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Innsbruck
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{{short description|Capital city of Tyrol, Austria}}{{For|places with similar names|Innsbrook (disambiguation){{!}}Innsbrook}}









factoids
name Innsbruck| native_name = | settlement_type =



position=center
| imagesize = | image_caption =| image_shield = AT Innsbruck COA.svg| shield_size = 80x110px| shield_link = | pushpin_map = Austria Tyrol#Austria| pushpin_mapsize = 270| pushpin_map_caption = Location within Austria| image_map = | mapsize = | map_alt =| map_caption = Location within Statutarstadt district
47061136display=inline,title}}List of sovereign states>Country| subdivision_name = {{AUT}}States of Austria>StateTyrol (state)>TyrolDistrict (Austria)>DistrictStatutory city (Austria)>Statutory city| parts_type = | parts_style = para| p1 = Burgomaster>Mayor| leader_name = Georg Willi| leader_party = | leader_title1 = | leader_name1 = area_footnotes}}area_total_km2}}| area_metro_km2 = | elevation_m = 574| elevation_max_m = | elevation_min_m = population_as_of}}population_footnotes}}population_total}}| population_urban = | population_metro = 228,583| population_note = | population_density_km2 = auto| established_title = | established_date = Central European Time>CETCentral European Summer Time>CEST| utc_offset = +1| utc_offset_DST = +2Vehicle registration plates of Austria>IList of postal codes in Austria>Postal code| postal_code = 6010–6080Telephone numbers in Austria>Area code| area_code = 0512| website = innsbruck.at| footnotes = }}Innsbruck ({{IPA-de|ˈɪnsbʁʊk|lang}}, {{small|Austrian German:}} {{IPA-de|ˈɪnsbrʊk|}}; {{small|Bavarian:}} {{IPA-all|ˈɪnʃprʊk|}}) is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria. It is in the Inn valley, at its junction with the Wipp valley, which provides access to the Brenner Pass some {{convert|30|km|1|abbr=on}} to the south.Located in the broad valley between high mountains, the so-called North Chain in the Karwendel Alps (Hafelekarspitze, {{Convert|2334|m|ft|0|disp=or}}) to the north, and the Patscherkofel ({{Convert|2246|m|ft|0|disp=or |abbr=on}}) and Serles ({{Convert|2718|m|ft|0|disp=or |abbr=on}}) to the south.Innsbruck is an internationally renowned winter sports center, and hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics as well as the 1984 and 1988 Winter Paralympics. Innsbruck also hosted the first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012. The name translates as "Inn Bridge".WEB,weblink History of Innsbruck - Lonely Planet Travel Information, Lonely, Planet, lonelyplanet.com,

