SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

Indian National Congress

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Indian National Congress
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{Distinguish|Indian National Congress (Organisation)}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{Short description|Major political party in India}}{{Use Indian English|date=January 2015}}{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2019}}







factoids

|founder = {{nowrap|Allan Octavian HumeWilliam WedderburnW.C. BonnerjeeSurendranath BanerjeeMonomohun GhoseM.G. RanadeDadabhai NaorojiDinshaw Wacha }}
|president = Sonia Gandhi (Interim)
|ppchairman = Sonia GandhiWEB,weblink A day before Rahul takes over, Sonia says she'll retire, The Hindu, 16 December 2017, 17 December 2017,
|loksabha_leader = Adhir Ranjan ChowdhuryWEB,weblink After Rahul Gandhi refuses, Congress names Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury as its leader in Lok Sabha: Reports, Times Now, 18 June 2019, 18 June 2019,
|rajyasabha_leader = Ghulam Nabi Azad(Leader of the Opposition)NEWS, Politics hidden,weblink Ghulam Nabi Azad named Congress party leader in Rajya Sabha, Firstpost, 8 June 2014, 16 August 2018,
|foundation = |headquarters = 24, Akbar Road, New Delhi-110001WEB,weblink Rent relief unlikely for Congress's Delhi properties | India News – Times of India, M.timesofindia.com, 16 August 2018,
|Political position=National party
|publication = Congress Sandesh
|students = National Students Union of India
|youth = Indian Youth Congress
|women = All India Mahila Congress
|labour = Indian National Trade Union Congress
|wing4_title = Minority wing
|wing4 = Minority Congress
|membership = 20 millionWEB,weblink Indian National Congress – Policy and structure, Encyclopædia Britannica, 17 November 2014,
|ideology = {{Nowrap|{{•}}Social democracyWEB, Elections.in, Indian National Congress (INC),weblink 18 April 2019,
{{•}}Democratic socialism{{•}}Indian nationalism{{•}}Liberal nationalism{{•}}Progressivism{{•}}SecularismWEB, Daily News and Analysis, Lok Sabha Elections 2014: Know your party symbols!,weblink 10 April 2014, {{•}}Gandhian socialism }} style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;" style="text-align:center;"
class=nowrap|

|colours = {{colour box|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} Sky blueWEB,weblink India General (Lok Sabha) Election 2014 Results, mapsofindia.com, WEB,weblink Election Results India, General Elections Results, Lok Sabha Polls Results India – IBNLive, in.com, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150420063442weblink">weblink 20 April 2015,
|position = Centre-leftJOURNAL, Saez, Lawrence, Sinha, Aseema, Political cycles, political institutions and public expenditure in India, 1980–2000, British Journal of Political Science, 40, 1, 2010, 91–113, 10.1017/s0007123409990226,
|eci = National PartyWEB, List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013,weblink Election Commission of India, 9 May 2013, India, 2013,
|alliance = United Progressive Alliance (UPA)
|loksabha_seats = {{Composition bar|52|545|hex=#00BFFF}} (currently 541 members + 1 speaker)
|rajyasabha_seats = {{Composition bar|48|245|hex=#00BFFF}} (currently 238 members)WEB,weblink STRENGTHWISE PARTY POSITION IN THE RAJYA SABHA, Rajya Sabha, 14 July 2018,
|no_states = {{Composition bar|5|31|hex=#00BFFF}}
|website = {{ConditionalURL}}
|formerpm = {{plainlist|


}}
}}{{Indian National Congress sidebar}}The Indian National Congress {{nowrap|({{audio|Indian National Congress pronounciation.ogg|pronunciation}})}} (INC, often called the Congress Party or simply Congress) is a political party in India with widespread roots.WEB,weblink Indian National Congress, 26 February 2018, Encyclopædia Britannica, It was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa.{{efn|"The first modern nationalist movement to arise in the non-European empire, and one that became an inspiration for many others, was the Indian Congress."}} From the late 19th century, and especially after 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement.WEB, Information about the Indian National Congress,weblink www.open.ac.uk, Arts & Humanities Research council, 29 July 2015, Congress led India to independence from Great Britain,{{efn|"South Asian parties include several of the oldest in the post-colonial world, foremost among them the 129-year-old Indian National Congress that led India to independence in 1947" }}{{citation|last=Chiriyankandath|first=James|title=Parties and Political Change in South Asia|url={{Google books|c4n7CwAAQBAJ|page=PA2|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|year=2016|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-317-58620-3|page=2}}{{efn|"The organization that led India to independence, the Indian National Congress, was established in 1885." }}{{citation|last1=Kopstein|first1=Jeffrey|last2=Lichbach|first2=Mark|last3=Hanson|first3=Stephen E.|title=Comparative Politics: Interests, Identities, and Institutions in a Changing Global Order|url={{Google books|L2jwAwAAQBAJ|page=PA344|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|year=2014|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-1-139-99138-4|page=344}} and powerfully influenced other anticolonial movements in the British Empire.{{efn|"... anti-colonial movements ... which, like many other nationalist movements elsewhere in the empire, were strongly infuenced by the Indian National Congress."}}{{citation|last=Marshall|first=P. J.|title=The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire|url={{Google books|S2EXN8JTwAEC|page=PA179|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|year=2001|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-00254-7|page=179}} The Congress was founded in 1885 by Allan Octavian Hume, William Wedderburn, Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee, Surendranath Banerjee, Monomohun Ghose, M.G. Ranade, Dadabhai Naoroji, and Dinshaw Wacha during British Raj.BOOK, Wedderburn, Sir William, 2002, Allan Octavian Hume: Father of the Indian National Congress, 1829-1912 : a Biography, Indiana University, Oxford University Press, 165, 9780195652871, WEB, Overview of Allan Octavian Hume,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 4 June 2016, Hume was the central character in founding Congress and is often considered the "Father of the Indian National Congress".BOOK, Nanda, Bal Ram, 2015, Gokhale: The Indian Moderates and the British Raj, Princeton University Press, 542, 9781400870493, BOOK, Mookerjee, Girija, Andrews, C.F, 1938, Routledge Revivals: The Rise and Growth of the Congress in India, Routledge, 306, 9781315405483, The Congress is considered centre-left in Indian political culture. The party generally advocates social democracy, democratic socialism, Indian nationalism (liberal nationalism), Gandhian socialism, progressivism and secularism.WEB,weblink Indian National Congress – about INC, history, symbol, leaders and more, Elections.in, 7 February 2014, 3 May 2014, WEB, The Congress Constitution,weblink Indian National Congress, 29 May 2019, BOOK, Chhibber, Pradeep K, Verma, Rahul, 2018, Ideology and Identity: The Changing Party Systems of India, Oxford University Press, 256, 9780190623906, After India's independence in 1947, Congress formed the central government of India, and many regional state governments.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Indian National Congress, Political Party, India, Encyclopaedia Britannica, ... broadly based political party of India. Formed in 1885, the Indian National Congress dominated the Indian movement for independence from Great Britain. It subsequently formed most of India's governments from the time of independence and often had a strong presence in many state governments., Congress became India's dominant political party. As of 2019, in the 17 general elections since independence, it has won an outright majority on seven occasions and has led the ruling coalition a further three times, heading the central government for more than 54 years. There have been six Congress Prime Ministers, the first being Jawaharlal Nehru (1947–1964), and the most recent Manmohan Singh (2004–2014). Although it did not fare well in the last general elections in India in 2014, it remains one of two major, nationwide, political parties in India, along with the right-wing Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).{{efn|"During the first five decades of India's independence, the left-of-center, secular Indian National Congress (INC) and its factions have ruled almost continuously ... While the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) ..."}}{{citation|last1=Strömbäck|first1=Jesper|last2=Kaid|first2=Lynda Lee|title=The Handbook of Election News Coverage Around the World|url={{Google books|ptKQAgAAQBAJ|page=PA126|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|year=2009|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-135-70345-5|page=126}} In the 2014 general election, Congress had its poorest post-independence general election performance, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member Lok Sabha. The party’s membership dropped from nearly 40 million in the mid-1990s to under 20 million at the beginning of the 21st century. From 2004 to 2014, United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of Congress with several regional parties, formed the Indian government led by Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister as the head of the coalition government. The leader of the party during the period, Sonia Gandhi has served the longest term as the president of the party. {{As of|2019|July|df=}}, the party is in power in five legislative assemblies: Punjab, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and the union territory of Puducherry (in an alliance with the DMK).

