Hurricane Sandy

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Hurricane Sandy
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{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{short description|Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 2012}}{{Use mdy dates|date=August 2018}}

}}Hurricane Sandy (unofficially referred to as Superstorm Sandy)NEWS,weblink Report Warns That Superstorm Sandy Was Not 'The Big One', Kate Sheppard, Huffington Post, September 18, 2014, April 18, 2017, WEB,weblink Superstorm Sandy Anniversary: Remembering Hurricane Sandy Two Years Later, Eric Zerkel, The Weather Company, October 29, 2014, April 18, 2017, was the deadliest and most destructive, as well as the strongest, hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season. Inflicting nearly $70 billion (2012 USD) in damage, it was the second-costliest hurricane on record in the United States until surpassed by Hurricanes Harvey and Maria in 2017. The eighteenth named storm, tenth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the year, Sandy was a Category 3 storm at its peak intensity when it made landfall in Cuba.REPORT, Blake, Eric S, Kimberlain, Todd B, Berg, Robert J, Cangialosi, John P, Beven II, John L, February 12, 2013, Tropical Cyclone Report, PDF, Hurricane Sandy: October 22 â€“ 29, 2012, National Hurricane Center, February 17, 2013, {{NHC TCR url, AL182012_Sandy, |archiveurl=|publisher=United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service|archivedate=February 17, 2013}} While it was a Category 2 hurricane off the coast of the Northeastern United States, the storm became the largest Atlantic hurricane on record (as measured by diameter, with tropical-storm-force winds spanning {{convert|900|mi|km}}).WEB, Masters, Jeff, Will Global Warming Create Larger Hurricanes?,weblink Weather Underground, May 7, 2018, NEWS, Sandy Brings Hurricane-Force Gusts After New Jersey Landfall,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 12, 2013, Washington Post, October 30, 2012, WEB, Hurricane Sandy Grows To Largest Atlantic Tropical Storm Ever,weblink WBZ-TV, January 7, 2013, At least 233 people were killed along the path of the storm in eight countries.JOURNAL, Hurricane Sandy mortality in the Caribbean and continental North America, Diakakis M., Deligiannakis G., Katsetsiadou K., Lekkas E., Disaster Prevention and Management: an International Journal, 2015, 24, 1, 132, 10.1108/DPM-05-2014-0082,weblink Cumulative total of death toll by country; see chart.Sandy developed from a tropical wave in the western Caribbean Sea on October 22, quickly strengthened, and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Sandy six hours later. Sandy moved slowly northward toward the Greater Antilles and gradually intensified. On October 24, Sandy became a hurricane, made landfall near Kingston, Jamaica, re-emerged a few hours later into the Caribbean Sea and strengthened into a Category 2 hurricane. On October 25, Sandy hit Cuba as a Category 3 hurricane, then weakened to a Category 1 hurricane. Early on October 26, Sandy moved through the Bahamas.WEB, Hurricane Sandy storms through Bahamas, Central Florida on alert,weblink Central Florida News 13, October 26, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink October 28, 2012, dead, On October 27, Sandy briefly weakened to a tropical storm and then restrengthened to a Category 1 hurricane. Early on October 29, Sandy curved west-northwest (the "left turn" or "left hook") and thenWEB, Post-Tropical Cyclone SANDY Update Statement,weblink National Hurricane Center, October 29, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink November 1, 2012, dead, moved ashore near Brigantine, New Jersey, just to the northeast of Atlantic City, as a post-tropical cyclone with hurricane-force winds.NEWS,weblink Sandy wreaks havoc across Northeast; at least 11 dead, CNN, October 30, 2012, Sandy continued drifting inland for another few days while gradually weakening, until it was absorbed by another approaching extratropical storm on November 2.In Jamaica, winds left 70% of residents without electricity, blew roofs off buildings, killed one person, and caused about $100 million (2012 USD) in damage. Sandy's outer bands brought flooding to Haiti, killing at least 54, causing food shortages, and leaving about 200,000 homeless; the hurricane also caused two deaths in the Dominican Republic. In Puerto Rico, one man was swept away by a swollen river. In Cuba, there was extensive coastal flooding and wind damage inland, destroying some 15,000 homes, killing 11, and causing $2 billion (2012 USD) in damage. Sandy caused two deaths and an estimated $700 million (2012 USD) in damage in The Bahamas.In the United States, Hurricane Sandy affected 24 states, including the entire eastern seaboard from Florida to Maine and west across the Appalachian Mountains to Michigan and Wisconsin, with particularly severe damage in New Jersey and New York. Its storm surge hit New York City on October 29, flooding streets, tunnels and subway lines and cutting power in and around the city."Superstorm Sandy causes at least 9 U.S. deaths as it slams East Coast", CNNWEB,weblink Eli Manning deals with Superstorm Sandy flooding, National Football League, October 31, 2012, October 31, 2012, Damage in the United States amounted to $65 billion (2012 USD). In Canada, two were killed in Ontario, and the storm caused an estimated $100 million (2012 CAD) in damage throughout Ontario and Quebec.NEWS,weblink Sandy caused $100M in Canadian insurance claims, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, November 28, 2012, {{TOC limit|4}}