History

The earliest traces suggest initial inhabitation in the early Stone Age. Surviving pre-Roman place names show that the area has been populated continuously. In the 4th century the Romans established the army station Veldidena (the name survives in today's urban district Wilten) at Oenipons (Innsbruck), to protect the economically important commercial road from Verona-Brenner-Augsburg in their province of Raetia.The first mention of Innsbruck dates back to the name Oeni Pontum or Oeni Pons which is Latin for bridge (pons) over the Inn (Oenus), which was an important crossing point over the Inn river. The Counts of Andechs acquired the town in 1180. In 1248 the town passed into the hands of the Counts of Tyrol.Chizzali. Tyrol: Impressions of Tyrol. (Innsbruck: Alpina Printers and Publishers), p. 5 The city's arms show a bird's-eye view of the Inn bridge, a design used since 1267. The route over the Brenner Pass was then a major transport and communications link between the north and the south of Europe, and the easiest route across the Alps. It was part of the Via Imperii, a medieval imperial road under special protection of the king. The revenues generated by serving as a transit station on this route enabled the city to flourish.File:Albrecht Dürer - View of Innsbruck - WGA7356.jpg|thumb|left|View of Innsbruck by Albrecht DürerAlbrecht DürerInnsbruck became the capital of all Tyrol in 1429 and in the 15th century the city became a centre of European politics and culture as Emperor Maximilian I also resided in Innsbruck in the 1490s. The city benefited from the emperor's presence as can be seen for example in the Hofkirche. Here a funeral monument for Maximilian was planned and erected partly by his successors. The ensemble with a cenotaph and the bronze statues of real and mythical ancestors of the Habsburg emperor are one of the main artistic monuments of Innsbruck. A regular postal service between Innsbruck and Mechelen was established in 1490 by the Thurn-und-Taxis-Post.File:Schloß Ambras (Merian).jpg|thumb|Ambras CastleAmbras CastleIn 1564 Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria received the rulership over Tirol and other Further Austrian possessions administered from Innsbruck up to the 18th century. He had Schloss Ambras built and arranged there his unique Renaissance collections nowadays mainly part of Vienna's Kunsthistorisches Museum. Up to 1665 a (wikt:stirps#Noun|stirps) of the Habsburg dynasty ruled in Innsbruck with an independent court. In the 1620s the first opera house north of the Alps was erected in Innsbruck (Dogana).In 1669 the university was founded. Also as a compensation for the court as Emperor Leopold I again reigned from Vienna and the Tyrolean stirps of the Habsburg dynasty had ended in 1665.{{clarify|date=July 2015}}File:Franz von Defregger 001.jpg|thumb|left|Andreas Hofer with his Consultants at the Hofburg by Franz DefreggerFranz DefreggerDuring the Napoleonic Wars Tyrol was ceded to Bavaria, ally of France. Andreas Hofer led a Tyrolean peasant army to victory in the Battles of Bergisel against the combined Bavarian and French forces, and then made Innsbruck the centre of his administration. The combined army later overran the Tyrolean militia army and until 1814 Innsbruck was part of Bavaria. After the Vienna Congress Austrian rule was restored. Until 1918, the town (one of the 4 autonomous towns in Tyrol) was part of the Austrian monarchy (Austria side after the compromise of 1867), head of the district of the same name, one of the 21 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Tyrol province.Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm KLEIN, 1967The Tyrolean hero Andreas Hofer was executed in Mantua; his remains were returned to Innsbruck in 1823 and interred in the Franciscan church.During World War I, the only recorded action taking place in Innsbruck was near the end of the war. On February 20, 1918, Allied planes flying out of Italy raided Innsbruck, causing casualties among the Austrian troops there. No damage to the town is recorded.Reynolds, Churchill, et al. The Story of the Great War, vol. 14. (New York: Collier and Son, 1919) In November 1918 Innsbruck and all Tyrol were occupied by the 20 to 22 thousand soldiers of the III Corps of the First Italian Armyweblink 1929, the first official Austrian Chess Championship was held in Innsbruck.

Annexation and bombing

In 1938 Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in the Anschluss. Between 1943 and April 1945, Innsbruck experienced twenty-two air raids and suffered heavy damage.

Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino

In 1996, the European Union approved further cultural and economic integration between the Austrian province of Tyrol and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino by recognizing the creation of the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino.