History

Pre-independence

{{See also|Indian independence movement}}File:A O Hume.jpg|right|upright=0.75|thumb|A. O. HumeA. O. Hume(File:1st INC1885.jpg|right|upright=1.15|thumb|First session of Indian National Congress, Bombay, 28–31 December 1885)File:WCBonnerjee.jpg|right|upright=0.77|thumb|Womesh Chunder BonnerjeeWomesh Chunder Bonnerjee

Foundation

The Indian National Congress conducted its first session in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885 at the initiative of retired Civil Service officer Allan Octavian Hume. In 1883, Hume had outlined his idea for a body representing Indian interests in an open letter to graduates of the University of Calcutta.WEB, Jigyasu Intoday,weblink On this day in 1885, Indian National Congress was formed: 12 facts about one of the oldest political parties of the country – Education Today News, Indiatoday.in, 28 December 2017, 16 August 2018, NEWS,weblink The long march to freedom – IN SCHOOL, The Hindu, 16 August 2016, 16 August 2018, Its aim was to obtain a greater share in government for educated Indians, and to create a platform for civic and political dialogue between them and the British Raj. Hume took the initiative, and in March 1885 a notice convening the first meeting of the Indian National Union to be held in Poona the following December was issued.Sitaramayya, B. Pattabhi. 1935. The History of the Indian National Congress. Working Committee of the Congress. Scanned version Due to a cholera outbreak there, it was moved to Bombay.WEB,weblink Full text of "The History of the India National Congress", 16 August 2018, WEB,weblink The History of the Indian National Congress(1885–1935), Pattabhi Sita Ramaiah, 1 November 2018, Internet Archive, Hume organised the first meeting in Bombay with the approval of the Viceroy Lord Dufferin. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first president of Congress; the first session was attended by 72 delegates, representing each province of India.NEWS, Singh, Kanishka,weblink Indian National Congress: From 1885 till 2017, a brief history of past presidents, The Indian Express, 5 December 2017, 16 August 2018, WEB,weblink Sonia sings Vande Mataram at Congress function – Rediff.com India News, M.rediff.com, 28 December 2006, 16 August 2018, Notable representatives included Scottish ICS officer William Wedderburn, Dadabhai Naoroji, Pherozeshah Mehta of the Bombay Presidency Association, Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi of the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, social reformer and newspaper editor Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Justice K. T. Telang, N. G. Chandavarkar, Dinshaw Wacha, Behramji Malabari, journalist and activist Gooty Kesava Pillai, and P. Rangaiah Naidu of the Madras Mahajana Sabha.BOOK, 12–27, The history of the Indian National Congress (1885–1935), Sitaramayya, B. Pattabhi, Working Committee of the Congress, 1935,weblink BOOK, Judith E., Walsh, A Brief History of India, Infobase Publishing, 9781438108254, 154, 2006,weblink This small elite group, unrepresentative of the Indian masses at the time,BOOK, Richard Sisson, Stanley A. Wolpert, Congress and Indian Nationalism: The Pre-independence Phase, {{Google books, QfOSxFVQa8IC, yes, |year=1988|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=978-0-520-06041-8|page=21|quote=Those fewer than 100 English-educated gentlemen of means and property, mostly lawyers and journalists, could hardly claim to 'represent' some 250 million illiterate impoverished peasants}} functioned more as a stage for elite Indian ambitions than a political party for the first decade of its existence.BOOK, Richard Sisson, Stanley A. Wolpert, Congress and Indian Nationalism: The Pre-independence Phase, {{Google books, QfOSxFVQa8IC, yes, |year=1988|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=978-0-520-06041-8|pages=22–23|quote=Without any funds or any secretariat, however (other than Hume) Congress remained, during its first decade at least, more of a sounding board for elite Indian aspirations than a political party.}}

Early years

File:Sri Aurobindo presiding over a meeting of the Nationalists after the Surat Congress, with Tilak speaking, 1907.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.8|Congress "extremist" Bal Gangadhar Tilak speaking in 1907 as the Party split into moderates and extremists. Seated at the table is Aurobindo Ghosh and to his right (in the chair) is G. S. KhapardeG. S. KhapardeFile:Gopal krishan gokhale.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.8|Gopal Krishna GokhaleGopal Krishna GokhaleAt the beginning of the 20th century, Congress' demands became more radical in the face of constant opposition from the British government, and the party decided to advocate in favour of the independence movement because it would allow a new political system in which Congress could be a major party. By 1905, a division opened between the moderates led by Gokhale, who downplayed public agitation, and the new extremists who advocated agitation, and regarded the pursuit of social reform as a distraction from nationalism. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who tried to mobilise Hindu Indians by appealing to an explicitly Hindu political identity displayed in the annual public Ganapati festivals he inaugurated in western India, was prominent among the extremists.Stanley A. Wolpert, Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India (1962) p 67Congress included a number of prominent political figures. Dadabhai Naoroji, a member of the sister Indian National Association, was elected president of the party in 1886 and was the first Indian Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons (1892–1895). Congress also included Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, and Mohammed Ali Jinnah. Jinnah was a member of the moderate group in the Congress, favouring Hindu–Muslim unity in achieving self-government.{{sfn|Singh|pp=41–42}} Later he became the leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan. Congress was transformed into a mass movement by Surendranath Banerjee during the partition of Bengal in 1905, and the resultant Swadeshi movement.

Congress as a mass movement

(File:Gandhi spinning.jpg|right|thumb|Mahatma Gandhi spinning yarn, in the late 1920s)Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915. With the help of the moderate group led by Ghokhale, Gandhi became president of Congress. After the First World War, the party became associated with Gandhi, who remained its unofficial spiritual leader and icon.BOOK, Mahatma Gandhi, Gandhi, The Gandhi Reader: A Sourcebook of His Life and Writings, Grove Press, 9780802131614, 254, 1994,weblink He formed an alliance with the Khilafat Movement in 1920 to fight for preservation of the Ottoman Caliphate, and rights for Indians using civil disobedience or satyagraha as the tool for agitation.Gail Minault, The Khilafat movement p 69 In 1923, after the deaths of policemen at Chauri Chaura, Gandhi suspended the agitation. In protest, a number of leaders, Chittaranjan Das, Annie Besant, and Motilal Nehru, resigned to set up the Swaraj Party. The Khilafat movement collapsed and Congress was split.BOOK,weblink The Khilafat Movement: Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in India – Gail Minault – Google Books, 16 August 2018, 9780231050722, Minault, Gail, 1982, The rise of Gandhi's popularity and his satyagraha art of revolution led to support from Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Khan Mohammad Abbas Khan, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Chakravarti Rajgopalachari, Dr. Anugraha Narayan Sinha, Jayaprakash Narayan, Jivatram Kripalani, and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. As a result of prevailing nationalism, Gandhi's popularity, and the party's attempts at eradicating caste differences, untouchability, poverty, and religious and ethnic divisions, Congress became a forceful and dominant group. Although its members were predominantly Hindu, it had members from other religions, economic classes, and ethnic and linguistic groups.BOOK, Agrawal, Lion M. G., Freedom fighters of India, 2008, Gyan Publishing House, 9788182054721, 121,weblink en, At the Congress 1929 Lahore session under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, Purna Swaraj (complete independence) was declared as the party's goal, declaring 26 January 1930 as "Purna Swaraj Diwas" (Independence Day). The same year, Srinivas Iyenger was expelled from the party for demanding full independence, not just home rule as demanded by Gandhi.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100721001422weblink">weblink yes, 21 July 2010, Main Bharat Hun, Main Bharat Hun, 3 May 2014, File:Subhas Chandra Bose.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Subhas Chandra BoseSubhas Chandra BoseAfter the passage of the Government of India Act of 1935, provincial elections were held in India in the winter of 1936–37 in eleven provinces: Madras, Central Provinces, Bihar, Orissa, United Provinces, Bombay Presidency, Assam, NWFP, Bengal, Punjab, and Sindh. After contesting these elections, the Indian National Congress gained power in eight of them except Bengal, Punjab, and Sindh. The All-India Muslim League failed to form a government in any province.BOOK, Indian Muslims and Partition of India, Atlantic Publishers, 9788171563746, 240, S. M. Ikram, 1995, Congress ministries resigned in October and November 1939 in protest against Viceroy Lord Linlithgow's declaration that India was a belligerent in the Second World War without consulting the Indian people.BOOK, SN Sen, History Modern India, New Age International, 9788122417746, 202, 2006, In 1939, Subhas Chandra Bose, the elected president in both 1938 and 1939, resigned from Congress over the selection of the working committee. The party was not the sole representative of the Indian polity, other parties included the Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha, and the All India Forward Bloc.WEB, Dates of time spent in Britain: 1919–21,weblink Subhas Chandra Bose |, Open.ac.uk, 3 May 2014, The party was an umbrella organisation, sheltering radical socialists, traditionalists, and Hindu and Muslim conservatives. Gandhi expelled all the socialist groupings, including the Congress Socialist Party, the Krishak Praja Party, and the Swarajya Party, along with Subhas Chandra Bose, in 1939.File:Gandhi, Patel and Maulana Azad Sept 1940.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|right|Azad, Patel and Gandhi at an AICC meeting in Bombay, 1940]]Azad Hind, an Indian provisional government, had been established in Singapore in 1943, and was supported by Japan.BOOK, Rudolph, Lloyd I., Hoeber Rudolph, Susanne, Explaining Indian Democracy: The realm of institutions: state formation and institutional change, Oxford University Press; Original from: University of California Press, 2008, 58, 978-0-19-569365-2, BOOK, Ghose, Sankar, Political ideas and movements in India, Allied Publishers; Original from: University of Michigan Press, 1975, 136, In 1946, the British tried the Indian soldiers who had fought alongside the Japanese during World War II in the INA trials. In response, Congress helped form the INA Defence Committee, which assembled a legal team to defend the case of the soldiers of the Azad Hind government. The team included several famous lawyers, including Bhulabhai Desai, Asaf Ali, and Jawaharlal Nehru.WEB,weblink Lawyers in the Indian Freedom Movement – The Bar Council of India, Barcouncilofindia.org, 3 May 2014, The same year, Congress members initially supported the sailors who led the Royal Indian Navy mutiny, but they withdrew support at a critical juncture and the mutiny failed.WEB, Sharma, Manimugdha S, Royal Indian Navy Mutiny: Historian remembers last secular uprising of India,weblink The Times of India, 6 June 2018, 10 May 2017, WEB, Raghavan, Srinath, Revisiting the 1946 Royal Indian Navy mutiny,weblink Mint (newspaper), Livemint, 6 June 2018, 3 April 2017,

