |1990sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 11, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |{| class="wikitable"|+XXI century!Decade!Number of texts (November 27, 2015)|2000sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 26, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015, |2010sPUBLISHER=INTERNET ARCHIVEARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 9, 2016ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 27, 2015,

Open Library

The Open Library is another project of the Internet Archive. The wiki seeks to include a web page for every book ever published: it holds 25 million catalog records of editions. It also seeks to be a web-accessible public library: it contains the full texts of approximately 1,600,000 public domain books (out of the more than five million from the main texts collection), as well as in-print and in-copyright books,WEB, FAQ on Controlled Digital Lending (CDL),weblink National Writers Union, 15 February 2019, which are fully readable, downloadableMAGAZINE, Antone, Gonsalves, Internet Archive Claims Progress Against Google Library Initiative,weblink InformationWeek, December 20, 2006, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071014174528weblink">weblink October 14, 2007, NEWS, The Open Library Makes Its Online Debut,weblink Chronicle of Higher Education, The Wired Campus, July 19, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070930184259weblink">weblink September 30, 2007, dead, mdy-all, and full-text searchable;"Search Inside" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131020130821weblink |date=October 20, 2013 }} (feature). OpenLibrary.org. it offers a two-week loan of e-books in its Books to Borrow lending program for over 647,784 books not in the public domain, in partnership with over 1,000 library partners from 6 countriesHoffelder, Nate (July 9, 2013). "Internet Archive Now Hosts 4.4 Million eBooks, Sees 15 Million eBooks Downloaded Each Month" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131110091506weblink |date=November 10, 2013 }}. The Digital Reader.Internet Archive (June 25, 2011). "In-Library eBook Lending Program Expands to 1,000 Libraries" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140813035522weblink |date=August 13, 2014 }}. Internet Archive Blogs. June 25, 2011. after a free registration on the web site. Open Library is a free and open-source software project, with its source code freely available on GitHub.

List of digitizing sponsors for ebooks

As of December 2018, over 50 sponsors helped the Internet Archive provide over 5 million scanned books (text items). Of these, over 2 million were scanned by Internet Archive itself, funded either by itself or by MSN, the University of Toronto or the Internet Archive's founder's Kahle/Austin Foundation.WEB,weblink Internet Archive meta manager, registration, 2018-12-20, The collections for scanning centers often include also digitisations sponsored by their partners, for instance the University of Toronto performed scans supported by other Canadian libraries.{| class="wikitable sortable"!Sponsor!Main collection! data-sort-type="number" | Number of texts sponsoredGoogle >weblink >| {{formatnum:1302624}}weblink >| {{formatnum:917202}}Kahle/Austin Foundation >| {{formatnum:471376}}MSN >weblink >| {{formatnum:420069}}University of Toronto >weblink >| {{formatnum:176888}}U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library >| {{formatnum:150984}}Wellcome Library >| {{formatnum:127701}}University of Alberta Libraries >weblink >| {{formatnum:100511}}China-America Digital Academic Library (CADAL) >weblink >| {{formatnum:91953}}Sloan Foundation >weblink >| {{formatnum:83111}}The Library of Congress >weblink >| {{formatnum:79132}}University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign >weblink >| {{formatnum:72269}}Princeton Theological Seminary Library >| {{formatnum:66442}}Boston Public Library>Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries {{formatnum:59562}}Wellcome Library >| {{formatnum:55878}}Lyrasis members and Sloan Foundation >weblink >| {{formatnum:54930}}Boston Public Library >| {{formatnum:54067}}Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group >| {{formatnum:51884}}Getty Research Institute >weblink >| {{formatnum:46571}}Open Technologies Alliance (GFOSS)>Greek Open Technologies Alliance through Google Summer of Code {{formatnum:45371}}University of Ottawa >| {{formatnum:44808}}BioStor >| {{formatnum:42919}}Naval Postgraduate School, Dudley Knox Library >| {{formatnum:37727}}University of Victoria Libraries >| {{formatnum:37650}}The Newberry Library >| {{formatnum:37616}}Brigham Young University >| {{formatnum:33784}}Columbia University Libraries >| {{formatnum:31639}}University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill >| {{formatnum:29298}}Montana State Library >| {{formatnum:25372}}Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center >weblink >| {{formatnum:24829}}Michael Best >| {{formatnum:24825}}Bibliotheca Alexandrina >| {{formatnum:24555}}University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Alternates >| {{formatnum:22726}}Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences >| {{formatnum:21468}}George A. Smathers Libraries>University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries {{formatnum:20827}}Environmental Data Resources, Inc. >| {{formatnum:20259}}Public.Resource.Org >| {{formatnum:20185}}Smithsonian Libraries >| {{formatnum:19948}}Eric P. Newman>Eric P. Newman Numismatic Education Society {{formatnum:18781}}National Institute of Standards and Technology>NIST Research Library {{formatnum:18739}}United States National Library of Medicine >| {{formatnum:18091}}Biodiversity Heritage Library >weblink >| {{formatnum:17979}}Ontario Council of University Libraries>Ontario Council of University Libraries and Member Libraries {{formatnum:17880}}The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints >| {{formatnum:16880}}Leo Baeck Institute Archives >| {{formatnum:16769}}North Carolina Digital Heritage Center >weblink >| {{formatnum:14355}}California State Library, Califa/Library Services and Technology Act>LSTA Grant {{formatnum:14149}}Duke University Libraries >| {{formatnum:14122}}The Black Vault >| {{formatnum:13765}}Buddhist Digital Resource Center >| {{formatnum:13460}}John Carter Brown Library >| {{formatnum:12943}}Marine Biological Laboratory>MBL/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Library >| {{formatnum:11538}}Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Ernst Mayr Library >weblink >| {{formatnum:10196}}AFS Intercultural Programs >| {{formatnum:10114}}