Geography

Climate

Innsbruck has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) using {{convert|0|C}} isotherm or oceanic climate (Cfb) using the original {{convert|-3|C}} isothermWEB,weblink Account Suspended, innsbruck.climatemps.com, since it has larger annual temperature differences than most of Central Europe due to its location in the centre of the Continent and its position around mountainous terrains.Winters are often very cold (colder than those of most major European cities) and snowy, although the foehn wind sometimes brings pronounced thaws.Spring is brief; days start to get warm, often over {{convert|15|°C|°F}}, but nights remain cool or even freezing.Summer is highly variable and unpredictable. Days can be cool {{convert|17|°C|°F}} and rainy, or sunny and extremely hot, sometimes hitting {{convert|34|°C|°F}}. In summer, as expected for an alpine-influenced climate, the diurnal temperature variation is often very high as nights usually remain cool, being {{convert|12|°C|°F}} on average, but sometimes dipping as low as {{convert|6|°C|°F}}.The average annual temperature is {{convert|9|°C|°F}}.{{Weather box
Innsbruck Airport>LOWI)|metric first = yes|single line = yes|Jan record high C = 20.2|Feb record high C = 18.6|Mar record high C = 23.9|Apr record high C = 26.4|May record high C = 32.2|Jun record high C = 33.6|Jul record high C = 37.7|Aug record high C = 35.0|Sep record high C = 32.1|Oct record high C = 26.0|Nov record high C = 21.2|Dec record high C = 17.1|year record high C = 37.7|Jan high C = 3.5|Feb high C = 6.3|Mar high C = 11.3|Apr high C = 14.8|May high C = 20.3|Jun high C = 22.6|Jul high C = 24.7|Aug high C = 24.4|Sep high C = 20.8|Oct high C = 15.8|Nov high C = 8.2|Dec high C = 3.7|year high C = 14.7|Jan mean C = -1.7|Feb mean C = 0.4|Mar mean C = 4.8|Apr mean C = 8.4|May mean C = 13.4|Jun mean C = 16.1|Jul mean C = 18.1|Aug mean C = 17.7|Sep mean C = 14.0|Oct mean C = 9.1|Nov mean C = 2.9|Dec mean C = -1.0|year mean C = 8.5|Jan low C = -5.2|Feb low C = -3.7|Mar low C = 0.2|Apr low C = 3.4|May low C = 7.8|Jun low C = 10.8|Jul low C = 12.8|Aug low C = 12.7|Sep low C = 9.3|Oct low C = 4.8|Nov low C = -0.5|Dec low C = -4.2|year low C = 4.0|Jan record low C = -23.8|Feb record low C = -17.3|Mar record low C = -16.5|Apr record low C = -4.8|May record low C = -2.3|Jun record low C = 3.0|Jul record low C = 4.4|Aug record low C = 1.9|Sep record low C = -0.9|Oct record low C = -6.6|Nov record low C = -17.9|Dec record low C = -20.1|year record low C = -23.8|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 43.9|Feb precipitation mm = 41.4|Mar precipitation mm = 55.9|Apr precipitation mm = 57.7|May precipitation mm = 87.1|Jun precipitation mm = 110.3|Jul precipitation mm = 137.2|Aug precipitation mm = 111.3|Sep precipitation mm = 78.1|Oct precipitation mm = 57.3|Nov precipitation mm = 63.2|Dec precipitation mm = 53.1|year precipitation mm = 896.5|Jan snow cm = 25.6|Feb snow cm = 30.0|Mar snow cm = 12.5|Apr snow cm = 3.5|May snow cm = 0.0|Jun snow cm = 0.0|Jul snow cm = 0.0|Aug snow cm = 0.0|Sep snow cm = 0.0|Oct snow cm = 0.8|Nov snow cm = 12.0|Dec snow cm = 25.9|year snow cm = 110.3|unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm|Jan precipitation days= 7.4|Feb precipitation days= 7.3|Mar precipitation days= 8.8|Apr precipitation days= 9.7|May precipitation days= 10.7|Jun precipitation days= 13.2|Jul precipitation days= 13.9|Aug precipitation days= 12.6|Sep precipitation days= 9.2|Oct precipitation days= 7.8|Nov precipitation days= 9.0|Dec precipitation days= 8.6|year precipitation days = 118.2|unit snow days = 1.0 cm|Jan snow days = 20.3|Feb snow days = 14.8|Mar snow days = 6.2|Apr snow days = 1.9|May snow days = 0.0|Jun snow days = 0.0|Jul snow days = 0.0|Aug snow days = 0.0|Sep snow days = 0.0|Oct snow days = 0.3|Nov snow days = 5.1|Dec snow days = 16.5|year snow days = 65.1|Jan sun= 94.7|Feb sun= 121.1|Mar sun= 154.2|Apr sun= 168.2|May sun= 193.0|Jun sun= 186.8|Jul sun= 215.5|Aug sun= 214.4|Sep sun= 180.0|Oct sun= 159.0|Nov sun= 102.2|Dec sun= 82.8|year sun = 1871.9|source 1 = Central Institute for Meteorology and GeodynamicsKlimadaten von Österreich 1971-2000 -Innsbruck-Flugplatz (in German). Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics. data of sunshine hours from the nearby university stationWEB,weblink Klimadaten von Österreich 1971-2000 -Innsbruck-Uni, German, Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, 2012-09-06, |date=February 2012}}