Post-independence

After Indian independence in 1947, the Indian National Congress became the dominant political party in the country. In 1952, in the first general election held after Independence, the party swept to power in the national parliament and most state legislatures. It held power nationally until 1977, when it was defeated by the Janata coalition. It returned to power in 1980 and ruled until 1989, when it was once again defeated. The party formed the government in 1991 at the head of a coalition, as well as in 2004 and 2009, when it led the United Progressive Alliance. During this period the Congress remained centre-left in its social policies while steadily shifting from a socialist to a neoliberal economic outlook.WEB, 1:48 pm,weblink New year aspirations – Can India hope for a centrist progressive liberal party?, Blogs.timesofindia.indiatimes.com, 16 August 2018, The Party's rivals at state level have been national parties including the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPIM), and various regional parties, such as the Telugu Desam Party, Trinamool Congress and Aam Aadmi Party.NEWS, Why India's opposition is nearly irrelevant,weblink The Economist, 6 June 2018, 28 April 2017, A post-partition successor to the party survived as the Pakistan National Congress, a party which represented the rights of religious minorities in the state. The party's support was strongest in the Bengali-speaking province of East Pakistan. After the Bangladeshi War of Independence, it became known as the Bangladeshi National Congress, but was dissolved in 1975 by the government.BOOK, Major governments of Asia, George McTurnan Kahin, Harold C. Hinton, Cornell University Press, 439, 1958, BOOK, Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations: Asia and Australasia, Moshe Y. Sachs, Worldmark Press, 1967, BOOK, War and Secession: Pakistan, India and the Creation of Bangladesh, Richard Sisson, Leo E. Rose, University of California Press, 1–15, 1991, 978-0-520-07665-5,

Nehru/Shastri era (1947–1966)

File:Jnehru.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Jawaharlal Nehru served as the first Prime Minister of IndiaPrime Minister of India(File:Election symbol two oxen.svg|thumb|right|The election symbol of the Congress party between 1952 and 1969)From 1951 until his death in 1964, Jawaharlal Nehru was the paramount leader of the party. Congress gained power in landslide victories in the general elections of 1951–52, 1957, and 1962.WEB, Nehru Years in Indian Politics,weblink sps.ed.ac.uk, School of Social and Political Science, Edinburgh, 23 June 2014, During his tenure, Nehru implemented policies based on import substitution industrialisation, and advocated a mixed economy where the government-controlled public sector co-existed with the private sector.WEB, Economic Ideology of Jawaharlal Nehru,weblink www.epw.in, Economic and Political Weekly, 23 June 2014, He believed the establishment of basic and heavy industries was fundamental to the development and modernisation of the Indian economy. The Nehru government directed investment primarily into key public sector industries—steel, iron, coal, and power—promoting their development with subsidies and protectionist policies. Nehru embraced secularism, socialistic economic practices based on state-driven industrialisation, and a non-aligned and non-confrontational foreign policy that became typical of the modern Congress Party.NEWS, History of Indian Economy Part II,weblink 23 June 2014, Daily News and Analysis, DNA, 11 July 2011, The policy of non-alignment during the Cold War meant Nehru received financial and technical support from both the Eastern and Western Blocs to build India's industrial base from nothing.NEWS, Nehru: Founding member of The non-aligned movement,weblink news.bbc.co.uk, BBC, The British Broadcasting Corporation, 23 June 2014, WEB, History and Evolution of Non-Aligned Movement,weblink mea.gov.in, Ministry of External Affairs,Government of India, 23 June 2014, During his period in office, there were four known assassination attempts on Nehru.BOOK, Nayantara Sahgal, Jawaharlal Nehru: Civilizing a Savage World, {{Google books, KycnN-MlfY4C, PA58, yes, |date=1 January 2010|publisher=Penguin Books India|isbn=978-0-670-08357-2|page=58}} The first attempt on his life was during partition in 1947 while he was visiting the North-West Frontier Province in a car. The second was by a knife-wielding rickshaw-puller in Maharashtra in 1955.BOOK, Nayantara Sahgal, Jawaharlal Nehru: Civilizing a Savage World, {{Google books, KycnN-MlfY4C, PA58, yes, |date=1 January 2010|publisher=Penguin Books India|isbn=978-0-670-08357-2|page=60}} A third attempt happened in Bombay in 1956.BOOK, Nayantara Sahgal, Jawaharlal Nehru: Civilizing a Savage World, {{Google books, KycnN-MlfY4C, PA58, yes, |date=1 January 2010|publisher=Penguin Books India|isbn=978-0-670-08357-2|page=61}} The fourth was a failed bombing attempt on railway tracks in Maharashtra in 1961. Despite threats to his life, Nehru despised having excess security personnel around him and did not like his movements to disrupt traffic.In 1964, Nehru died because of an aortic dissection, raising questions about the party's future.NEWS, The death of Nehru,weblink 23 June 2014, The Guardian, The Guardian News Portal, The Guardian archive, 28 May 2013, WEB, Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964),weblink bbc.co.uk, BBC, The British Broadcasting Corporation, 23 June 2014, NEWS, 1964: Light goes out in India as Nehru dies,weblink news.bbc.co.uk, BBC, The British Broadcasting Corporation, 23 June 2014, After Nehru's death in 1964, the congress party started to face internal crisis. There were differences among the top leadership of the Congress regarding the future of the party which makes lot of issues within the party. This resulted in formation of many congress named parties in India Kerela Congress, Orissa Jane Congress, Bangla Congress, Utkal Congress, Bharatiya Kranti Dal, etc.K. Kamaraj became the president of the All India Congress Committee in 1963 during the last year of Nehru's life.WEB, K. Kamaraj -Life History,weblink www.perunthalaivar.org, The Perun Thalaivar organization, 23 June 2014, Prior to that, he had been the chief minister of Madras state for nine years.WEB, The Syndicate: Kingmakers of India,weblink pib.nic.in, Press Information Bureau: Government of India, 23 June 2014, Kamraj had also been a member of "the syndicate", a group of right wing leaders within Congress.In 1963 the Congress lost popularity following the defeat in the Indo-Chinese war of 1962.To revitalize the party, Kamraj proposed the Kamaraj Plan to Nehru that encouraged six Congress chief ministers (including himself) and six senior cabinet ministers to resign to take up party work.BOOK, Mahendra Prasad Singh, Split in a Predominant Party: The Indian National Congress in 1969, {{Google books, UOQRWuMXyRMC, PA42, yes, |date=1 January 1981|publisher=Abhinav Publications|isbn=978-81-7017-140-9|page=46}}BOOK, Bala Jeyaraman, Kamaraj: The Life and Times of K. Kamaraj, {{Google books, BqWeAwAAQBAJ, PT55, yes, |date=2 September 2013|publisher=Rupa Publications|isbn=978-81-291-3227-7|pages=55–56}}BOOK, N. S. Gehlot, The Congress Party in India: Policies, Culture, Performance, {{Google books, 06HLD2_3Qj4C, PA177, yes, |year=1991|publisher=Deep & Deep Publications|isbn=978-81-7100-306-8|page=180}} After Nehru's death in May 1964, Kamaraj was widely credited as the "kingmaker" in Indian politics for ensuring the victory of Lal Bahadur Shastri over Morarji Desai as the successor of Nehru.BOOK, Mahendra Prasad Singh, Split in a Predominant Party: The Indian National Congress in 1969, {{Google books, UOQRWuMXyRMC, PA42, yes, |date=1 January 1981|publisher=Abhinav Publications|isbn=978-81-7017-140-9|page=42}} The Congress was then split into two parties : Indian National Congress(O) and Indian National Congress (I) as a left-wing/right-wing division. Indira Gandhi wanted to use a populist agenda in order to mobilize popular support for the party while Kamraj and Desai stood for a more right-wing agenda.As prime minister, Shastri retained many members of Nehru's Council of Ministers; T. T. Krishnamachari was retained as Finance Minister of India, as was Defence Minister Yashwantrao Chavan.BOOK, R. D. Pradhan, Madhav Godbole, Debacle to Revival: Y. B. Chavan as Defence Minister, 1962–65, {{Google books, 9vDvpB_sqB0C, PA15, yes, |date=1 January 1999|publisher=Orient Blackswan|isbn=978-81-250-1477-5|page=17}} Shastri appointed Swaran Singh to succeed him as External Affairs Minister.BOOK, Arvind Panagariya Professor of Economics and Jagdish Bhagwati Professor of Indian Political Economy Columbia University School of International & Public Affairs, India: The Emerging Giant: The Emerging Giant, {{Google books, 6eO1-yP7o4MC, PA27, yes, |date=1 February 2008|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-804299-0|page=27}} Shashtri appointed Indira Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru's daughter and former party president, Minister of Information and Broadcasting.WEB, History and Politics of India,weblink socialsciences.ucla.edu, UCLA Division of Social Sciences, 23 June 2014, Gulzarilal Nanda continued as the Minister of Home Affairs.WEB, Biography of Gulzarilal Nanda,weblink pmindia.gov.in, Prime Minister's Office, 23 June 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120828142039weblink">weblink 28 August 2012, As Prime Minister, Shastri continued Nehru's policy of non-alignment,BOOK, Narayan Agrawal Narayan, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Vivek Misra, Subha Ravi, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Churn of Conscience, {{Google books, Lwoae1jbcc0C, PA100, yes, |year=2006|publisher=Eternal Gandhi|isbn=978-81-231-0193-4|page=88}} but built closer relations with the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the Sino-Indian War of 1962, and the formation of military ties between China and Pakistan, Shastri's government expanded the defence budget of India's armed forces. He also promoted the White Revolution—a national campaign to increase the production and supply of milk by creating the National Dairy Development Board.WEB, The White Revolution: A beginning,weblink unicef.org, UNICEF, 23 June 2014, The Madras anti-Hindi agitation of 1965 occurred during Shastri's tenure.BOOK, Jyotirindra Dasgupta, Language Conflict and National Development: Group Politics and National Language Policy in India, {{Google books, qGACL5YJRjEC, PA237, yes, |year=1970|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=978-0-520-01590-6|page=237}}JOURNAL, The Madras anti-Hindi agitation, Pacific Affairs, 39, 1/2, 19–36, Digital library of academic journals, 2755179, Forrester, Duncan B., 1966, 10.2307/2755179, Shastri became a national hero following victory in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.WEB, The Indo-Pakistan war of 1965,weblink indiannavy.nic.in, Indian Navy, 23 June 2014, His slogan, "Jai Jawan Jai Kisan" ("Hail the soldier, Hail the farmer"), became very popular during the war.NEWS, Life of Lal Bahadur Shastri,weblink 23 June 2014, Business Standard, Ananda Bazar Patrika (ABP) Group, ABP Group, Ananda Publishers, 26 March 2013, On 11 January 1966, a day after signing the Tashkent Declaration, Shastri died in Tashkent, reportedly of a heart attack; but the circumstances of his death remain mysterious.WEB, Controversial death of Shastri,weblink wikileaks-forum.com, Wikileaks Forum, 23 June 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140501224743weblink">weblink 1 May 2014, yes, WEB, Lal Bahadur Shastri's death in Tashkent,weblink bbc.com, BBC, 23 June 2014, WEB, Lal Bahadur Shastri,weblink socialsciences.ucla.edu/, UCLA Division of Social Science, 23 June 2014, Indian National Congress (O) was led first by Kamraj and later by Morarji Desai. The "O" stands for organisation/Old Congress. Some people used to it the Original Congress. .BOOK, Sanghvi, Vijay, The Congress, Indira to Sonia Gandh, 2006, Kalpaz Publications, New Delhi, 978-81-7835-340-1, 77,weblink