Media collections

(File:IMG 5020 - Flickr - Jason "Textfiles" Scott.jpg|thumb|left|Media reader)(File:Unrelated Microfilm.jpg|thumb|Microfilms at the Internet Archive)File:Videocassettes and VCRs at Internet Archive.jpg|thumb|VideocassetteVideocassetteIn addition to web archives, the Internet Archive maintains extensive collections of digital media that are attested by the uploader to be in the public domain in the United States or licensed under a license that allows redistribution, such as Creative Commons licenses. Media are organized into collections by media type (moving images, audio, text, etc.), and into sub-collections by various criteria. Each of the main collections includes a "Community" sub-collection (formerly named "Open Source") where general contributions by the public are stored.

Audio collection

The Audio Archive includes music, audiobooks, news broadcasts, old time radio shows, and a wide variety of other audio files. There are more than 200,000 free digital recordings in the collection. The subcollections include audio books and poetry, podcasts,NEWS,weblink How to Host Podcast MP3 on Archive.org, TurboFuture, 2017-08-04, en,weblink August 4, 2017, live, mdy-all, non-English audio, and many others."Welcome to Audio Archive" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140117045201weblink |date=January 17, 2014 }}. Internet Archive. The sound collections are curated by B. George, director of the ARChive of Contemporary Music.WEB, Pritchard, Will, How The Great 78 Project is saving half a million songs from obscurity,weblink The Vinyl Factory, November 2, 2017, August 18, 2017, The Live Music Archive sub-collection includes more than 170,000 concert recordings from independent musicians, as well as more established artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules about recording their concerts, such as the Grateful Dead, and more recently, The Smashing Pumpkins. Also, Jordan Zevon has allowed the Internet Archive to host a definitive collection of his father Warren Zevon's concert recordings. The Zevon collection ranges from 1976–2001 and contains 126 concerts including 1,137 songs.WEB, Tirpack, Alex, Warren Zevon live shows hit the web, possible film in the works,weblink Rolling Stone, June 3, 2009, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130202232253weblink">weblink February 2, 2013, The Great 78 Project aims to digitize 250,000 78 rpm singles (500,000 songs) from the period between 1880 and 1960, donated by various collectors and institutions. It has been developed in collaboration with the Archive of Contemporary Music and George Blood Audio, responsible for the audio digitization.

Brooklyn Museum

This collection contains approximately 3,000 items from Brooklyn Museum.WEB,weblink Brooklyn Museum: Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive, Internet Archive, December 4, 2014, live,weblink January 3, 2015,

Images collection

This collection contains more than 880,000 items.WEB,weblink Download & Streaming : Images : Internet Archive, Internet Archive, November 4, 2014, live,weblink November 4, 2014, Cover Art Archive, Metropolitan Museum of Art - Gallery Images, NASA Images, Occupy Wall Street Flickr Archive, and USGS Maps and are some sub-collections of Image collection.

