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Indianapolis
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{{About|the capital city in the U.S. state of Indiana}}{{Use mdy dates|date=November 2016}}







factoids
|image_map = File:Marion County Indiana Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Indianapolis city (balance) Highlighted 1836003.svg|mapsize = 250px|map_caption = Location of Indianapolis (in red) in Marion County, Indiana.|pushpin_map = USA|pushpin_map_caption = Location of Indianapolis in the contiguous United States|pushpin_relief = 139N9region:US-IN|display=inline}}List of sovereign states>CountryU.S. state>StateList of counties in Indiana>County|subdivision_name = {{US}}Indiana}}}} Marion|established_title = FoundedEDITOR2-LAST=BARROWSTITLE=THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INDIANAPOLISPUBLISHER=INDIANA UNIVERSITY PRESSPAGES=1479–80, Municipal corporation>Incorporated (town)|established_date2 = September 3, 1832|established_title3 = Incorporated (city)|established_date3 = March 30, 1847Mayor–council government>Mayor–councilIndianapolis City-County Council>City–County Council of Indianapolis and Marion CountyList of mayors of Indianapolis>MayorJoe Hogsett (Democratic Party (United States)>D)|unit_pref = Imperial|area_magnitude = |area_total_km2 = 953.18|area_total_sq_mi = 368.02|area_land_km2 = 936.30|area_land_sq_mi = 361.51|area_water_km2 = 16.88|area_water_sq_mi = 6.52|area_note = |elevation_m = 218|elevation_ft = 715|population_total = 8204452010 United States Census>2010URL=HTTP://QUICKFACTS.CENSUS.GOV/QFD/STATES/18/1836003.HTML DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=AUGUST 3, 2012 ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 11, 2011ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110213010706/HTTP://2010.CENSUS.GOV/NEWS/RELEASES/OPERATIONS/CB11-CN26.HTML, February 13, 2011, |population_density_km2 = 913.34|population_density_sq_mi = 2365.55|population_est = 863002|pop_est_as_of = 2017List of United States urban areas>33rd)Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas>34th)List of United States cities by population>16th in the United StatesCombined statistical area>CSAList of Combined Statistical Areas>27th)PUBLISHER=MERRIAM-WEBSTER DICTIONARY, August 1, 2016, |postal_code_type = ZIP Codestitle=61 total ZIP codes:|46201–46209, 46211, 46214, 46216–46231, 46234–46237, 46239–46242, 46244, 46247, 46249–46251, 46253–46256, 46259–46260, 46266, 46268, 46274–46275, 46277–46278, 46280, 46282–46283, 46285, 46290–46291, 46295–46296, 46298}}Area codes 317 and 463>317 and 463weblink}}|footnotes = |pushpin_label = IndianapolisConsolidated city-county>City-county consolidation|established_date4 = January 1, 1970Eastern Time Zone>EST|utc_offset = −5Eastern Daylight Time>EDT|utc_offset_DST = −4Federal Information Processing Standard>FIPS codeUNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU >ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 31, 2008 DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=SEPTEMBER 11, 2013, mdy-all, pop_est_footnotes = HTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/PROGRAMS-SURVEYS/POPEST/DATA/TABLES.2016.HTML>TITLE=POPULATION AND HOUSING UNIT ESTIMATES, June 9, 2017, PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, July 28, 2017, }}Indianapolis ({{IPAc-en|ËŒ|ɪ|n|d|i|É™|ˈ|n|æ|p|É™l|áµ»|s}})BOOK, Jones, Daniel, Daniel Jones (phonetician), English Pronouncing Dictionary, Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1917, 2003, 3-12-539683-2, {{MerriamWebsterDictionary|Indianapolis}}{{Dictionary.com|Indianapolis}}, often shortened to Indy, is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. As of 2017, Indianapolis is the third most populous city in the American Midwest and 16th most populous in the U.S., with an estimated population of 863,002.WEB,weblink American FactFinder, U.S. Census Bureau, May 25, 2018, The Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U.S., with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers {{convert|368|sqmi|km2|}}, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U.S.Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to approximately 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government. The city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a {{convert|1|sqmi|km2}} grid adjacent to the White River. Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail (1847) later solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 190, Two of the city's nicknames originate from its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City".WEB,weblink Metro Indianapolis Export Plan, Indy Chamber, August 16, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161022095403weblink">weblink October 22, 2016, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Capital at the Crossroads of America–Indianapolis: A Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary, National Park Service (U.S. Dept. of the Interior), March 24, 2016, Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U.S., based primarily on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing, professional and business services, education and health care, government, and wholesale trade. Indianapolis has developed niche markets in amateur sports and auto racing.WEB, Rick Mattoon, Norman Wang,weblink's%20largest%20cities.pdf, PDF, Industry clusters and economic development in the Seventh District's largest cities, 2014, Economic Perspectives, 56–58, August 16, 2016, VIDEO, Ted Greene and Jon Sweeney, January 20, 2012, Naptown to Super City,weblink television broadcast, English, WFYI-TV (PBS), Indianapolis, March 26, 2016, The city is perhaps best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500. Indianapolis has hosted international multi-sport events such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games.Indianapolis is home to two major sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. The city's philanthropic community has helped develop its cultural institutions and collections, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest privately funded zoos,historic buildings and sites, and public art.WEB, Lilly Endowment Annual Report 2014,weblink Lilly Endowment, Inc., March 23, 2016, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 914–916, WEB, About - Indiana Landmarks,weblink Indiana Landmarks, August 16, 2016, Indianapolis is home to a significant collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties, the most in the U.S. outside of Washington, D.C.NEWS, Dawn, Mitchell, May 25, 2015,weblink Monumental Indianapolis: Touring Indianapolis memorials, The Indianapolis Star, March 25, 2016, WEB, Message from the Executive Director,weblink Indiana War Memorial, March 25, 2016, Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis is considered a "high sufficiency" world city.WEB, The World According to GaWC 2016,weblink GaWC, July 21, 2017,

History

Etymology

The name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name, Indiana (meaning "Land of the Indians", or simply "Indian Land"An earlier use of the name dates to the 1760s, when it referenced a tract of land under control of the Commonwealth of Virginia, but the area's name was discarded when it became a part of that state. See JOURNAL, Hodgin, Cyrus, 1903, The Naming of Indiana, Papers of the Wayne County, Indiana, Historical Society, 1, 1, 3–11, Wayne County, Indiana, Historical Society, pdf transcription,weblink January 23, 2014, ), and , the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name.WEB, Judge Jeremiah Sullivan House,weblink National Park Service (U.S. Dept. of the Interior), August 21, 2017, Other names considered were Concord, Suwarrow, and Tecumseh.A plaque at the City-County Building commissioned by the Society of Indiana Pioneers in 1962 lists these as considered names: "IN AN ACT OF JANUARY 6, 1821, THE INDIANA GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
THEN MEETING AT CORYDON, NAMED THE NEW CAPITAL OF THE STATE 'INDIANAPOLIS.' JEREMIAH SULLIVAN, LATER AN EMINENT HOOSIER JURIST, ACTING IN COOPERATION WITH SAMUEL MERRILL AND WITH THE APPROVAL OF GOVERNOR JONATHAN JENNINGS, PROPOSED INDIANAPOLIS AS THE NAME WHICH WAS CHOSEN IN PREFERENCE TO TECUMSEH,
SUWARROW, AND CONCORD."

Founding

(File:Greater Indianapolis ;the history, the industries, the institutions, and the people of a city of homes (1910) (14803447463).jpg|left|thumb|A depiction of 1820 Indianapolis.)(File:AmCyc Indianapolis - State House.jpg|thumb|left|The Third Indiana Statehouse (1835–1877).)In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U.S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.BOOK, A. C. Howard, A. C. Howard's Directory for the City of Indianapolis: Containing a Correct List of Citizens' Names, Their Residence and Place of Business, with a Historical Sketch of Indianapolis from its Earliest History to the Present Day, A. C. Howard, 1857, Indianapolis, 3, See also BOOK, Hester Ann Hale, Indianapolis, the First Century, Marion County Historical Society, 1987, Indianapolis, 9, Two years later, under the Treaty of St. Mary's (1818), the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821.BOOK, Bodenhamer, David, Robert Graham Barrows, David Gordon Vanderstel, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1994,weblink 0-253-31222-1, p. 1042 This tract of land, which was called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820.Brown, p. 1; Centennial History of Indianapolis, p. 26; and Howard, p. 2.The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American setters were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840.Baer, p. 10 and 58. The first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are generally considered to be the first permanent settlers; however, some historians believe George Pogue and family may have arrived first, on March 2, 1819, and settled in a log cabin along the creek that was later called Pogue's Run. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, and employees became the first European American settlers in the area, settling near the White River in February 1820.Brown, p. 2; Centennial History of Indianapolis, p. 6; and Hale, p. 8.On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital.Hale, p. 9. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement.Hyman, p. 10, and JOURNAL, William A. Browne Jr., The Ralston Plan: Naming the Streets of Indianapolis, Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History, 25, 3, 8–9, Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis, Summer 2013, Accessed March 25, 2016. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832 when Indianapolis incorporated as a town. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council. The city charter continued to be revised as Indianapolis expanded.Brown, pp. 8, 46 and 49; Centennial History of Indianapolis, p. 30; Esarey, v. 3, pp. 42–43 and 201–2; and BOOK, David J. Bodenhamer and Robert G. Barrows, eds., The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1994, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1479–80, 0-253-31222-1, Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government relocated to Indianapolis from Corydon, Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U.S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.Bodenhamer and Barrows, eds., p. 967; Hale, p. 13; Howard, p. 26; and BOOK, W. R. Holloway, Indianapolis: A Historical and Statistical Sketch of the Railroad City, A Chronicle of its Social, Municipal, Commercial and Manufacturing Progress with Full Statistical Tables, Indianapolis Journal, 1870, Indianapolis, Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States.Baer, p. 11, and Hyman, p. 34. A small segment of the ultimately failed Indiana Central Canal was opened in 1839.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 395–396, The first railroad to serve Indianapolis, the Jeffersonville, Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, began operation in 1847, and subsequent railroad connections fostered growth. Indianapolis Union Station was the first of its kind in the world when it opened in 1853.WEB,weblink Indianapolis Union Railroad Station, Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary, National Park Service, Washington, D.C., August 11, 2015,

Civil War and Gilded Age

File:Camp Morton 1.JPG|thumb|Confederate POWs at Camp MortonCamp MortonFile:Child workers in Indianapolis.jpg|thumb|Child laborChild laborDuring the American Civil War, Indianapolis was loyal to the Union cause. Governor Oliver P. Morton, a major supporter of President Abraham Lincoln, quickly made Indianapolis a rallying place for Union army troops. On February 11, 1861, president-elect Lincoln arrived in the city, en route to Washington, D.C. for his presidential inauguration, marking the first visit from a president-elect in the city's history.Holliday, p. 24; Dunn, Greater Indianapolis, v. I, p. 217; and Leary, pp. 94–98. On April 16, 1861, the first orders were issued to form Indiana's first regiments and establish Indianapolis as a headquarters for the state's volunteer soldiers.JOURNAL, John D. Barnhart, The Impact of the Civil War on Indiana, Indiana Magazine of History, 57, 3, 186, Indiana University, Bloomington, September 1961,weblink October 15, 2015, JOURNAL, Joseph A. Parsons, Jr., Indiana and the Call for Volunteers, April, 1861, Indiana Magazine of History, 54, 1, 5–7, Indiana University, Bloomington, March 1958,weblink October 20, 2015, Within a week, more than 12,000 recruits signed up to fight for the Union.BOOK, Indiana in the Civil War Era, 1850–1880, Emma Lou Thornbrough, History of Indiana, III, 124, 0-87195-050-2, Indiana Historical Society, 1995, Indianapolis, Indianapolis became a major logistics hub during the war, establishing the city as a crucial military base.Leary, p. 99.Bodenhamer and Barrows, eds., p. 443. Between 1860 and 1870, the city's population more than doubled. An estimated 4,000 men from Indianapolis served in 39 regiments, and an estimated 700 died during the war.Leary, pp. 99, 113–14, and Bodenhamer and Barrows, eds., pp. 441, 443. On May 20, 1863, Union soldiers attempted to disrupt a statewide Democratic convention at Indianapolis, forcing the proceedings to be adjourned, sarcastically referred to as the Battle of Pogue's Run.Thornbrough, p. 202; Bodenhamer and Barrows, eds., p. 1121; and BOOK, Kenneth M. Stampp, Indiana Politics During the Civil War, Indiana Historical Bureau, Indiana Historical Collections, 31, 1949, Indianapolis, 199–201, 952264, Fear turned to panic in July 1863, during Morgan's Raid into southern Indiana, but Confederate forces turned east toward Ohio, never reaching Indianapolis.Barnhart, pp. 212-13, and BOOK, Indianapolis and the Civil War, John Holliday, E. J. Hecker, 1911, 58–59, On April 30, 1865, Lincoln's funeral train made a stop at Indianapolis, where an estimated crowd of more than 100,000 people passed the assassinated president's bier at the Indiana Statehouse.Dunn, v. I, p. 237.Following the Civil War—and in the wake of the Second Industrial Revolution—Indianapolis experienced tremendous growth and prosperity. In 1880, Indianapolis was the world's third largest pork packing city, after Chicago and Cincinnati, and the second largest railroad center in the United States by 1888.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 1483, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 23, By 1890, the city's population surpassed 100,000. Some of the city's most notable businesses were founded during this period of growth and innovation, including L. S. Ayres (1872), Eli Lilly and Company (1876), Madame C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company (1910), and Allison Transmission (1915). Once home to 60 automakers, Indianapolis rivaled Detroit as a center of automobile manufacturing. The city was an early focus of labor organization. The Indianapolis Street Car Strike of 1913 and subsequent police mutiny and riots led to the creation of the state's earliest labor-protection laws, including a minimum wage, regular work weeks, and improved working conditions.BOOK, Dunn, Jacob Piatt, Indiana and Indianans, Volume III, 1919, American Historical Society, Chicago & New York,weblink 1230, Jacob Piatt Dunn, The International Typographical Union and United Mine Workers of America were among several influential labor unions to be based in the city.