Meteorological history

{{storm path|Sandy 2012 track.png}}Hurricane Sandy began as a low pressure system which developed sufficient organized convection to be classified as Tropical Depression Eighteen on October 22 south of Kingston, Jamaica.REPORT, Robbie Berg, Lixion Avila, October 22, 2012, Tropical Depression Eighteen Discussion Number 1, National Hurricane Center, October 23, 2012,weblink It moved slowly at first due to a ridge to the north. Low wind shear and warm waters allowed for strengthening, and the system was named Tropical Storm Sandy late on October 22.REPORT, Richard Pasch, October 22, 2012, Tropical Storm Sandy Discussion Number 2, National Hurricane Center, October 23, 2012,weblink Early on October 24, an eye began developing, and it was moving steadily northward due to an approaching trough.REPORT, Jack Beven, October 24, 2012, Tropical Storm Sandy Discussion Number 7, National Hurricane Center, October 24, 2012,weblink Later that day, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) upgraded Sandy to hurricane status about {{convert|65|mi|km|abbr=on}} south of Kingston, Jamaica.REPORT, Michael Brennan, October 24, 2012, Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 9, National Hurricane Center, October 24, 2012,weblink At about 1900 UTC that day, Sandy made landfall near Kingston with winds of about 85 mph (140 km/h).REPORT, Todd Kimberlain, James Franklin, October 24, 2002, Hurricane Sandy Tropical Cyclone Update, National Hurricane Center, October 24, 2012,weblink Just offshore Cuba, Sandy rapidly intensified to winds of 115 mph (185 km/h), and at that intensity it made landfall just west of Santiago de Cuba at 0525 UTC on October 25.REPORT, Stacy Stewart, Dave Roberts, October 25, 2012, Hurricane Sandy Tropical Cyclone Update, National Hurricane Center, October 26, 2012,weblink Operationally, Sandy was assessed to have peaked as a high-end Category 2 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 110 mph (175 km/h).(File:Hurricane sandy nasa satelite time lapse video.ogg|thumbnail|A time-lapse video made from NASA satellite images of Hurricane Sandy)After Sandy exited Cuba, the structure became disorganized,REPORT, Michael Brennan, October 25, 2012, Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 14, National Hurricane Center, October 26, 2012,weblink and it turned to the north-northwest over the Bahamas.REPORT, Jack Beven, October 26, 2012, Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 15, National Hurricane Center, October 26, 2012,weblink By October 27, Sandy was no longer fully tropical, as evidenced by the development of frontal structures in the outer circulation. Despite strong shear, Sandy maintained convection due to influence from an approaching trough; the same that turned the hurricane to the northeast.REPORT, Jack Beven, October 27, 2012, Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 19, National Hurricane Center, October 27, 2012,weblink After briefly weakening to a tropical storm,REPORT, Jack Beven, October 27, 2012, Tropical Storm Sandy Discussion Number 20, National Hurricane Center, October 27, 2012,weblink Sandy re-intensified into a hurricane,REPORT, Daniel Brown, October 27, 2012, Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 21, National Hurricane Center, October 27, 2012,weblink and on October 28 an eye began redeveloping.REPORT, Stacy Stewart, October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 25, National Hurricane Center, October 31, 2012,weblink The storm moved around an upper-level low over the eastern United States and also to the southwest of a ridge over Atlantic Canada, turning it to the northwest.REPORT, Richard Pasch, John Cangialosi, October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 28, National Hurricane Center, October 31, 2012,weblink (File:Sandy Radar 20121029 1818 UTC.gif|thumb|Radar image of Hurricane Sandy approaching the Jersey Shore)Sandy briefly re-intensified to Category 2 intensity on the morning of October 29, around which time it had become an extremely large hurricane with a wind diameter of over 1,000 miles (1,609 km), and an unusually low central barometric pressure of 940 mbar, possibly due to the very large size of the system. This pressure set records for many cities across the Northeastern United States for the lowest pressures ever observed.REPORT, Stacy Stewart, October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 29, National Hurricane Center, October 31, 2012,weblink The convection diminished while the hurricane accelerated toward the New Jersey coast,REPORT, Richard Knabb, James Franklin, October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy Discussion Number 30, National Hurricane Center, October 31, 2012,weblink and the cyclone was no longer tropical by 2100 UTC on October 29.REPORT, Daniel Brown, Dave Roberts, October 29, 2012, Post-Tropical Cyclone Sandy Tropical Cyclone Update, National Hurricane Center, October 31, 2012,weblink About 2½ hours later, Sandy made landfall near Brigantine, New Jersey,REPORT, Daniel Brown, Dave Roberts, October 30, 2012, Post-Tropical Cyclone Sandy Tropical Cyclone Update, National Hurricane Center, October 31, 2012,weblink with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h). During the next four days, Sandy's remnants drifted northward and then northeastward over Ontario, before merging with another low pressure area over Eastern Canada on November 2.WEB,weblink WPC surface analysis valid for 11/02/2017 at 18 UTC, NOAA's National Weather Service, November 2, 2011, September 29, 2017,