Cover Art Archive

The Cover Art Archive is a joint project between the Internet Archive and MusicBrainz, whose goal is to make cover art images on the Internet. This collection contains more than 330,000 items.WEB,weblink Cover Art Archive: Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive, Internet Archive, December 4, 2014, live,weblink January 3, 2015,

Metropolitan Museum of Art images

The images of this collection are from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This collection contains more than 140,000 items.WEB,weblink Metropolitan Museum of Art – Gallery Images: Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive, Internet Archive, December 4, 2014, live,weblink January 3, 2015,

NASA Images

The NASA Images archive was created through a Space Act Agreement between the Internet Archive and NASA to bring public access to NASA's image, video, and audio collections in a single, searchable resource. The IA NASA Images team worked closely with all of the NASA centers to keep adding to the ever-growing collection.WEB,weblink NASA Images, archive, Internet Archive, April 13, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121111124412weblink">weblink November 11, 2012, mdy-all, The nasaimages.org site launched in July 2008 and had more than 100,000 items online at the end of its hosting in 2012.

Occupy Wall Street Flickr archive

This collection contains creative commons licensed photographs from Flickr related to the Occupy Wall Street movement. This collection contains more than 15,000 items.WEB,weblink Occupy Wall Street Flickr Archive: Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive, Internet Archive, December 4, 2014, live,weblink January 3, 2015,

USGS Maps

This collection contains more than 59,000 items from Libre Map Project.WEB,weblink USGS Maps: Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive, Internet Archive, December 4, 2014, live,weblink January 3, 2015,

Machinima archive

One of the sub-collections of the Internet Archive's Video Archive is the Machinima Archive. This small section hosts many Machinima videos. Machinima is a digital artform in which computer games, game engines, or software engines are used in a sandbox-like mode to create motion pictures, recreate plays, or even publish presentations or keynotes. The archive collects a range of Machinima films from internet publishers such as Rooster Teeth and Machinima.com as well as independent producers. The sub-collection is a collaborative effort among the Internet Archive, the How They Got Game research project at Stanford University, the Academy of Machinima Arts and Sciences, and Machinima.com."Welcome to Machinima" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130323173619weblink |date=March 23, 2013 }}. Internet Archive.

Mathematics – Hamid Naderi Yeganeh

This collection contains mathematical images created by mathematical artist Hamid Naderi Yeganeh.WEB,weblink Mathematics – Hamid Naderi Yeganeh (Image): Free Image : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive, Internet Archive, December 4, 2014, live,weblink October 14, 2014,

Microfilm collection

This collection contains approximately 160,000 items from a variety of libraries including the University of Chicago Libraries, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the University of Alberta, Allen County Public Library, and the National Technical Information Service.WEB,weblink Internet Archive Search: collection:microfilm, Internet Archive, March 20, 2014, live,weblink March 31, 2016, WEB,weblink Microfilm, Internet Archive, March 20, 2014, live,weblink March 20, 2014,

Moving image collection

{{See also|Special:WhatLinksHere/Template:Internet Archive film{{!}}Wikipedia list of films freely available on the Internet Archive}}The Internet Archive holds a collection of approximately 3,863 feature films.WEB, Internet Archive Search: Collection: Feature Films,weblink Internet Archive, March 6, 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130402214317weblink">weblink April 2, 2013, Additionally, the Internet Archive's Moving Image collection includes: newsreels, classic cartoons, pro- and anti-war propaganda, The Video Cellar Collection, Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection, early television, and ephemeral material from Prelinger Archives, such as advertising, educational, and industrial films, as well as amateur and home movie collections.Subcategories of this collection include:
  • IA's Brick Films collection, which contains stop-motion animation filmed with Lego bricks, some of which are "remakes" of feature films.
  • IA's Election 2004 collection, a non-partisan public resource for sharing video materials related to the 2004 United States presidential election.
  • IA's FedFlix collection, Joint Venture NTIS-1832 between the National Technical Information Service and Public.Resource.Org that features "the best movies of the United States Government, from training films to history, from our national parks to the U.S. Fire Academy and the Postal Inspectors"WEB, Internet Archive, FedFlix,weblink December 14, 2013,
  • IA's Independent News collection, which includes sub-collections such as the Internet Archive's World At War competition from 2001, in which contestants created short films demonstrating "why access to history matters". Among their most-downloaded video files are eyewitness recordings of the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.
  • IA's September 11 Television Archive, which contains archival footage from the world's major television networks of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, as they unfolded on live television."September 11th Television Archive" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140403154832weblink |date=April 3, 2014 }}. Internet Archive.

