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IEEE 802.11ac

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IEEE 802.11ac
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
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IEEE 802.11ac is a wireless networking standard in the 802.11 set of protocols (which is part of the Wi-Fi networking family), providing high-throughput wireless local area networks (WLANs) on the 5 GHz band. The standard was developed in the IEEE Standards Association from 2008 (PAR approved 2008-09-26) through 2013 and published in December 2013 (ANSI approved 2013-12-11).WEB,weblink Official IEEE 802.11 Working Group Project Timelines, 2012-11-03, WEB,weblink New IEEE 802.11acâ„¢ Specification Driven by Evolving Market Need for Higher, Multi-User Throughput in Wireless LANs, Kelly, Vivian, IEEE, 2014-01-07, 2014-01-11, The standard has been retroactively labelled as Wi-Fi 5 by Wi-Fi Alliance.Wi-Fi Alliance® introduces Wi-Fi 6Here come Wi-Fi 4, 5 and 6 in plan to simplify 802.11 networking namesThe specification has multi-station throughput of at least 1 gigabit per second and single-link throughput of at least 500 megabits per second (500 Mbit/s). This is accomplished by extending the air-interface concepts embraced by 802.11n: wider RF bandwidth (up to 160 MHz), more MIMO spatial streams (up to eight), downlink multi-user MIMO (up to four clients), and high-density modulation (up to 256-QAM).WEB
,weblink Cheat sheet: What you need to know about 802.11ac, Kassner, Michael, 2013-06-18, TechRepublic, 2013-06-20, WEB,weblink 802.11ac: A Survival Guide, Chimera.labs.oreilly.com, 2014-04-17,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170703105148weblink">weblink 2017-07-03, yes,
Wi-Fi Alliance separated the introduction of ac wireless products into two phases ("wave"), named "Wave 1" and "Wave 2".802.11AC WAVE 2 A XIRRUS WHITE PAPER802.11ac Wi-Fi Part 2: Wave 1 and Wave 2 Products From mid-2013, the alliance started certifying Wave 1 802.11 ac products ships by manufacturers, based on the IEEE 802.11ac Draft 3.0 (the IEEE standard was not finalized until later that year).802.11ac: The Fifth Generation of Wi-Fi Technical White Paper, March 2014, Cisco Subsequently in year 2016, Wi-Fi Alliance introduced the Wave 2 certification, which include additional features like MU-MIMO, 160MHz channel width support, support for more 5GHz channels, and four spatial streams (with four antennas; compares to three in Wave 1 and 802.11n, and eight in IEEE's 802.11ac specification).Wi-Fi Alliance launches 802.11ac Wave 2 certification It means Wave 2 products would have higher bandwidth and capacity than Wave 1 products.WEB,weblink 6 things you need to know about 802.11ac Wave 2, techrepublic.com, 2016-07-13, 2018-07-26,

New technologies

New technologies introduced with 802.11ac include the following:WEB
,weblink IEEE 802.11ac: from channelization to multi-user MIMO, 2013-10-08, IEEExplore, 2018-06-19,
  • Extended channel binding
    • Optional 160 MHz and mandatory 80 MHz channel bandwidth for stations; cf. 40 MHz maximum in 802.11n.
  • More MIMO spatial streams
    • Support for up to eight spatial streams (vs. four in 802.11n)
  • Downlink multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO, allows up to four simultaneous downlink MU-MIMO clients)
    • Multiple STAs, each with one or more antennas, transmit or receive independent data streams simultaneously.
    • Downlink MU-MIMO (one transmitting device, multiple receiving devices) included as an optional mode.
  • Modulation
    • 256-QAM, rate 3/4 and 5/6, added as optional modes (vs. 64-QAM, rate 5/6 maximum in 802.11n).
    • Some vendors offer a non-standard 1024-QAM mode, providing 25% higher data rate compared to 256-QAM
  • Other elements/features
    • Beamforming with standardized sounding and feedback for compatibility between vendors (non-standard in 802.11n made it hard for beamforming to work effectively between different vendor products)
    • MAC modifications (mostly to support above changes)
    • Coexistence mechanisms for 20, 40, 80, and 160 MHz channels, 11ac and 11a/n devices
    • Adds four new fields to the PPDU header identifying the frame as a very high throughput (VHT) frame as opposed to 802.11n's high throughput (HT) or earlier. The first three fields in the header are readable by legacy devices to allow coexistence