Modern Indianapolis

File:Downtown Indianapolis, 1904.jpg|thumb|Meridian Street and Washington Street in 1904.]]File:La course d'Indianapolis 1911.jpg|thumb|1911 Indianapolis 500Indianapolis 500Some of the city's most prominent architectural features and best known historical events date from the turn of the 20th century. The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, dedicated on May 15, 1902, would later become the city's unofficial symbol.JOURNAL, James Philip Fadely, The Veteran and the Memorial: George J. Gangsdale and the Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History, 18, 1, 33–35, Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis, Winter 2006, Accessed March 26, 2016. Ray Harroun won the inaugural running of the Indianapolis 500, held May 30, 1911, at Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Indianapolis was one of the hardest hit cities in the Great Flood of 1913, resulting in five known deathsWEB, Community Profiles: Indianapolis, Indiana, The Great Flood of 1913, 100 Years Later, Silver Jackets, 2013,weblink July 29, 2013, JOURNAL, Trudy E. Bell, Forgotten Waters: Indiana's Great Easter Flood of 1913, Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History, 18, 2, 15, Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis, Spring 2006, Unconfirmed deaths numbered as many as twenty-five. See Bodenhamer and Barrows, p. 582. and the displacement of 7,000 families.BOOK, Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds., The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1994, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 581–582, 0-253-31222-1, As a stop on the Underground Railroad, Indianapolis had a higher black population than any other city in the Northern States, until the Great Migration.WEB,weblink Indianapolis, PDF, November 8, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060926182527weblink">weblink September 26, 2006, Led by D. C. Stephenson, the Indiana Klan became the most powerful political and social organization in Indianapolis from 1921 through 1928, controlling City Council and the Board of School Commissioners, among others. At its height, more than 40% of native-born white males in Indianapolis claimed membership in the Klan. While campaigning in the city in 1968, Robert F. Kennedy delivered one of the most lauded speeches in 20th century American history, following the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.WEB, Morning Edition,weblink Robert Kennedy: Delivering News of King's Death, NPR, July 1, 2010, NEWS, Higgins, Will, April 2, 2015, April 4, 1968: How RFK saved Indianapolis,weblink The Indianapolis Star, March 26, 2016, WEB, Top 100 American Speeches of the 20th Century,weblink August 1, 2016, As in most U.S. cities during the Civil Rights Movement, the city experienced strained race relations. A 1971 federal court decision forcing Indianapolis Public Schools to implement desegregation busing proved controversial.NEWS, Shaina, Cavazos, August 17, 2016,weblink Racial Bias and the Crumbling of a City, The Atlantic, September 22, 2016, File:Monument Circle and historic district.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument in 1970, the year UnigovUnigovUnder the mayoral administration of Richard Lugar, the city and county governments restructured, consolidating most public services into a new entity called Unigov. The plan removed bureaucratic redundancies, captured increasingly suburbanizing tax revenue, and created a Republican political machine that dominated Indianapolis politics until the 2000s decade.NEWS, Bradner, Eric, August 29, 2010, Indiana Democrats, African-Americans saw diminishing returns in 'Unigov',weblink Evansville Courier & Press, March 26, 2016, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 1356, Unigov went into effect on January 1, 1970, increasing the city's land area by {{convert|308.2|sqmi|km2}} and population by 268,366 people.WEB,weblink Table 19. Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1960, U.S. Census Bureau, April 27, 2016, WEB,weblink Table 20. Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1970, U.S. Census Bureau, April 27, 2016, It was the first major city-county consolidation to occur in the United States without a referendum since the creation of the City of Greater New York in 1898.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 1350–1353, Amid the changes in government and growth, the city invested in an aggressive strategy to brand Indianapolis as a sports tourism destination. Under the administration of the city's longest-serving mayor, William Hudnut (1976–1992), millions of dollars were poured into sport facilities. Throughout the 1980s, $122 million in public and private funding built the Indianapolis Tennis Center, Major Taylor Velodrome, Indiana University Natatorium, Carroll Track and Soccer Stadium, and Hoosier Dome. The latter project secured the 1984 relocation of the NFL Baltimore Colts and the 1987 Pan American Games. The economic development strategy succeeded in revitalizing the central business district through the 1990s, with the openings of the Indianapolis Zoo, Canal Walk, Circle Centre Mall, Victory Field, and Conseco Fieldhouse.During the 2000s, the city continued investing heavily in infrastructure projects, including two of the largest building projects in the city's history: the $1.1 billion Col. H. Weir Cook Terminal and $720 million Lucas Oil Stadium, both opened in 2008.WEB,weblink IND Airport, AirportService.com, March 26, 2016, WEB,weblink About Lucas Oil Stadium, Indiana Convention Center & Lucas Oil Stadium, March 26, 2016, A $275 million expansion of the Indiana Convention Center was completed in 2011.NEWS, Sikich, Chris, April 19, 2014, Convention City: Convention Center's growth vaults Indy to upper tier,weblink The Indianapolis Star, February 11, 2017, Construction began that year on DigIndy, a $1.9 billion project to correct the city's combined sewer overflows (CSOs) by 2025.NEWS, Stall, Sam, July 11, 2015, Go behind the scenes of Indy's $1.9B sewer overhaul,weblink Indianapolis Business Journal, April 25, 2016,

Geography

File:NASA Satellite Captures Super Bowl Cities - Indianapolis (6813844367).jpg|thumb|Landsat simulated-color image of the Indianapolis metropolitan area.]]Indianapolis is located in the East North Central region of the Midwestern United States, in central Indiana. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the Indianapolis (balance) encompasses a total area of {{convert|368.2|sqmi|km2}}, of which {{convert|361.5|sqmi|km2}} is land and {{convert|6.7|sqmi|km2}} is water. The consolidated city boundaries are coterminous with Marion County, with the exception of the autonomous municipalities of Beech Grove, Lawrence, Southport, and Speedway.WEB,weblink Indianapolis, Encyclopædia Britannica, June 13, 2016, Indianapolis is the 16th largest city by land area in the U.S.Indianapolis is situated within the Tipton Till Plain, a flat to gently sloping terrain underlain by glacial deposits known as till.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 1338, The lowest point in the city is about {{convert|650|ft|m|0}} above mean sea level, with the highest natural elevation at about {{convert|900|ft|m|0}} above sea level. Few hills or short ridges, known as kames, rise about {{convert|100|ft|m|0}} to {{convert|130|ft|m|0}} above the surrounding terrain. The city lies just north of the Indiana Uplands, a region characterized by rolling hills and high limestone content. The city is also situated within the EPA's Eastern Corn Belt Plains ecoregion, an area of the U.S. known for its fertile agricultural land.WEB,weblink Ecoregions of Indiana and Ohio, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, June 13, 2016, Topographic relief slopes gently toward the White River and its two primary tributaries, Fall and Eagle creeks. In total, there are about 35 streams in the city, including Indian Creek and Pogue's Run.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 1426, Major bodies of water include Indian Lake, Geist Reservoir, and Eagle Creek Reservoir.

Cityscape

{{See also|List of tallest buildings in Indianapolis}}{{Wide image|Panorama of downtown Indianapolis skyline, July 2016.jpg|1200px|align-cap=center|Panorama of the downtown Indianapolis skyline in 2016.}}File:Monument Circle, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.jpg|thumb|The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument was dedicated in 1902.]]File:Plat of Indianapolis by Alexander Ralston.jpg|left|thumb|upright|Alexander Ralston's "Plat of the Town of Indianapolis," today known as the Mile Square.]]File:Indianapolis-1888215.jpg|thumb|The Indiana World War Memorial Plaza Historic District includes the American Legion (left) and Scottish Rite Cathedral (right).]]Indianapolis is a planned city. On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital, appointing Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham to survey and design a town plan for Indianapolis. Ralston had been a surveyor for the French architect Pierre L'Enfant, assisting him with the plan for Washington, D.C. Ralston's original plan for Indianapolis called for a town of {{convert|1|sqmi|km2}}, near the confluence of the White River and Fall Creek.BOOK, Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds., The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1994, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 132, 0-253-31222-1, The plan, known as the Mile Square, is bounded by East, West, North, and South streets, centered on a traffic circle, called Monument Circle (originally Governor's Circle), from which Indianapolis's "Circle City" nickname originated.JOURNAL, William A. Browne Jr., The Ralston Plan: Naming the Streets of Indianapolis, Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History, 25, 3, 8 and 9, Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis, Summer 2013, Four diagonal streets radiated a block from Monument Circle: Massachusetts, Virginia, Kentucky, and Indiana avenues.Browne, p. 11 and 16. The city's address numbering system begins at the intersection of Washington and Meridian streets.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 1485, Before its submersion into a sanitary tunnel, Pogue's Run was included into the plan, disrupting the rectilinear street grid to the southeast.Noted as one of the finest examples of the City Beautiful movement design in the United States, the seven-block Indiana World War Memorial Plaza Historic District began construction in 1921 in downtown Indianapolis.WEB, Indiana World War Memorial Plaza Historic District,weblink U.S. Department of the Interior, May 20, 2016, BOOK, Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds., The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1994, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 762–763, 0-253-31222-1, The National Historic Landmark includes the Neoclassical American Legion and Central Library buildings, Depew Memorial Fountain, several sculptures and memorials, and open space, hosting many annual civic events.After completion of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, an ordinance was passed in 1905 restricting building heights on the traffic circle to {{convert|86|ft|m|0|abbr=on}} to protect views of the {{convert|284|ft|m|0|abbr=on}} monument.BOOK, Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds., The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1994, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 648, 0-253-31222-1, The ordinance was revised in 1922, permitting buildings to rise to {{convert|108|ft|m|0|abbr=on}}, with an additional {{convert|42|ft|m|0|abbr=on}} allowable with a series of setbacks. A citywide height restriction ordinance was instituted in 1912, barring structures over {{convert|200|ft|m|0|abbr=on}}.BOOK, City of New York Board of Estimate and Apportionment, Commission on Building Districts and Restrictions: Final Report, M. B. Brown Printing & Binding Co., 1916, New York, 62, Completed in 1962, the City-County Building was the first skyscraper in the city, surpassing the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument in height by nearly {{convert|100|ft|m|0|abbr=on}}.WEB, City-County Building, Indianapolis, Emporis.com,weblink June 11, 2016, A building boom, lasting from 1982 to 1990, saw the construction of six of the city's ten tallest buildings.BOOK, Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds., The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1994, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 28–37, 0-253-31222-1, WEB,weblink Tallest buildings in Indianapolis, June 11, 2016, Emporis.com, The tallest is Salesforce Tower, completed in 1990 at {{convert|811|ft|m|0|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Salesforce Tower, Indianapolis, September 4, 2017, Emporis.com, Indiana limestone is the signature building material in Indianapolis, widely included in the city's many monuments, churches, academic, government, and civic buildings.Compared with similar-sized American cities, Indianapolis is unique in that it contains some 200 farms covering thousands of acres of agricultural land within its municipal boundaries.WEB,weblink 2012 Census of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, September 4, 2017, Horse farms and corn and soybean fields interspersed with suburban development are commonplace on the city's periphery, especially in Franklin Township. The stark contrast between Indianapolis's urban neighborhoods and rural villages is a result of the 1970 city-county consolidation, which expanded the city's incorporated boundary to be coterminous with Marion County.BOOK, Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds., The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1994, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 243–244, 0-253-31222-1,

Neighborhoods

{{See also|List of Indianapolis neighborhoods}}{{multiple image|align = right|direction = vertical|width = |image1 = Webster Avenue in Irvington Terrace.jpg|width1 = |alt1 = |caption1 =|image2 = 360 Market Square, 2017.jpg|width2 = |alt2 = |caption2 =Irvington Terrace Historic District>Irvington Terrace (top) and contemporary high-rise apartments Downtown (bottom).|footer_align = |footer_background = |background color = }}The city is divided into 99 community areas for statistical purposes, though many smaller neighborhoods exist within these areas.WEB,weblink About the Data, June 26, 2016, Indy Vitals and The Polis Center at IUPUI, Indianapolis's neighborhoods are often difficult to define because the city lacks historical ethnic divisions, as in Chicago, or physical boundaries, seen in Pittsburgh and Cincinnati.BOOK, Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds., The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1994, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 132–39, 0-253-31222-1, Instead, most neighborhoods are subtle in their distinctions. The Indianapolis Historic Preservation Commission recognizes several neighborhoods as historic districts, including: Central Court, Chatham Arch, Golden Hill, Herron-Morton Place, Lockerbie Square, Old Northside, Old Southside and Oliver Johnson's Woods. Expansion of the interurban system at the turn of the 20th century facilitated growth of several streetcar suburbs, including Broad Ripple, Irvington, University Heights, and Woodruff Place.The post–World War II economic expansion and subsequent suburbanization had a profound impact on the physical development of the city's neighborhoods. From 1950 to 1970, 97,000 housing units were built in Marion County. Most of this new construction occurred outside Center Township, expediting out-migration from the city's urban neighborhoods to suburban areas, such as Castleton, Eagledale, and Nora. Between 1950 and 1990, over 155,000 residents left Center Township, resulting in urban blight and disinvestment. Since the 2000s, Downtown Indianapolis and surrounding neighborhoods have seen increased reinvestment attributed to nationwide demographic trends, driven by empty nesters and millennials.NEWS, Scott, Olson, November 15, 2013,weblink Study: Downtown can sustain huge apartment boom, Indianapolis Business Journal, June 11, 2016, By 2020, Downtown is projected to have 30,000 residential units, compared to 18,300 in 2010.NEWS, John, Russell, February 25, 2015,weblink Report: Downtown apartment market booming, with more units on the way, The Indianapolis Star, June 11, 2016, Renewed interest in urban living has been met with some dispute regarding gentrification and affordable housing.NEWS, Brian, Eason, August 18, 2015,weblink Council passes resolution seeking help for owners in gentrifying areas, The Indianapolis Star, June 11, 2016, NEWS, Cara, Courage, August 21, 2015,weblink Why Indianapolis is a test case for a fairer form of gentrification, The Guardian, June 11, 2016, NEWS, Annika, Larson, February 10, 2016,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160212100211weblink">weblink yes, February 12, 2016, The rent is too damn high!, NUVO, June 11, 2016, According to a Center for Community Progress report, neighborhoods like Cottage Home and Fall Creek Place have experienced measurable gentrification since 2000.NEWS, Emily, Taylor, December 14, 2016,weblink Are Indy neighborhoods gentrifying?, NUVO, December 20, 2016, The North Meridian Street Historic District is among the most affluent urban neighborhoods in the U.S., with a mean household income of $102,599 in 2017.{{citation|title=High Income Urban Neighborhoods|publisher=Higley 1000|website=higley1000.com|date=|page=|url=http://higley1000.com/about-this-site/methodology/top-urban-neighborhoods-by-mean-household-income|access-date=September 17, 2017|quote=}}