Indira era (1966–1984)

{{See also|The Emergency (India)|Assassination of Indira Gandhi|Indian general election, 1977|1984 anti-Sikh riots}}After Shastri's death, Congress elected Indira Gandhi as leader over Morarji Desai. Once again, politician K. Kamaraj was instrumental in achieving this result. In 1967, following a poor performance in the general election, Indira Gandhi started moving towards the political left. In mid-1969, she was involved in a dispute with senior party leaders on a number of issues. The two major issues were Gandhi supporting the independent candidate, V. V. Giri, rather than the official Congress party candidate, Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, for the vacant post of the President of India.Singh, M.P., 1981. Split in a Predominant Party: The Indian National Congress in 1969. Abhinav Publications, pp.65–80.Hardgrave, R. L., 1970. "The Congress in India: Crisis and Split". Asian Survey, 10(3), pp. 256–262. The second issue was Mrs. Gandhi's abrupt nationalization of the 14 biggest banks in India, which resulted in the resignation of the finance minister, Morarji Desai. Later in the year, the Congress party president, S. Nijalingappa, expelled her from the party for indiscipline.NEWS, March to socialism under Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, The Economic Times, Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd, The Times Group, 24 August 2011, NEWS, 1969: S. Nijalingappa expelled Indira Gandhi from the Party,weblink 25 June 2014, India Today, Aroon Purie, 2 July 2007, Mrs. Gandhi as a counter-move launched her own faction of the INC. Mrs. Gandhi's faction, called Congress (R), was supported by most of the Congress MPs while the original party had the support of only 65 MPs.BOOK, MIT Press, 468–470, {{Google books, y3Mr6TgalqMC, PA470, yes, |isbn=978-0262182348| last = Rosser| first = J. Barkley| last2 = Rosser| first2 = Marina V.| title = Comparative Economics in Transforming the World Economy| year = 2004}} This was also known as Congress(I) was led by Indira Gandhi. The "I" in the name of congress stood for Indira. It was also known as INC(R) R stands for Requisition. It soon came to be known as the New Congress. In the All India Congress Committee, 446 of its 705 members walked over to Indira's side. This created a belief among Indians that Indira's Congress was the Real Congress (INC-R). After the separation of the two parties, there was also a dispute about the party logo. The "Old Congress" retained the party symbol of a pair of bullocks carrying a yoke while Indira's breakaway faction were given a new symbol of a cow with suckling calf by the Election Commission as the party election symbol. The split occurred when, in 1969, a united opposition under the banner of Samyukt Vidhayak Dal, won control over several states in the Hindi Belt.Indira congressIn the mid-term parliamentary elections held in 1971, the Gandhi-led Congress (R) Party won a landslide victory on a platform of progressive policies such as the elimination of poverty (Garibi Hatao).WEB, General Elections, India, 1971: Statistical report,weblink eci.nic.in, Election Commission of India, 25 June 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140718175452weblink">weblink 18 July 2014, The policies of the Congress (R) Party under Gandhi before the 1971 elections included proposals to abolish the Privy Purse to former rulers of the Princely states, and the 1969 nationalisation of India's 14 largest banks.NEWS, Economic Milestone: Nationalisation of Banks (1969),weblink 17 September 2015, Forbes India, Forbes, 17 September 2015, File:Indira-Gandhi-ili-50-img-2.jpg|thumb|upright|Indira GandhiIndira GandhiThe New Congress Party's popular support began to wane in the mid-1970s. From 1975, Gandhi's government grew increasingly more authoritarian and unrest among the opposition grew. On 12 June 1975, the High Court of Allahabad declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of India's parliament, void on the grounds of electoral malpractice.WEB, The Emergency, and Indian democracy,weblink sscnet.ucla.edu, UCLA Division of Social Science, 25 June 2014, However, Gandhi rejected calls to resign and announced plans to appeal to the Supreme Court. She moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition participating in the unrest. In response to increasing disorder and lawlessness, Gandhi's cabinet and government recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declare a State of Emergency, which he did on 25 June 1975 based on the provisions of Article 352 of the Constitution.WEB, Emergency papers found,weblink The Times of India, 6 June 2018, 30 June 2013, During the nineteen-month emergency, widespread oppression and abuse of power by Gandhi's unelected younger son and political heir Sanjay Gandhi and his close associates occurred.JOURNAL, Ghildiyal, Subodh, Cong blames Sanjay Gandhi for Emergency 'excesses', The Times of India, 29 December 2010,weblink 30 January 2014, NEWS, Express News Service, Emergency 'propagandist' who banned Kishore Kumar songs,weblink 17 January 2014, Indian Express, 11 June 2013, JOURNAL, Dasgupta, Swapan, The Life of Indira Gandhi, July 1985, 7, 3, Third World Quarterly, Book Reviews, 10.1080/01436598508419863, 731–778, This period of oppression ended on 23 January 1977, when Gandhi released all political prisoners and called fresh elections for the Lok Sabha to be held in March.WEB, Indian general election, 1977,weblink ipu.org, Inter-Parliamentary Union, 25 June 2014, The Emergency officially ended on 23 March 1977.NEWS, Inder Malhotra, What Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's Emergency proved for India,weblink 25 June 2014, Rediff.com, 23 June 2010, In that month's parliamentary elections, the opposition Janata Party won a landslide victory over Congress, winning 295 seats in the Lok Sabha against Congress' 153. Gandhi lost her seat to her Janata opponent Raj Narain. On 2 January 1978, she and her followers seceded and formed a new opposition party, popularly called Congress (I)—the I signifying Indira. During the next year, her new party attracted enough members of the legislature to become the official opposition.BOOK, Basu, Manisha, The Rhetoric of Hindutva, 2016, Cambridge University Press, 9781107149878,weblink en, In November 1978, Gandhi regained a parliamentary seat. In January 1980, following a landslide victory for Congress (I), she was again elected prime minister.WEB, Statistical report general elections, 1980,weblink eci.nic.in, Election Commission of India, 25 June 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140718175926weblink">weblink 18 July 2014, The national election commission declared Congress (I) to be the real Indian National Congress for the 1984 general election.However, the designation I was only dropped in 1996.BOOK, Manisha Basu, The Rhetoric of Hindutva, {{Google books, E7gtDQAAQBAJ, PA73, yes, |date=2 November 2016|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-1-107-14987-8|pages=73–}}BOOK, Statistical Report on General Elections, 1980 to the Seventh Lok Sabha, Election Commission of India, New Delhi, 1,weblink 9 June 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140718175926weblink">weblink 18 July 2014, WEB, Postindependence: from dominance to decline,weblink Britannica.com, Britannica Portal, 24 June 2014, During Gandhi's new term as prime minister, her youngest son Sanjay died in an aeroplane crash in June 1980.NEWS, The life and death of Sanjay Gandhi,weblink 25 June 2014, The Hindu, The Hindu Group, N.Ram, 19 February 2013, NEWS, Sanjay Gandhi dies in plane crash,weblink 25 June 2014, The Sydney Morning Herald, Google News, 24 June 1980, This led her to encourage her elder son Rajiv, who was working as a pilot, to enter politics. Gradually, Indira Gandhi's politics and outlook grew more authoritarian and autocratic, and she became the central figure within the Congress Party. As prime minister, she became known for her political ruthlessness and unprecedented centralization of power.WEB, PM Modi remembers Indira Gandhi on her birth anniversary,weblink The Week (Indian magazine), The Week, 6 June 2018, 19 November 2017, Gandhi's term as prime minister also saw increasing turmoil in Punjab, with demands for Sikh autonomy by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his militant followers.NEWS, Operation Blue Star 1984,weblink 25 June 2014, Daily News and Analysis, Dainik Bhaskar, Deepak Rathi, 6 June 2014, In 1983, they headquartered themselves in the Golden Temple in Amritsar and started accumulating weapons.NEWS, 1984: Operation Blue Star,weblink 25 June 2014, The Daily Telegraph (UK), The Daily Telegraph, 6 June 2014, In June 1984, after several futile negotiations, Gandhi ordered the Indian Army to enter the Golden Temple to establish control over the complex and remove Bhindranwale and his armed followers. This event is known as Operation Blue Star.NEWS, Operation Blue Star,weblink 25 June 2014, The Hindu, 10 June 2013, On 31 October 1984, two of Gandhi's bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, shot her with their service weapons in the garden of the prime minister's residence in response to her authorisation of Operation Blue Star. Gandhi was due to be interviewed by British actor Peter Ustinov, who was filming a documentary for Irish television.NEWS, 1984: Indian prime minister shot dead,weblink 23 June 2014, BBC News, 31 October 1984, Her assassination prompted the 1984 anti-Sikh riots, during which more than 3,000 people were killed.NEWS, Violence follows Gandhi killing,weblink BBC News, 23 June 2014,