Features

Mandatory

Optional

  • Borrowed from the 802.11n specification:
  • Newly introduced by the 802.11ac specification:
    • five to eight spatial streams
    • 160 MHz channel bandwidths (contiguous 80+80)
    • 80+80 MHz channel bonding (discontiguous 80+80)
    • MCS 8/9 (256-QAM)

New scenarios and configurations

The single-link and multi-station enhancements supported by 802.11ac enable several new WLAN usage scenarios, such as simultaneous streaming of HD video to multiple clients throughout the home, rapid synchronization and backup of large data files, wireless display, large campus/auditorium deployments, and manufacturing floor automation.WEB
,weblink
, 802.11ac Usage Models Document, 2008-11-10
, Rolf, de Vegt
, With the inclusion of USB 3.0 interface, 802.11ac access points and routers can use locally attached storage to provide various services that fully utilize their WLAN capacities, such as video streaming, FTP servers, and personal cloud services.WEB,weblink ASUS RT-AC56U & USB-AC56 802.11AC Review, Hardwarecanucks.com, 2014-04-24, With storage locally attached through USB 2.0, filling the bandwidth made available by 802.11ac was not easily accomplished.

Example configurations

All rates assume 256-QAM, rate 5/6:{| class="wikitable"! Scenario !! Typical clientform factor !! PHY link rate !! Aggregatecapacity(speed)
Wireless access point>AP, one-antenna Station (computer networking), 80 MHz >| 433 Mbit/s
| 867 Mbit/s
| 867 Mbit/s
| 1.27 Gbit/s
| 1.69 Gbit/s
Multi-user MIMO>MU-MIMO) Handheld 867 Mbit/s to each STA 3.39 Gbit/s
| Eight-antenna AP, 160 MHz (MU-MIMO)
  • one four-antenna STA
  • one two-antenna STA
  • two one-antenna STAs
|
  • 3.39 Gbit/s to four-antenna STA
  • 1.69 Gbit/s to two-antenna STA
  • 867 Mbit/s to each one-antenna STA| 6.77 Gbit/s
  • | 6.77 Gbit/s

    Wave 1 vs. Wave 2

    Wave 2, referring to products introduced in 2016, offers a higher throughput than legacy Wave 1 products, those introduced starting in 2013. The maximum PHY (physical) theoretical rate for Wave 1 is 1.3 Gbit/s, while Wave 2 can reach 2.34 Gbit/s. Wave 2 can therefore achieve 1 Gbit/s even if the real world throughput turns out to be only 50% of the theoretical rate. Wave 2 also supports a higher number of connected devices.

    Data rates and speed

    {|class="wikitable"|+Modulation and coding schemes
    !rowspan="3" | MCSindex{{Efn|MCS 9 is not applicable to all channel width/spatial stream combinations.}}!rowspan="3" | SpatialStreams!rowspan="3" | Modulationtype!rowspan="3" | Codingrate!colspan="8" | Data rate (in Mbit/s)WEB,weblink IEEE Std 802.11ac™-2013 - 22.5 Parameters for VHT-MCSs, IEEE, 2015-04-13, 323–339, 2013-12-11, {{Efn|A second stream doubles the theoretical data rate, a third one triples it, etc.}}
    ! colspan="2" | 20 MHz channels! colspan="2" | 40 MHz channels! colspan="2" | 80 MHz channels
    !colspan="2" | 160 MHz channels
    ! 800 ns {{abbr|GI|Guard interval}} !! 400 ns GI! 800 ns GI !! 400 ns GI! 800 ns GI !! 400 ns GI! 800 ns GI !! 400 ns GI
    |65
    |130
    |195
    |260
    |390
    |520
    |585
    |650
    |780
    |866.7
    |130
    |260
    |390
    |520
    |780
    |1040
    |1170
    |1300
    |1560
    |1733.4
    |195
    |390
    |585
    |780
    |1170
    |1560
    |1755
    |1950
    |2340
    |1300 |2340|2600
    |0|4|BPSK|1/2|26|28.8|54|60|117.2|130|234|260
    |1|4|QPSK|1/2|52|57.6|108|120|234|260|468|520
    |2|4|QPSK|3/4|78|86.8|162|180|351.2|390|702|780
    |3|4|16-QAM|1/2|104|115.6|216|240|468|520|936|1040
    |4|4|16-QAM|3/4|156|173.2|324|360|702|780|1404|1560
    |5|4|64-QAM|2/3|208|231.2|432|480|936|1040|1872|2080
    |6|4|64-QAM|3/4|234|260|486|540|1053.2|1170|2106|2340
    |7|4|64-QAM|5/6|260|288.8|540|600|1170|1300|2340|2600
    |8|4|256-QAM|3/4|312|346.8|648|720|1404|1560|2808|3120
    |9|4|256-QAM
    |{{n/a}} |720|800|1560|1733.2|3120|3466.8
    Several companies are currently offering 802.11ac chipsets with higher modulation rates: MCS-10 and MCS-11 (1024-QAM), supported by Quantenna and Broadcom. Although technically not part of 802.11ac, these new MCS indices are expected to become official in the 802.11ax standard (~2019), the successor to 802.11ac.160 MHz channels, and thus the throughput might be unusable in some countries/regions due to regulatory issues that allocated some frequencies for other purposes.