Boroughs and statistical divisions

(File:Karte Innsbruck - Katastralgemeinden und Statistische Stadtteile.png|thumb|Cadastral settlements (red) and wards (grey) of Innsbruck)Innsbruck is divided into nine boroughs (cadastral settlements) that were formed from previously independent municipalities or villages.WEB, Landesrecht Tirol: Stadtrecht der Landeshauptstadt Innsbruck 1975 § 2, Rechts Informations System (RIS), Bundeskanzleramt Österreich,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140608162815weblink">weblink 8 June 2014, live, These nine boroughs are further divided into twenty wards (cadastral districts). All wards are within one borough, except for the ward of Hungerburg (Upper Innsbruck), which is divided between two. For statistical purposes, Innsbruck is further divided into forty-two statistical units (Statistischer Bezirk) and 178 numbered blocks (Zählsprengel).WEB, Räumliches Bezugssystem: Referat Statistik und Berichtswesen, Innsbruck, Landeshauptstadt Innsbruck,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140201214425weblink">weblink 1 February 2014, live, The following are the nine boroughs with the population as of 31 October 2011:WEB, Registerzählung vom 31. Oktober 2011, Bevölkerung nach Ortschaften, Innsbruck (70101), 31 July 2013, Statistik Austria,weblink
  • Innsbruck (inner city) (18.524), consisting of Oldtown (Altstadt), Dreiheiligen-Schlachthof, and Saggen
  • Wilten (15.772), consisting of Mentlberg, Sieglanger, and Wilten West
  • Pradl (30.890), consisting of Pradler-Saggen, Reichenau, and Tivoli
  • Hötting (31.246), consisting of Höttinger Au, Hötting West, Sadrach, Allerheiligen, Kranebitten, and part of Hungerburg
  • Mühlau (4.750), consisting of part of Hungerburg
  • Amras (5.403), consisting of Roßau
  • Arzl (10.293), consisting of Neuarzl and Olympisches Dorf
  • Vill (535)
  • Igls (2.204)

Places of interest

Mountains

Buildings and monuments

(File:Innsbruck - Hofburg2.jpg|thumb|Imperial Hofburg (Kaiserliche Hofburg))File:IA GoldenesDachl-A.jpg|thumb|upright|Goldenes DachlGoldenes Dachl

Museums

(File:Hofkirche Innsbruck 2.jpg|thumb|Tyrolean Folk Art Museum next to the Hofkirche in Innsbruck)

Churches

(File:Cathedral of St. James Facade 1.jpg|thumb|upright|Innsbruck Cathedral (Dom zu St. Jakob))
  • Court Church (Hofkirche)
  • Innsbruck Cathedral (Dom zu St. Jakob)
  • Old Ursuline Church
  • Jesuit Church
  • Church of Our Lady
  • Church of Our Lady of Perpectual Succour
  • Servite Church
  • Hospital Church
  • Ursuline Church
  • Wilten Abbey (Stift Wilten)
  • Wilten Basilica (Wiltener Basilika)
  • Holy Trinity Church
  • St. John's Church
  • St. Theresa's Church (Hungerburg)
  • Pradler Parish Church
  • St. Paul's State Memorial Church in the Reichenau
  • Evangelical Church of Christ
  • Evangelical Church of the Resurrection
  • Old Höttingen Parish Church
  • Höttingen Parish Church
  • Parish Church of St. Nicholas
  • Parish Church of Neu-Arzl
  • Parish Church of St. Norbert
  • Parish Church of Maria am Gestade
  • Parish Church of the Good Shepherd
  • Parish Church of St. George
  • Parish Church of St. Paul
  • Parish Church of St. Pirminius
  • Church of the Guardian Angel

Parks and gardens

Gallery

File:Chateau ambras.jpg|Ambras CastleFile:Innsbruck 1 230.jpg|Andreas Hofer's tombFile:Zeughaus-innsbruck.jpg|ArmouryFile:Innsbruck 2 108.jpg|City Tower (Stadtturm)File:Helblinghaus3.JPG|HelblinghausFile:IA Hofgarten A.jpg|Hofgarten (Court Garden)Hofkirche Innsbruck 1.jpg|Hofkirche (Court Church)File:2781 - Innsbruck - Inn.JPG|Innsbruck at nightFile:Innsbruck Flusspromenade.jpg|Innsbruck from the Inn riverFile:IA Mariahilf-A.jpg|MariahilfkircheFile:Innsbruck 1 305.jpg|Maximilian's Cenotaph and the Black MenFile:Blick auf Innsbruck-Mariahilf und Innbruecke.jpg|Old Inn BridgeFile:Goldenes Dachl 3950109736 571225b427 b.jpg|Old Town (Altstadt) with the Goldenes DachlFile:Goldenes Dachl2.JPG|Old Town from the StadtturmFile:12-06-05-innsbruck-by-ralfr-070.jpg|ServitenkircheFile:Innsbruck Siebenkreuzkapelle 2.jpg|SiebenkreuzkapelleFile:Innsbruck Spitalkirche 103.jpg|SpitalskircheFile:IA TirolerLandesmuseum A.jpg|Tyrolean State Museum (Tiroler Landesmuseum)File:Innsbruck 1879.JPG|TriumphpforteFile:Innsbruck Stiftskirche Wilten.jpg|Wilten Abbey ChurchFile:Innsbruck-Basilique de Wilten.jpg|Wilten Basilica(File:Panorama insbruck4.jpg|800px|thumb|left|Panoramic view looking north){{Clear}}

