Indian mathematics

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Indian mathematics
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{{Use British English|date=March 2013}}{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2013}}Indian mathematics emerged in the Indian subcontinent from 1200 BC{{Harv|Hayashi|2005|pp=360–361}} until the end of the 18th century. In the classical period of Indian mathematics (400 AD to 1200 AD), important contributions were made by scholars like Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, Bhaskara II, and Varāhamihira. The decimal number system in use today{{Harvnb|Ifrah|2000|p=346}}: "The measure of the genius of Indian civilisation, to which we owe our modern (number) system, is all the greater in that it was the only one in all history to have achieved this triumph. Some cultures succeeded, earlier than the Indian, in discovering one or at best two of the characteristics of this intellectual feat. But none of them managed to bring together into a complete and coherent system the necessary and sufficient conditions for a number-system with the same potential as our own." was first recorded in Indian mathematics.{{Harvnb|Plofker|2009|pp=44–47}} Indian mathematicians made early contributions to the study of the concept of zero as a number,{{Harvnb|Bourbaki|1998|p=46}}: "...our decimal system, which (by the agency of the Arabs) is derived from Hindu mathematics, where its use is attested already from the first centuries of our era. It must be noted moreover that the conception of zero as a number and not as a simple symbol of separation) and its introduction into calculations, also count amongst the original contribution of the Hindus." negative numbers,{{Harvnb|Bourbaki|1998|p=49}}: Modern arithmetic was known during medieval times as "Modus Indorum" or method of the Indians. Leonardo of Pisa wrote that compared to method of the Indians all other methods is a mistake. This method of the Indians is none other than our very simple arithmetic of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Rules for these four simple procedures was first written down by Brahmagupta during 7th century AD. "On this point, the Hindus are already conscious of the interpretation that negative numbers must have in certain cases (a debt in a commercial problem, for instance). In the following centuries, as there is a diffusion into the West (by intermediary of the Arabs) of the methods and results of Greek and Hindu mathematics, one becomes more used to the handling of these numbers, and one begins to have other "representation" for them which are geometric or dynamic." arithmetic, and algebra. In addition, trigonometry{{Harv|Pingree|2003|p=45}} Quote: "Geometry, and its branch trigonometry, was the mathematics Indian astronomers used most frequently. Greek mathematicians used the full chord and never imagined the half chord that we use today. Half chord was first used by Aryabhata which made trigonometry much more simple. In fact, the Indian astronomers in the third or fourth century, using a pre-Ptolemaic Greek table of chords, produced tables of sines and versines, from which it was trivial to derive cosines. This new system of trigonometry, produced in India, was transmitted to the Arabs in the late eighth century and by them, in an expanded form, to the Latin West and the Byzantine East in the twelfth century."was further advanced in India, and, in particular, the modern definitions of sine and cosine were developed there.{{Harv|Bourbaki|1998|p=126}}: "As for trigonometry, it is disdained by geometers and abandoned to surveyors and astronomers; it is these latter (Aristarchus, Hipparchus, Ptolemy) who establish the fundamental relations between the sides and angles of a right angled triangle (plane or spherical) and draw up the first tables (they consist of tables giving the chord of the arc cut out by an angle theta < pi on a circle of radius r, in other words the number 2rsinleft(theta/2right); the introduction of the sine, more easily handled, is due to Hindu mathematicians of the Middle Ages)." These mathematical concepts were transmitted to the Middle East, China, and Europe"algebra" 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 16 May 2007. Quote: "A full-fledged decimal, positional system certainly existed in India by the 9th century (AD), yet many of its central ideas had been transmitted well before that time to China and the Islamic world. Indian arithmetic, moreover, developed consistent and correct rules for operating with positive and negative numbers and for treating zero like any other number, even in problematic contexts such as division. Several hundred years passed before European mathematicians fully integrated such ideas into the developing discipline of algebra." and led to further developments that now form the foundations of many areas of mathematics.Ancient and medieval Indian mathematical works, all composed in Sanskrit, usually consisted of a section of sutras in which a set of rules or problems were stated with great economy in verse in order to aid memorization by a student. This was followed by a second section consisting of a prose commentary (sometimes multiple commentaries by different scholars) that explained the problem in more detail and provided justification for the solution. In the prose section, the form (and therefore its memorization) was not considered so important as the ideas involved.{{Harvnb|Encyclopaedia Britannica (Kim Plofker)|2007|p=1}}{{Harvnb|Filliozat|2004|pp=140–143}} All mathematical works were orally transmitted until approximately 500 BCE; thereafter, they were transmitted both orally and in manuscript form. The oldest extant mathematical document produced on the Indian subcontinent is the birch bark Bakhshali Manuscript, discovered in 1881 in the village of Bakhshali, near Peshawar (modern day Pakistan) and is likely from the 7th century CE.{{Harvnb|Hayashi|1995}}{{Harvnb|Encyclopaedia Britannica (Kim Plofker)|2007|p=6}}A later landmark in Indian mathematics was the development of the series expansions for trigonometric functions (sine, cosine, and arc tangent) by mathematicians of the Kerala school in the 15th century CE. Their remarkable work, completed two centuries before the invention of calculus in Europe, provided what is now considered the first example of a power series (apart from geometric series).{{Harvnb|Stillwell|2004|p=173}} However, they did not formulate a systematic theory of differentiation and integration, nor is there any direct evidence of their results being transmitted outside Kerala.{{Harvnb|Bressoud|2002|p=12}} Quote: "There is no evidence that the Indian work on series was known beyond India, or even outside Kerala, until the nineteenth century. Gold and Pingree assert [4] that by the time these series were rediscovered in Europe, they had, for all practical purposes, been lost to India. The expansions of the sine, cosine, and arc tangent had been passed down through several generations of disciples, but they remained sterile observations for which no one could find much use."{{Harvnb|Plofker|2001|p=293}} Quote: "It is not unusual to encounter in discussions of Indian mathematics such assertions as that “the concept of differentiation was understood [in India] from the time of Manjula (... in the 10th century)” [Joseph 1991, 300], or that "we may consider Madhava to have been the founder of mathematical analysis" (Joseph 1991, 293), or that Bhaskara II may claim to be "the precursor of Newton and Leibniz in the discovery of the principle of the differential calculus" (Bag 1979, 294). ... The points of resemblance, particularly between early European calculus and the Keralese work on power series, have even inspired suggestions of a possible transmission of mathematical ideas from the Malabar coast in or after the 15th century to the Latin scholarly world (e.g., in (Bag 1979, 285)). ... It should be borne in mind, however, that such an emphasis on the similarity of Sanskrit (or Malayalam) and Latin mathematics risks diminishing our ability fully to see and comprehend the former. To speak of the Indian "discovery of the principle of the differential calculus" somewhat obscures the fact that Indian techniques for expressing changes in the Sine by means of the Cosine or vice versa, as in the examples we have seen, remained within that specific trigonometric context. The differential "principle" was not generalised to arbitrary functions—in fact, the explicit notion of an arbitrary function, not to mention that of itsderivative or an algorithm for taking the derivative, is irrelevant here"{{Harvnb|Pingree|1992|p=562}} Quote:"One example I can give you relates to the Indian Mādhava's demonstration, in about 1400 A.D., of the infinite power series of trigonometrical functions using geometrical and algebraic arguments. When this was first described in English by Charles Matthew Whish, in the 1830s, it was heralded as the Indians' discovery of the calculus. This claim and Mādhava's achievements were ignored by Western historians, presumably at first because they could not admit that an Indian discovered the calculus, but later because no one read anymore the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, in which Whish's article was published. The matter resurfaced in the 1950s, and now we have the Sanskrit texts properly edited, and we understand the clever way that Mādhava derived the series without the calculus; but many historians still find it impossible to conceive of the problem and its solution in terms of anything other than the calculus and proclaim that the calculus is what Mādhava found. In this case the elegance and brilliance of Mādhava's mathematics are being distorted as they are buried under the current mathematical solution to a problem to which he discovered an alternate and powerful solution."{{Harvnb|Katz|1995|pp=173–174}} Quote:"How close did Islamic and Indian scholars come to inventing the calculus? Islamic scholars nearly developed a general formula for finding integrals of polynomials by A.D. 1000—and evidently could find such a formula for any polynomial in which they were interested. But, it appears, they were not interested in any polynomial of degree higher than four, at least in any of the material that has come down to us. Indian scholars, on the other hand, were by 1600 able to use ibn al-Haytham's sum formula for arbitrary integral powers in calculating power series for the functions in which they were interested. By the same time, they also knew how to calculate the differentials of these functions. So some of the basic ideas of calculus were known in Egypt and India many centuries before Newton. It does not appear, however, that either Islamic or Indian mathematicians saw the necessity of connecting some of the disparate ideas that we include under the name calculus. They were apparently only interested in specific cases in which these ideas were needed. ... There is no danger, therefore, that we will have to rewrite the history texts to remove the statement that Newton and Leibniz invented calculus. They were certainly the ones who were able to combine many differing ideas under the two unifying themes of the derivative and the integral, show the connection between them, and turn the calculus into the great problem-solving tool we have today."