Climate

{{multiple image| align = | direction = horizontal| width = 225| image1 = Carrilon.png| width1 = | alt1 = | caption1 = | image2 = Butler Winter 2015 04.jpg| width2 = | alt2 = | caption2 = | header = | header_align = | header_background = | footer = Fall foliage (left) and a late-winter snow (right) on the Butler University campus.| footer_align = | footer_background = | background color = }}Indianapolis has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), but can be considered a borderline humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) using the {{convert|-3|C|F|}} isotherm. It experiences four distinct seasons.JOURNAL, Kottek, Marcus, Greiser, Jürgen, Beck, Christoph, Rudolf, Bruno, Rubel, Franz, 2, World Map of Köppen–Geiger Climate Classification, June 2006, Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 15, 3, 261, 10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130, E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, The city is in USDA hardiness zone 6a.WEB,weblink USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map, United States Department of Agriculture, January 16, 2016, Typically, summers are hot, humid and wet. Winters are generally cold with moderate snowfall. The July daily average temperature is {{convert|75.4|°F|1}}. High temperatures reach or exceed {{convert|90|°F|0}} an average of 18 days each year, and occasionally exceed {{convert|95|°F}}. Spring and autumn are usually pleasant, if at times unpredictable; midday temperature drops exceeding {{convert|30|F-change|disp=or}} are common during March and April, and instances of very warm days ({{convert|80|°F|0|disp=or}}) followed within 36 hours by snowfall are not unusual during these months. Winters are cold, with an average January temperature of {{convert|28.1|°F|1}}. Temperatures dip to {{convert|0|°F|0}} or below an average of 4.7 nights per year.The rainiest months occur in the spring and summer, with slightly higher averages during May, June, and July. May is typically the wettest, with an average of {{convert|5.05|in|cm}} of precipitation. Most rain is derived from thunderstorm activity; there is no distinct dry season, although occasional droughts occur. Severe weather is not uncommon, particularly in the spring and summer months; the city experiences an average of 20 thunderstorm days annually.WEB,weblink Total Days With Thunderstorms at US Cities in Summer, Current Results, June 11, 2016, The city's average annual precipitation is {{convert|42.4|in|cm}}, with snowfall averaging {{convert|25.9|in|cm}} per season. Official temperature extremes range from {{convert|106|°F|0}}, set on July 14, 1936,WEB, Indianapolis Climatological Information, National Weather Service, Weather Forecast Office,weblink December 9, 2013, to {{convert|-27|°F|0}}, set on January 19, 1994.WEB,weblink Average Weather for Indianapolis International Airport, IN â€” Temperature and Precipitation, June 28, 2010, The Weather Channel,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110628234525weblink">weblink June 28, 2011, yes, mdy-all, {{Indianapolis weatherbox}}

Demographics

{{see also|History of the Irish in Indianapolis}}{{US Census population|1840= 2695|1850= 8091|1860= 18611|1870= 48244|1880= 75056|1890= 105436|1900= 169164|1910= 233650|1920= 314194|1930= 364161|1940= 386972|1950= 427173|1960= 476258|1970= 744624|1980= 700807|1990= 731327|2000= 781926|2010= 820445|estyear=2017|estimate=863002ACCESSDATE=MAY 25, 2018, |align-fn=centerPUBLISHER=FACTFINDER2.CENSUS.GOVACCESSDATE=JANUARY 14, 2014ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20141210041242/HTTP://FACTFINDER2.CENSUS.GOV/FACES/NAV/JSF/PAGES/COMMUNITY_FACTS.XHTMLDF=MDY-ALL, HTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/POPEST/DATA/CITIES/TOTALS/2011/TABLES/SUB-EST2011-03-18.CSV>TITLE=2011 ESTIMATEDEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=AUGUST 9, 2012, }}{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible"! Racial composition !2016WEB, American FactFinder - Results,weblink U.S. Census Bureau, June 15, 2018, U.S. Census, Bureau, !! 2010WEB,weblink Indianapolis (city (balance)), Indiana, State & County QuickFacts, U.S. Census Bureau, yes,weblink August 3, 2012, !! 1990WEB, Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink yes,weblink August 6, 2012, mdy-all, !! 1970 White American>White| 81.6%| —Non-Hispanic| 80.9%From 15% sample African American>Black or African American| 18.0%Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic or Latino (of any race)| 0.8%Asian American>Asian | 0.1%(File:Race and ethnicity 2010- Indianapolis (5560477952).png|thumb|Map of racial distribution in Indianapolis, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow))The U.S. Census Bureau considers Indianapolis as two entities: the consolidated city and the city's remainder, or balance. The consolidated city covers an area known as Unigov, coterminous with Marion County, except the independent municipalities of Beech Grove, Lawrence, Southport, and Speedway. The city's balance excludes the populations of ten semi-autonomous municipalities that are included in totals for the consolidated city. These are Clermont, Crows Nest, Homecroft, Meridian Hills, North Crows Nest, Rocky Ripple, Spring Hill, Warren Park, Williams Creek, and Wynnedale.WEB, Unigov Handbook: A Citizen's Guide to Local Government, League of Women Voters of Indianapolis,weblink March 12, 2017, An eleventh town, Cumberland, is partially included.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 728, WEB,weblink The Journal Gazette, Historic church at heart of Unigov fight, March 16, 2016, July 13, 2017, {{As of|2016}}, the city's estimated consolidated population is 867,576 and its balance is 855,164.WEB, Regional Cities - Central, Indiana Business Research Center, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business,weblink May 22, 2017, {{As of|2010}}, the city's population density was {{convert|2270|/sqmi||adj=pre|people}}.{{Citation needed|reason=The city's population density is not noted anywhere in source cited|date=May 2017}} Indianapolis is the most populous city in Indiana, containing nearly 13% of the state's total population.WEB, Indiana InDepth Profile: Largest Cities and Towns in Indiana (35,000+), Indiana Business Research Center, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business,weblink May 22, 2017, The Indianapolis metropolitan area, officially the Indianapolis–Carmel–Anderson metropolitan statistical area (MSA), consists of Marion County and the surrounding counties of Boone, Brown, Hamilton, Hancock, Hendricks, Johnson, Madison, Morgan, Putnam, and Shelby. {{As of|2017}}, the metropolitan area's population was 2,028,614, the most populous in Indiana and home to 30% of the state's residents.WEB, Indianapolis-Carmel, IN Metro Area, Indiana Business Research Center, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business,weblink May 22, 2017, With a population of 2,411,086, the larger Indianapolis–Carmel–Muncie combined statistical area (CSA) covers 18 counties, home to 36% of Indiana residents.WEB, Indianapolis-Carmel-Muncie, IN Combined Area, Indiana Business Research Center, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business,weblink May 22, 2017, Indianapolis is also situated within the Great Lakes Megalopolis, the largest of 11 megaregions in the U.S.According to the U.S. Census of 2010, 97.2% of the Indianapolis population was reported as one race: 61.8% White, 27.5% Black or African American, 2.1% Asian (0.4% Burmese, 0.4% Indian, 0.3% Chinese, 0.3% Filipino, 0.1% Korean, 0.1% Vietnamese, 0.1% Japanese, 0.1% Thai, 0.1% other Asian); 0.3% American Indian, and 5.5% as other. The remaining 2.8% of the population was reported as multiracial (two or more races). The city's Hispanic or Latino community comprised 9.4% of the city's population in the 2010 U.S. Census: 6.9% Mexican, 0.4% Puerto Rican, 0.1% Cuban, and 2% as other.WEB, Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for Indianapolis city (balance), Indiana, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink November 20, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140305164937weblink">weblink March 5, 2014, {{As of|2010}}, the median age for Indianapolis was 33.7 years. Age distribution for the city's inhabitants was 25% under the age of 18; 4.4% were between 18 and 21; 16.3% were age 21 to 65; and 13.1% were age 65 or older. For every 100 females, there were 93 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90 males.The U.S. Census for 2010 reports the female population for Indianapolis as 424,099 (323,845 were age 18 and over) and the male population as 396,346 (291,745 were age 18 and over). See WEB, Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for Indianapolis city (balance), Indiana, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink November 20, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140305164937weblink">weblink March 5, 2014, The U.S. Census for 2010 reported 332,199 households in Indianapolis, with an average household size of 2.42 and an average family size of 3.08. Of the total households, 59.3% were family households, with 28.2% of these including the family's own children under the age of 18; 36.5% were husband-wife families; 17.2% had a female householder (with no husband present) and 5.6% had a male householder (with no wife present). The remaining 40.7% were non-family households. {{As of|2010}}, 32% of the non-family households included individuals living alone, 8.3% of these households included individuals age 65 years of age or older.The U.S. Census Bureau's 2007–2011 American Community Survey indicated the median household income for Indianapolis city was $42,704, and the median family income was $53,161.WEB, Selected Economic Characteristics: 2007–2011 American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink November 21, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130916224703weblink">weblink September 16, 2013, Median income for males working full-time, year-round, was $42,101, compared to $34,788 for females. Per capita income for the city was $24,430, 14.7% of families and 18.9% of the city's total population living below the poverty line (28.3% were under the age of 18 and 9.2% were age 65 or older).{{As of|2015}}, the Indianapolis metropolitan area had the 18th highest percentage of LGBT residents in the U.S., with 4.2% of residents identifying as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender.WEB,weblink The New York Times, The Metro Areas With the Largest, and Smallest, Gay Populations, March 20, 2015, April 1, 2016, Leonhardt, David, Cain Miller, Claire,

Religion

File:Saints Peter & Paul Cathedral (Indianapolis, Indiana), interior, nave view from the organ loft.jpg|thumb|Interior of Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral, head church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of IndianapolisRoman Catholic Archdiocese of IndianapolisOf the 42.42% of the city's residents who identify as religious, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, at 11.31%. The second highest religious group in the city are Baptists at 10.31%, with Methodists following behind at 4.97%. Presbyterians make up 2.13% of the city's religiously affiliated population, followed by Pentecostals and Lutherans. Another 8.57% are affiliated with other Christian faiths. 0.32% of religiously affiliated persons identified themselves as following Eastern religions, while 0.68% of the religiously affiliated population identified as Jewish, and 0.29% as Muslim.WEB,weblink Sperling's Best Places, Indianapolis, Indiana Religion, March 25, 2016, According to the nonpartisan and nonprofit Public Religion Research Institute's American Values Atlas, 22% of residents identify as religiously "unaffiliated," consistent with the national average of 22.7%.WEB,weblink Public Religion Research Institute, American Values Atlas, March 25, 2016, Indianapolis is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Indianapolis. Joseph W. Tobin, C.Ss.R., served as archbishop from 2012 to 2017 and was elevated to cardinal in November 2016. On June 13, 2017, Pope Francis announced Charles C. Thompson would replace Tobin, who was reassigned to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark in January 2017.NEWS, New York Times,weblink January 6, 2017, January 6, 2017, Cardinal Tobin, New Newark Archbishop, Cites ‘Chasm Between Life and Faith’, Barron, James, Thompson is currently the youngest American archbishop.NEWS, The Indianapolis Star,weblink June 23, 2017, June 13, 2017, Evansville bishop ready for 'daunting task' of following Tobin as Indy's archbishop, King, Robert, Ryckaert, Vic, The archdiocese also operates Bishop Simon Bruté College Seminary, affiliated with Marian University, while the Christian Theological Seminary is affiliated with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).Indianapolis is the seat of the Episcopal Diocese of Indianapolis, based from Christ Church Cathedral. The Indiana-Kentucky Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Indiana Conference of the United Methodist Church are also based in the city.