    Advertised Speeds

    802.11ac-class device wireless speeds are often advertised as AC followed by a number, that number being the highest link rates in Mbit/s of all the simultaneously-usable radios in the device added up. For example, an AC1900 access point might have 600 Mbps capability on its 2.4 GHz radio and 1300 Mbps capability on its 5 GHz radio. No single client device could connect and and achieve 1900 Mbps of throughput, but separate devices each connecting to the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz radios could achieve combined throughput approaching 1900 Mbps. Different possible stream configurations can add up to the same AC number.{| class="wikitable"! Type !! 2.4 GHz band{{Efn|802.11ac only specifies operation in the 5 GHz band. Operation in the 2.4 GHz band is specified by 802.11n.}}Mbit/s!! 2.4 GHz band config[all 40 MHz] !! 5 GHz bandMbit/s !! 5 GHz band config[all 80 MHz]
    WEBSITE=SMALLNETBUILDER.COM ACCESSDATE=2018-01-02, - - 433 1 stream @ MCS 9
    | 1 stream @ MCS 9
    | 1 stream @ MCS 9
    |AC1000|300|2 streams @ MCS 7|650|2 streams @ MCS 7
    | 2 streams @ MCS 9
    | 2 streams @ MCS 9
    WEBSITE=SMALLNETBUILDER.COM ACCESSDATE=2016-08-08, - - 1,300 3 streams @ MCS 9
    WEBSITE=TP-LINK.COMACCESSDATE=2017-03-19, 450 3 streams @ MCS 7 867 2 streams @ MCS 9
    | 3 streams @ MCS 7
    | 3 streams @ MCS 9
    | 2 streams @ MCS 9
    | 3 streams @ MCS 9
    name="24GHz256QAM"2014LAST=GANESH DATE=2014-09-02 PUBLISHER=ANANDTECH.COM, AC1900: INNOVATION OR 3D WI-FI? >URL=HTTP://WWW.SMALLNETBUILDER.COM/WIRELESS/WIRELESS-FEATURES/32238-AC1900-INNOVATION-OR-3D-WI-FI FIRST=TIM ACCESSDATE=2014-09-08 | 3 streams @ MCS 9
    | 3 streams @ MCS 9
    | 4 streams @ MCS 9
    | 5 streams @ MCS 7
    | 4 streams @ MCS 9
    name="24GHz256QAM"}} 4 streams @ 256-QAM 1,733 4 streams @ MCS 9
    | 3 streams @ MCS 9 x 2
    name="24GHz1024QAM"}} 4 streams @ 1024-QAM 2,167 4 streams @ 1024-QAM
    name="24GHz256QAM"}} 3 streams @ 256-QAM 1,300 + 1,300{{Efn{{As ofDecember}}, commercially available AC3200 devices use two separate radios with 1,300 Mbit/s each to achieve 2,600 Mbit/s total in the 5 GHz band.}} 3 streams @ MCS 9 x 2
    | 4 streams @ 1024-QAM x 2
    URL=HTTP://WWW.CNET.COM/PRODUCTS/NETGEAR-R8500-NIGHTHAWK-X8-AC5300-SMART-WIFI-ROUTER/#! WEBSITE=CNET.COM ACCESSDATE=2016-08-08, 1000{{EfnWith proprietary extension to 802.11n, using 40MHz channel in 2.4GHz, 400ns guard interval, 1024-QAM, and 4 spatial streams.}} 4 streams @ 1024-QAM 2,167 + 2,167 4 streams @ 1024-QAM x 2