Excavations at Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and other sites of the Indus Valley Civilisation have uncovered evidence of the use of "practical mathematics". The people of the Indus Valley Civilization manufactured bricks whose dimensions were in the proportion 4:2:1, considered favourable for the stability of a brick structure. They used a standardised system of weights based on the ratios: 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/2, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500, with the unit weight equaling approximately 28 grams (and approximately equal to the English ounce or Greek uncia). They mass-produced weights in regular geometrical shapes, which included hexahedra, barrels, cones, and cylinders, thereby demonstrating knowledge of basic geometry.{{Citation|last=Sergent|first=Bernard|title=Genèse de l'Inde|year=1997|page=113|language=French|isbn=978-2-228-89116-5|publisher=Payot|location=Paris}}The inhabitants of Indus civilisation also tried to standardise measurement of length to a high degree of accuracy. They designed a ruler—the Mohenjo-daro ruler—whose unit of length (approximately 1.32 inches or 3.4 centimetres) was divided into ten equal parts. Bricks manufactured in ancient Mohenjo-daro often had dimensions that were integral multiples of this unit of length.{{Citation|last=Coppa|first=A.|title=Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry: Flint tips were surprisingly effective for drilling tooth enamel in a prehistoric population|journal=Nature|volume=440|date=6 April 2006|doi=10.1038/440755a|postscript=.|pmid=16598247|issue=7085|pages=755–6|display-authors=etal|bibcode = 2006Natur.440..755C }}{{Citation|last=Bisht|first=R. S.|year=1982|chapter=Excavations at Banawali: 1974–77|editor=Possehl, Gregory L.|title=Harappan Civilisation: A Contemporary Perspective|pages=113–124|location=New Delhi|publisher=Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.}}Hollow cylindrical objects made of shell and found at Lothal (2200 BCE) and Dholavira are demonstrated to have the ability to measure angles in a plane, as well as to determine the position of stars for navigation.S. R. Rao (1992). Marine Archaeology, Vol. 3,. pp. 61-62. Linkweblink

Vedic period

{{See also|Vedanga|Vedas}}{{Science and technology in India}}

Samhitas and Brahmanas

The religious texts of the Vedic Period provide evidence for the use of large numbers. By the time of the {{IAST|Yajurvedasaṃhitā-}} (1200–900 BCE), numbers as high as {{math|1012}} were being included in the texts. For example, the mantra (sacrificial formula) at the end of the annahoma ("food-oblation rite") performed during the aśvamedha, and uttered just before-, during-, and just after sunrise, invokes powers of ten from a hundred to a trillion:), hail to sahasra ("thousand," {{math|103}}), hail to ayuta ("ten thousand," {{math|104}}), hail to niyuta ("hundred thousand," {{math|105}}), hail to prayuta ("million," {{math|106}}), hail to arbuda ("ten million," {{math|107}}), hail to nyarbuda ("hundred million," {{math|108}}), hail to samudra ("billion," {{math|109}}, literally "ocean"), hail to madhya ("ten billion," {{math|1010}}, literally "middle"), hail to anta ("hundred billion," {{math|1011}}, lit., "end"), hail to parārdha ("one trillion," {{math|1012}} lit., "beyond parts"), hail to the dawn ({{IAST|uṣas}}), hail to the twilight ({{IAST|vyuṣṭi}}), hail to the one which is going to rise ({{IAST|udeṣyat}}), hail to the one which is rising (udyat), hail to the one which has just risen (udita), hail to svarga (the heaven), hail to martya (the world), hail to all.}}The solution to partial fraction was known to the Rigvedic People as states in the purush Sukta (RV 10.90.4):The Satapatha Brahmana (ca. 7th century BCE) contains rules for ritual geometric constructions that are similar to the Sulba Sutras.A. Seidenberg, 1978. The origin of mathematics. Archive for History of Exact Sciences, vol 18.