Rajiv Gandhi and Rao era (1985–1998)

File:Rajiv Gandhi (1987).jpg|thumb|right|upright|Rajiv GandhiRajiv GandhiIn 1984, Indira Gandhi's son Rajiv Gandhi became nominal head of Congress, and went on to become prime minister upon her assassination.WEB, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, complete profile,weblink pmindia.gov.in, Prime Minister's Office, 23 June 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120901121841weblink">weblink 1 September 2012, In December, he led Congress to a landslide victory, where it secured 401 seats in the legislature.WEB, India General or the 8th Lok Sabha Election Results – 1984,weblink 23 June 2014, His administration took measures to reform the government bureaucracy and liberalise the country's economy.NEWS, Resurgent India,weblink 23 June 2014, Daily News and Analysis, 22 January 2014, Rajiv Gandhi's attempts to discourage separatist movements in Punjab and Kashmir backfired. After his government became embroiled in several financial scandals, his leadership became increasingly ineffectual.WEB, Rajiv Gandhi and the story of Indian modernization,weblink Mint (newspaper), Mint, 23 June 2014, Gandhi was regarded as a non-abrasive person who consulted other party members and refrained from hasty decisions.WEB, Rajiv Gandhi, History and Politics,weblink UCLA, Division of Social Sciences, 23 June 2014, The Bofors scandal damaged his reputation as an honest politician, but he was posthumously cleared of bribery allegations in 2004.NEWS,weblink Rajiv Gandhi cleared over bribery, BBC News, 4 February 2004, 7 March 2010, On 21 May 1991, Gandhi was killed by a bomb concealed in a basket of flowers carried by a woman associated with the Tamil Tigers.WEB, The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi,weblink NDTV India, 21 June 2014, He was campaigning in Tamil Nadu for upcoming parliamentary elections. In 1998, an Indian court convicted 26 people in the conspiracy to assassinate Gandhi.NEWS, Rajiv Gandhi assassination case,weblink 21 June 2014, The Times of India, 27 February 2014, The conspirators, who consisted of Tamil militants from Sri Lanka and their Indian allies, had sought revenge against Gandhi because the Indian troops he sent to Sri Lanka in 1987 to help enforce a peace accord there had fought with Tamil separatist guerrillas.BOOK, D. R. Kaarthikenyan, Radhavinod Raju, Radhavinod Raju, Rajiv Gandhi Assassination, {{Google books, 7MqfCkBGdQ8C, yes, |year=2008|publisher=Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd|isbn=978-81-207-3265-0|pages=89–91}}NEWS, SC refers Rajiv Gandhi killers' release case to Constitution Bench,weblink 21 June 2014, The Indian Express, 25 April 2014, File:Pumapaparti.N.rao.jpg|thumb|upright|P. V. Narasimha Rao served as the tenth Prime Minister of India (1991–1996). He was the first prime minister from South IndiaSouth IndiaRajiv Gandhi was succeeded as party leader by P. V. Narasimha Rao, who was elected prime minister in June 1991.WEB, PV Narasimha Rao Biography,weblink Website of the Prime Minister of India, 23 June 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121227115219weblink">weblink 27 December 2012, His rise to the prime ministership was politically significant because he was the first holder of the office from South India. His administration oversaw major economic change and experienced several home incidents that affected India's national security."Narasimha Rao – a Reforming PM". BBC News (23 December 2004). Retrieved 2 March 2007. Rao, who held the Industries portfolio, was personally responsible for the dismantling of the Licence Raj, which came under the purview of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.Arvind Kumar, Arun Narendhranath (3 October 2001). "India must embrace unfettered free enterprise". Daily News and Analysis. He is often called the "father of Indian economic reforms"."PV Narasimha Rao Remembered as Father of Indian Economic Reforms". VOA News (23 December 2004). {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090129203559weblink |date=29 January 2009 }}NEWS, Narasimha Rao led India at crucial juncture, was father of economic reform: Pranab, 25 January 2013,weblink 31 December 2012, Future prime ministers Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Manmohan Singh continued the economic reform policies begun by Rao's government. Rao accelerated the dismantling of the Licence Raj, reversing the socialist policies of previous governments.WEB, PV Narasimha Rao reinvented India,weblink The National (Abu Dhabi), The National, Abu Dhabi, 23 June 2014, WEB, Foreign Policies of India's Prime Ministers,weblink Transnational Organization, 23 June 2014, He appointed Manmohan Singh as his finance minister to begin a historic economic change. With Rao's mandate, Singh launched India's globalisation reforms that involved implementing International Monetary Fund (IMF) policies to prevent India's impending economic collapse. Rao was also referred to as Chanakya for his ability to push tough economic and political legislation through the parliament while he headed a minority government.JOURNAL,weblink Obituary: A scholar and a politician, V. Venkatesan, Frontline, 22, 1, 1–14 January 2005, 30 March 2010, {{dead link |date=March 2016}}{{cbignore}}"PV Narasimha Rao Passes Away". Retrieved 7 October 2007. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071101063203weblink |date=1 November 2007 }}By 1996, the party's image was suffering from allegations of corruption, and in elections that year, Congress was reduced to 140 seats, its lowest number in the Lok Sabha to that point. Rao later resigned as prime minister and, in September, as party president.WEB, ABP News, Atal Bihari Vajpayee's 13-day govt.,weblink YouTube, 24 June 2014, He was succeeded as president by Sitaram Kesri.NEWS, The Sitaram Kesri case,weblink 23 June 2014, Daily News and Analysis, 10 July 2011, During the tenure of both Rao and Kesri, the two leaders conducted internal elections to the Congress working committees and their own posts as party presidents.BOOK, Subrata Kumar Mitra, Mike Enskat, Clemens Spiess, Political Parties in South Asia,weblink 2004, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-275-96832-8, 42–43,

Sonia/Rahul era (1998–present)

File:Manmohan_Singh_in_2009.jpg|alt=|thumb|242x242px|Manmohan Singh served as the 13th Prime Minister of IndiaPrime Minister of IndiaThe 1998 general election saw Congress win 141 seats in the Lok Sabha, its lowest tally until then.WEB,weblink India Parliamentary Chamber: Lok Sabha, Inter-Parliamentary Union, 4 March 2018, To boost its popularity and improve its performance in the forthcoming election, Congress leaders urged Sonia Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi's widow, to assume leadership of the party. She had previously declined offers to become actively involved in party affairs, and had stayed away from politics. After her election as party leader, a section of the party that objected to the choice because of her Italian ethnicity broke away and formed the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), led by Sharad Pawar. The breakaway faction commanded strong support in the state of Maharashtra and limited support elsewhere. The remainder continued to be known as the Indian National Congress.WEB,weblink Nationalist Congress Party, Britannica, 4 March 2018, Sonia Gandhi struggled to revive the party in her early years as its president; she was under continuous scrutiny for her foreign birth and lack of political acumen. In the snap elections called by the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government in 1999, Congress' tally further plummeted to just 114 seats. Although the leadership structure was unaltered as the party campaigned strongly in the assembly elections that followed, Gandhi began to make such strategic changes as abandoning the party's 1998 Pachmarhi resolution of ekla chalo, or "go it alone" policy, and formed alliances with other like-minded parties. In the intervening years, the party was successful at various legislative assembly elections; at one point, Congress ruled 15 states.WEB,weblink Sonia Gandhi's 19 years as Congress president: From husband death to son Rahul's elevation, Naqshbandi, Aurangzeb, Hindustan Times, 16 December 2017, 4 March 2018, For the 2004 general election, Congress forged alliances with regional parties including the NCP and the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam.WEB,weblink The mathematics of politics, Rediff.com, 4 March 2018, 16 May 2004, The party's campaign emphasised social inclusion and the welfare of the common masses{{emdash}}an ideology that Gandhi herself endorsed for Congress during her presidency{{emdash}}with slogans such as Congress ka haath, aam aadmi ke saath ("Congress hand in hand with the common man"), contrasting with the NDA's "India Shining" campaign.WEB,weblink Sonia Gandhi's Legacy: She Reinvented Herself to Fight Off Challenges but also Had Her Share of Failures, Negi, Saroj, India Today, 2 March 2018, 16 December 2017, NEWS,weblink Sonia Gandhi retires as Congress president, to remain active in politics, The Indian Express, 15 December 2017, 15 December 2017, NEWS,weblink As Sonia Gandhi makes way, Chowdhary, Neerja, The Indian Express, 16 December 2017, 19 December 2017, NEWS,weblink Sonia Gandhi's 19 years as Congress president: From husband Rajiv's death to son Rahul's elevation, Naqshbandi, Aurangzeb, Hindustan Times, 16 December 2017, 20 December 2017, NEWS,weblink Sonia Gandhi keeps Congress hopes alive in India polls, Chandra, Rina, Reuters, 14 April 2009, 19 December 2017, The Congress-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA) won 222 seats in the new parliament, defeating the NDA by a substantial margin. With the subsequent support of the communist front, Congress won a majority and formed a new government. Despite massive support from within the party, Gandhi declined the post of prime minister, choosing to appoint Manmohan Singh instead. She remained as party president and headed the National Advisory Council (NAC).NEWS, Hands-on influence for Sonia Gandhi as NAC head,weblink 17 August 2016, Mathew, Liz, Mint (newspaper), Livemint, 30 March 2010, During its first term in office, the UPA government passed several social reform bills. These included an employment guarantee bill, the Right to Information Act, and a right to education act. The NAC, as well as the Left Front that supported the government from the outside, were widely seen as being the driving force behind such legislation. The Left Front withdrew its support of the government over disagreements about the U.S.–India Civil Nuclear Agreement. Despite the effective loss of 62 seats in parliament, the government survived the trust vote that followed.WEB, Manmohan survives trust vote,weblink India Today, 6 January 2014, In the Lok Sabha elections held soon after, Congress won 207 seats, the highest tally of any party since 1991. The UPA as a whole won 262, enabling it to form a government for the second time. The social welfare policies of the first UPA government, and the perceived divisiveness of the BJP, are broadly credited with the victory.WEB, Bidwai, Praful, Reading the Verdict,weblink Frontline, 6 January 2014, By the 2014 Lok Sabha elections, the party had lost much of its popular support, mainly because of several years of poor economic conditions in the country, and growing discontent over a series of corruption allegations involving government officials, including the 2G spectrum case and the Indian coal allocation scam.NEWS, 2G spectrum scam,weblink 22 June 2014, India Today, 19 October 2012, NEWS, Coal Block Allocations Scam,weblink 22 June 2014, Daily News and Analysis, 30 April 2013, Congress won only 44 seats,NEWS, List of Congress winners,weblink 22 June 2014, CNN-IBN, 17 May 2014, which was its worst-ever performance in a national election with its vote share dipping below 20% for the first time.NEWS, Congress Vote Share Dips Below 20 Per Cent for First Time,weblink 22 June 2014, NDTV India, 17 May 2014, Gandhi retired as party president in December 2017, having served for a record nineteen years. She was succeeded by her son Rahul Gandhi, who was elected unopposed in the 2017 Indian National Congress presidential election.Rahul Gandhi resigned from his post after the 2019 Indian general election, due to the party's dismal performance. The INC had managed to win only 52 seats, hence failing to provide an official Leader of the Opposition for a second consecutive term. The post of Party President is currently vacant.WEB,weblink Rahul Gandhi has resigned. For real. What next?, DelhiJuly 3, India Today Web Desk New, July 3, 2019UPDATED:, India Today, en, 2019-07-14, Ist, 2019 21:18,