    Products

    Commercial routers and access points

    Quantenna released the first 802.11ac chipset for retail Wi-Fi routers and consumer electronics on November 15, 2011.PRESS RELEASE, Quantenna Launches World's First 802.11ac Gigabit-Wireless Solution for Retail Wi-Fi Routers and Consumer Electronics, Quantenna, 2011-11-15,weblink Redpine Signals released the first low power 802.11ac technology for smartphone application processors on December 14, 2011.PRESS RELEASE, Redpine Signals Releases First Ultra Low Power 802.11ac Technology for Smartphone Application Processors, Redpine Signals, 2011-12-14,weblink 2013-03-15, On January 5, 2012, Broadcom announced its first 802.11ac Wi-Fi chips and partnersPRESS RELEASE, Broadcom Launches First Gigabit Speed 802.11ac Chips - Opens 2012 CES with 5th Generation (5G) Wi-Fi Breakthrough, Broadcom, 2012-01-05,weblink 2013-03-15, and on April 27, 2012, Netgear announced the first Broadcom-enabled router.WEB,weblink Netgear's R6300 router is first to use Broadcom 802.11ac chipset, will ship next month for $200, Engadget, 10 September 2014, On May 14, 2012, Buffalo Technology released the world’s first 802.11ac products to market, releasing a wireless router and client bridge adapter.PRESS RELEASE, Buffalo's 802.11ac Wireless Solutions Available Now, Buffalo Technology (via PRNewswire), Austin, Texas, May 14, 2012,weblink 2013-03-15, On December 6, 2012, Huawei announced commercial availability of the industry's first enterprise-level 802.11ac Access Point.NEWS, Huawei Announces Commercial Availability of Industry’s First Enterprise-level 802.11ac Access Point,weblink Huawei, 6 December 2012, Motorola Solutions is selling 802.11ac access points including the AP 8232.WEB,weblink Motorola Modular Access Points Performance Review, broadbandlanding.com, en, 2017-03-02, In April 2014, Hewlett-Packard started selling the HP 560 access point in the controller-based WLAN enterprise market segment.WEB, HP Launches the HP 560 802.11ac Access Point, HP, 2014-03-31,weblink

    Commercial laptops

    On June 7, 2012, it was reported that Asus had unveiled its ROG G75VX gaming notebook, which would be the first consumer-oriented notebook to be fully compliant with 802.11acNEWS,weblink Asus gaming notebook first to feature full 802.11ac, Electronista, 2012-06-07, 2013-03-15, (albeit in its "draft 2.0" version).In June 2013, Apple announced that the new MacBook Air features 802.11ac wireless networking capabilities,NEWS,weblink Apple unveils new MacBook Air lineup with all-day battery life, 802.11ac Wi-Fi, AppleInsider, 2013-06-11, 2013-06-11, WEB,weblink Apple - Macbook Air, Apple.com, 10 September 2014, later announcing in October 2013 that the MacBook Pro and Mac Pro also featured 802.11ac.WEB, MacBook Pro with Retina display - Technical Specifications,weblink Apple, 10 January 2014, WEB, Mac Pro - Technical Specifications,weblink Apple, 10 January 2014, {{As of|2013|12}}, Hewlett-Packard incorporates 802.11ac compliance in laptop computers.WEB,weblink HP ENVY TouchSmart 17-j043cl Notebook PC Product Specifications HP ENVY TouchSmart 17-j043cl Notebook PC | HP Support, H10025.www1.hp.com, 2014-04-17,