Government and politics

(File:Innsbruck overlook with town.jpg|thumb|upright|Panoramic view looking down)The results of the 2018 local elections were:

Culture

Cultural events

Innsbruck is a very popular tourist destination, organizing the following events every year:
  • Innsbrucker Tanzsommer
  • Bergsilvester (New Year's Eve)
  • Innsbrucker Festwochen der Alten Musik (Innsbruck Festival of Early Music)
  • Christkindlmarkt (Christmas fair)

Sports

File:BergiselInnsbruck2.JPG|thumb|upright=1.35|BergiselBergiselDue to its location between high mountains, Innsbruck serves as an ideal place for skiing in winter, ski-jumping and mountaineering in summer. There are several ski resorts around Innsbruck, with the Nordkette served by a cable car and additional chair lifts further up. Other ski resorts nearby include Axamer Lizum, Muttereralm, Patscherkofel, Igls, Seefeld, Tulfes and Stubai Valley. The glaciated terrain in the latter makes skiing possible even in summer months.The Winter Olympic Games were held in Innsbruck twice, first in 1964, then again in 1976, when Colorado voters rejected a bond referendum in 1972 to finance the Denver games, originally awarded in 1970. The 1976 Winter Olympics were the last games held in the German-speaking Alps (Austria, Germany, or Switzerland).Along with St. Moritz, Switzerland and Lake Placid, New York in the United States, it is one of three places which have twice hosted the Winter Games. It also hosted the 1984 and 1988 Winter Paralympics.Innsbruck hosted the 1st Winter Youth Olympic Games in 2012.WEB,weblink International Olympic Committee – News, Olympic.org, 2009-05-05, Innsbruck also hosts one of the 4 ski-jumping competitions of the 4 Hills Tournament every year.
Other notable events held in Innsbruck include the Air & Style Snowboard Contest from 1994 to 1999 and 2008 and the Ice Hockey World Championship in 2005. Together with the city of Seefeld, Innsbruck organized the Winter Universiade in 2005. Innsbruck's Bergiselschanze is one of the hills of the famous Four Hills Tournament.Innsbruck is home to the football club FC Wacker Innsbruck, which plays in the Austrian Football Bundesliga (first tier) as of the 2018–19 season. Former teams include the FC Swarovski Tirol and FC Tirol Innsbruck. FC Wacker Innsbruck's stadium, Tivoli Neu, is one of eight stadiums which hosted Euro 2008 which took place in Switzerland and Austria in June 2008.The city also hosted an American Football final, Eurobowl XXII between the Swarco Raiders Tirol and the Raiffeisen Vikings Vienna.The city hosted opening round games in the 2011 IFAF World Championship, the official international American Football championship.In 2018 Innsbruck will host the IFSC Climbing World Championships 2018 from September 6 to September 16 and the 2018 UCI Road World Championships from September 22 to September 30.WEB,weblink Kletter-WM Innsbruck Tirol 2018: IFSC Climbing World Championships, Austria, Climbing, Innsbruck / Tirol 2018,

Economy and infrastructure

Innsbruck is a substantial tourist centre, with more than a million overnight stays.In Innsbruck, there are 86,186 employees and about 12,038 employers. 7,598 people are self-employed.WEB,weblink Gemeinde auf einen Blick, Statistik Austria, 2016-10-02, Nearly 35,000 people commute every day into Innsbruck from the surrounding communities in the area. The unemployment rate for the year 2012 was 4.2%.WEB,weblink City Statistics Illustrated, ec.europa.eu/eurostat, 2015-12-29, The national statistics office, Statistik Austria, does not produce economic data for the City of Innsbruck alone, but on aggregate level with the Innsbruck-Land District summarized as NUTS 3-region Innsbruck. In 2013, GDP per capita in the NUTS 3-region Innsbruck was €41,400 which is around 60% above the EU average.WEB,weblink Regionales BIP und Hauptaggregate nach Wirtschaftsbereichen und 35 NUTS 3-Regionen, statistik.at, 2015-12-29, The headquarters of Tiwag (energy production), Bank für Tirol und Vorarlberg (financial services), Tiroler Versicherung (insurance) and MED-EL (medical devices) are located in Innsbruck. The headquarters of Swarovski (glass), Felder Group (mechanical engineering) and Swarco (traffic technology) are located within {{convert|20|km|0|abbr=on}} from the city.Residential property is very expensive by national standards. The average price per square metre in Innsbruck is €4,430 (2015), which is the second highest per square metre price among Austrian cities surpassed only by Salzburg (€4,823), but followed by Vienna (€3,980).WEB,weblink In Salzburg und Innsbruck ist Wohnraum teurer als in Wien, presse.com, 2015-12-29,