{{Visible anchor|Netlabels}}

{{distinguish|Netlabel}}The Archive has a collection of freely distributable music that is streamed and available for download via its Netlabels service. The music in this collection generally has Creative Commons-license catalogs of virtual record labels."Welcome to Netlabels" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140404162519weblink |date=April 4, 2014 }}. Internet Archive.WEB,weblink Download free music at the Internet Archive, Lifehacker, October 21, 2006, Wendy, Boswell, The Internet Archive has a ginormous collection of free, downloadable music in their NetLabels category ..., live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120505115952weblink">weblink May 5, 2012,

Open Educational Resources

Open Educational Resources is a digital collection at archive.org. This collection contains hundreds of free courses, video lectures, and supplemental materials from universities in the United States and China. The contributors of this collection are ArsDigita University, Hewlett Foundation, MIT, Monterey Institute, and Naropa University.WEB,weblink Download & Streaming : Open Educational Resources : Internet Archive, Internet Archive, June 17, 2014, live,weblink July 2, 2014,

TV News Search & Borrow

(File:TV tuners at the Internet Archive.jpg|thumb|left|TV tuners at the Internet Archive)In September 2012, the Internet Archive launched the TV News Search & Borrow service for searching U.S. national news programs.WEB,weblink TV NEWS : Search Captions. Borrow Broadcasts : TV Archive : Internet Archive, Internet Archive, April 13, 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130420214957weblink">weblink April 20, 2013, The service is built on closed captioning transcripts and allows users to search and stream 30-second video clips. Upon launch, the service contained "350,000 news programs collected over 3 years from national U.S. networks and stations in San Francisco and Washington D.C."NEWS,weblink Let's Go to the Videotape: Nonprofit Offers News Clips, Fowler, Geoffrey A., Hagey, Keach, September 18, 2012, The Wall Street Journal Online, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130424135135weblink">weblink April 24, 2013, {{subscription required|date=November 2013}} According to Kahle, the service was inspired by the Vanderbilt Television News Archive, a similar library of televised network news programs.WEB,weblink Launch of TV News Search & Borrow with 350,000 Broadcasts, Brewster, Kahle, September 17, 2012, Internet Archive Blogs, live,weblink August 13, 2014, In contrast to Vanderbilt, which limits access to streaming video to individuals associated with subscribing colleges and universities, the TV News Search & Borrow allows open access to its streaming video clips. In 2013, the Archive received an additional donation of "approximately 40,000 well-organized tapes" from the estate of a Philadelphia woman, Marion Stokes. Stokes "had recorded more than 35 years of TV news in Philadelphia and Boston with her VHS and Betamax machines."NEWS
, Brownell
, Brett
, Benjy Hansen-Brandy
, Meet the People Behind the Wayback Machine, One of Our Favorite Things About the Internet
, Mother Jones
, June 7, 2014
, May 22, 2014
,weblink
, live
,weblink
, June 7, 2014
,

Other services and endeavors

Physical media

(File:Vintage wall intercom at Internet Archive.jpg|thumb|An example of another "archived" item)Voicing a strong reaction to the idea of books simply being thrown away, and inspired by the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Kahle now envisions collecting one copy of every book ever published. "We're not going to get there, but that's our goal", he said. Alongside the books, Kahle plans to store the Internet Archive's old servers, which were replaced in 2010.WEB,weblink Internet Archive founder turns to new information storage device – the book, August 1, 2011, The Guardian, Brewster Kahle, the man behind a project to file every webpage, now wants to gather one copy of every published book,weblink August 22, 2012,