    Commercial handsets

    {| class="wikitable sortable mw-collapsible collapsible collapsed"! Vendor !! Model !! Release Date !! Chipset !! Notes
    HTC >HTC One (M7)>One (M7) March 22, 2013 BCM4335 HTTP://WWW.IFIXIT.COM/TEARDOWN/HTC+ONE+TEARDOWN/13494/2 >TITLE=HTC ONE TEARDOWN DATE= WEBSITE=HTC.COM ACCESSDATE=2016-08-08,
    Samsung >Samsung Galaxy S4>Galaxy S4 April 26, 2013 BCM4335 HTTP://WWW.CHIPWORKS.COM/BLOG/RECENTTEARDOWNS/2013/04/25/INSIDE-THE-SAMSUNG-GALAXY-S4/>ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130427084156/HTTP://WWW.CHIPWORKS.COM/BLOG/RECENTTEARDOWNS/2013/04/25/INSIDE-THE-SAMSUNG-GALAXY-S4/ARCHIVE-DATE=27 APRIL 2013DATE=27 APRIL 2013|
    Samsung Galaxy Note 3>Galaxy Note 3 September 25, 2013 BCM4339 HTTP://WWW.ANANDTECH.COM/SHOW/7376/SAMSUNG-GALAXY-NOTE-3-REVIEW/7 >TITLE=CELLULAR, WIFI, SPEAKER & NOISE REJECTION - SAMSUNG GALAXY NOTE 3 REVIEW DATE= | Subsequent Devices Include 802.11ac
    LG Electronics>LG LG Nexus 5 October 2013>URL=HTTP://WWW.GSMARENA.COM/LG_NEXUS_5-5705.PHP WEBSITE=GSMARENA.COM ACCESSDATE=2016-08-08, BCM4339 HTTPS://WWW.IFIXIT.COM/TEARDOWN/NEXUS+5+TEARDOWN/19016#S53729 >TITLE=NEXUS 5 TEARDOWN DATE= | BCM4339 is the updated version of the BCM4335
    Nokia >Nokia Lumia 1520>Lumia 1520 November 2013HTTP://WWW.MICROSOFT.COM/EN-US/MOBILE/PHONE/LUMIA1520/SPECIFICATIONS/ >TITLE=NOKIA LUMIA 1520 SPECIFICATIONS - MICROSOFT - USA DATE=2014-07-23 | First 802.11ac-enabled Windows Phone
    Nokia Lumia Icon>Lumia Icon February 20, 2014HTTP://WWW.MICROSOFT.COM/EN-US/MOBILE/PHONE/LUMIA-ICON/SPECIFICATIONS/ >TITLE=NOKIA LUMIA ICONDATE= | Lumia 930 is Europe version of the same phone, also with 802.11ac
    HTC >HTC One (M8)>One (M8) March 25, 2014 WCN3680 HTTPS://WWW.IFIXIT.COM/TEARDOWN/HTC+ONE+(M8)+TEARDOWN/23615 >TITLE=HTC ONE (M8) TEARDOWN DATE= |
    Samsung Galaxy S5>Galaxy S5 April 11, 2014 BCM4354HTTP://BLOG.BROADCOM.COM/WIRELESS-TECHNOLOGY/SAMSUNG-GALAXY-S5-HITS-STORES-CHOCK-FULL-OF-BROADCOM-TECH/>ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140422123554/HTTP://BLOG.BROADCOM.COM/WIRELESS-TECHNOLOGY/SAMSUNG-GALAXY-S5-HITS-STORES-CHOCK-FULL-OF-BROADCOM-TECH/ARCHIVE-DATE=22 APRIL 2014DATE=22 APRIL 2014|
    LG G2>G2 September 18, 2013 AWL9581 weblink" title="https:/-/web.archive.org/web/20140304052942weblink">weblink
    LG G3>G3 May 23, 2014 BCM4339 >URL=HTTP://WWW.UBREAKIFIX.COM/BLOG/LG-G3-TEARDOWN WEBSITE=UBREAKIFIX.COM ACCESSDATE=2016-08-08,
    Amazon.com >Fire Phone >WEBSITE=AMAZON.COM ACCESSDATE=2016-08-08, WCN3680 HTTPS://WWW.IFIXIT.COM/TEARDOWN/AMAZON+FIRE+PHONE+TEARDOWN/27458#S67320 >TITLE=AMAZON FIRE PHONE TEARDOWN DATE= |
    Samsung Galaxy S5>Galaxy S5 Prime/SM-G906S June 18, 2014 QCA6174
    Samsung Galaxy Alpha>Galaxy Alpha September 7, 2014 E702A7HTTP://WWW.TECHINSIGHTS.COM/TEARDOWN.COM/SAMSUNG-NOTE-4-GALAXY-ALPHA/ >TITLE=SAMSUNG NOTE 4 & ALPHA TEARDOWN DATE=2014-09-10 |
    Apple Inc.>Apple iPhone 6/iPhone 6 Plus >WEBSITE=ELECTRONICS360.GLOBALSPEC.COM ACCESSDATE=2016-08-08, First 802.11ac-enabled iOS devices
    Motorola Mobility>Motorola Nexus 6 October 16, 2014 BCM4356HTTPS://WWW.IFIXIT.COM/TEARDOWN/NEXUS+6+TEARDOWN/32877 >TITLE=NEXUS 6 TEARDOWN DATE= |
    Samsung Galaxy Note 4>Galaxy Note 4 October 10, 2014 BCM4358HTTP://WWW.ANANDTECH.COM/SHOW/8613/THE-SAMSUNG-GALAXY-NOTE-4-REVIEW/9 >TITLE=WIFI PERFORMANCE, GNSS, MISC. - THE SAMSUNG GALAXY NOTE 4 REVIEW DATE= |
    Samsung Galaxy Note 5>Galaxy Note 5 August 21, 2015 BCM4359 HTTP://WWW.ANANDTECH.COM/SHOW/9558/THE-SAMSUNG-GALAXY-NOTE5-AND-GALAXY-S6-EDGE-REVIEW/8 >TITLE=VIDEO PERFORMANCE, WIFI PERFORMANCE, AND GNSS PERFORMANCE - THE SAMSUNG GALAXY NOTE5 AND GALAXY S6 EDGE+ REVIEW DATE= |