Economy

File:Indianapolis-1872528.jpg|thumb|43000|/sqmi||adj=pre|jobs}}.WEB, Klacik, Drew,weblink Why Downtown Indianapolis Matters, Indiana University Public Policy Institute, September 2013, July 21, 2017, File:Eli Lilly Corporate Center, side.jpg|thumb|Based in Indianapolis, Eli Lilly and CompanyEli Lilly and CompanyFile:MD-10 taxi at KIND - panoramio.jpg|thumb|FedEx Express cargo plane at Indianapolis International AirportIndianapolis International AirportIn 2015, the Indianapolis metropolitan area had a gross domestic product (GDP) of $134 billion. The top five industries were: finance, insurance, real estate, rental, and leasing ($30.7B), manufacturing ($30.1B), professional and business services ($14.3B), educational services, health care, and social assistance ($10.8B), and wholesale trade ($8.1B). Government, if it had been a private industry, would have ranked fifth, generating $10.2 billion.WEB,weblink Gross domestic product (GDP) by metropolitan area, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), July 13, 2017, Compared to Indiana as a whole, the Indianapolis metropolitan area has a lower proportion of manufacturing jobs and a higher concentration of jobs in wholesale trade; administrative, support, and waste management; professional, scientific, and technical services; and transportation and warehousing.WEB,weblink The Indianapolis Metro Area, PDF, July 1, 2010, The city's major exports include pharmaceuticals, motor vehicle parts, medical equipment and supplies, engine and power equipment, and aircraft products and parts. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the region's unemployment rate was 3.4 percent in June 2018.WEB,weblink Economy at a Glance, U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics, August 18, 2018, {{As of|2018}}, three Fortune 500 companies were based in the city: health insurance company Anthem Inc. (29); pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly (129); and Simon Property Group (493), the largest real estate investment trust in the U.S.WEB,weblink Fortune 500 Companies 2018: Who Made the List, Fortune, August 18, 2018, Columbus, Indiana-based Cummins (149) opened its Global Distribution Headquarters in downtown Indianapolis in 2017.NEWS, Orr, Susan, Cummins unveils downtown Indy office complex, recruiting tool,weblink January 23, 2017, Indianapolis Business Journal, January 5, 2017, Three Fortune 1000 companies are located in the city: hydrocarbon manufacturer Calumet Specialty Products Partners (604); automotive transmission manufacturer Allison Transmission (890); and retailer Finish Line (972). Other notable companies based in the Indianapolis metropolitan area include: real estate investment trust Duke Realty;NEWS,weblink Duke Realty seeks to build headquarters at Keystone at the Crossing, 2018-10-04, en, media conglomerate Emmis Communications;NEWS,weblink Longtime Emmis radio exec John Beck buying Arizona stations, Holleman, Joe, stltoday.com, 2018-10-04, en, financial services holding company OneAmerica;NEWS,weblink OneAmerica sailed through financial crisis but still learned lessons, 2018-10-04, en, airline holding company Republic Airways;NEWS,weblink Republic Airways launches pilot school at Indianapolis airport and plans to add 600 jobs, Indianapolis Star, 2018-10-04, en, truckload carrier Celadon Group;NEWS,weblink Celadon admits it is under federal criminal investigation, 2018-10-04, en, and restaurant chains Noble Roman's, Scotty's Brewhouse, and Steak 'n Shake.Like many Midwestern cities, recent deindustrialization trends have had a significant impact on the local economy. Once home to 60 automakers, Indianapolis rivaled Detroit as a center of automobile manufacturing in the early 20th century.NEWS, Retro Indy: City came close to being "Motor City",weblink April 27, 2016, The Indianapolis Star, April 24, 2016, Between 1990 and 2012, approximately 26,900 manufacturing jobs were lost in the city, including the automotive plant closures of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors.WEB,weblink Indy FastTrack, PDF, 2014, March 30, 2016, In 2016, Carrier Corporation announced the closure of its Indianapolis plant, moving 1,400 manufacturing jobs to Mexico.NEWS, Schwartz, Nelson, Carrier Workers See Costs, Not Benefits, of Global Trade,weblink March 30, 2016, New York Times, March 19, 2016, Since 1915, Rolls-Royce Holdings has had operations in Indianapolis.NEWS, Turner, Kris, Rolls-Royce celebrates 100 years in Indy,weblink May 15, 2016, The Indianapolis Star, October 8, 2015, It is the third largest manufacturing employer and thirteenth largest employer overall in the city, with a workforce of 4,300 in aircraft engine development and manufacturing.WEB,weblink[1].pdf, 2014 Market Overview: Indianapolis & the CBD, PDF, 2014, May 15, 2016, Biotechnology, life sciences and health care are major sectors of Indianapolis's economy. {{As of|2016}}, Eli Lilly and Company was the largest private employer in the city, with more than 11,000 workers.WEB,weblink Key Facts, Eli Lilly and Company, November 10, 2016, yes,weblink October 19, 2016, mdy-all, The North American headquarters for Roche Diagnostics and Dow AgroSciences are also located in the city.WEB,weblink Largest Life Science Companies, Indy Chamber, January 17, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150908150942weblink">weblink September 8, 2015, mdy-all, A 2014 report by the Battelle Memorial Institute and Biotechnology Industry Organization indicated that the Indianapolis–Carmel–Anderson MSA was the only U.S. metropolitan area to have specialized employment concentrations in all five bioscience sectors evaluated in the study: agricultural feedstock and chemicals; bioscience-related distribution; drugs and pharmaceuticals; medical devices and equipment; and research, testing, and medical laboratories.WEB, Battelle/BIO State Bioscience Jobs, Investments and Innovation 2014,weblink October 4, 2014, The regional health care providers of Community Health Network, Eskenazi Health, Franciscan Health, Indiana University Health, and St. Vincent Health have a combined workforce of 43,700.WEB,weblink Schedule 12: Principal Employers Current Year and Ten Years Ago, PDF, December 31, 2014, September 20, 2015, The city's central location and extensive highway and rail infrastructure have positioned Indianapolis as an important logistics center, home to 1,500 distribution firms employing some 100,000 workers.WEB,weblink Transportation, Indy Chamber, June 12, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161022095518weblink">weblink October 22, 2016, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Logistics, Indy Chamber, June 12, 2016, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150908150402weblink">weblink yes, September 8, 2015, Logistics Industry, Indy Chamber, January 17, 2016, As home to the second largest FedEx Express hub in the world, Indianapolis International Airport ranks as the sixth busiest U.S. airport in terms of air cargo transport, handling over 1 million tons and employing 6,600 in 2015.WEB,weblink Qualifying Cargo Airports, Rank Order, and Percent Change from 2013, Federal Aviation Administration, February 6, 2016, WEB,weblink Largest Logistics & Distribution Companies, Indy Chamber, January 17, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150908150942weblink">weblink September 8, 2015, mdy-all, Indianapolis is a hub for CSX Transportation, home to its division headquarters, an intermodal terminal, and classification yard (in the suburb of Avon).WEB,weblink CSX in Indiana, CSX Transportation, June 16, 2016, Amtrak's Beech Grove Shops, in the enclave of Beech Grove, serve as its primary heavy maintenance and overhaul facility, while the Indianapolis Distribution Center is the company's largest material and supply terminal.WEB,weblink Beech Grove shops, Amtrak, September 4, 2016, WEB,weblink Amtrak Fact Sheet, Fiscal Year 2015, State of Indiana, Amtrak, September 29, 2016, yes,weblink August 20, 2016, mdy-all, The hospitality industry is an increasingly vital sector to the Indianapolis economy. According to Visit Indy, 28.6 million visitors generated $5.2 billion in 2016, the sixth straight year of record growth.NEWS, Amy, Bartner, February 1, 2018,weblink More people visited and spent money in Indy than the year before. And the year before. And the year before that., The Indianapolis Star, February 2, 2018, Indianapolis has long been a sports tourism destination, but has more recently relied on conventions.NEWS, Schoettle, Anthony, Expand the Indiana Convention Center again?,weblink June 30, 2016, Indianapolis Business Journal, September 25, 2015, The Indiana Convention Center (ICC) and Lucas Oil Stadium are considered mega convention center facilities, with a combined {{convert|750000|sqft|m2}} of exhibition space.WEB,weblink 350 Big Changes at Nation's Biggest Convention Centers, Trade Show Executive, July 29, 2016, ICC is connected to 12 hotels and 4,700 hotel rooms, the most of any U.S. convention center.WEB,weblink Connected Hotels in Indianapolis, Visit Indy, March 31, 2016, In 2008, the facility hosted 42 national conventions with an attendance of 317,815; in 2014, it hosted 106 for an attendance of 635,701. Since 2003, Indianapolis has hosted Gen Con, one of the largest gaming conventions in North America.WEB,weblink Gen Con LLC – Gen Con Attributes Record-Breaking 2014 Numbers to Growing Partnership between Gamers and Indianapolis Community, gencon.com, According to real estate tracking firm CBRE Group, Indianapolis ranks among the fastest high-tech job growth areas in the U.S.NEWS, Council, Jared, Report: Indy ranks fifth in tech-job growth,weblink April 20, 2017, Indianapolis Business Journal, November 4, 2016, NEWS, Spivack, Miranda, How Indianapolis, Long Known as a Manufacturing Center, Is Luring Tech Talent,weblink April 20, 2017, The New York Times, January 17, 2017, The metropolitan area is home to 28,500 information technology-related jobs at such companies as Angie's List, Appirio, Formstack, Genesys, Infosys,PRESS RELEASE, Infosys Picks Indiana for new U.S. Education Center, an additional 1,000 New Jobs,weblink Indianapolis, Indiana, Indianapolis Airport Authority, April 26, 2018, October 4, 2018, Ingram Micro, and Salesforce Marketing Cloud.WEB,weblink Digital Technology, Indy Chamber, January 17, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150919010446weblink">weblink September 19, 2015, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Largest IT Companies, Indy Chamber, January 17, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150921161856weblink">weblink September 21, 2015, mdy-all, Major shopping malls in the city include Castleton Square, Circle Centre, The Fashion Mall at Keystone, Glendale Town Center, Lafayette Square, and Washington Square.

Culture and contemporary life

File:Race to Indy!.jpg|thumb|Part of the "Month of May" celebrations, the 500 Festival Parade500 Festival ParadeIn 1999, Indianapolis designated six cultural districts to capitalize on cultural institutions within historically significant neighborhoods unique to the city's heritage. These include Broad Ripple Village, Canal and White River State Park, Fountain Square, Indiana Avenue, Mass Ave, and Wholesale.WEB,weblink Location, The Fountain Square Theatre Building, March 25, 2016, A seventh cultural district, Market East, was designated in 2014.NEWS, City christens Market East cultural district downtown,weblink Indianapolis Business Journal, April 16, 2014, March 25, 2016, After 12 years of planning and six years of construction, the Indianapolis Cultural Trail: A Legacy of Gene and Marilyn Glick officially opened in 2013.NEWS, In Indianapolis, a Bike Path to Progress,weblink The New York Times, March 4, 2014, January 14, 2016, 0362-4331, Andrew, Simmons, The $62.5 million public-private partnership, spurred by an initial donation of $15 million by builder/philanthropist Gene B. Glick and his wife, resulted in {{convert|8|mi}} of urban bike and pedestrian corridors linking six cultural districts with neighborhoods, IUPUI, and every significant arts, cultural, heritage, sports and entertainment venue downtown.WEB,weblink Trail Facts, Indianapolis Cultural Trail Inc., March 25, 2016, WEB, Foxio,weblink Indianapolis Cultural Trail, Indyculturaltrail.org, June 16, 2013, January 14, 2014, WEB,weblink Project for Public Spaces, pps.org, May 10, 2013, January 14, 2014, JOURNAL, Burow, Sue, Majors, Jessica, March 2015, Assessment of the Impact of the Indianapolis Cultural Trail: A Legacy of Gene and Marilyn Glick,weblink March 25, 2016, NEWS,weblink The new Indianapolis Cultural Trail is a masterpiece of bike-friendly design Cleveland should emulate, cleveland.com, 2017-05-03, en-US, Indianapolis is home to dozens of annual festivals and events showcasing local culture. Notable events include the "Month of May" (a series of celebrations leading to the Indianapolis 500), Indiana Black Expo, Indiana State Fair, Indy Pride Festival, and Historic Irvington Halloween Festival.

Visual arts

{{See also|List of public art in Indianapolis}}File:IMA - All you need is rust! (2592098693).jpg|thumb|left|Robert Indiana's iconic LOVE at the Indianapolis Museum of ArtIndianapolis Museum of ArtFounded in 1883, the Indianapolis Museum of Art (IMA) is the ninth oldestNEWS, Indianapolis Museum of Art Receives Nation's Highest Award for Community Service,weblink March 26, 2011, ArtDaily, October 9, 2009, {{#tag:ref|The nine oldest museums in the U.S. are: Peabody Essex Museum, 1799; Wadsworth Atheneum, 1842; Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1870; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1870; Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1876; Columbus Museum of Art, Ohio, 1878; Art Institute of Chicago, 1879; Cincinnati Art Museum, 1881; Portland Museum of Art, 1882; Indianapolis Museum of Art, 1883.|group=note}} and eighth largest encyclopedic art museum in the U.S.BOOK, AAMD Statistical Survey 2010, 2010, Association of Art Museum Directors, New York, {{#tag:ref|At {{convert|669484|sqft|m2|abbr=out|sp=us}}, the IMA is eighth largest in the U.S. in Main Museum Building space among the 130 respondents in the Association of Art Museum Directors 2010 Statistical Survey.|group=note}} The permanent collection comprises over 54,000 works, including African, American, Asian and European pieces.NEWS, Yancey, Kitty B., Summer travel '09: Freebies across the USA, USA Today, May 22, 2009, In addition to its collections, the museum consists of (The Virginia B. Fairbanks Art & Nature Park: 100 Acres); Oldfields, a restored house museum and estate once owned by Josiah K. Lilly, Jr.; and restored gardens and grounds originally designed by Percival Gallagher of the Olmsted Brothers firm.BOOK, Brooks, Bradley C., Oldfields, Indianapolis Museum of Art, 2004, December 18, 2010, The IMA also owns the Miller House, a Mid-century modern home designed by Eero Saarinen located in Columbus, Indiana.JOURNAL, Richardson, Tim, Modern Arcadia, House & Garden (magazine), House & Garden, November 2010, 193–196, The museum's holdings demonstrate the institution's emphasis on the connections among art, design and the natural environment.BOOK, Every Way Possible: 125 Years of the Indianapolis Museum of Art, 2008, Indianapolis Museum of Art, 978-0-936260-85-3, Anne P. Robinson, S.L. Berry, File:A place for family stories of the Grand Canyon.jpg|thumb|October Suite: Grand Canyon by Wilson Hurley at the Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western ArtEiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western ArtThe Indianapolis Art Center, located in Broad Ripple Village, was founded in 1934 by the Works Project Administration. The center opened at its Michael Graves-designed building in 1996, including three public art galleries, 11 studios, a library, auditorium and ArtsPark along the White River.WEB,weblink About, Indianapolis Art Center, April 3, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160131181836weblink">weblink January 31, 2016, mdy-all, The Indianapolis Museum of Contemporary Art was established in 2001, and is located in The Murphy Art Center in Fountain Square. In 2014, the museum opened a second public gallery in The Alexander Hotel at CityWay in downtown Indianapolis.WEB,weblink About – iMOCA, Indianapolis Museum of Contemporary Art, April 3, 2016, Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art opened in 1989 at White River State Park as the only Native American art museum in the Midwest.WEB,weblink About the Museum, Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art, April 3, 2016, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) contains the Herron School of Art and Design. Established in 1902, the school's first core faculty included Impressionist painters of the Hoosier Group: T. C. Steele, J. Ottis Adams, William Forsyth, Richard Gruelle, and Otto Stark. The university's public art collection is extensive, with more than 30 works.