Software

The Internet Archive has "the largest collection of historical software online in the world", spanning 50 years of computer history in terabytes of computer magazines and journals, books, shareware discs, FTP web sites, video games, etc. The Internet Archive has created an archive of what it describes as "vintage software", as a way to preserve them.WEB,weblink The Internet Archive Classic Software Preservation Project, Internet Archive, October 21, 2007,weblink October 19, 2007, live, The project advocated for an exemption from the United States Digital Millennium Copyright Act to permit them to bypass copy protection, which was approved in 2003 for a period of three years.WEB,weblink Internet Archive Gets DMCA Exemption To Help Archive Vintage Software, October 21, 2007,weblink October 20, 2007, live, The Archive does not offer the software for download, as the exemption is solely "for the purpose of preservation or archival reproduction of published digital works by a library or archive."JOURNAL,weblink Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies, Federal Register, 71, 227, 68472–68480, November 27, 2006, Library of Congress United States Copyright Office, Copyright Office, October 21, 2007, Computer programs and video games distributed in formats that have become obsolete and that require the original media or hardware as a condition of access, when circumvention is accomplished for the purpose of preservation or archival reproduction of published digital works by a library or archive. A format shall be considered obsolete if the machine or system necessary to render perceptible a work stored in that format is no longer manufactured or is no longer reasonably available in the commercial marketplace.,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071101055030weblink">weblink November 1, 2007, live, The exemption was renewed in 2006, and in 2009 was indefinitely extended pending further rulemakings.JOURNAL,weblink October 28, 2009, Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies, Library of Congress United States Copyright Office, Copyright Office, Federal Register, 27, 206, 55137–55139, PDF, December 17, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091202003904weblink">weblink December 2, 2009, live, The Library reiterated the exemption as a "Final Rule" with no expiration date in 2010.JOURNAL,weblink Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies, Library of Congress Copyright Office, Federal Register, July 27, 2010, 75, 143, 43825–43839, live,weblink June 27, 2015, In 2013, the Internet Archive began to provide abandonware video games browser-playable via MESS, for instance the Atari 2600 game E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.WEB,weblink The Internet Archive puts Atari games and obsolete software directly in your browser, Adi, Robertson, October 25, 2013, The Verge, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131027202242weblink">weblink October 27, 2013, Since December 23, 2014, the Internet Archive presents, via a browser-based DOSBox emulation, thousands of DOS/PC gamesNEWS,weblink You can now play nearly 2,400 MS-DOS video games in your browser, Abby, Ohlheiser, January 5, 2015, January 8, 2015, Washington Post, live,weblink January 7, 2015, Each New Boot a Miracle {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150109113609weblink |date=January 9, 2015 }} by Jason Scott (December 23, 2014)collection:softwarelibrary_msdos {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150628201230weblink |date=June 28, 2015 }} in the Internet Archive (December 29, 2014)WEB,weblink Saving video game history begins right now, March 5, 2015, March 5, 2015, Gamasutra, Kris, Graft, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150307161450weblink">weblink March 7, 2015, for "scholarship and research purposes only".WEB,weblink Internet Archive's Terms of Use, Privacy Policy, and Copyright Policy, December 31, 2014, January 8, 2015, archive.org, Access to the Archive's Collections is provided at no cost to you and is granted for scholarship and research purposes only., live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150103160557weblink">weblink January 3, 2015, NEWS, Lu, Kathy, Time suck alert: 'Pac-Man' among thousands of MS-DOS games available for free,weblink December 7, 2016, The Kansas City Star, January 12, 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161220192530weblink">weblink December 20, 2016, NEWS, O'Neil, Lauren, 90's kids rejoice as Internet Archive releases 2,300 MS-DOS games for free – Your Community,weblink December 7, 2016, CBCNEWS, January 7, 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161017084634weblink">weblink October 17, 2016,

{{Anchor|ttscribe}}Table Top Scribe System

A combined hardware software system has been developed that performs a safe method of digitizing content.WEB,weblink October 23, 2018, Table Top Scribe System, Internet Archive, live,weblink October 10, 2018, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Linux to help the Library of Congress save American history, Michael, Stutz, The Linux foundation, Linux.com, March 28, 2007, live,weblink October 23, 2017, mdy-all,

Credit Union

From 2012 to November 2015, the Internet Archive operated the Internet Archive Federal Credit Union, a federal credit union based in New Brunswick, New Jersey, with the goal of providing access to low- and middle-income people. Throughout its short existence, the IAFCU experienced significant conflicts with the National Credit Union Administration, which severely limited the IAFCU's loan portfolio and concerns over serving Bitcoin firms. At the time of its dissolution, it consisted of 395 members and was worth $2.5 million.WEB,weblink Death of a Credit Union: Internet Archive FCU Voluntarily Liquidates, Peter Strozniak |, December 18, 2015 at 07:17 AM | Originally published on, Cutimes.Com, Credit Union Times, October 6, 2019, WEB,weblink Difficult Times at our Credit Union | Internet Archive Blogs, October 6, 2019,