Åšulba SÅ«tras

The Åšulba SÅ«tras (literally, "Aphorisms of the Chords" in Vedic Sanskrit) (c. 700–400 BCE) list rules for the construction of sacrificial fire altars.{{Harv|Staal|1999}} Most mathematical problems considered in the Åšulba SÅ«tras spring from "a single theological requirement,"{{Harv|Hayashi|2003|p=118}} that of constructing fire altars which have different shapes but occupy the same area. The altars were required to be constructed of five layers of burnt brick, with the further condition that each layer consist of 200 bricks and that no two adjacent layers have congruent arrangements of bricks.According to {{Harv|Hayashi|2005|p=363}}, the Åšulba SÅ«tras contain "the earliest extant verbal expression of the Pythagorean Theorem in the world, although it had already been known to the Old Babylonians." The diagonal rope ({{IAST|akṣṇayā-rajju}}) of an oblong (rectangle) produces both which the flank (pārÅ›vamāni) and the horizontal ({{IAST|tiryaṇmānÄ«}}) produce separately."{{Harv|Hayashi|2005|p=363}} Since the statement is a sÅ«tra, it is necessarily compressed and what the ropes produce is not elaborated on, but the context clearly implies the square areas constructed on their lengths, and would have been explained so by the teacher to the student.They contain lists of Pythagorean triples,Pythagorean triples are triples of integers {{math|(a, b, c)}} with the property: {{math|1=a2+b2 = c2}}. Thus, {{math|1=32+42 = 52}}, {{math|1=82+152 = 172}}, {{math|1=122+352 = 372}}, etc. which are particular cases of Diophantine equations.{{Harv|Cooke|2005|p=198}}: "The arithmetic content of the Åšulva SÅ«tras consists of rules for finding Pythagorean triples such as {{math|(3, 4, 5)}}, {{math|(5, 12, 13)}}, {{math|(8, 15, 17)}}, and {{math|(12, 35, 37)}}. It is not certain what practical use these arithmetic rules had. The best conjecture is that they were part of religious ritual. A Hindu home was required to have three fires burning at three different altars. The three altars were to be of different shapes, but all three were to have the same area. These conditions led to certain "Diophantine" problems, a particular case of which is the generation of Pythagorean triples, so as to make one square integer equal to the sum of two others." They also contain statements (that with hindsight we know to be approximate) about squaring the circle and "circling the square."{{Harv|Cooke|2005|pp=199–200}}: "The requirement of three altars of equal areas but different shapes would explain the interest in transformation of areas. Among other transformation of area problems the Hindus considered in particular the problem of squaring the circle. The Bodhayana Sutra states the converse problem of constructing a circle equal to a given square. The following approximate construction is given as the solution.... this result is only approximate. The authors, however, made no distinction between the two results. In terms that we can appreciate, this construction gives a value for {{math|Ï€}} of 18 (3 âˆ’ 2{{radic|2}}), which is about 3.088."Baudhayana (c. 8th century BCE) composed the Baudhayana Sulba Sutra, the best-known Sulba Sutra, which contains examples of simple Pythagorean triples, such as: {{math|(3, 4, 5)}}, {{math|(5, 12, 13)}}, {{math|(8, 15, 17)}}, {{math|(7, 24, 25)}}, and {{math|(12, 35, 37)}},{{Harv|Joseph|2000|p=229}} as well as a statement of the Pythagorean theorem for the sides of a square: "The rope which is stretched across the diagonal of a square produces an area double the size of the original square." It also contains the general statement of the Pythagorean theorem (for the sides of a rectangle): "The rope stretched along the length of the diagonal of a rectangle makes an area which the vertical and horizontal sides make together." Baudhayana gives a formula for the square root of two:{{Harv|Cooke|2005|p=200}}
sqrt{2} approx 1 + frac{1}{3} + frac{1}{3cdot4} - frac{1}{3cdot 4cdot 34} = 1.4142156 ldots
The formula is accurate up to five decimal places, the true value being 1.41421356...The value of this approximation, 577/408, is the seventh in a sequence of increasingly accurate approximations 3/2, 7/5, 17/12, ... to {{radic|2}}, the numerators and denominators of which were known as "side and diameter numbers" to the ancient Greeks, and in modern mathematics are called the Pell numbers. If x/y is one term in this sequence of approximations, the next is (x + 2y)/(x + y). These approximations may also be derived by truncating the continued fraction representation of {{radic|2}}. This formula is similar in structure to the formula found on a Mesopotamian tabletNeugebauer, O. and A. Sachs. 1945. Mathematical Cuneiform Texts, New Haven, CT, Yale University Press. p. 45. from the Old Babylonian period (1900–1600 BCE):
sqrt{2} approx 1 + frac{24}{60} + frac{51}{60^2} + frac{10}{60^3} = 1.41421297 ldots
which expresses {{radic|2}} in the sexagesimal system, and which is also accurate up to 5 decimal places (after rounding).According to mathematician S. G. Dani, the Babylonian cuneiform tablet Plimpton 322 written ca. 1850 BCEMathematics Department, University of British Columbia, The Babylonian tabled Plimpton 322. "contains fifteen Pythagorean triples with quite large entries, including (13500, 12709, 18541) which is a primitive triple,Three positive integers (a, b, c) form a primitive Pythagorean triple if {{math|1=c2 = a2+b2}} and if the highest common factor of {{math|a, b, c}} is 1. In the particular Plimpton322 example, this means that {{math|1=135002+127092 = 185412}} and that the three numbers do not have any common factors. However some scholars have disputed the Pythagorean interpretation of this tablet; see Plimpton 322 for details. indicating, in particular, that there was sophisticated understanding on the topic" in Mesopotamia in 1850 BCE. "Since these tablets predate the Sulbasutras period by several centuries, taking into account the contextual appearance of some of the triples, it is reasonable to expect that similar understanding would have been there in India."{{Harv|Dani|2003}} Dani goes on to say:In all, three Sulba Sutras were composed. The remaining two, the Manava Sulba Sutra composed by Manava (fl. 750–650 BCE) and the Apastamba Sulba Sutra, composed by Apastamba (c. 600 BCE), contained results similar to the Baudhayana Sulba Sutra.
An important landmark of the Vedic period was the work of Sanskrit grammarian, {{IAST|Pāṇini}} (c. 520–460 BCE). His grammar includes early use of Boolean logic, of the null operator, and of context free grammars, and includes a precursor of the Backus–Naur form (used in the description programming languages).JOURNAL, Ingerman, Peter Zilahy, "Pānini-Backus Form" suggested, Communications of the ACM, 1 March 1967, 10, 3, 137, 10.1145/363162.363165, 0001-0782, WEB, Panini-Backus,weblink, 16 March 2018,

Pingala (300 BCE – 200 BCE)