Performing arts

File:Murat Shrine, Indianápolis, Estados Unidos, 2012-10-22, DD 02.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Opened in 1909, Old National CentreOld National CentreIndianapolis's most notable performing arts venues are located in the Mass Ave cultural district or Downtown. The Indiana Theatre opened as a movie palace on Washington Street in 1927 and currently houses the Indiana Repertory Theatre, a regional repertory theatre. Located on Monument Circle since 1916, the 1,786-seat Hilbert Circle Theatre is the current home of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra (ISO). Founded in 1930, the ISO performed 180 concerts to over 275,000 guests during the 2015–2016 season, generating a record $8.5 million in ticket sales.WEB,weblink 2015 - 2016 Annual Report of the Indiana Symphony Society, Inc., Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra, The Indianapolis Opera, founded in 1975, maintains a collaborative relationship with the ISO.File:Madame Walker Theatre Center.jpg|thumb|Madame Walker Theatre Center opened on (Indiana Avenue]] in 1927 as a cultural center for the city's African American community.WEB, {{NHLS url, 80000062, |title=National Historic Landmark Nomination: Madame C.J. Walker Building|date=June 4, 1990|author=Miller, Paige Putnam|publisher=National Park Service}})In 1927, Madame Walker Theatre Center opened in the heart of the city's African-American neighborhood on Indiana Avenue.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 730, The theater is named for Madame C.J. Walker, an African American entrepreneur, philanthropist, and activist who began her beauty empire in Indianapolis. Indiana Avenue was home to a notable jazz scene from the 1920s through the 1960s, producing greats such as David Baker, Slide Hampton, Freddie Hubbard, J. J. Johnson, James Spaulding, and the Montgomery Brothers (Buddy, Monk, and Wes).ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 840–843, Wes Montgomery is considered one of the most influential jazz guitarists of all time,AV MEDIA, Tom Moon (Music Reviewer), May 25, 2015, Review: 'In The Beginning,' Wes Montgomery, Radio, English,weblink October 15, 2017, National Public Radio (NPR) All Things Considered, He was one of the most influential guitarists of all time., and is credited with popularizing the "Naptown Sound."WEB,weblink Wes Montgomery and the Indy Jazz Fest, August 30, 2016, Terri Procopio, Pattern, Mass Ave is home to the Old National Centre, Phoenix Theatre, and the Athenæum (Das Deutsche Haus). Old National Centre at the Murat Shrine is the oldest stage house in Indianapolis, opened in 1909.WEB,weblink Old National Centre, Live Nation Worldwide, Inc., April 4, 2016, The building is a prime example of Moorish Revival architecture and features a 2,600-seat performing arts theatre, 1,800-seat concert hall, and 600-seat multi-functional room, hosting approximately 300 public and private events throughout the year. The nonprofit Phoenix Theatre focuses on contemporary theatrical productions.WEB,weblink About the Phoenix, The Phoenix Theatre, April 4, 2016, The Athenӕum, houses the American Cabaret Theater and Young Actors Theater.Other notable venues include the Indianapolis Artsgarden, a performing arts center suspended over the intersection of Washington and Illinois streets, Clowes Memorial Hall on the Butler University campus, Melody Inn in Butler-Tarkington, Rivoli Theater, and The Emerson Theater in Little Flower.Indianapolis is home to Bands of America (BOA), a nationwide organization of high school marching, concert, and jazz bands, and the headquarters for Drum Corps International (DCI), a professional drum and bugle corps association.WEB,weblink Indianapolis: The Center for the Music Arts?, Halftime Magazine, April 4, 2016, Annual music events include the International Violin Competition of Indianapolis, Midwest Music Summit, and Indy Jazz Fest. The Heartland Film Festival, Indianapolis International Film Festival, Indianapolis Jewish Film Festival, Indianapolis Theatre Fringe Festival and the Indianapolis Alternative Media Festival are annual events held in the city.

Literature

File:Mass Ave.jpg|thumb|A mural memorializing Kurt Vonnegut stands on Mass Ave. The project was completed by local artist Pamela Bliss in 2011.]]Indianapolis was at the center of the Golden Age of Indiana Literature from 1870 to 1920.WEB,weblink The Golden Age: Indiana Literature (1880–1920), Indiana Historical Society, April 4, 2016, Several notable poets and writers based in the city achieved national prominence and critical acclaim during this period, including James Whitcomb Riley, Booth Tarkington and Meredith Nicholson. In A History of Indiana Literature, Arthur W. Shumaker remarked on the era's influence: "It was the age of famous men and their famous books. In it Indiana, and particularly Indianapolis, became a literary center which in many ways rivaled the East."WEB,weblink Founding of the Club, The Indianapolis Literary Club, April 4, 2016, A 1947 study found that Indiana authors ranked second to New York in the number of bestsellers produced in the previous 40 years. Located in Lockerbie Square, the James Whitcomb Riley Museum Home has been a National Historic Landmark since 1962.Perhaps the city's most famous 20th century writer was Kurt Vonnegut, known for his darkly satirical and controversial bestselling novel Slaughterhouse-Five (1969). The Kurt Vonnegut Memorial Library opened in 2010 downtown. Vonnegut became known for including at least one character in his novels from Indianapolis.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131116153542weblink">weblink yes, November 16, 2013, Kurt Vonnegut, Indiana Historical Society, April 4, 2016, Upon returning to the city in 1986, Vonnegut acknowledged the influence the city had on his writings:{{cquote|All my jokes are Indianapolis. All my attitudes are Indianapolis. My adenoids are Indianapolis. If I ever severed myself from Indianapolis, I would be out of business. What people like about me is Indianapolis.NEWS, Kurt Vonnegut Memorial Library Opens in Indianapolis,weblink The New York Times, November 19, 2010, April 4, 2016, Emma, Graves Fitzsimmons, }}Indianapolis is the current home to bestselling young adult fiction writer John Green, known for his critically acclaimed 2012 novel The Fault in Our Stars, set in the city.NEWS, Indianapolis shows local love to author John Green,weblink The Indianapolis Star, July 16, 2015, April 4, 2016, David, Lindquist,

Attractions

File:Azy (orangutan) at the Indianapolis Zoo.jpg|upright|left|thumb|Azy, a male orangutan at the Indianapolis ZooIndianapolis ZooFile:Bucky the T. Rex 1.jpg|thumb|"(Specimens of Tyrannosaurus#"Bucky": TCM 2001.90.1|Bucky)," a juvenile Tyrannosaurus specimen at The Children's Museum of IndianapolisThe Children's Museum of IndianapolisFile:Benjamin Harrison Home.jpg|thumb|The Benjamin Harrison Presidential Site is a National Historic LandmarkNational Historic LandmarkThe Children's Museum of Indianapolis is the largest of its kind in the world, offering {{convert|433000|sqft|m2|2}} of exhibit space.WEB,weblink About Children's Museums, Association of Children's Museums, July 26, 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170613131739weblink">weblink June 13, 2017, mdy-all, The museum holds a collection of over 120,000 artifacts, including the Broad Ripple Park Carousel, a National Historic Landmark.WEB,weblink Delving into the world's largest children's museum, Eileen Ogintz, MSNBC, July 13, 2011, September 6, 2011, Because of its leadership and innovations, the museum is a world leader in its field.Sandler, p. 186 Child and Parents magazine have both ranked the museum as the best children's museum in the U.S.WEB,weblink October 20, 2010, Parents (magazine), Parents magazine, The 10 best children's Museums, The museum is one of the city's most popular attractions, with 1.2 million visitors in 2014.WEB,weblink Indianapolis Business Journal, 2016 Book of Lists, 176, May 12, 2016, The Indianapolis Zoo is home to nearly 1,400 animals of 214 species and 31,000 plants, including many threatened and endangered species.WEB,weblink 2015 Indianapolis Zoo Annual Report, Indianapolis Zoological Society, October 17, 2016, The zoo is a leader in animal conservation and research, recognized for its biennial Indianapolis Prize designation. It is the only American zoo accredited as a zoo, aquarium, and zoological garden by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums.NEWS, Mejia Lutz, Elena,weblink Indianapolis Zoo named one of '10 best zoos in U.S.' and out-of-towners agree, July 24, 2017, July 26, 2017, The Indianapolis Star, It is the largest privately funded zoo in the U.S. and one of the city's most visited attractions, with 1.2 million guests in 2014.WEB,weblink Annual Reports, Indianapolis Zoological Society, October 17, 2016, The Indianapolis Motor Speedway Museum exhibits an extensive collection of auto racing memorabilia showcasing various motorsports and automotive history.WEB, Indianapolis Motor Speedway--Indianapolis: A Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary,weblink Indianapolis Motor Speedway, April 27, 2016, WEB, Indianapolis Motor Speedway Museum,weblink Indianapolis Motor Speedway, April 27, 2016, The museum is the permanent home of the Borg-Warner Trophy, presented to Indianapolis 500 winners.WEB, The Borg-Warner Trophy,weblink BorgWarner Inc., April 27, 2016, yes,weblink April 28, 2016, mdy-all, Daily grounds and track tours are also based at the museum. The NCAA Hall of Champions opened in 2000 at White River State Park housing collegiate athletic artifacts and interactive exhibits covering all 23 NCAA-sanctioned sports.WEB, History at White River State Park,weblink White River State Park, April 27, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160422124220weblink">weblink April 22, 2016, mdy-all, WEB, NCAA Hall of Champions - About Us,weblink NCAA, April 27, 2016, Indianapolis is home to several centers commemorating Indiana history. These include the Indiana Historical Society, Indiana State Library and Historical Bureau, Indiana State Museum, and Indiana Medical History Museum. Indiana Landmarks, the largest private statewide historic preservation organization in the U.S., is also located in the city.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 685, The Benjamin Harrison Presidential Site, located in the Old Northside Historic District, is open for daily tours and includes archives and memorabilia from the 23rd President of the United States. President Harrison is buried about {{convert|3|mi|km}} north of the site at Crown Hill Cemetery, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Other notable graves include three U.S. Vice Presidents and notorious American gangster, John Dillinger.Two museums and several memorials in the city commemorate armed forces or conflict, including the Colonel Eli Lilly Civil War Museum at the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument and Indiana World War Memorial Military Museum at the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza. Outside of Washington, D.C., Indianapolis contains the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the nation. Other notable sites are the Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Crown Hill National Cemetery, the Medal of Honor Memorial, Project 9/11 Indianapolis, and the USS Indianapolis National Memorial.

Cuisine

{{See also|Cuisine of the Midwestern United States#Indianapolis}}File:Indianapolis City Market interior.jpg|thumb|Indianapolis City MarketIndianapolis City MarketIndianapolis has an emerging food scene as well as established eateries.NEWS, Matt, Haas, February 16, 2016,weblink How Every City Became Brooklyn, Bon Appétite, September 22, 2016, Founded in 1821 as the city's public market, the Indianapolis City Market has served the community from its current building since 1886. Prior to World War II, the City Market and neighboring Tomlinson Hall (since demolished) were home to meat and vegetable vendors. As consumer habits evolved and residents moved from the central city, the City Market transitioned from a traditional marketplace to a food court, a function it retains today.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 432, Opened in 1902, St. Elmo Steak House is well known for its signature shrimp cocktail, named by the Travel Channel as the "world's spiciest food". In 2012, it was recognized by the James Beard Foundation as one of "America's Classics".WEB, JBF Editors, 2012 James Beard Foundation Award Winners,weblink James Beard Foundation, September 22, 2016, The Slippery Noodle Inn, a blues bar and restaurant, is the oldest continuously operating tavern in Indiana, having opened in 1850.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 1266, The Jazz Kitchen, opened in 1994, was recognized in 2011 by OpenTable as one the "top 50 late night dining hotspots" in the U.S.WEB, PRNewswire, OpenTable Diners Reveal Top 50 Late Night Dining Hotspots,weblink OpenTable, Inc., September 22, 2016, Distinctive local dishes include pork tenderloin sandwichesNEWS, Kevin, Pang, April 3, 2014,weblink Breaded Pork Tenderloin sandwiches: An Indiana institution, Chicago Tribune, March 10, 2018, and sugar cream pie, the latter being the unofficial state pie of Indiana.WEB,weblink Indiana State Pie, March 10, 2018, State of Indiana, The beef Manhattan, invented in Indianapolis, can also be found on restaurant menus throughout the city and region. Stuttgen, J.R. (2007). Cafe Indiana: A Guide to Indiana’s Down-Home Cafes. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 178. {{ISBN|978-0-299-22493-6}}. Retrieved November 7, 2015.In 2016, Condé Nast Traveler named Indianapolis the "most underrated food city in the U.S.," while ranking Milktooth as one of the best restaurants in the world.NEWS, Liz, Biro, September 21, 2016,weblink Milktooth is on a best restaurants in the world list, The Indianapolis Star, September 22, 2016, NEWS, Allison, Carter, May 23, 2016,weblink Indy called 'most underrated food city in the U.S.' by Condé Nast Traveler, The Indianapolis Star, September 22, 2016, Food & Wine called Indianapolis the "rising star of the Midwest," recognizing Milktooth, Rook, Amelia's, and Bluebeard, all in Fletcher Place.NEWS, Annie, Quigley, April 12, 2016,weblink Rising Star of the Midwest: Indianapolis, Food & Wine, September 22, 2016, NEWS, Allison, Carter, April 13, 2016,weblink 4 Indy restaurants recognized by 'Food & Wine', The Indianapolis Star, September 22, 2016, Several Indianapolis chefs and restaurateurs have been semifinalists in the James Beard Foundation Awards in recent years.NEWS, Liz, Biro, March 15, 2016,weblink No James Beard Awards for Indy chefs – but why?, The Indianapolis Star, September 22, 2016, Microbreweries are quickly becoming a staple in the city, increasing fivefold since 2009.NEWS, Scott, Olson, May 3, 2016,weblink More filling: Craft brew craze adds body to real estate market, Indianapolis Business Journal, September 22, 2016, There are now about 50 craft brewers in Indianapolis, with Sun King Brewing being the largest.NEWS, Scott, Olson, January 16, 2013,weblink Sun King brewery lands tax breaks for expansion, Indianapolis Business Journal, September 22, 2016, For some time, Indianapolis was known as the "100 Percent American City" for its racial and ethnic homogeneity.NEWS, John, Edge, February 22, 2011,weblink In Indianapolis, the World Comes to Eat, The New York Times, September 22, 2016, Historically, these factors, as well as low taxes and wages, provided chain restaurants a relatively stable market to test dining preferences before expanding nationwide. As a result, the Indianapolis metropolitan area had the highest concentration of chain restaurants per capita of any market in the U.S. in 2008, with one chain restaurant for every 1,459 people—44% higher than the national average.NEWS, Deborah, Cohen, August 2008, Chain Reaction, Indianapolis Monthly, 89–99, In recent years, immigrants have opened some 800 ethnic restaurants.