Controversies and legal disputes

{{see also|Wayback Machine#In legal evidence}}(File:The main hall at Internet Archive (2013).jpg|thumb|The main hall of the current headquarters)

Grateful Dead

In November 2005, free downloads of Grateful Dead concerts were removed from the site. John Perry Barlow identified Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, and Bill Kreutzmann as the instigators of the change, according to an article in The New York Times.NEWS, Jeff, Leeds, Jesse Fox, Mayshark, Wrath of Deadheads stalls a Web crackdown,weblink The New York Times, December 1, 2005, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150508194949weblink">weblink May 8, 2015, Phil Lesh commented on the change in a November 30, 2005, posting to his personal web site:}}A November 30 forum post from Brewster Kahle summarized what appeared to be the compromise reached among the band members. Audience recordings could be downloaded or streamed, but soundboard recordings were to be available for streaming only. Concerts have since been re-added.WEB,weblink Good News and an Apology: GD on the Internet Archive, Brewster, Kahle, Matt, Vernon, December 1, 2005, Live Music Archive Forum, Internet Archive, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140806205924weblink">weblink August 6, 2014, Authors and date indicate the first posting in the forum thread.

National security letters

{{Anchor|National security letter}}{{multiple image| width = 160| image1 = EFF-IA National security letter.pdf| image2 = EFF-IA National security letter.pdf{{!}}page=2| footer = A national security letter issued to the Internet Archive demanding information about a user|direction = horizontal}}On May 8, 2008, it was revealed that the Internet Archive had successfully challenged an FBI national security letter asking for logs on an undisclosed user.NEWS, Broache, Anne, May 7, 2008,weblink FBI rescinds secret order for Internet Archive records, CNet, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080515080212weblink">weblink May 15, 2008, NEWS, Nakashima, Ellen,weblink FBI Backs Off From Secret Order for Data After Lawsuit, Washington Post, May 8, 2008, live,weblink September 6, 2008, On November 28, 2016, it was revealed that a second FBI national security letter had been successfully challenged that had been asking for logs on another undisclosed user.NEWS, Crocker, Andrew, December 1, 2016,weblink Internet Archive Received National Security Letter with FBI Misinformation about Challenging Gag Order, Electronic Frontier Foundation, live,weblink December 13, 2016,

Uncensored hosting and terrorism

On August 17, 2011, the Israeli-American Middle East Media Research Institute published "Al-Qaeda, Jihadis Infest the San Francisco, California-Based 'Internet Archive' Library", which detailed how members can post anonymously and enjoy free uncensored hosting.WEB,weblink Al-Qaeda, Jihadis Infest the San Francisco, California-Based 'Internet Archive' Library, The Middle East Media Research Institute, August 17, 2011, Steven, Stalinsky, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130109095508weblink">weblink January 9, 2013,

Omni magazine

In a story at his Web site, entitled "What the heck is going on at Internet Archive?", author Steven Saylor noted: "Sometime in 2012, the entire run of Omni magazine was uploaded (and made available for download) at Internet Archive ... Since those old issues must contain hundreds of works still under copyright by numerous contributors, how is this legal?"WEB,weblink Archive Page – What's the heck is going on at Internet Archive?, Stevensaylor.com, January 8, 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130630140053weblink">weblink June 30, 2013, At least one contributor to the magazine, author Steve Perry, has publicly complained that he never gave permission for his work to be uploaded ("they didn't say a word in my direction"),WEB,weblink Unca Harlan's Art Deco Dining Pavilion'': Another Can of Worms, January 8, 2013, Perry, Steve, harlanellison.com, and it has been noted that all issues containing the work of Harlan Ellison apparently have been taken down.WEB,weblink OMNI, Digital Rights, and Voodoo, January 8, 2013, Harlanellison.com, Glenn Fleishman, investigating the question "Who Owns Omni?", writes that "Almost all of the authors, photographers, and artists whose work appeared in the magazine had signed contracts that granted only short-term rights. ... [No one] could simply reprint or post the content from older issues."NEWS, Fleishman, Glenn, August 2, 2013,weblink The rebirth of Omni—and its vibe, BoingBoing, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130805131151weblink">weblink August 5, 2013,