Election symbols

(File:Cow and Calf INC.svg|thumb|right|Election symbol of Indira's Congress (R) party during the period 1971–1977){{as of|2014}}, the election symbol of Congress, as approved by the Election Commission of India, is an image of a right hand with its palm facing front and its fingers pressed together;NEWS, A Short History of the Congress Hand,weblink 27 June 2014, The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, News Corp (2013–present), News Corp, 28 March 2012, this is usually shown in the centre of a tricolor flag. The hand symbol was first used by Indira Gandhi when she split from the Congress (R) faction following the 1977 elections and created the New Congress (I).NEWS, How Indira's Congress got its hand symbol,weblink 27 June 2014, NDTV, 22 December 2010, The symbol of the original Congress during elections held between 1952 and 1971 was an image of two bullocks with a plough.NEWS, Indian political party election symbols from 1951,weblink 27 June 2014, CNN-IBN, 4 April 2014, The symbol of Indira's Congress (R) during the 1971–1977 period was a cow with a suckling calf.BOOK, Sanghvi, Vijay, The Congress, Indira to Sonia Gandh, 2006, Kalpaz Publications, New Delhi, 978-81-7835-340-1, 77,weblink

In general elections{| class"wikitable" cellpadding"5"|+

! style="width:25%;"| Year! style="width:15%;"| Legislature! Party leader! style="width:15%;"| Seats won! style="width:15%;"| Change in seats! style="width:15%;"| Percentage of votes! style="width:15%;"| Vote swing! Outcome
1934 5th Central Legislative Assembly|Bhulabhai Desai{{Composition bar147|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{increase}} 42 – –| {{n/a}}
1945 6th Central Legislative Assembly|Sarat Chandra Bose{{Composition bar102|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{increase}} 17 – –Interim Government of India (1946–1947)}}
1951 1st Lok SabhaJawaharlal Nehru{{Composition bar489|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{increase}} 364 44.99% –Government}}
1957 2nd Lok Sabha{{Composition bar494|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{increase}} 7 47.78% {{increase}} 2.79%Government}}
1962 3rd Lok Sabha{{Composition bar494|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{decrease}} 10 44.72% {{decrease}} 3.06%Government}}
1967 4th Lok SabhaIndira Gandhi{{Composition bar520|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{decrease}} 78 40.78% {{decrease}} 2.94%Government}}
1971 5th Lok Sabha{{Composition bar518|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{increase}} 69 43.68% {{increase}} 2.90%Government}}
1977 6th Lok Sabha{{Composition bar542|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{decrease}} 199 34.52% {{decrease}} 9.16%Opposition}}
1980 7th Lok Sabha{{Composition bar542|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{increase}} 198 42.69% {{increase}} 8.17%Government}}
1984 8th Lok SabhaRajiv Gandhi{{Composition bar533|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{increase}} 64 49.01% {{increase}} 6.32%Government}}
1989 9th Lok Sabha{{Composition bar545|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{decrease}} 218 39.53% {{decrease}} 9.48%Opposition}}
1991 10th Lok SabhaP. V. Narasimha Rao{{Composition bar545|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{increase}} 47 35.66% {{decrease}} 3.87%Government}}
1996 11th Lok Sabha{{Composition bar545|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{decrease}} 104 28.80% {{decrease}} 7.46%Opposition, later Confidence and supply for United Front (India)>UF}}
1998 12th Lok Sabha|Sitaram Kesri{{Composition bar545|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{increase}} 1 25.82% {{decrease}} 2.98%Opposition}}
1999 13th Lok SabhaSonia Gandhi{{Composition bar545|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{decrease}} 27 28.30% {{increase}} 2.48%Opposition}}
2004 14th Lok Sabha{{Composition bar543|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{increase}} 31 26.7% {{decrease}} 1.6%Government}}
2009 15th Lok Sabha{{Composition bar543|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{increase}} 61 28.55% {{increase}} 2.02%Government}}
2014 16th Lok SabhaRahul Gandhi{{Composition bar543|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{decrease}} 162 19.3% {{decrease}} 9.25%Opposition}}
2019 17th Lok Sabha {{Composition bar542|{{Indian National Congress/meta/color}}}} {{increase}} 8 19.5% {{increase}} 0.2%Opposition}}
File:Sonia Gandhi (cropped).jpg|thumb|upright|alt=|Sonia GandhiSonia Gandhi

Current structure and composition

Congress was structured in a hierarchical manner by Mahatma Gandhi when he took charge as the president of the party in 1921.MAGAZINE,weblink Two Lessons From India's Greatest Leader – Gandhi, Forbes.com, 16 August 2018, The party was a "broad church" during the independence movement; however, Jawarlal Nehru's descendants have turned the party into a "family firm" with hereditary succession.BOOK, Sumantra Bose, Transforming India, {{Google books, reiwAAAAQBAJ, PP8, yes, |date=16 September 2013|publisher=Harvard University Press|isbn=978-0-674-72819-6|pages=28–29}}JOURNAL, Meghnad Desai, Gandhi & Gandhi, India International Centre Quarterly, 2007, 34, 2, 59, 23006304, BOOK, Sunita Aron, The Dynasty: Born to Rule,weblink 1 April 2016, Hay House, Inc, 978-93-85827-10-5, At present, the president and the All India Congress Committee (AICC) are elected by delegates from state and district parties at an annual national conference; in every Indian state and union territory—or pradesh—there is a Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC), which is the state-level unit of the party responsible for directing political campaigns at local and state levels, and assisting the campaigns for parliamentary constituencies.WEB, The Past And Future of the Indian National Congress,weblink The Caravan, 6 June 2018, March 2010, Ramachandra Guha, Each PCC has a working committee of twenty members, most of whom are appointed by the party president, the leader of the state party, who is chosen by the national president. Those elected as members of the states' legislative assemblies form the Congress Legislature Parties in the various state assemblies; their chairperson is usually the party's nominee for Chief Ministership. The party is also organised into various committees, and sections; it publishes a daily newspaper, the National Herald.BOOK, Kedar Nath Kumar, Political Parties in India, Their Ideology and Organisation, {{Google books, x3pJ8t4rxIsC, PA41, yes, |date=1 January 1990|publisher=Mittal Publications|isbn=978-81-7099-205-9|pages=41–43}} Despite being a party with a structure, Congress under Indira Gandhi did not hold any organizational elections after 1972.BOOK, Sanghvi, Vijay, The Congress Indira to Sonia Gandhi, 2006, Kalpaz Publications, Delhi, 978-8178353401, 128,weblink 4 November 2016, The AICC is composed of delegates sent from the PCCs. The delegates elect Congress committees, including the Congress Working Committee, consisting of senior party leaders and office bearers. The AICC takes all important executive and political decisions. Since Indira Gandhi formed Congress (I) in 1978, the President of the Indian National Congress has effectively been the party's national leader, head of the organisation, head of the Working Committee and all chief Congress committees, chief spokesman, and Congress' choice for Prime Minister of India. Constitutionally, the president is elected by the PCCs and members of the AICC; however, this procedure has often been bypassed by the Working Committee, which has elected its own candidate.The Congress Parliamentary Party (CPP) consists of elected MPs in the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. There is also a Congress Legislative Party (CLP) leader in each state. The CLP consists of all Congress Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) in each state. In cases of states where the Congress is single-handedly ruling the government, the CLP leader is the Chief Minister. Other directly affiliated groups include: the National Students Union of India (NSUI), the Indian Youth Congress – the party's youth wing, the Indian National Trade Union Congress, Mahila Congress, its women's division, and Congress Seva Dal—its voluntary organisation.WEB,weblink All India 2014 Results, Political Baba, WEB,weblink Lok Sabha Election 2014 Analysis, Infographics, Election 2014 Map, Election 2014 Charts, Firstpost, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924142920weblink">weblink 24 September 2015,