Sports

File:Super Bowl-6 (6833620123).jpg|thumb|Lucas Oil Stadium during Super Bowl XLVI. The stadium is home to the Indianapolis Colts and Indy ElevenIndy ElevenFile:Bankers Life Fieldhouse, Indianápolis, Estados Unidos, 2012-10-22, DD 02.jpg|thumb|Bankers Life Fieldhouse, home to the Indiana Pacers and Indiana FeverIndiana FeverFile:Victory Field sunset 2.jpg|thumb|Victory Field, home to the Indianapolis IndiansIndianapolis IndiansTwo major league sports teams are based in Indianapolis: the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League (NFL) and the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association (NBA).Originally the Baltimore Colts, the franchise has been based in Indianapolis since relocating in 1984. The Colts' tenure in Indianapolis has produced 11 division championships, two conference championships, and two Super Bowl appearances. Quarterback Peyton Manning led the team to win Super Bowl XLI in the 2006 NFL season. Lucas Oil Stadium replaced the team's first home, the RCA Dome, in 2008.Founded in 1967, the Indiana Pacers began in the American Basketball Association (ABA), joining the NBA when the leagues merged in 1976. Prior to joining the NBA, the Pacers won three division titles and three championships (1970, 1972, 1973). Since the merger, the Pacers have won one conference title and six division titles, most recently in 2014.Founded in 2000, the Indiana Fever of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) have won three conference titles and one championship in 2012. The Fever and Pacers share Bankers Life Fieldhouse, which replaced Market Square Arena in 1999. The Indianapolis Indians of the International League (AAA) is the second oldest minor league franchise in American professional baseball, established in 1902.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 786, The Indians have won 25 division titles, 14 league titles, and seven championships, most recently in 2000. Since 1996, the team has played at Victory Field, which replaced Bush Stadium. Of the 160 teams comprising Minor League Baseball, the Indians had the highest attendance during the 2016 season.NEWS, September 6, 2016,weblink Indianapolis Indians lead MiLB in 2016 attendance, The Indianapolis Star, September 9, 2016, Established in 2013, Indy Eleven of the United Soccer League (USL) plays from Lucas Oil Stadium. Indy Fuel of the ECHL was founded in 2014 and plays from Indiana Farmers Coliseum.File:Austin Etherington reverse layup.jpg|thumb|left|A Butler Bulldogs men's basketball game at Hinkle FieldhouseHinkle FieldhouseButler University and Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) are NCAA Division I schools based in the city. The Butler Bulldogs compete in the Big East Conference, except for Butler Bulldogs football, which plays in the Pioneer Football League FCS. The Butler Bulldogs men's basketball team were runners-up in the 2010 and 2011 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship Games. The IUPUI Jaguars compete in the Summit League.Traditionally, Indianapolis's Hinkle Fieldhouse was the hub for Hoosier Hysteria, a general excitement around the game of basketball throughout the state, specifically the Indiana High School Boys Basketball Tournament.NEWS, Bill, Beck, December 12, 2015,weblink BICENTENNIAL: Architects, designers, engineers, builders leave imprint on region, Indianapolis Business Journal, July 4, 2016, Hinkle, a National Historic Landmark, was opened in 1928 as the world's largest basketball arena, with seating for 15,000.NEWS, Zak, Keefer, March 16, 2014,weblink History of our Hysteria: How Indiana fell in love with basketball, The Indianapolis Star, July 4, 2016, It is regarded as "Indiana's Basketball Cathedral". Perhaps the most notable game was the 1954 state championship, which inspired the critically acclaimed 1986 film, Hoosiers.NEWS, John, Branch, March 16, 2010,weblink It’s the Bricks That Make Butler Basketball Special, The New York Times, July 4, 2016, Indianapolis has been called the "Amateur Sports Capital of the World".WEB,weblink About Indianapolis, Sports and Recreation, Greater Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce, June 11, 2008, June 11, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080516024713weblink">weblink May 16, 2008, The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the main governing body for U.S. collegiate sports, and the National Federation of State High School Associations are based in Indianapolis. The city is home to three NCAA athletic conferences: the Horizon League (Division I); the Great Lakes Valley Conference (Division II); and the Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference (Division III). Indianapolis is also home to three national sport governing bodies, as recognized by the United States Olympic Committee: USA Gymnastics; USA Diving; and USA Track & Field.WEB,weblink USOC: About - National Governing Bodies, 2014, United States Olympic Committee, September 10, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161022095417weblink">weblink October 22, 2016, mdy-all, Indianapolis hosts numerous sporting events annually, including the Circle City Classic (1983–present), NFL Scouting Combine (1987–present), and Big Ten Football Championship Game (2011–present). Indianapolis is tied with New York City for having hosted the second most NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championships (1980, 1991, 1997, 2000, 2006, 2010, and 2015).WEB,weblink History of the NCAA Tournament Final Four in Indianapolis, HERO Sports News, June 30, 2016, The city will host the men's Final Four next in 2021.NEWS, Mark, Alesia, November 14, 2014,weblink Indy awarded men's Final Four in 2021, The Indianapolis Star, June 30, 2016, The city has also hosted three NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Championships (2005, 2011, and 2016). Notable past events include the NBA All-Star Game (1985), Pan American Games X (1987), US Open Series Indianapolis Tennis Championships (1988–2009), WrestleMania VIII (1992), World Rowing Championships (1994), World Police and Fire Games (2001), FIBA Basketball World Cup (2002), and Super Bowl XLVI (2012).Indianapolis is home to the OneAmerica 500 Festival Mini-Marathon, the largest half marathon and seventh largest running event in the U.S.WEB, Largest Races,weblink Running USA, May 6, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120504022720weblink">weblink May 4, 2012, mdy-all, The mini-marathon is held the first weekend of May as part of the 500 Festival, leading up to the Indianapolis 500. {{As of|2013}}, it had sold out for 12 consecutive years, with 35,000 participants.NEWS,weblink OneAmerica 500 Festival Mini-Marathon Sells Out for 12th Consecutive Year, 500Festival.com, April 1, 2013, July 7, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140315052007weblink">weblink March 15, 2014, mdy-all, Held in autumn, the Monumental Marathon is also among the largest in the U.S., with nearly 14,000 entrants in 2015.NEWS, Jim, Scott,weblink Monumental Marathon sets new records, WXIN Fox 59, November 7, 2015, July 3, 2016,

Motorsports

File:2008 Indy 500 video.ogv|thumb|The 2008 Indianapolis 5002008 Indianapolis 500Indianapolis is a major center for motorsports. Two auto racing sanctioning bodies are headquartered in the city (INDYCAR and United States Auto Club) along with more than 500 motorsports companies and racing teams, employing some 10,000 people in the region.WEB,weblink Motorsports Industry, Indy Chamber, January 17, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150908084834weblink">weblink September 8, 2015, mdy-all, Indianapolis is so well connected with auto racing that it has inspired the name "IndyCar," used for both the competition and type of car used in it.WEB,weblink Indy car, November 2010, Oxford English Dictionary, December 6, 2010, Since 1911, Indianapolis Motor Speedway (IMS) (in the enclave of Speedway, Indiana) has been the site of the Indianapolis 500, an open-wheel automobile race held annually on Memorial Day weekend. Considered part of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, the Indianapolis 500 is the world's largest single-day sporting event, hosting more than 257,000 permanent seats. Since 1994, IMS has hosted one of NASCAR's highest attended events, the Monster Energy Cup Series Brickyard 400.NEWS, Max, Gabovitch, July 2, 2016,weblink IMS hoping momentum from May, Tony Stewart's retirement stoke Brickyard 400, Indianapolis Business Journal, July 6, 2016, IMS has also hosted the Verizon IndyCar Series Grand Prix of Indianapolis since 2014.Lucas Oil Raceway, in nearby Hendricks County, is home to the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) U.S. Nationals, the most prestigious drag racing event in the world, held annually each Labor Day weekend.NEWS, Mike, Hembree, September 3, 2015,weblink Drag racing stars are made at NHRA U.S. Nationals, USA Today, May 23, 2016,

Parks and recreation

{{See also|List of parks in Indianapolis}}File:Reminds me of the bridgestone commercial (2669256227).jpg|thumb|left|A white-tailed deer in Eagle Creek ParkEagle Creek ParkIndy Parks and Recreation maintains nearly 200 parks covering {{convert|11246|acre|ha}}.WEB,weblink Indianapolis, Indiana, The Trust for Public Land 2015 ParkScore Index, Trust for Public Land, February 7, 2016, Eagle Creek Park is the largest and most visited park in the city and ranks among the largest municipal parks in the U.S., covering {{convert|4766|acre|ha}}.Parks, City of Indianapolis Fishing, sailing, kayaking, canoeing, and swimming are popular activities at Eagle Creek Reservoir. Notable recreational shared use paths include the Downtown Canal Walk, Pleasant Run Trail, and Monon Trail. The Monon is a popular rail trail and part of the United States Bicycle Route System, drawing some 1.3 million people annually.WEB, Indiana's Monon Trail,weblink Rails-To-Trails Conservancy, November 18, 2015, March 1, 2009, WEB, Indy Greenways 2014-2024 Master Plan,weblink City of Indianapolis Department of Metropolitan Development, January 6, 2018, 36, May 2014, There are 13 public golf courses in the city.WEB,weblink 2015 Indianapolis Region Market Overview, Indy Partnership, May 29, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161022095305weblink">weblink October 22, 2016, mdy-all, File:Monon Rail-Trail Indianapolis.jpg|thumb|The Monon TrailMonon TrailMilitary Park was established as the city's first public park in 1852.BOOK, Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds., The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1994, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1008, 0-253-31222-1, By the 20th century, the city enlisted landscape architect George Kessler to conceive a framework for Indianapolis's modern parks system.BOOK, Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds., The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1994, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 867, 0-253-31222-1, Kessler's 1909 Indianapolis Park and Boulevard Plan linked notable parks, such as Brookside, Ellenberger, and Garfield, with a system of parkways following the city's waterways.BOOK, Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds., The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1994, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 868–869, 0-253-31222-1, In 2003, the system's {{convert|3474|acres}} were added to the National Register of Historic Places.WEB, Indianapolis Park and Boulevard System,weblink U.S. Department of the Interior, May 20, 2016, Marion County is home to two of Indiana's 25 state parks: Fort Harrison in Lawrence and White River downtown. Fort Harrison is managed by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. White River is owned and operated by the White River State Park Development Commission, a quasi-governmental agency.WEB, White River State Park Development Commission,weblink Downtown Indy Inc., October 4, 2018, Encompassing {{convert|250|acre|ha}}, White River is the city's major urban park, home to the Indianapolis Zoo and White River Gardens.WEB,weblink History of the Zoo, Indianapolis Zoological Society, May 17, 2016, Indianapolis lies about {{convert|50|mi|km}} north of two state forests, Morgan–Monroe and Yellowwood, and one national forest, Hoosier. Crown Hill Cemetery, the third largest private cemetery in the U.S., covers {{convert|555|acre|ha}} on the city's north side and is home to more than 250 species of trees and shrubs comprising one of the largest old-growth forests in the Midwest.BOOK, Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds., The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1994, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 484–85, 0-253-31222-1, NEWS, John, Tuohy, September 29, 2016,weblink 500-year-old tree at risk in Crown Hill cemetery fight, The Indianapolis Star, April 15, 2017, According to the Trust for Public Land's 2017 ParkScore Index, Indianapolis tied for last with respect to public park accessibility of the 100 largest U.S. cities evaluated. Currently, some 68% of residents are underserved. The city's large land area and low public funding contributed to the ranking.WEB,weblink Indianapolis, IN, 2017 ParkScore Index, Trust for Public Land, May 25, 2017,

Government and politics

{{See also|List of mayors of Indianapolis}}File:Indianapolis City-County Building BW.jpg|thumb|The City-County Building houses the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of municipal government.]]Indianapolis has a consolidated city-county government, a status it has held since 1970 under Indiana Code's Unigov provision. Many functions of the city and county governments are consolidated, though some remain separate. The city has a mayor-council form of government.The executive branch is headed by an elected mayor, who serves as the chief executive of both the city and Marion County. Joe Hogsett, a Democrat, is the 49th and current mayor of Indianapolis. The mayor appoints deputy mayors, department heads, and members of various boards and commissions. City-County Council is the legislative body and consists of 25 members, all of whom represent geographic districts. The council has the exclusive power to adopt budgets, levy taxes, and make appropriations. It can also enact, repeal, or amend ordinances, and make appointments to certain boards and commissions. According to Moody's, the city maintains a Aaa bond credit rating, with an annual budget of $1.1 billion.NEWS, Colombo, Hayleigh, Hogsett's plan to issue debt for road, bridge repairs draws some concern,weblink August 14, 2018, Indianapolis Business Journal, August 13, 2018, NEWS, Briggs, James, Mayor Joe Hogsett says he'll introduce Indianapolis' first 'honestly balanced budget' in a decade,weblink August 14, 2017, The Indianapolis Star, August 14, 2017, The judicial branch consists of a circuit court, a superior court with four divisions and 32 judges, and a small claims court. The three branches, along with most local government departments, are based in the City-County Building.File:Indiana State Capitol rect pano.jpg|thumb|left|The Indiana StatehouseIndiana StatehouseAs the state capital, Indianapolis is the seat of Indiana's state government. The city has hosted the capital since its move from Corydon in 1825. The Indiana Statehouse, located downtown, houses the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of state government, including the offices of the Governor of Indiana and Lieutenant Governor of Indiana, the Indiana General Assembly, and the Indiana Supreme Court. Most state departments and agencies are located in Indiana Government Centers North and South. The Indiana Governor's Residence is located on Meridian Street in the Butler–Tarkington neighborhood, about {{convert|5|mi|km}} north of downtown.Most of Indianapolis is within Indiana's 7th congressional district, represented by André Carson (D–Indianapolis), while the northern fifth is part of Indiana's 5th congressional district, represented by Susan Brooks (R–Carmel).WEB, The National Atlas,weblink nationalatlas.gov, February 22, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140222045635weblink">weblink February 22, 2014, mdy-all, Federal field offices are located in the Birch Bayh Federal Building and United States Courthouse (which houses the United States District Court for the Southern District of Indiana) and the Minton-Capehart Federal Building, both located downtown. The Defense Finance and Accounting Service, an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, is headquartered in nearby Lawrence.