Transport

(File:12-06-05-innsbruck-by-ralfr-165.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Innsbruck Airport)Innsbruck is located along the A12/A13 highway corridor (Inn Valley Autobahn and Brenner Autobahn respectively), providing freeway access to Verona, Italy and Munich, Germany. The A12 and A13 converge near Innsbruck, at which point the A13 terminates.Innsbruck Hauptbahnhof, the most important railway station of Innsbruck and Tyrol, is one of the busiest railway stations in Austria. It is served by the Lower Inn Valley line to Germany and eastern Austria, the Arlberg line to the west and the Brenner line, which connects northern Italy with southern Germany via the Brenner pass. Since December 2007 suburban services have been operated as the Innsbruck S-Bahn.Innsbruck Airport is located in the suburb of Kranebitten, which is located in the west of the city. It provides services to airports including Frankfurt, London, Amsterdam and Vienna. It also handles regional flights around the Alps, as well as seasonal flights to other destinations. During the winter, activity increases significantly, due to the high number of skiers travelling to the region. The airport is approximately {{convert|4|km|mi|1}} from the centre of Innsbruck.(File:Trambahn in Innsbruck.jpg|thumb|left|Trambahn in Innsbruck)Local public transport is provided by Innsbrucker Verkehrsbetriebe (IVB), a public authority operating a network of bus and tram routes. The metre-gauge tram network consists of four city lines, 1, 2, 3 and 5, and two lines serving the surrounding area: {{nowrap|line 6}}, the Innsbrucker Mittelgebirgsbahn to Igls, and line STB, the Stubaitalbahn running through the Stubai Valley to Fulpmes. The network is planned to be enlarged during the coming years to reach the neighboring village Rum in the east and Völs in the west . Numerous bus lines serve the inner city and connect it with surrounding areas. Until 2007 the bus network included two trolleybus routes, but these were abandoned in preparation for planned expansion of the tram network.In December 2007, the Hungerburgbahn, a funicular service to the district of Hungerburg, was reopened after a two-year closure for extensive rebuilding, with partial realignment and a new extension across the Inn River and into central Innsbruck. The line was also equipped with new vehicles. Because of the unique design of the stations, drafted by the famous architect Zaha Hadid, the funicular evolves immediately to a new emblem of the city.WEB,weblink Hungerburgbahn Innsbruck, The line was rebuilt by the Italian company Leitner, and can now carry up to 1,200 persons per hour.WEB,weblink IF130 Hungerburgbahn, It is operated by a private company, the 'Innsbrucker Nordkettenbahnen'.

Education

Innsbruck is a university city, with several locally based colleges and universities.Innsbruck is home to the oldest grammar school (Gymnasium) of Western Austria, the "Akademisches Gymnasium Innsbruck". The school was founded in 1562 by the Jesuit order and was the precursor of the university, founded in 1669.Innsbruck hosts several universities. The most well-known are the University of Innsbruck (Leopold-Franzens-Universität), the Innsbruck Medical University, and the university of applied sciences MCI Management Center Innsbruck.