(File:AL182012 5W 025 0.png|thumb|The National Hurricane Center (NHC)'s forecast for the storm as of October 28, 2012)On October 23, 2012, the path of Hurricane Sandy was correctly predicted by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) headquartered in Reading, England nearly eight days in advance of its striking the American East Coast. The computer model noted that the storm would turn west towards land and strike the New York/New Jersey region on October 29, rather than turn east and head out to the open Atlantic as most hurricanes in this position do. By October 27, four days after the ECMWF made its prediction, the National Weather Service and National Hurricane Center confirmed the path of the hurricane predicted by the European model. The National Weather Service was criticized for not employing its higher-resolution forecast models the way that its European counterpart did. A hardware and software upgrade completed at the end of 2013 enabled the weather service to make more accurate predictions, and do so far more in advance than the technology in 2012 had allowed.NEWS, Vergano, Dan, U.S. forecast's late arrival stirs weather tempest,weblink USA Today, October 5, 2013, October 30, 2012,

Relation to global warming

{{see also|Tropical cyclones and climate change}}According to NCAR senior climatologist Kevin E. Trenberth, "The answer to the oft-asked question of whether an event is caused by climate change is that it is the wrong question. All weather events are affected by climate change because the environment in which they occur is warmer and moister than it used to be."JOURNAL, Trenberth, Kevin, Framing the way to relate climate extremes to climate change, Climatic Change, March 2012, 10.1007/s10584-012-0441-5,weblink 115, 2, 283–290, Although NOAA meteorologist Martin Hoerling attributes Sandy to "little more than the coincidental alignment of a tropical storm with an extratropical storm",NEWS, Andrew C., Revkin, The #Frankenstorm in Climate Context,weblink The New York Times; Dot Earth, October 28, 2012, Trenberth does agree that the storm was caused by "natural variability" but adds that it was "enhanced by global warming".NEWS, Trenberth, Kevin, Hurricane Sandy mixes super-storm conditions with climate change,weblink The Conversation, October 29, 2012, The sea surface temperatures along the Atlantic coast have been running at over 3°C above normal for a region extending 800 km off shore all the way from Florida to Canada. Global warming contributes 0.6°C to this. With every degree C, the water holding of the atmosphere goes up 7%, and the moisture provides fuel for the tropical storm, increases its intensity, and magnifies the rainfall by double that amount compared with normal conditions. Global climate change has contributed to the higher sea surface and ocean temperatures, and a warmer and moister atmosphere, and its effects are in the range of 5 to 10%. Natural variability and weather has provided the perhaps optimal conditions of a hurricane running into extra-tropical conditions to make for a huge intense storm, enhanced by global warming influences., One factor contributing to the storm's strength was abnormally warm sea surface temperatures offshore the East Coast of the United States—more than {{convert|3|C-change|F-change|sigfig=1}} above normal, to which global warming had contributed {{convert|0.6|C-change|F-change|sigfig=1}}. As the temperature of the atmosphere increases, the capacity to hold water increases, leading to stronger storms and higher rainfall amounts.As they move north, Atlantic hurricanes typically are forced east and out to sea by the Prevailing Westerlies.WEB, Masters, Jeff, Why did Hurricane Sandy take such an unusual track into New Jersey?,weblink Weather Underground, November 6, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 3, 2012, In Sandy's case, this typical pattern was blocked by a ridge of high pressure over Greenland resulting in a negative North Atlantic Oscillation, forming a kink in the jet stream, causing it to double back on itself off the East Coast. Sandy was caught up in this northwesterly flow. The blocking pattern over Greenland also stalled an Arctic front which combined with the cyclone. Mark Fischetti of Scientific American said that the jet stream's unusual shape was caused by the melting of Arctic ice.WEB, Did Climate Change Cause Hurricane Sandy?, Fischetti, Mark, October 30, 2012,weblink Trenberth said that while a negative North Atlantic Oscillation and a blocking anticyclone were in place, the null hypothesis remained that this was just the natural variability of weather. Sea level at New York and along the New Jersey coast has increased by nearly a foot (300 mm) over the last hundred years,NEWS, How to keep New York afloat, Velasquez-Manoff, Moises, Christian Science Monitor, November 9, 2006,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, May 5, 2013, December 15, 2012, which contributed to the storm surge.NEWS, Boxall and Neela Banerjee, Bettina, Sandy a galvanizing moment for climate change?,weblink November 5, 2012, Los Angeles Times, November 4, 2012, Harvard geologist Daniel P. Schrag calls Hurricane Sandy's 13-foot (4 m) storm surge an example of what will, by mid-century, be the "new norm on the Eastern seaboard".NEWS, Mason, Edward, Hello again, climate change,weblink November 7, 2012, Harvard Gazette, November 6, 2012, "He pointed out that since 2007, melted Arctic ice opened the Northwest Passage, a development that he believes could have a dramatic effect on weather patterns. Last spring's unseasonable warmth caused places like Rochester, Minn., to set record daytime highs. 'By midcentury, this will be the new normal,' Schrag predicted. 'How do you deal with extreme heat in the summer? It's going to be a challenge, but humans are adaptable. It's not going to be easy, just like a 13-foot storm surge will be the new norm on the Eastern seaboard.'"