Among the scholars of the post-Vedic period who contributed to mathematics, the most notable is Pingala ({{IAST|piṅgalá}}) (fl. 300–200 BCE), a music theorist who authored the Chhandas Shastra ({{IAST|chandaḥ-śāstra}}, also Chhandas Sutra {{IAST|chhandaḥ-sūtra}}), a Sanskrit treatise on prosody. There is evidence that in his work on the enumeration of syllabic combinations, Pingala stumbled upon both Pascal's triangle and binomial coefficients, although he did not have knowledge of the binomial theorem itself.{{Harv|Fowler|1996|p=11}}{{Harv|Singh|1936|pp=623–624}} Pingala's work also contains the basic ideas of Fibonacci numbers (called maatraameru). Although the Chandah sutra hasn't survived in its entirety, a 10th-century commentary on it by Halāyudha has. Halāyudha, who refers to the Pascal triangle as Meru-prastāra (literally "the staircase to Mount Meru"), has this to say:The text also indicates that Pingala was aware of the combinatorial identity:
{n choose 0} + {n choose 1} + {n choose 2} + cdots + {n choose n-1} + {n choose n} = 2^n
Kātyāyana (c. 3rd century BCE) is notable for being the last of the Vedic mathematicians. He wrote the Katyayana Sulba Sutra, which presented much geometry, including the general Pythagorean theorem and a computation of the square root of 2 correct to five decimal places.

Jain mathematics (400 BCE – 200 CE)

Although Jainism is a religion and philosophy predates its most famous exponent, the great Mahaviraswami (6th century BCE), most Jain texts on mathematical topics were composed after the 6th century BCE. Jain mathematicians are important historically as crucial links between the mathematics of the Vedic period and that of the "classical period."A significant historical contribution of Jain mathematicians lay in their freeing Indian mathematics from its religious and ritualistic constraints. In particular, their fascination with the enumeration of very large numbers and infinities led them to classify numbers into three classes: enumerable, innumerable and infinite. Not content with a simple notion of infinity, their texts define five different types of infinity: the infinite in one direction, the infinite in two directions, the infinite in area, the infinite everywhere, and the infinite perpetually. In addition, Jain mathematicians devised notations for simple powers (and exponents) of numbers like squares and cubes, which enabled them to define simple algebraic equations (beejganita samikaran). Jain mathematicians were apparently also the first to use the word shunya (literally void in Sanskrit) to refer to zero. More than a millennium later, their appellation became the English word "zero" after a tortuous journey of translations and transliterations from India to Europe. (See (0 (number)#Etymology|Zero: Etymology).)In addition to Surya Prajnapti, important Jain works on mathematics included the Sthananga Sutra (c. 300 BCE – 200 CE); the Anuyogadwara Sutra (c. 200 BCE – 100 CE); and the Satkhandagama (c. 2nd century CE). Important Jain mathematicians included Bhadrabahu (d. 298 BCE), the author of two astronomical works, the Bhadrabahavi-Samhita and a commentary on the Surya Prajinapti; Yativrisham Acharya (c. 176 BCE), who authored a mathematical text called Tiloyapannati; and Umasvati (c. 150 BCE), who, although better known for his influential writings on Jain philosophy and metaphysics, composed a mathematical work called Tattwarthadhigama-Sutra Bhashya.

Oral Tradition

Mathematicians of ancient and early medieval India were almost all Sanskrit pandits ({{IAST|paṇḍita}} "learned man"),{{Harv|Filliozat|2004|p=137}} who were trained in Sanskrit language and literature, and possessed "a common stock of knowledge in grammar ({{IAST|vyākaraṇa}}), exegesis ({{IAST|mīmāṃsā}}) and logic (nyāya)." Memorisation of "what is heard" (śruti in Sanskrit) through recitation played a major role in the transmission of sacred texts in ancient India. Memorisation and recitation was also used to transmit philosophical and literary works, as well as treatises on ritual and grammar. Modern scholars of ancient India have noted the "truly remarkable achievements of the Indian pandits who have preserved enormously bulky texts orally for millennia."{{Harv|Pingree|1988|p=637}}

Styles of memorisation

Prodigious energy was expended by ancient Indian culture in ensuring that these texts were transmitted from generation to generation with inordinate fidelity.{{Harv|Staal|1986}} For example, memorisation of the sacred Vedas included up to eleven forms of recitation of the same text. The texts were subsequently "proof-read" by comparing the different recited versions. Forms of recitation included the {{IAST|jaṭā-pāṭha}} (literally "mesh recitation") in which every two adjacent words in the text were first recited in their original order, then repeated in the reverse order, and finally repeated in the original order.{{Harv|Filliozat|2004|p=139}} The recitation thus proceeded as:
word1word2, word2word1, word1word2; word2word3, word3word2, word2word3; ...
In another form of recitation, {{IAST|dhvaja-pāṭha}} (literally "flag recitation") a sequence of N words were recited (and memorised) by pairing the first two and last two words and then proceeding as:
word1word2, wordN − 1wordN; word2word3, wordN − 3wordN − 2; ..; wordN − 1wordN, word1word2;
The most complex form of recitation, {{IAST|ghana-pāṭha}} (literally "dense recitation"), according to {{Harv|Filliozat|2004|p=139}}, took the form:word1word2, word2word1, word1word2word3, word3word2word1, word1word2word3; word2word3, word3word2, word2word3word4, word4word3word2, word2word3word4; ... That these methods have been effective, is testified to by the preservation of the most ancient Indian religious text, the {{IAST|Ṛgveda}} (ca. 1500 BCE), as a single text, without any variant readings. Similar methods were used for memorising mathematical texts, whose transmission remained exclusively oral until the end of the Vedic period (ca. 500 BCE).