Public safety

File:Indianapolis Metropolitan police cruiser 2.jpg|thumb|Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department interceptor in 2008.]]Indianapolis Emergency Medical Services is the largest provider of pre-hospital medical care in the city, responding to 95,000 emergency dispatch calls annually.WEB, About Us, Indianapolis Emergency Medical Services,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20150430225516weblink">weblink yes, April 30, 2015, October 5, 2017, The agency's coverage area includes six townships within the city (Center, Franklin, Lawrence, Perry, Warren, and Washington) and the town of Speedway. {{As of|2018}}, Charles Miramonti, MD was the EMS chief.WEB, Indianapolis EMS Chief, Indianapolis Emergency Medical Services,weblink October 5, 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170205230358weblink">weblink February 5, 2017, mdy-all, The Indianapolis Fire Department (IFD) provides fire protection services as the primary emergency response agency for {{convert|278|sqmi|km2}} of Marion County. IFD provides automatic and mutual aid to the excluded municipalities of Beech Grove, Lawrence, and Speedway, as well as Decatur, Pike, and Wayne townships who have retained their own fire departments. The fire district comprises seven geographic battalions with 44 fire stations, dual-staffing a forty-fifth station with the City of Lawrence Fire Department. {{As of|2014}}, 1,205 sworn firefighters responded to nearly 100,000 incidents annually.WEB, IFD Quick Facts, City of Indianapolis and Marion County,weblink April 27, 2016, {{As of|2018}}, Ernest Malone was the fire chief.WEB, IFD Chief, Indianapolis Fire Department,weblink May 15, 2016, Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department (IMPD) is the primary law enforcement agency for the city of Indianapolis. IMPD's jurisdiction covers Marion County, with the exceptions of Beech Grove, Lawrence, Southport, Speedway, and the Indianapolis International Airport, which is served by the Indianapolis Airport Authority Police Department.WEB, 2009 Annual Report, Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department,weblink April 27, 2016, IMPD was established in 2007 through a merger between the Indianapolis Police Department and the Marion County Sheriff's Office Law Enforcement Division.NEWS, Jon, Murray, October 7, 2013,weblink Audit will tackle $9M question: Did Indianapolis police merger save any money?, The Indianapolis Star, July 23, 2018, The Marion County Sheriff's Office maintains and operates Marion County Jails I and II. In 2016, IMPD operated six precincts with 1,640 sworn police personnel and 200 civilian employees. {{As of|2018}}, Bryan Roach was the chief of police.NEWS, Madeline, Buckley, Justin, Mack, James, Briggs, January 11, 2017,weblink Bryan Roach named new Indianapolis police chief, The Indianapolis Star, January 11, 2017,

Crime

{{anchor|Crime}}According to the FBI's 2015 Uniform Crime Report, Indianapolis ranks as the 16th most dangerous city in the U.S., with 17.1 homicides per 100,000 people, compared with the U.S. rate of 4.9 homicides per 100,000 people.WEB,weblink Most Dangerous Cities In The United States, worldatlas.com, July 3, 2017, {{Citation needed|reason=Indianapolis is not mentioned anywhere in source cited|date=November 2017}} Between 2012 and 2014, the murder rate rose by 44%. There were 138 homicides in 2014, with 60% of victims and 90% of perpetrators being young black men.WEB, Indianapolis: Tensions Stir As Murder Rate Surges,weblink April 28, 2015, WSIU (FM), WSIU, NPR, January 22, 2016, With 144 criminal homicides, 2015 surpassed 1998 as the year with the most murder investigations in the city. With 154 criminal homicides, 2017 marked the third consecutive year of record violence. FBI data showed a 7 percent increase in violent crimes committed in Indianapolis, outpacing the rest of the state and country.NEWS, Justin, Mack, December 31, 2017,weblink Woman killed in New Year's Eve shooting, The Indianapolis Star, February 2, 2018, Law enforcement has blamed increased violence on a combination of root causes, including poverty, substance abuse, mental illness, and availability of firearms.NEWS, Holly, Hays, Justin, Mack, Vic, Ryckaert, December 22, 2016,weblink Latest killing makes 2016 deadliest year in city's history, The Indianapolis Star, January 11, 2017, Marion County vote by party in presidential electionsweblink">

Politics{| "wikitable" class"toccolours" style"float:right; margin:1em 0 1em 1em; font-size:95%;|+ Marion County vote by party in presidential electionsweblink

! Year! Republican! Democratic! Others201658.0% 212,8996.4% 23,620201260.1% 216,3362.0% 7,127200863.7% 241,9871.0% 3,790200450.6% 162,2490.8% 2,517200047.9% 134,1892.8% 7,904199644.1% 124,4488.7% 24,437199237.8% 122,23418.6% 60,187198840.8% 128,6270.6% 1,949Until fairly recently, Indianapolis was considered one of the most conservative major cities in the U.S. Republicans held the mayor's office for 32 years (1967–1999), and controlled the City-County Council from its inception in 1970 to 2003. Since the early-2000s, the city's politics have gradually shifted more toward the Democrats. {{As of|2014}}, the city is regarded as politically moderate.WEB, Chart of the Week: The most liberal and conservative big cities,weblink Pew Research Center, May 20, 2016, Republican Greg Ballard chose not to run for a third term in the 2015 mayoral election.NEWS, Adams, Matt, Ballard pledges "we will keep working to the end," decides against third term,weblink November 4, 2015, Fox59, Fox, November 6, 2014, Republican Chuck Brewer and Democrat Joe Hogsett were the candidates to replace him. Each had similar plans for addressing the city's issues, and the commonality between them contributed to a very low voter turnout.NEWS, Buckley, Madeline, Polls are closed in Indiana,weblink November 4, 2015, Indianapolis Star, November 3, 2015, Hogsett previously held public office as Indiana Secretary of State and as U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of Indiana, and had served in government for over 30 years, giving him greater name recognition than Brewer, a local restaurateur.NEWS, Evans, Tim, Hogsett cruises to victory with impressive win in Indy mayor's race,weblink November 4, 2015, Indianapolis Star, November 4, 2015, Hogsett was elected with 63% of the vote, officially taking office on January 1, 2016.The 2015 City-County Council elections also left Democrats in control of the council, holding a 13–12 majority over Republicans, only the second time since the creation of Unigov that Democrats controlled both the mayor's office and council.WEB,weblink Hogsett cruises to victory with impressive win in Indy mayor's race, The Indianapolis Star, November 4, 2015, November 5, 2015, Recent political issues of local concern have included cutting the city's structural deficit, planning and construction of a new criminal justice center, homelessness, streetlights, and improved mass transit and transportation infrastructure.NEWS, Colombo, Hayleigh, Frugal Hogsett aims to slash city's deficit,weblink August 14, 2017, Indianapolis Business Journal, August 12, 2017,

Education

{{See also|List of schools in Indianapolis}}

Colleges and universities

File:Campus Center - IUPUI - DSC00526.JPG|thumb|Indiana University – Purdue University IndianapolisIndiana University – Purdue University IndianapolisFile:Indianapolis Public Library - Central Library and Veterans Memorial Plaza.jpg|thumb|The Indianapolis Public LibraryIndianapolis Public LibraryIndiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) was founded in 1969 after merging the branch campuses of Indiana University and Purdue University.WEB,weblink Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis, U.S. News & World Report, May 24, 2018, IUPUI's current enrollment is 29,800, the third largest in the state. IUPUI has two colleges and 18 schools, including the Herron School of Art and Design, Robert H. McKinney School of Law, School of Dentistry, and the Indiana University School of Medicine, the largest medical school in the U.S.WEB,weblink Facts & Figures, IU Health, February 6, 2016, The city is home to the largest campus for Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana, a state-funded community college serving 77,600 students statewide.NEWS, Schneider, Chelsea, August 29, 2016, Ellspermann kicks off first school year at Ivy Tech,weblink The Indianapolis Star, September 4, 2017, Five private universities are based in Indianapolis. Established in 1855, Butler University is the oldest higher education institution in the city, with a total enrollment of about 5,000.WEB,weblink Butler University, U.S. News & World Report, May 24, 2018, Affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church, Marian University was founded in 1936 when St. Francis Normal and Immaculate Conception Junior College merged, moving to Indianapolis in 1937. Marian has an enrollment of about 3,100 students.WEB,weblink Marian University, U.S. News & World Report, May 24, 2018, Founded in 1902, the University of Indianapolis is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. The school's current enrollment is 5,700 students.WEB,weblink University of Indianapolis, U.S. News & World Report, May 24, 2018, Martin University was founded in 1977 and is the state's only predominately black university.WEB,weblink About Martin, Martin University, April 1, 2016, Crossroads Bible College and Indiana Bible College are small Christian colleges located in the city.Satellite campuses located in the city include Ball State University College of Architecture and Planning, Grace College, Indiana Institute of Technology, Indiana Wesleyan University, and Vincennes University.

Schools and libraries

Nine public school districts serve residents of Indianapolis: Franklin Township Community School Corporation, MSD Decatur Township, MSD Lawrence Township, MSD Perry Township, MSD Pike Township, MSD Warren Township, MSD Washington Township, MSD Wayne Township, and Indianapolis Public Schools (IPS). {{As of|2016}}, IPS was the second largest public school district in Indiana, serving nearly 30,000 students.WEB,weblink Indianapolis Public Schools (5385), Indiana Department of Education, May 17, 2016, A number of private primary and secondary schools are operated through the Archdiocese of Indianapolis, charters, or other independent organizations. Founded in 1873, the Indianapolis Public Library includes the Central Library and 23 branches throughout Marion County. The Indianapolis Public Library served 4.2 million patrons in 2014, with a circulation of 15.9 million materials.WEB,weblink Library at a Glance, Indianapolis Public Library, January 16, 2016,

Media

File:The Indianapolis Star, 2011.jpg|thumb|The Indianapolis StarThe Indianapolis StarIndianapolis is served by various print media. Founded in 1903, The Indianapolis Star is the city's daily morning newspaper. The Star is owned by Gannett Company, with a daily circulation of 127,064.WEB,weblink 2015 Annual Report, Gannett Company, November 15, 2016, The Indianapolis News was the city's daily evening newspaper and oldest print media, published from 1869 to 1999. Notable weeklies include NUVO, an alternative weekly newspaper, the Indianapolis Recorder, a weekly newspaper serving the local African American community, the Indianapolis Business Journal, reporting on local real estate, and the Southside Times. Indianapolis Monthly is the city's monthly lifestyle publication.Broadcast television network affiliates include WTTV 4 (CBS), WRTV 6 (ABC), WISH-TV 8 (The CW), WTHR-TV 13 (NBC), WDNI-CD 19 (Telemundo), WFYI-TV 20 (PBS), WNDY-TV 23 (MyNetworkTV), WUDZ-LD 28 (Buzzr), WSDI-LD 30 (Quest), WHMB-TV 40 (Family), WCLJ-TV 42 (Ion Life), WBXI-CD 47 (Decades), WXIN-TV 59 (Fox), WIPX-TV 63 (Ion) and WDTI 69 (Daystar). The majority of commercial radio stations in the city are owned by Cumulus Media, Emmis Communications, iHeartMedia, and Radio One. Popular nationally syndicated radio program The Bob & Tom Show has been based at Indianapolis radio station WFBQ since 1983.WEB,weblink Bob & Tom Mark Major Milestone, D, Nick, March 7, 2013, Building Indiana, April 1, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141210060715weblink">weblink December 10, 2014, {{As of|2016}}, the Indianapolis metropolitan area was the 27th largest television market and 39th largest radio market in the U.S.WEB,weblink Local Television Market Universe Estimates, Nielson, September 17, 2016, WEB,weblink Radio Market Survey Population, Rankings & Information, Nielson, September 17, 2016, Indianapolis natives Jane Pauley and David Letterman launched their notable broadcasting careers in local media, Pauley with WISH-TV and Letterman with WTHR-TV, respectively.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bodenhamer, David, Barrows, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, 1994, Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 22, MAGAZINE, Allan, Marc, Comiskey, Daniel, Wren, Adam, April 25, 2015, Goodbye, David Letterman: An Oral History,weblink Indianapolis Monthly, Indianapolis, Emmis Communications, October 10, 2016, Motion pictures at least partially filmed in the city include Speedway,WEB,weblink Speedway (1929) Filming Locations, IMDb, November 15, 2016, To Please a Lady,WEB,weblink To Please a Lady (1950) Filming Locations, IMDb, November 15, 2016, Winning,WEB,weblink Winning (1969) Filming Locations, IMDb, November 15, 2016, Hoosiers,WEB,weblink Hoosiers (1986) Filming Locations, IMDb, November 15, 2016, Going All the Way,WEB,weblink Going All the Way (1987) Filming Locations, IMDb, February 11, 2017, Eight Men Out,WEB,weblink Eight Men Out (1988) Filming Locations, IMDb, November 15, 2016, and Eagle Eye.WEB,weblink Eagle Eye (2008) Filming Locations, IMDb, November 15, 2016, Television series set in Indianapolis have included One Day at a Time; Good Morning, Miss Bliss; Men Behaving Badly; Cops;WEB,weblink Cops (TV Series 1989–) Filming Locations, IMDb, July 6, 2017, Close to Home;WEB,weblink Close to Home (TV Series 2005–2007) Filming Locations, IMDb, November 15, 2016, the second season of anthology drama American Crime,NEWS, Bill, Keveney, January 4, 2016,weblink American Crime tackles rape in Season 2, USA Today, November 16, 2016, and HGTV's Good Bones.MAGAZINE, Fernandez, Megan, March 30, 2016, First Impressions of Good Bones on HGTV,weblink Indianapolis Monthly, Indianapolis, Emmis Communications, November 15, 2016,