    Commercial tablets

    {| class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed"! Vendor !! Model !! Release Date !! Chipset !! Notes
    Microsoft >Surface Pro 3 >| 802.11ac-enabled touchscreen computing device
    Apple Inc.>Apple iPad Air 2 October 24, 2014 Broadcom BCM4350 First 802.11ac-enabled iOS tablet device
    Google >Nexus 9 >Nvidia Tegra K1 >| 2x2 MIMO
    ">

    Chipsets{| class"wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed"

    ! Vendor !! Part # !! Streams !! LDPC !! TxBF !! 256-QAM !! Applications
    BCM43602 >| routers, laptops
    BCM4360 >| routers, laptops
    BCM43569 >| DTV
    BCM4352 >| tablets
    BCM4350 >| tablets
    BCM4356 >| handsets, tablets
    BCM4354 >| handsets, tablets
    BCM4339 >| handsets
    BCM4335 >| handsets
    BCM4359 >| handsets
    BCM43455 >| handsets
    Marvell Technology Group>Marvell weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150615220852weblink">Avastar 88W8897 2 {{Ya}} {{Ya}} {{Ya}} tablets
    Avastar 88W8864 >| routers
    weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120723221109weblink">WCN3680 >| handsets
    | tablets
    weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120723221109weblink">QCA9880 >| home routers
    | enterprise routers
    weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120723221109weblink">QCA9892 >| tablets, PtP Links
    | enterprise access points
    weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120723221109weblink">QCA9992 >| enterprise access points
    MediaTek >weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120609073312weblink">MT7610 >| PC (PCIe or USB)
    | handsets
    weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130615054827weblink">MT7612E >| laptops (PCIe 2.0)
    | laptops (USB 3.0)
    weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111203115107weblink">QAC2300 >| routers
    Redpine Signals >RS9117 >| handsets
    RS9333 >| routers
    RTL8811AU >| adapter (USB 2.0)
    RTL8812AU >| adapter (USB 3.0)
    AC-3160 >| laptops
    AC-7260 >| laptops

    See also

    Notes

    {{Reflist|group=lower-alpha}}

    References

    {{Reflist}}

    External links

    {{IEEE standards}}

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