The Sutra genre

Mathematical activity in ancient India began as a part of a "methodological reflexion" on the sacred Vedas, which took the form of works called {{IAST|Vedāṇgas}}, or, "Ancillaries of the Veda" (7th–4th century BCE).{{Harv|Filliozat|2004|pp=140–141}} The need to conserve the sound of sacred text by use of {{IAST|śikṣā}} (phonetics) and chhandas (metrics); to conserve its meaning by use of {{IAST|vyākaraṇa}} (grammar) and nirukta (etymology); and to correctly perform the rites at the correct time by the use of kalpa (ritual) and {{IAST|jyotiṣa}} (astrology), gave rise to the six disciplines of the {{IAST|Vedāṇgas}}. Mathematics arose as a part of the last two disciplines, ritual and astronomy (which also included astrology).Since the {{IAST|Vedāṇgas}} immediately preceded the use of writing in ancient India, they formed the last of the exclusively oral literature. They were expressed in a highly compressed mnemonic form, the sūtra (literally, "thread"):Extreme brevity was achieved through multiple means, which included using ellipsis "beyond the tolerance of natural language," using technical names instead of longer descriptive names, abridging lists by only mentioning the first and last entries, and using markers and variables. The sūtras create the impression that communication through the text was "only a part of the whole instruction. The rest of the instruction must have been transmitted by the so-called Guru-shishya parampara, 'uninterrupted succession from teacher (guru) to the student (śisya),' and it was not open to the general public" and perhaps even kept secret.{{Harv|Yano|2006|p=146}} The brevity achieved in a sūtra is demonstrated in the following example from the Baudhāyana Śulba Sūtra (700 BCE).(File:Domestic fire altar.jpg|thumb|right|300px|The design of the domestic fire altar in the Śulba Sūtra)The domestic fire-altar in the Vedic period was required by ritual to have a square base and be constituted of five layers of bricks with 21 bricks in each layer. One method of constructing the altar was to divide one side of the square into three equal parts using a cord or rope, to next divide the transverse (or perpendicular) side into seven equal parts, and thereby sub-divide the square into 21 congruent rectangles. The bricks were then designed to be of the shape of the constituent rectangle and the layer was created. To form the next layer, the same formula was used, but the bricks were arranged transversely.{{Harv|Filliozat|2004|pp=143–144}} The process was then repeated three more times (with alternating directions) in order to complete the construction. In the Baudhāyana Śulba Sūtra, this procedure is described in the following words:According to {{Harv|Filliozat|2004|p=144}}, the officiant constructing the altar has only a few tools and materials at his disposal: a cord (Sanskrit, rajju, f.), two pegs (Sanskrit, śanku, m.), and clay to make the bricks (Sanskrit, {{IAST|iṣṭakā}}, f.). Concision is achieved in the sūtra, by not explicitly mentioning what the adjective "transverse" qualifies; however, from the feminine form of the (Sanskrit) adjective used, it is easily inferred to qualify "cord." Similarly, in the second stanza, "bricks" are not explicitly mentioned, but inferred again by the feminine plural form of "North-pointing." Finally, the first stanza, never explicitly says that the first layer of bricks are oriented in the East-West direction, but that too is implied by the explicit mention of "North-pointing" in the second stanza; for, if the orientation was meant to be the same in the two layers, it would either not be mentioned at all or be only mentioned in the first stanza. All these inferences are made by the officiant as he recalls the formula from his memory.

The written tradition: prose commentary

With the increasing complexity of mathematics and other exact sciences, both writing and computation were required. Consequently, many mathematical works began to be written down in manuscripts that were then copied and re-copied from generation to generation.}}The earliest mathematical prose commentary was that on the work, {{IAST|Āryabhaṭīya}} (written 499 CE), a work on astronomy and mathematics. The mathematical portion of the {{IAST|Āryabhaṭīya}} was composed of 33 sūtras (in verse form) consisting of mathematical statements or rules, but without any proofs.{{Harv|Hayashi|2003|pp=122–123}} However, according to {{Harv|Hayashi|2003|p=123}}, "this does not necessarily mean that their authors did not prove them. It was probably a matter of style of exposition." From the time of Bhaskara I (600 CE onwards), prose commentaries increasingly began to include some derivations (upapatti). Bhaskara I's commentary on the {{IAST|Āryabhaṭīya}}, had the following structure:
  • Rule ('sÅ«tra') in verse by {{IAST|Ä€ryabhaá¹­a}}
  • Commentary by Bhāskara I, consisting of:
    • Elucidation of rule (derivations were still rare then, but became more common later)
    • Example (uddeÅ›aka) usually in verse.
    • Setting (nyāsa/sthāpanā) of the numerical data.
    • Working (karana) of the solution.
    • Verification ({{IAST|pratyayakaraṇa}}, literally "to make conviction") of the answer. These became rare by the 13th century, derivations or proofs being favoured by then.
Typically, for any mathematical topic, students in ancient India first memorised the sūtras, which, as explained earlier, were "deliberately inadequate" in explanatory details (in order to pithily convey the bare-bone mathematical rules). The students then worked through the topics of the prose commentary by writing (and drawing diagrams) on chalk- and dust-boards (i.e. boards covered with dust). The latter activity, a staple of mathematical work, was to later prompt mathematician-astronomer, Brahmagupta (fl. 7th century CE), to characterise astronomical computations as "dust work" (Sanskrit: dhulikarman).

Numerals and the decimal number system

It is well known that the decimal place-value system in use today was first recorded in India, then transmitted to the Islamic world, and eventually to Europe.{{Harvnb|Plofker|2007|p=395}} The Syrian bishop Severus Sebokht wrote in the mid-7th century CE about the "nine signs" of the Indians for expressing numbers. However, how, when, and where the first decimal place value system was invented is not so clear.{{Harvnb|Plofker|2007|p=395}}, {{Harvnb|Plofker|2009|pp=47–48}}The earliest extant script used in India was the {{IAST|Kharoṣṭhī}} script used in the Gandhara culture of the north-west. It is thought to be of Aramaic origin and it was in use from the 4th century BCE to the 4th century CE. Almost contemporaneously, another script, the Brāhmī script, appeared on much of the sub-continent, and would later become the foundation of many scripts of South Asia and South-east Asia. Both scripts had numeral symbols and numeral systems, which were initially not based on a place-value system.{{Harv|Hayashi|2005|p=366}}The earliest surviving evidence of decimal place value numerals in India and southeast Asia is from the middle of the first millennium CE.{{Harvnb|Plofker|2009|p=45}} A copper plate from Gujarat, India mentions the date 595 CE, written in a decimal place value notation, although there is some doubt as to the authenticity of the plate. Decimal numerals recording the years 683 CE have also been found in stone inscriptions in Indonesia and Cambodia, where Indian cultural influence was substantial.There are older textual sources, although the extant manuscript copies of these texts are from much later dates.{{Harvnb|Plofker|2009|p=46}} Probably the earliest such source is the work of the Buddhist philosopher Vasumitra dated likely to the 1st century CE. Discussing the counting pits of merchants, Vasumitra remarks, "When [the same] clay counting-piece is in the place of units, it is denoted as one, when in hundreds, one hundred." Although such references seem to imply that his readers had knowledge of a decimal place value representation, the "brevity of their allusions and the ambiguity of their dates, however, do not solidly establish the chronology of the development of this concept."A third decimal representation was employed in a verse composition technique, later labelled Bhuta-sankhya (literally, "object numbers") used by early Sanskrit authors of technical books.{{Harvnb|Plofker|2009|p=47}} Since many early technical works were composed in verse, numbers were often represented by objects in the natural or religious world that correspondence to them; this allowed a many-to-one correspondence for each number and made verse composition easier. According to {{Harvnb|Plofker|2009}}, the number 4, for example, could be represented by the word "Veda" (since there were four of these religious texts), the number 32 by the word "teeth" (since a full set consists of 32), and the number 1 by "moon" (since there is only one moon). So, Veda/teeth/moon would correspond to the decimal numeral 1324, as the convention for numbers was to enumerate their digits from right to left. The earliest reference employing object numbers is a ca. 269 CE Sanskrit text, Yavanajātaka (literally "Greek horoscopy") of Sphujidhvaja, a versification of an earlier (ca. 150 CE) Indian prose adaptation of a lost work of Hellenistic astrology.{{Harv|Pingree|1978|p=494}} Such use seems to make the case that by the mid-3rd century CE, the decimal place value system was familiar, at least to readers of astronomical and astrological texts in India.It has been hypothesized that the Indian decimal place value system was based on the symbols used on Chinese counting boards from as early as the middle of the first millennium BCE.{{Harvnb|Plofker|2009|p=48}} According to {{Harvnb|Plofker|2009}}, These counting boards, like the Indian counting pits, ..., had a decimal place value structure ... Indians may well have learned of these decimal place value "rod numerals" from Chinese Buddhist pilgrims or other travelers, or they may have developed the concept independently from their earlier non-place-value system; no documentary evidence survives to confirm either conclusion."