Dynasticism

Dynasticism is fairly common in many political parties in India, including the Congress party.BOOK, Simon Denyer, Rogue Elephant: Harnessing the Power of India's Unruly Democracy,weblink 24 June 2014, Bloomsbury USA, 978-1-62040-608-3, 115–116, Six members of the Nehru–Gandhi family have been presidents of the party. The party started being controlled by Indira Gandhi's family during the emergency. This was characterized by servility and sycophancy towards the family which later led to hereditary succession of Rajiv Gandhi as successor after Indira Gandhi's assassination, as well as the party's selection of Sonia Gandhi as Rajiv's successor after his assassination, which she turned down. Since the formation of Congress(I) by Indira Gandhi in 1978, the party president has been from her family except for the period between 1991 and 1998. In the last three elections to the Lok Sabha combined, 37% of Congress party MPs had family members precede them in politics.BOOK, Kanchan Chandra, Kanchan Chandra, Adam Ziegfeld, Democratic Dynasties: State, Party and Family in Contemporary Indian Politics, {{Google books, tesIDAAAQBAJ, PR10, yes, |date=28 April 2016|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-1-107-12344-1|page=105}}

State and territorial units

{{div col|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}

Ideology and policies

{{Social democracy sidebar}}Congress is a civic nationalist party that follows a form of nationalism that supports the values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights.BOOK, N. S. Gehlot, The Congress Party in India: Policies, Culture, Performance, {{Google books, 06HLD2_3Qj4C, PA177, yes, |year=1991|publisher=Deep & Deep Publications|isbn=978-81-7100-306-8|page=177}}Throughout much of the Cold War period, Congress supported a foreign policy of nonalignment that called for India to form ties with both the Western and Eastern Blocs, but to avoid formal alliances with either.WEB,weblink Non-Aligned Movement: Jawaharlal Nehru – The architect of India's foreign policy | India News – Times of India, Timesofindia.indiatimes.com, 20 May 2017, 16 August 2018, support for Pakistan led the party to endorse a friendship treaty with the Soviet Union in 1971.WEB,weblink The Indo-Pak war 1965 and the Tashkent agreement: Role of external powers, Blogs.timesofindia.indiatimes.com, 16 August 2018, In 2004, when the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance came to power, its chairperson Sonia Gandhi unexpectedly relinquished the premiership to Manmohan Singh. This Singh-led "UPA I" government executed several key pieces of legislation and projects, including the Rural Health Mission, Unique Identification Authority, the Rural Employment Guarantee scheme, and the Right to Information Act.NEWS,weblink The Manmohan Singh legacy: Key achievements and failures, The Indian Express, 16 August 2018, WEB,weblink Highlights of UPA Achievements in 10 Years - Indiatimes.com, M.indiatimes.com, 3 January 2014, 16 August 2018,

Economic policy

The history of economic policy of Congress-led governments can be divided into two periods. The first period lasted from independence, in 1947, to 1991 and put great emphasis on the public sector. The second period began with economic liberalization in 1991.At the beginning of the first period, the Congress prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru implemented policies based on import substitution industrialization and advocated a mixed economy where the government-controlled public sector would co-exist with the private sector.{{sfn|Ghose|1993|p=243}} He believed that the establishment of basic and heavy industry was fundamental to the development and modernisation of the Indian economy. The government, therefore, directed investment primarily into key public-sector industries—steel, iron, coal, and power—promoting their development with subsidies and protectionist policies.{{sfn| Kopstein|2005|p=364}} This period was called the Licence Raj, or Permit Raj,Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition, 1989: from Skr. rāj: to reign, rule; cognate with L. rēx, rēg-is, OIr. rī, rīg king (see RICH). which was the elaborate system of licences, regulations, and accompanying red tape that were required to set up and run businesses in India between 1947 and 1990.Street Hawking Promise Jobs in Future {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080329023451weblink |date=29 March 2008 }}, The Times of India, 25 November 2001 The Licence Raj was a result of Nehru and his successors' desire to have a planned economy where all aspects of the economy were controlled by the state, and licences were given to a select few. Up to 80 government agencies had to be satisfied before private companies could produce something; and, if the licence were granted, the government would regulate production.NEWS,weblink India: the economy, 1998, BBC, The licence raj system continued under Indira Gandhi.In addition, many key sectors such as banking, steel coal, and oil were nationalized.ACADEMIC FOUNDATION> PAGE = 126DE66PKZCFUSCKEYWORDS=PLAINURL=YES, last = Kapila last2= Kapila title = Understanding India's economic Reforms1991 economic crisis.WEB,weblink 25 October 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131025042847weblink">weblink India's Pathway through Financial Crisis, globaleconomicgovernance.org, Arunabha Ghosh, Global Economic Governance Programme, 2 March 2007, The reforms progressed furthest in opening up areas to foreign investment, reforming capital markets, deregulating domestic business, and reforming the trade regime. The goals of Rao's government were to reduce the fiscal deficit, privatize the public sector, and increase investment in infrastructure. Trade reforms and changes in the regulation of foreign direct investment were introduced in order to open India to foreign trade while stabilising external loans. Rao chose Manmohan Singh for the job. Singh, an acclaimed economist and former chairman of the Resrve Bank, played a central role in implementing these reforms.In 2004, Singh became prime minister of the Congress-led UPA government. Singh remained prime minister after the UPA won the 2009 general elections. The UPA government introduced policies aimed at reforming the banking and financial sectors, as well as public sector companies.NEWS, Banking on reform,weblink 14 June 2013, Indian Express, It also introduced policies aimed at relieving farmers of their debt.WEB, Farmer Waiver Scheme- PM statement,weblink PIB, 14 June 2013, In 2005, Singh's government introduced the value added tax, replacing the sales tax. India was able to resist the worst effects of the global Economic crisis of 2008.Mohan, R., 2008. Global financial crisis and key risks: impact on India and Asia. RBI Bulletin, pp.2003–2022.NEWS, Global inflation climbs to historic levels,weblink The New York Times, Kevin Plumberg, Steven C. Johnson, 17 June 2011, 2 November 2008, Singh's government continued the Golden Quadrilateral, the Indian highway modernisation program that was initiated by Vajpayee's government.WEB, Economic benefits of golden Quadilateral,weblink Business today, 14 June 2013, At present, Congress endorses a mixed economy in which the private sector and the state both direct the economy, which has characteristics of both market and planned economies. Congress advocates import substitution industrialisation—the replacement of foreign imports with domestic products. Congress believes the Indian economy should be liberalised to increase the pace of development.

Healthcare and education

In 2005, the Congress-led government started the National Rural Health Mission, which employed about 500,000 community health workers. It was praised by economist Jeffrey Sachs.NEWS, The End of Poverty,weblink Jeffrey D., Sachs, 6 March 2005, Time, In 2006, it implemented a proposal to reserve 27% of seats in the All India Institute of Medical Studies (AIIMS), the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), and other central higher education institutions, for Other Backward Classes, which led to the 2006 Indian anti-reservation protests.WEB,weblink Students cry out: No reservation please | India News – Times of India, Timesofindia.indiatimes.com, 3 May 2006, 16 August 2018, The Singh government also continued the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan programme, which includes the introduction and improvement of mid-day school meals and the opening of new schools throughout India, especially in rural areas, to fight illiteracy.NEWS, Direct SSA funds for school panels,weblink 14 June 2013, Deccan Herald, During Manmohan Singh's prime-ministership, eight Institutes of Technology were opened in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Orissa, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Himachal Pradesh.NEWS, LS passes bill to provide IIT for eight states.,weblink Deccan Herald, 14 June 2013,

Security and home affairs

Congress has strengthened anti-terrorism laws with amendments to the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA).WEB, The Unlawful Activities (Prevention),weblink www.nic.in, National Informatics Centre, 17 August 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161017053842weblink">weblink 17 October 2016, yes, The National Investigation Agency (NIA) was created by the UPA government soon after the November 2008 Mumbai terror attacks, in response to the need for a central agency to combat terrorism.WEB, TNN,weblink Finally, govt clears central terror agency, tougher laws, Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com, 16 December 2008, 28 September 2013, The Unique Identification Authority of India was established in February 2009 to implement the proposed Multipurpose National Identity Card, with the objective of increasing national security.BOOK, K, Watfa, Mohamed, E-Healthcare Systems and Wireless Communications: Current and Future Challenges: Current and Future Challenges, 2011, IGI Global, 9781613501245, 190,weblink 6 June 2018, en,