Transportation

Indianapolis's current transportation infrastructure comprises a complex network that includes a public bus system, two Amtrak passenger rail lines, multiple freight rail lines, an Interstate Highway System, two airports, a heliport, a private people mover, carshare and bikeshare systems, and miles of on-road bike lanes and multi-use trails.According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 83.7% of working city of Indianapolis residents commuted by driving alone, 8.4% carpooled, 1.5% used public transportation, and 1.8% walked. About 1.5% used all other forms of transportation, including taxicab, motorcycle, and bicycle. About 3.1% of working city of Indianapolis residents worked at home.WEB, Census Reporter, July 22, 2018, Means of Transportation to Work by Age,weblink In 2015, 10.5 percent of Indianapolis households lacked a car, which decreased to 8.7 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Indianapolis averaged 1.63 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.WEB, Car Ownership in U.S. Cities Data and Map, Governing,weblink May 4, 2018,

Roads and highways

Four Interstates intersect the city: Interstate 65, Interstate 69, Interstate 70, and Interstate 74. Two auxiliary Interstate Highways are located in the metropolitan area: a beltway (Interstate 465) and connector (Interstate 865). A $3 billion expansion project to extend Interstate 69 from Evansville to Indianapolis is in progress.NEWS, Lange, Kaitlin, I-69 completion date pushed back,weblink September 3, 2017, The Indianapolis Star, February 13, 2017, The Indiana Department of Transportation manages all Interstates, U.S. Highways, and Indiana State Roads within the city.The city's Department of Public Works manages about 8,100 miles of street lanes, in addition to alleys, bridges, sidewalks, and curbs.NEWS, Tuohy, John, More than potholes: Indianapolis' streets are headed for catastrophe,weblink July 21, 2018, The Indianapolis Star, February 15, 2018,

Mass transit

The Indianapolis Public Transportation Corporation, branded as IndyGo, operates the city's public bus system. In 2016, the Julia M. Carson Transit Center opened, the downtown hub for 27 of its 31 bus routes.NEWS, Tuohy, John, IndyGo transit center passes rush-hour test,weblink July 1, 2016, The Indianapolis Star, June 27, 2016, In 2017, City-County Council approved a voter referendum increasing Marion County's income tax to help fund IndyGo's first major system expansion since its founding in 1975. The Marion County Transit Plan outlines proposed system improvements, including three bus rapid transit (BRT) lines, new buses, sidewalks, and bus shelters, extended hours and weekend schedules, and a 70% increase in service hours on all existing local routes.WEB,weblink The Marion County Transit Plan, Indy Connect, July 22, 2018, PDF, NEWS, Tuohy, John, Indy's rapid transit plan moving fast,weblink February 7, 2016, The Indianapolis Star, April 23, 2015, NEWS, Briggs, James, Indy council approves transit tax,weblink March 4, 2017, The Indianapolis Star, February 27, 2017, Phase I of IndyGo's Red Line, the first of the three planned BRT lines, began construction in 2018. The $96.3 million project includes a $75 million grant from the Federal Transit Administration.NEWS, Briggs, James, Indianapolis Red Line project gets $75 million despite Trump's opposition,weblink July 21, 2018, The Indianapolis Star, May 4, 2018, Upon completion in 2021, the revamped public bus system is expected to nearly triple its ridership potential.WEB,weblink Marion County Transit Plan Boards, Indy Connect, July 22, 2018, PDF, The Central Indiana Regional Transportation Authority (CIRTA) is a quasi-governmental agency that operates three public buses from Indianapolis to employment centers in Plainfield and Whitestown.Amtrak currently provides two intercity rail lines to Indianapolis via Union Station, serving about 30,000 passengers in 2015. The Cardinal makes three weekly trips between New York City and Chicago, while the Hoosier State operates on the four days the Cardinal does not operate, running to Chicago. Three intercity bus service providers stop in the city: Greyhound Lines and Burlington Trailways (via Union Station), and Megabus (via City Market).WEB,weblink Bus From Chicago to Indianapolis & Indianapolis to Chicago, Megabus, April 1, 2016,

Airports

File:Indianapolis International Airport (USGS).jpg|thumb|Satellite image of Indianapolis International AirportIndianapolis International AirportIndianapolis International Airport (IND) sits on {{convert|7700|acres|ha|0}} approximately {{convert|7|mi|km|0}} southwest of downtown Indianapolis. IND is the busiest airport in the state, serving more than 8.7 million passengers annually.WEB,weblink Airline Activity Report December 2017, December 2, 2018, Indianapolis Airport Authority, www.ind.com/about/investors-financials-reports/airline-activity-reports?year=2017, Completed in 2008, the Col. H. Weir Cook Terminal contains two concourses and 40 gates, connecting to 51 nonstop domestic and international destinations and averaging 145 daily departures.WEB,weblink Indy Airport Sets New Record in Nonstop Destinations, Indianapolis Airport Authority, March 11, 2018, January 9, 2018, As home to the second largest FedEx Express hub in the world, IND ranked as the seventh busiest U.S. airport in terms of air cargo throughput in 2015.WEB, 2016,weblink CY 2015 All-Cargo Landed Weights, Rank Order, Federal Aviation Administration, July 22, 2018, The Indianapolis Airport Authority is a municipal corporation that oversees operations at five additional airports in the region, two of which are located in Indianapolis: Eagle Creek Airpark (EYE), a relief airport for IND, and the Indianapolis Downtown Heliport (8A4).WEB,weblink Indiana State Aviation System Plan, Indiana Department of Transportation, April 1, 2016,

Active and shared mobility

File:BlueIndy carshare car.jpg|thumb|left|BlueIndy electric carsharingcarsharingReliance on the automobile has affected the city's development patterns, with Walk Score ranking Indianapolis as one of the least walkable large cities in the U.S.WEB,weblink Living in Indianapolis, Walk Score, February 7, 2016, The city has enhanced bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure in recent years, with some {{convert|75|mi}} of trails and {{convert|90|mi}} of on-street bike lanes.NEWS, Tuohy, John, Indy inhospitable to bikers, survey says,weblink April 1, 2016, The Indianapolis Star, April 15, 2015, Launched in 2014, Indiana Pacers Bikeshare is the city's bike-sharing system, consisting of 251 bicycles at 29 stations. Thousands of users logged over 100,000 trips in 2017.PRESS RELEASE, Haley, KÓ“ren, February 1, 2018, Pacers Bikeshare Riders Keep Riding Despite Cold Tempteratures, Indianapolis, Ind., Indiana Pacers Bikeshare, Indianapolis Cultural Trail, Inc., An electric carsharing program, BlueIndy, was launched in 2015. It will ultimately include 500 electric cars and 200 charging stations throughout the city.NEWS, Tuohy, John, BlueIndy tops 1,000 memberships in four months,weblink February 7, 2016, The Indianapolis Star, January 15, 2016, After negotiations with city officials, Bird and Lime electric scooter-sharing launched in September 2018.NEWS, May, Ethan, Here's when the electric scooters will return to Indianapolis streets,weblink October 17, 2018, The Indianapolis Star, August 28, 2018, The Indiana University Health People Mover was opened in 2003 to connect IU Health's medical facilities with the Indiana University School of Medicine. The privately operated people mover is free and open to the public, stopping at three stations over a length of {{convert|1.4|mi|km|2|abbr=on}}.WEB, People Mover,weblink Indiana University Health, July 14, 2017,

Healthcare

{{see also|List of hospitals in Indianapolis}}File:LifeLine N192LL.jpg|thumb|LifeLine at Indiana University Health Methodist HospitalIndiana University Health Methodist HospitalIndiana University Health's Academic Health Center encompasses Marion County, with the medical centers of University Hospital, Methodist Hospital, and Riley Hospital for Children. The Academic Health Center is anchored by the Indiana University School of Medicine, the second largest medical school in the U.S. Riley Hospital for Children is among the nation's foremost pediatric health centers, recognized in all ten specialties by U.S. News and World Report, including top 25 honors in orthopedics (23), nephrology (22), gastroenterology and GI surgery (16), pulmonology (13), and urology (4).WEB,weblink Riley Hospital for Children at IU Health, U.S. News and World Report, February 6, 2016, The 430-bed facility also contains Indiana's only Pediatric Level I Trauma Center.WEB,weblink Facts & Figures, Indiana University Health, February 6, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160207101327weblink">weblink February 7, 2016, yes, mdy-all, Health and Hospital Corporation of Marion County, a municipal corporation, was formed in 1951 to manage the city's public health facilities and programs, including the Marion County Public Health Department and Eskenazi Health.WEB,weblink About Us, Health and Hospital Corporation of Marion County, November 7, 2017, Eskenazi Health's flagship medical center, the Sidney & Lois Eskenazi Hospital, opened in 2013 after a $754 million project to replace Wishard Memorial Hospital. The hospital includes an Adult Level I Trauma Center, 315 beds, and 275 exam rooms, annually serving about 1 million outpatients.WEB,weblink Eskenazi Health, Health and Hospital Corporation of Marion County, November 7, 2017, Opened in 1932, the Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center is Indiana's tertiary referral hospital for former armed services personnel, treating more than 60,000 veterans annually.WEB,weblink About the Richard L. Roudebush VAMC, Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, September 29, 2016, File:Sidney and Lois Eskenazi Hospital, Indianapolis.jpg|thumb|left|Sidney & Lois Eskenazi HospitalSidney & Lois Eskenazi HospitalLocated on the city's far north side, St. Vincent Indianapolis Hospital is the flagship medical center of St. Vincent Health's 22-hospital system. St. Vincent Indianapolis includes Peyton Manning Children's Hospital, St. Vincent Heart Center of Indiana, St. Vincent Seton Specialty Hospital, and St. Vincent Women's Hospital. Franciscan Health Indianapolis's flagship medical center is located on the city's far south side.Community Health Network contains dozens of specialty hospitals and three emergency medical centers in Marion County, including Community Hospital South, Community Hospital North, and Community Hospital East. Community Hospital East is currently replacing its 60-year-old facility with a $175 million, 150-bed hospital to be completed in 2019.WEB,weblink New Community Hospital East, Community Health Network, February 6, 2016, The campus will also include a $120 million, 159-bed state-funded mental health and chronic addiction treatment facility. The Indiana Neuro-Diagnostic Institute will replace the antiquated Larue D. Carter Memorial Hospital in 2018.NEWS, Shari, Rudavsky, December 16, 2015,weblink New hospital brings fresh approach to Indiana mental health care, The Indianapolis Star, February 6, 2016, According to Indianapolis-based American College of Sports Medicine's 2016 American Fitness Index Data Report, the city scored last of the 50 largest U.S. metropolitan areas for health and community fitness.NEWS, Shari, Rudavsky, May 18, 2016,weblink 10 reasons why Indy is last on fitness rank, The Indianapolis Star, May 18, 2016, Higher instances of obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes, smoking, and asthma contributed to the ranking.WEB,weblink 2016 ACSM American Fitness Report, American College of Sports Medicine, May 18, 2016,

Utilities

File:Citizens Energy Group, Perry K. Generating Station, Indianapolis.jpg|thumb|Perry K. Generating StationPerry K. Generating StationElectricity is provided by Indianapolis Power & Light (IPL), a subsidiary of AES Corporation.WEB,weblink AES, Our Parent Company, Indianapolis Power & Light, May 13, 2016, Despite a portfolio comprised 100% of nonrenewable energy sources in 2007, IPL ended coal-firing operations at its Harding Street Station in 2016. Today, IPL generates 3,343 MW of electricity at four power stations, two wind farms,WEB,weblink Power Generation, Indianapolis Power & Light, May 13, 2016, and 34 solar farms,WEB,weblink Solar Power, Indianapolis Power & Light, May 13, 2016, covering a service area of {{convert|528|sqmi|km2}}.WEB,weblink IPL's Rich Heritage of Powering Indianapolis, Indianapolis Power & Light, May 13, 2016, In 2017, Indianapolis had the fourth highest number of photovoltaics (PVs) per capita in the U.S.Citizens Energy Group provides residents with natural gas, water, wastewater, and thermal services.WEB,weblink History of the Trust, Citizens Energy Group, May 13, 2016, WEB,weblink Divisions of the Trust, Citizens Energy Group, May 13, 2016, Citizens is the only public charitable trust formed to operate utilities in the U.S.WEB,weblink Case study: Indianapolis, Environmental Defense Fund, March 27, 2017, Covanta Energy operates a waste-to-energy plant in the city, processing solid waste for steam production.WEB,weblink Covanta Indianapolis, Covanta Ltd., May 13, 2016, Steam is sold to Citizens' Perry K. Generating Station for the downtown Indianapolis district heating system, the second largest in the U.S.WEB,weblink History, Citizens Energy Group, April 4, 2016, Eleven solid waste districts are managed by one of three garbage collection providers: the city's Department of Public Works, Republic Services, and Waste Management. Republic Services collects recycling in all 11 districts.WEB,weblink Solid Waste Districts, City of Indianapolis and Marion County, December 20, 2016, The Department of Public Works' Operations Division is responsible for snow and ice removal, with a fleet of more than 70 snow removal trucks plowing approximately {{convert|7300|mi|km}} of public streets after winter weather events.WEB,weblink Snow Force Facts, City of Indianapolis and Marion County, December 20, 2016, WEB,weblink Indy Snow Force, City of Indianapolis and Marion County, December 20, 2016,

Notable people

International relations

Sister cities

Indianapolis has seven sister cities and two friendship cities as designated by Sister Cities International.WEB,weblink 2018 Annual Report and Membership Directory, Sister Cities International, PDF, 47, June 29, 2018, Indianapolis has one former sister city. The partnership with Scarborough, Ontario, Canada lasted from 1996 to 1998, ending when Scarborough was amalgamated into Toronto.WEB,weblink Historicist: The Indianapolis-Scarborough Peace Games, Torontoist, Chris, Bateman, October 1, 2016, June 29, 2018, Charter sister cities Friendship cities

Consulates

{{As of|2018}}, Indianapolis contains ten foreign consulates, serving Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, and Switzerland.WEB,weblink Consulates in Indianapolis, United States, February 21, 2018,

See also

Notes

{{notelist}}{{reflist|group=note}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

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