Bakhshali Manuscript

The oldest extant mathematical manuscript in India is the Bakhshali Manuscript, a birch bark manuscript written in "Buddhist hybrid Sanskrit" in the Śāradā script, which was used in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent between the 8th and 12th centuries CE.{{Harv|Hayashi|2005|p=371}} The manuscript was discovered in 1881 by a farmer while digging in a stone enclosure in the village of Bakhshali, near Peshawar (then in British India and now in Pakistan). Of unknown authorship and now preserved in the Bodleian Library in Oxford University, the manuscript has been variously dated—sometimes as early as the "early centuries of the Christian era."{{Harv|Datta|1931|p=566}} The 7th century CE is now considered a plausible date.{{Harv|Hayashi|2005|p=371}} Quote:"The dates so far proposed for the Bakhshali work vary from the third to the twelfth centuries CE, but a recently made comparative study has shown many similarities, particularly in the style of exposition and terminology, between Bakhshalī work and Bhāskara I's commentary on the Āryabhatīya. This seems to indicate that both works belong to nearly the same period, although this does not deny the possibility that some of the rules and examples in the Bakhshālī work date from anterior periods."The surviving manuscript has seventy leaves, some of which are in fragments. Its mathematical content consists of rules and examples, written in verse, together with prose commentaries, which include solutions to the examples. The topics treated include arithmetic (fractions, square roots, profit and loss, simple interest, the rule of three, and regula falsi) and algebra (simultaneous linear equations and quadratic equations), and arithmetic progressions. In addition, there is a handful of geometric problems (including problems about volumes of irregular solids). The Bakhshali manuscript also "employs a decimal place value system with a dot for zero." Many of its problems are of a category known as 'equalisation problems' that lead to systems of linear equations. One example from Fragment III-5-3v is the following:.}}The prose commentary accompanying the example solves the problem by converting it to three (under-determined) equations in four unknowns and assuming that the prices are all integers.In 2017, three samples from the manuscript were shown by radiocarbon dating to come from three different centuries: from 224-383 AD, 680-779 AD, and 885-993 AD. It is not known how fragments from different centuries came to be packaged together.NEWS,weblink Much ado about nothing: ancient Indian text contains earliest zero symbol, Devlin, Hannah, 2017-09-13, The Guardian, 2017-09-14, 0261-3077, NEWS,weblink Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit dates the world's oldest recorded origin of the zero symbol, Mason, Robyn, 2017-09-14, School of Archaeology, University of Oxford, 2017-09-14, NEWS,weblink Carbon dating finds Bakhshali manuscript contains oldest recorded origins of the symbol 'zero', 2017-09-14, Bodleian Library, 2017-09-14,

Classical period (400–1600)

This period is often known as the golden age of Indian Mathematics. This period saw mathematicians such as Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Brahmagupta, Bhaskara I, Mahavira, Bhaskara II, Madhava of Sangamagrama and Nilakantha Somayaji give broader and clearer shape to many branches of mathematics. Their contributions would spread to Asia, the Middle East, and eventually to Europe. Unlike Vedic mathematics, their works included both astronomical and mathematical contributions. In fact, mathematics of that period was included in the 'astral science' (jyotiḥśāstra) and consisted of three sub-disciplines: mathematical sciences (gaṇita or tantra), horoscope astrology (horā or jātaka) and divination (saṃhitā).{{Harv|Hayashi|2003|p=119}} This tripartite division is seen in Varāhamihira's 6th century compilation—Pancasiddhantika{{Harv|Neugebauer|Pingree (eds.)|1970}} (literally panca, "five," siddhānta, "conclusion of deliberation", dated 575 CE)—of five earlier works, Surya Siddhanta, Romaka Siddhanta, Paulisa Siddhanta, Vasishtha Siddhanta and Paitamaha Siddhanta, which were adaptations of still earlier works of Mesopotamian, Greek, Egyptian, Roman and Indian astronomy. As explained earlier, the main texts were composed in Sanskrit verse, and were followed by prose commentaries.