Foreign policy

File:President Barack Obama with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh 2009-11-24(2).jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|Manmohan Singh with President Barack Obama at the White HouseWhite HouseCongress has continued the foreign policy started by P. V. Narasimha Rao. This includes the peace process with Pakistan, and the exchange of high-level visits by leaders from both countries.NEWS, Position of negotiation.,weblink 18 August 2014, Firstpost, Network 18, Firstpost staff, 9 January 2013, The party has tried to end the border dispute with the People's Republic of China through negotiations.NEWS, India's prime minister, Manmohan Singh, in Beijing to discuss matters of trade and border defence.,weblinkwork=The EconomistThe Economist Group>publisher=John MicklethwaitACCESSDATE=18 AUGUST 2014AGENCY=DEZAN SHIRA & ASSOCIATESDATE=14 JANUARY 2008, Afghanistan–India relations have also been a concern for Congress.HTTP://WWW.CFR.ORG/PUBLICATION/17474/INDIAAFGHANISTAN_RELATIONS.HTMLACCESSDATE=11 DECEMBER 2008FIRST=JAYSHREEPUBLISHER=COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONSARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20081129231738/HTTP://WWW.CFR.ORG/PUBLICATION/17474/INDIAAFGHANISTAN_RELATIONS.HTMLHamid Karzai's visit to New Delhi in August 2008, Manmohan Singh increased the aid package to Afghanistan for the development of schools, health clinics, infrastructure, and defence.HTTP://NEWS.BBC.CO.UK/2/HI/7540204.STMWORK=BBC.CO.UK, India is now one of the single largest aid donors to Afghanistan.When in power between 2004 and 2014, Congress worked on India's relationship with the United States. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visited the US in July 2005 to negotiate an India–United States Civil Nuclear Agreement. US president George W. Bush visited India in March 2006; during this visit, a nuclear agreement that would give India access to nuclear fuel and technology in exchange for the IAEA inspection of its civil nuclear reactors was proposed. Over two years of negotiations, followed by approval from the IAEA, the Nuclear Suppliers Group and the United States Congress, the agreement was signed on 10 October 2008.WEB,weblink U.S., India ink historic civilian nuclear deal, 11 December 2008, 11 October 2008, People's Daily, Congress' policy has been to cultivate friendly relations with Japan as well as European Union countries including the United Kingdom, France, and Germany.WEB, Haass, Richard N., A Conversation with Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh,weblink 23 November 2009, cfr.org, Council on Foreign Relations, 18 August 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140819083228weblink">weblink 19 August 2014, Diplomatic relations with Iran have continued, and negotiations over the Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline have taken place.WEB, The 'peace pipeline',weblink www.thenational.ae, The National (Abu Dhabi), The National, 18 August 2014, In April 2006, New Delhi hosted an India–Africa summit attended by the leaders of 15 African states.WEB,weblink Several African leaders to attend Africa-India summit, AU says, 11 December 2008, 28 March 2008, African Press International, Congress' policy has also been to improve relations with other developing countries, particularly Brazil and South Africa.WEB, India-South Africa relations,weblink mea.gov.in, Ministry of External Affairs (India), Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, 18 September 2014,

Presence in state governments

File:State- and union territory-level parties.svg|thumb|250x250px|Current ruling parties in India{{legend|#ffa900|BJP (13)}}{{legend|#ffc969|Coalition with BJP (6)}}{{legend|#7babff|INC (5)}}{{legend|#dd5858|Other parties (AAP, AITC, BJD, CPI(M), TRS and YSRCP) (6)}}{{legend|#808080|President's rulePresident's rule{{as of|2018|December|}}, Congress (INC) is in power in the states of Punjab, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh where the party has majority support. In Puducherry, they share power with alliance partner Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. The party during the post-independence era has governed most of the States and union territories of India.

List of current INC and UPA governments

{{See also|List of chief ministers from the Indian National Congress}}{| class="wikitable sortable" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" style="border:1px solid black;" ! scope="col" style="width:200px;"|State/UT! scope="col" style="width:200px;"|Chief Minister! scope="col" style="width:200px;"|Party/alliance partner! scope="col" style="width:150px;"|CM since! scope="col" style="width:90px;"|Seats in Assembly! scope="col" style="width:90px;"|Last election Puducherry V. Narayanasamy (INC) INC (15), DMK (2) 6 June 2016 17/33 16 May 2016 Punjab Amarinder Singh (INC) INC (78) 16 March 2017 78/117 4 February 2017 Chhattisgarh Bhupesh Baghel (INC) INC (68) 17 December 2018 68/91 11 December 2018 Rajasthan Ashok Gehlot (INC) INC (99), Bahujan Samaj Party (6), Communist Party of India (Marxist)>CPI(M) (2), Bharatiya Tribal Party (2), Rashtriya Lok Dal>RLD (1), Independent (9) 17 December 2018 119/200 11 December 2018 Madhya Pradesh Kamal Nath (INC) INC (118), Bahujan Samaj Party (2), Samajwadi Party>SP (1) 17 December 2018 121/231 11 December 2018 style"background:#ccc; text-align:center;"">

List of Prime Ministers{| class"sortable wikitable" style"background:#ccc; text-align:center;"

! No. !! Prime Ministers !! Year !! Duration !! Constituency style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Jawaharlal Nehru >1947155Phulpur (Lok Sabha constituency)>Phulpur style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Lal Bahadur Shastri>196491Allahabad (Lok Sabha constituency)>Allahabad style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Gulzarilal Nanda(Acting Prime Minister)>Sabarkantha (Lok Sabha constituency)>Sabarkantha style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Indira Gandhi >| 24 January 1966 – 24 March 197714 January 1980 – 31 October 19841966243|24}};{{ayd|1980|1|14|1984|10|31}}Uttar Pradesh (Rajya Sabha), Rae Bareli (Lok Sabha constituency)>Rae Bareli, Medak style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Rajiv Gandhi >19843112Amethi (Lok Sabha constituency)>Amethi style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"P. V. Narasimha Rao >1991215Nandyal (Lok Sabha constituency)>Nandyal style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Manmohan Singh >2004225|Assam (Rajya Sabha)

List of Prime Ministers (former Congress members)

A majority of non-Congress prime ministers of India had been members of the Congress party earlier in their careers. {| class="sortable wikitable" style="background:#ccc; text-align:center;"! No. !! Prime Ministers !! Tenure !! Duration !! Constituency style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Morarji Desai >1977247Surat (Lok Sabha constituency)>Surat style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Charan Singh >1979281Baghpat (Lok Sabha constituency)>Baghpat style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"V. P. Singh >1989211Fatehpur (Lok Sabha constituency)>Fatehpur style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Chandra Shekhar >Ballia (Lok Sabha constituency)>Ballia style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"H. D. Deve Gowda >199614|Karnataka (Rajya Sabha) style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"I. K. Gujral >1997213|Bihar (Rajya Sabha)

See also

{{div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}

References

Notes

{{Notelist|40em}}

Citations

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • The Indian National Congress: An Historical Sketch, by Frederick Marion De Mello. Published by H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1934.
  • The Indian National Congress, by Hemendra Nath Das Gupta. Published by J. K. Das Gupta, 1946.
  • Indian National Congress: A Descriptive Bibliography of India's Struggle for Freedom, by Jagdish Saran Sharma. Published by S. Chand, 1959.
  • Social Factors in the Birth and Growth of the Indian National Congress Movement, by Ramparkash Dua. Published by S. Chand, 1967.
  • Split in a Predominant Party: The Indian National Congress in 1969, by Mahendra Prasad Singh. Abhinav Publications, 1981. {{ISBN|81-7017-140-7}}.
  • Concise History of the Indian National Congress, 1885–1947, by B. N. Pande, Nisith Ranjan Ray, Ravinder Kumar, Manmath Nath Das. Published by Vikas Pub. House, 1985. {{ISBN|0-7069-3020-7}}.
  • The Indian National Congress: An Analytical Biography, by Om P. Gautam. Published by B.R. Pub. Corp., 1985.
  • A Century of Indian National Congress, 1885–1985, by Pran Nath Chopra, Ram Gopal, Moti Lal Bhargava. Published by Agam Prakashan, 1986.
  • The Congress Ideology and Programme, 1920–1985, by Pitambar Datt Kaushik. Published by Gitanjali Pub. House, 1986. {{ISBN|81-85060-16-9}}.
  • Struggling and Ruling: The Indian National Congress, 1885–1985, by Jim Masselos. Published by Sterling Publishers, 1987.
  • The Encyclopedia of Indian National Congress, by A. Moin Zaidi, Shaheda Gufran Zaidi, Indian Institute of Applied Political Research. Published by S.Chand, 1987.
  • Indian National Congress: A Reconstruction, by Iqbal Singh, Nehru Memorial Museum and Library. Published by Riverdale Company, 1988. {{ISBN|0-913215-32-5}}.
  • INC, the Glorious Tradition, by A. Moin Zaidi, Indian National Congress. AICC. Published by Indian Institute of Applied Political Research, 1989.
  • Indian National Congress: A Select Bibliography, by Manikrao Hodlya Gavit, Attar Chand. Published by U.D.H. Pub. House, 1989. {{ISBN|81-85044-05-8}}.
  • The Story of Congress PilgrFile: 1885–1985, by A. Moin Zaidi, Indian National Congress. Published by Indian Institute of Applied Political Research, 1990. {{ISBN|81-85355-46-0}}. (7 vols)
  • Indian National Congress in England, by Harish P. Kaushik. Published by Friends Publications, 1991.
  • Women in Indian National Congress, 1921–1931, by Rajan Mahan. Published by Rawat Publications, 1999.
  • History of Indian National Congress, 1885–2002, by Deep Chand Bandhu. Published by Kalpaz Publications, 2003. {{ISBN|81-7835-090-4}}.
  • Bipan Chandra, Amales Tripathi, Barun De. Freedom Struggle. India: National Book Struggle. {{ISBN|978-81-237-0249-0}}.

External links

{{Commons and category|Indian National Congress}}
  • {{official website}}
{{United Progressive Alliance |state=collapsed}}{{Indian National Congress}}{{Indian political parties}}{{India topics}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Indian National Congress" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 12:09pm EDT - Thu, Aug 22 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 JUL 2019
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
CONNECT