Organizations

Notable residents

(File:Margaretha von Habsburg, duchess of Saxony.jpg|thumb|140px|Margaretha von Habsburg)(File:Frans Pourbus d. J. 002.jpg|thumb|140px|Anna of Tyrol)(File:Léopold duc de Bar et de Lorraine 00206.jpg|thumb|140px|Léopold, Duke of Lorraine)(File:WP Josef Speckbacher.jpg|thumb|140px|Josef Speckbacher, 1891)(File:Josef von Hormayr.jpg|thumb|140px|Josef von Hormayr, 1850)(File:Wenzl Weis - Karl Schönherr.jpg|thumb|140px|Karl Schönherr)(File:Otto Hofmann.jpg|thumb|150px|Otto Hofmann, 1945)(File:Roderich Menzel 01.JPG|thumb|140px|Roderich Menzel, 1934)(File:Otmar-Suitner.jpg|thumb|140px|Otmar Suitner, 2007)(File:Portrait Dietmar Schönherr.jpg|thumb|140px|Dietmar Schönherr, 2006)(File:William Berger-1967.png|thumb|140px|William Berger, 1967)(File:Portrait peter noever.jpg|thumb|140px|Peter Noever, 2005)(File:Armin Wolf 04092008.jpg|thumb|140px|Armin Wolf, 2008)(File:Eva Lind NY.jpg|thumb|140px|Eva Lind, 2007)(File:2015-04-29-AliceTumler.jpg|thumb|140px|Alice Tumler, 2015)

Early times to 1600

1600 to 1700

1700 to 1850

1850 to 1880

1880 to 1900

1900 to 1918

1918 to 1930

1930 to 1955

1955 to modern times

International relations

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Austria}}

Twin towns and sister cities

Partnerships

  • {{flagicon|POL}} Kraków in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland (since 1998)WEB,weblink Kraków - Miasta Partnerskie, 2013-08-10, Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków, Polish, Kraków -Partnership Cities,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130702010825weblink">weblink 2013-07-02, dead,

Austrian Service Abroad

The Austrian Service Abroad is a NGO, which provides positions for an alternative Austrian national service at 85 organizations in 35 countries worldwide in the sectors Holocaust Memorial Service, Social Service and Peace Service. It was founded by Andreas Maislinger and Andreas Hörtnagl in 1998 and is based in Innsbruck.

See also

References

Citations
{{Reflist}}
Bibliography
  • JOURNAL, Krakover, Shaul, Borsdorf, Axel, 2000, Spatial dynamics of urban expansion: The case of Innsbruck, Austria,weblink DIE ERDE, 131, 2, 125–141, 7 June 2014,
  • BOOK, Bousfield, Jonathan, Humphreys, Rob, The Rough Guide to Austria, Rough Guides, London, 2001, 978-1858280592,
  • BOOK, City Guides: Innsbruck, Freytag-Berndt, Vienna, 1999, 978-3850849111,
  • BOOK, Maier, Dieter, Insight Guide Austria, APA Publications, Singapore, 1998, 978-0887296109,
  • BOOK, Parsons, Nicholas T., Blue Guide Austria, Fourth, A & C Black Publishers Ltd, London, 2000, 978-0393320176,
  • BOOK, Schulte-Peevers, Andrea, Alison Coupe, Michelin Green Guide Austria, Michelin Travel & Lifestyle, London, 2007, 978-2067123250, registration,weblink

Further reading

Published in the 19th century
  • {{Citation |publisher = Karl Baedeker |title = Southern Germany and Austria |url =weblink |publication-place = Coblenz |edition = 2nd |publication-date = 1871 |oclc = 4090237 |chapterurl =weblink |chapter= Innsbruck }}


Published in the 20th century
  • {{Citation |publisher = J.H. Herz |publication-place = Berlin |title = Guide through Germany, Austria-Hungary, Switzerland, Italy, France, Belgium, Holland, the United Kingdom, Spain, Portugal, &c |edition = 9th |publication-date = 1908 |oclc = 36795367 |chapterurl =weblink |chapter= Innsbruck }}
  • {{Citation |publisher = Encyclopædia Britannica |publication-place = New York |title = The Encyclopædia Britannica |chapterurl =weblink |chapter= Innsbruck |publication-date = 1910 |oclc = 14782424 |edition=11th }}
  • {{Citation |publisher = Karl Baedeker |publication-place = Leipzig |edition=11th |url =weblink |title = Austria-Hungary |publication-date = 1911 |chapterurl =weblink |chapter= Innsbruck }}

External links

{{Commons|Innsbruck}}{{wikivoyage|Innsbruck}}{{wikivoyage|Igls}} {{Principal cities of Austria}}{{Tyrol}}{{Austrian Seats}}{{Olympic Winter Games Host Cities}}{{Paralympic Winter Games Host Cities}}{{Youth Olympic Games Host Cities}}{{Four Hills Tournament}}{{Authority control}}


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