Fifth and sixth centuries

Surya Siddhanta
Though its authorship is unknown, the Surya Siddhanta (c. 400) contains the roots of modern trigonometry.{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} Because it contains many words of foreign origin, some authors consider that it was written under the influence of Mesopotamia and Greece.{{Citation|first=Roger|last=Cooke|authorlink=Roger Cooke|title=The History of Mathematics: A Brief Course|publisher=Wiley-Interscience|year=1997|chapter=The Mathematics of the Hindus|isbn=978-0-471-18082-1|quote=The word Siddhanta means that which is proved or established. The Sulva Sutras are of Hindu origin, but the Siddhantas contain so many words of foreign origin that they undoubtedly have roots in Mesopotamia and Greece.|page=197|chapter-url=}}{{Better source|date=April 2017}}This ancient text uses the following as trigonometric functions for the first time:{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} It also contains the earliest uses of:{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} Later Indian mathematicians such as Aryabhata made references to this text, while later Arabic and Latin translations were very influential in Europe and the Middle East.
Chhedi calendar
This Chhedi calendar (594) contains an early use of the modern place-value Hindu-Arabic numeral system now used universally.
Aryabhata I
Aryabhata (476–550) wrote the Aryabhatiya. He described the important fundamental principles of mathematics in 332 shlokas. The treatise contained: Aryabhata also wrote the Arya Siddhanta, which is now lost. Aryabhata's contributions include:Trigonometry:(See also : Aryabhata's sine table)
  • Introduced the trigonometric functions.
  • Defined the sine (jya) as the modern relationship between half an angle and half a chord.
  • Defined the cosine (kojya).
  • Defined the versine (utkrama-jya).
  • Defined the inverse sine (otkram jya).
  • Gave methods of calculating their approximate numerical values.
  • Contains the earliest tables of sine, cosine and versine values, in 3.75° intervals from 0° to 90°, to 4 decimal places of accuracy.
  • Contains the trigonometric formula sin(n + 1)x − sin nx = sin nx − sin(n − 1)x − (1/225)sin nx.
  • Spherical trigonometry.
Arithmetic: Algebra:
  • Solutions of simultaneous quadratic equations.
  • Whole number solutions of linear equations by a method equivalent to the modern method.
  • General solution of the indeterminate linear equation .
Mathematical astronomy:
  • Accurate calculations for astronomical constants, such as the:
    • Solar eclipse.
    • Lunar eclipse.
    • The formula for the sum of the cubes, which was an important step in the development of integral calculus.{{Citation | last1 = Katz | first1 = Victor J. | year = 1995 | title = Ideas of Calculus in Islam and India | url = | journal = Mathematics Magazine | volume = 68 | issue = 3| pages = 163–174 | doi=10.2307/2691411 | postscript = .| jstor = 2691411 }}

Varahamihira (505–587) produced the Pancha Siddhanta (The Five Astronomical Canons). He made important contributions to trigonometry, including sine and cosine tables to 4 decimal places of accuracy and the following formulas relating sine and cosine functions:
  • sin^2(x) + cos^2(x) = 1
  • sin(x)=cosleft(frac{pi}{2}-xright)
  • frac{1-cos(2x)}{2}=sin^2(x)

Seventh and eighth centuries

(File:Brahmaguptra's theorem.svg|thumb|right|200px|Brahmagupta's theorem states that AF = FD.)In the 7th century, two separate fields, arithmetic (which included measurement) and algebra, began to emerge in Indian mathematics. The two fields would later be called {{IAST|pāṭī-gaṇita}} (literally "mathematics of algorithms") and {{IAST|bīja-gaṇita}} (lit. "mathematics of seeds," with "seeds"—like the seeds of plants—representing unknowns with the potential to generate, in this case, the solutions of equations).{{Harv|Hayashi|2005|p=369}} Brahmagupta, in his astronomical work {{IAST|Brāhma Sphuṭa Siddhānta}} (628 CE), included two chapters (12 and 18) devoted to these fields. Chapter 12, containing 66 Sanskrit verses, was divided into two sections: "basic operations" (including cube roots, fractions, ratio and proportion, and barter) and "practical mathematics" (including mixture, mathematical series, plane figures, stacking bricks, sawing of timber, and piling of grain).{{Harv|Hayashi|2003|pp=121–122}} In the latter section, he stated his famous theorem on the diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral:Brahmagupta's theorem: If a cyclic quadrilateral has diagonals that are perpendicular to each other, then the perpendicular line drawn from the point of intersection of the diagonals to any side of the quadrilateral always bisects the opposite side.Chapter 12 also included a formula for the area of a cyclic quadrilateral (a generalisation of Heron's formula), as well as a complete description of rational triangles (i.e. triangles with rational sides and rational areas).Brahmagupta's formula: The area, A, of a cyclic quadrilateral with sides of lengths a, b, c, d, respectively, is given by
A = sqrt{(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)(s-d)} ,
where s, the semiperimeter, given by s=frac{a+b+c+d}{2}.Brahmagupta's Theorem on rational triangles: A triangle with rational sides a, b, c and rational area is of the form:
a = frac{u^2}{v}+v, b=frac{u^2}{w}+w, c=frac{u^2}{v}+frac{u^2}{w} - (v+w)
for some rational numbers u, v, and w .{{Harv|Stillwell|2004|p=77}}Chapter 18 contained 103 Sanskrit verses which began with rules for arithmetical operations involving zero and negative numbers and is considered the first systematic treatment of the subject. The rules (which included a + 0 = a and a times 0 = 0 ) were all correct, with one exception: frac{0}{0} = 0 . Later in the chapter, he gave the first explicit (although still not completely general) solution of the quadratic equation:
}}This is equivalent to:
x = frac{sqrt{4ac+b^2}-b}{2a}
Also in chapter 18, Brahmagupta was able to make progress in finding (integral) solutions of Pell's equation,{{Harv|Stillwell|2004|pp=72–73}}
where N is a nonsquare integer. He did this by discovering the following identity:Brahmagupta's Identity: (x^2-Ny^2)(x'^2-Ny'^2) = (xx'+Nyy')^2 - N(xy'+x'y)^2 which was a generalisation of an earlier identity of Diophantus: Brahmagupta used his identity to prove the following lemma:Lemma (Brahmagupta): If x=x_1, y=y_1 is a solution of x^2 - Ny^2 = k_1, and,
x=x_2, y=y_2 is a solution of x^2 - Ny^2 = k_2, , then:

x=x_1x_2+Ny_1y_2, y=x_1y_2+x_2y_1 is a solution of x^2-Ny^2=k_1k_2
He then used this lemma to both generate infinitely many (integral) solutions of Pell's equation, given one solution, and state the following theorem:Theorem (Brahmagupta): If the equation x^2 - Ny^2 =k has an integer solution for any one of k=pm 4, pm 2, -1 then Pell's equation:
x^2 -Ny^2 = 1
also has an integer solution.{{Harv|Stillwell|2004|pp=74–76}}Brahmagupta did not actually prove the theorem, but rather worked out examples using his method. The first example he presented was:Example (Brahmagupta): Find integers x, y such that:
x^2 - 92y^2=1
In his commentary, Brahmagupta added, "a person solving this problem within a year is a mathematician." The solution he provided was:
x=1151, y=120
Bhaskara I
Bhaskara I (c. 600–680) expanded the work of Aryabhata in his books titled Mahabhaskariya, Aryabhatiya-bhashya and Laghu-bhaskariya. He produced:
  • Solutions of indeterminate equations.
  • A rational approximation of the sine function.
  • A formula for calculating the sine of an acute angle without the use of a table, correct to two decimal places.