Opposition to SOPA and PIPA bills

The Internet Archive blacked out its web site for 12 hours on January 18, 2012, in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act and the PROTECT IP Act bills, two pieces of legislation in the United States Congress that they claimed would "negatively affect the ecosystem of web publishing that led to the emergence of the Internet Archive". This occurred in conjunction with the English Wikipedia blackout, as well as numerous other protests across the Internet.WEB,weblink 12 Hours Dark: Internet Archive vs. Censorship, Kahle, Brewster, January 17, 2012, Internet Archive Blogs, live,weblink August 13, 2014,

Opposition to Google Books settlement

The Internet Archive is a member of the Open Book Alliance, which has been among the most outspoken critics of the Google Book Settlement. The Archive advocates an alternative digital library project.WEB,weblink Open Content Alliance, opencontentalliance.org, April 13, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130410032304weblink">weblink April 10, 2013,

Nintendo Power magazine

In February 2016, Internet Archive users had begun archiving digital copies of Nintendo Power, Nintendo's official magazine for their games and products, which ran from 1988 to 2012. The first 140 issues had been collected, before Nintendo had the archive removed on August 8, 2016. In response to the take-down, Nintendo told gaming website Polygon, "[Nintendo] must protect our own characters, trademarks and other content. The unapproved use of Nintendo's intellectual property can weaken our ability to protect and preserve it, or to possibly use it for new projects".WEB,weblink "Nintendo takes down Nintendo Power collection from Internet Archive after noticing it", Frank, Allegra, August 8, 2016, Polygon (website), Polygon, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160811134720weblink">weblink August 11, 2016,

Government of India

In August 2017, the Government of India blocked the Internet Archive along with other file-sharing websites, citing piracy concerns after copies of two Bollywood films were allegedly shared via the service.WEB,weblink 'Bollywood blocks the Internet Archive', Kelion, Leo, August 9, 2017, BBC, live, 1 January 2018, The block was lifted subsequently.

Turkey

{{See also|Censorship in Turkey}}On October 9, 2016, the Internet Archive was temporarily blocked in Turkey after it was used (amongst other file hoster) by hackers to host 17 GB of leaked government emails.WEB, Turkey restores access to Google Drive after blocking cloud storage services,weblink Turkey Blocks, 10 October 2016, WEB,weblink Turkey Country Report | Freedom on the Net 2017, November 14, 2017, freedomhouse.org,

Ceramic archivists collection

File:Ceramic Archivists by sculptor Nuala Creed at Internet Archive.jpg|thumb|CeramicCeramicThe Great Room of the Internet Archive features a collection of more than 100 ceramic figures representing employees of the Internet Archive. This collection, inspired by the statues of the Xian warriors in China, was commissioned by Brewster Kahle, sculpted by Nuala Creed, and is ongoing.NEWS,weblink These Are The Ceramic Action Figures For The Heroes Of The Internet, Karyne, Levy, 29 April 2014, 12 July 2019, Business Insider, Insider Inc.,

Artists in Residence

The Internet Archive visual arts residency,WEB,weblink Internet Archive is a treasure trove of material for artists - SFChronicle.com, 2017-08-11, www.sfchronicle.com, en-US, 2019-08-01, organized by Amir Saber Esfahani, is designed to connect emerging and mid-career artists with the Archive’s millions of collections and to show what is possible when open access to information intersects with the arts. During this one-year residency, selected artists develop a body of work that responds to and utilizes the Archive’s collections in their own practice.WEB,weblink The Internet Archive’s 2019 Artists in Residency Exhibition {{!, Internet Archive Blogs|language=en-US|access-date=2019-08-01}}2019 Residency Artists: Caleb Duarte, Whitney Lynn, and Jeffrey Alan Scudder.2018 Residency Artists: Mieke Marple, Chris Sollars, and Taravat Talepasand.2017 Residency Artists: Laura Hyunjhee Kim, Jeremiah Jenkins, and Jenny Odell

See also

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Similar projects
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Other
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Notes

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

External links

{{Commons category}}
  • {{Official websiteweblink}}
  • Internet Archive Mirror at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
  • Web Archiving at archive.org, details of Internet Archive operations
  • {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/19971011064403weblink |date=October 11, 1997 |title=Internet Archive }}
  • {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/19960512183908weblink |date=May 12, 1996 |title=Earliest known website on the Archive }}
  • {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/19960512212113weblink |date=May 12, 1996 |title=Second earliest known website on the Archive }}
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/weblink">Internet Archive (recursive archive)
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110327223229weblink">Early websites from 1996
{{Internet Archive navbox}}{{Ebooks}}{{Authority control}}

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