Ninth to twelfth centuries

Virasena (8th century) was a Jain mathematician in the court of Rashtrakuta King Amoghavarsha of Manyakheta, Karnataka. He wrote the Dhavala, a commentary on Jain mathematics, which:
  • Deals with the concept of ardhaccheda, the number of times a number could be halved, and lists various rules involving this operation. This coincides with the binary logarithm when applied to powers of two,{{citation| contribution=History of Mathematics in India|title=Students' Britannica India: Select essays|editor-first=Dale|editor1-last=Hoiberg|editor2-first=Indu|editor2-last=Ramchandani|first=R. C.|last=Gupta|page=329|publisher=Popular Prakashan|year=2000| contribution-url=}}{{Citation|first=A. N.|last=Singh|place=Lucknow University|url=|title=Mathematics of Dhavala}} but differs on other numbers, more closely resembling the 2-adic order.
  • The same concept for base 3 (trakacheda) and base 4 (caturthacheda).
Virasena also gave:
  • The derivation of the volume of a frustum by a sort of infinite procedure.
It is thought that much of the mathematical material in the Dhavala can attributed to previous writers, especially Kundakunda, Shamakunda, Tumbulura, Samantabhadra and Bappadeva and date who wrote between 200 and 600 CE.
Mahavira Acharya (c. 800–870) from Karnataka, the last of the notable Jain mathematicians, lived in the 9th century and was patronised by the Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha. He wrote a book titled Ganit Saar Sangraha on numerical mathematics, and also wrote treatises about a wide range of mathematical topics. These include the mathematics of: Mahavira also:
  • Asserted that the square root of a negative number did not exist
  • Gave the sum of a series whose terms are squares of an arithmetical progression, and gave empirical rules for area and perimeter of an ellipse.
  • Solved cubic equations.
  • Solved quartic equations.
  • Solved some quintic equations and higher-order polynomials.
  • Gave the general solutions of the higher order polynomial equations:
    • ax^n = q
    • a frac{x^n - 1}{x - 1} = p
  • Solved indeterminate quadratic equations.
  • Solved indeterminate cubic equations.
  • Solved indeterminate higher order equations.

Shridhara (c. 870–930), who lived in Bengal, wrote the books titled Nav Shatika, Tri Shatika and Pati Ganita. He gave: The Pati Ganita is a work on arithmetic and measurement. It deals with various operations, including:
  • Elementary operations
  • Extracting square and cube roots.
  • Fractions.
  • Eight rules given for operations involving zero.
  • Methods of summation of different arithmetic and geometric series, which were to become standard references in later works.

Aryabhata's differential equations were elaborated in the 10th century by Manjula (also Munjala), who realised that the expressionJoseph (2000), p. 298–300.
sin w' - sin w
could be approximately expressed as
(w' - w)cos w
He understood the concept of differentiation after solving the differential equation that resulted from substituting this expression into Aryabhata's differential equation.
Aryabhata II
Aryabhata II (c. 920–1000) wrote a commentary on Shridhara, and an astronomical treatise Maha-Siddhanta. The Maha-Siddhanta has 18 chapters, and discusses:
  • Numerical mathematics (Ank Ganit).
  • Algebra.
  • Solutions of indeterminate equations (kuttaka).

Shripati Mishra (1019–1066) wrote the books Siddhanta Shekhara, a major work on astronomy in 19 chapters, and Ganit Tilaka, an incomplete arithmetical treatise in 125 verses based on a work by Shridhara. He worked mainly on: He was also the author of Dhikotidakarana, a work of twenty verses on: The Dhruvamanasa is a work of 105 verses on:

Nemichandra Siddhanta Chakravati
Nemichandra Siddhanta Chakravati (c. 1100) authored a mathematical treatise titled Gome-mat Saar.
Bhaskara II
Bhāskara II (1114–1185) was a mathematician-astronomer who wrote a number of important treatises, namely the Siddhanta Shiromani, Lilavati, Bijaganita, Gola Addhaya, Griha Ganitam and Karan Kautoohal. A number of his contributions were later transmitted to the Middle East and Europe. His contributions include:Arithmetic:
  • Interest computation
  • Arithmetical and geometrical progressions
  • Plane geometry
  • Solid geometry
  • The shadow of the gnomon
  • Solutions of combinations
  • Gave a proof for division by zero being infinity.
  • The recognition of a positive number having two square roots.
  • Surds.
  • Operations with products of several unknowns.
  • The solutions of:
    • Quadratic equations.
    • Cubic equations.
    • Quartic equations.
    • Equations with more than one unknown.
    • Quadratic equations with more than one unknown.
    • The general form of Pell's equation using the chakravala method.
    • The general indeterminate quadratic equation using the chakravala method.
    • Indeterminate cubic equations.
    • Indeterminate quartic equations.
    • Indeterminate higher-order polynomial equations.
Geometry: Calculus: Trigonometry:
  • Developments of spherical trigonometry
  • The trigonometric formulas:
    • sin(a+b)=sin(a) cos(b) + sin(b) cos(a)
    • sin(a-b)=sin(a) cos(b) - sin(b) cos(a)

Kerala mathematics (1300–1600)

The Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics was founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Kerala, South India and included among its members: Parameshvara, Neelakanta Somayaji, Jyeshtadeva, Achyuta Pisharati, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri and Achyuta Panikkar. It flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries and the original discoveries of the school seems to have ended with Narayana Bhattathiri (1559–1632). In attempting to solve astronomical problems, the Kerala school astronomers independently created a number of important mathematics concepts. The most important results, series expansion for trigonometric functions, were given in Sanskrit verse in a book by Neelakanta called Tantrasangraha and a commentary on this work called Tantrasangraha-vakhya of unknown authorship. The theorems were stated without proof, but proofs for the series for sine, cosine, and inverse tangent were provided a century later in the work Yuktibhāṣā (c.1500–c.1610), written in Malayalam, by Jyesthadeva, and also in a commentary on Tantrasangraha.{{Harv|Roy|1990}}Their discovery of these three important series expansions of calculus—several centuries before calculus was developed in Europe by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz—was an achievement. However, the Kerala School did not invent calculus, because, while they were able to develop Taylor series expansions for the important trigonometric functions, differentiation, term by term integration, convergence tests, iterative methods for solutions of non-linear equations, and the theory that the area under a curve is its integral, they developed neither a theory of differentiation or integration, nor the fundamental theorem of calculus. The results obtained by the Kerala school include:
  • The (infinite) geometric series: frac{1}{1-x} = 1 + x + x^2 + x^3 + x^4+ cdotstext{ for }|x|

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