Caribbean and Bermuda

After the storm became a tropical cyclone on October 22, the Government of Jamaica issued a tropical storm watch for the entire island.REPORT,weblink Tropical Depression Eighteen Advisory Number 1, Robbie Berg, Lixion Avila, October 22, 2012, National Hurricane Center, October 24, 2012, Early on October 23, the watch was replaced with a tropical storm warning and a hurricane watch was issued.REPORT,weblink Tropical Storm Sandy Advisory Number 4, Daniel Brown, October 23, 2012, National Hurricane Center, October 24, 2012, At 1500 UTC, the hurricane watch was upgraded to a hurricane warning, while the tropical storm warning was discontinued.REPORT,weblink Tropical Storm Sandy Advisory Number 5, Richard Pasch, October 23, 2012, National Hurricane Center, October 24, 2012, In preparation of the storm, many residents stocked up on supplies and reinforced roofing material. Acting Prime Minister Peter Phillips urged people to take this storm seriously, and also to take care of their neighbors, especially the elderly, children, and disabled. Government officials shut down schools, government buildings, and the airport in Kingston on the day prior to the arrival of Sandy. Meanwhile, numerous and early curfews were put in place to protect residents, properties, and to prevent crime.NEWS, McFadden, David, Jamaica prepares for Tropical Storm Sandy,weblink November 26, 2012, Associated Press, October 23, 2012, Shortly after Jamaica issued its first watch on October 22, the Government of Haiti issued a tropical storm watch for Haiti.REPORT,weblink Tropical Storm Sandy Advisory Number 2, Richard Pasch, October 22, 2012, National Hurricane Center, October 24, 2012, By late October 23, it was modified to a tropical storm warning.REPORT,weblink Tropical Storm Sandy Advisory Number 5A, Richard Pasch, October 23, 2012, National Hurricane Center, October 24, 2012, The Government of Cuba posted a hurricane watch for the Cuban Provinces of Camagüey, Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Las Tunas, and Santiago de Cuba at 1500 UTC on October 23. Only three hours later, the hurricane watch was switched to a hurricane warning.REPORT,weblink Tropical Storm Sandy Advisory Number 6, Richard Pasch, October 23, 2012, National Hurricane Center, October 24, 2012, The Government of the Bahamas, at 1500 UTC on October 23, issued a tropical storm watch for several Bahamian islands, including the Acklins, Cat Island, Crooked Island, Exuma, Inagua, Long Cay, Long Island, Mayaguana, Ragged Island, Rum Cay, and San Salvador Island. Later that day, another tropical storm watch was issued for Abaco Islands, Andros Island, the Berry Islands, Bimini, Eleuthera, Grand Bahama, and New Providence. By early on October 24, the tropical storm watch for Cat Island, Exuma, Long Island, Rum Cay, and San Salvador was upgraded to a tropical storm warning.REPORT,weblink Tropical Storm Sandy Advisory Number 7, John Beven II, October 24, 2012, National Hurricane Center, October 24, 2012, At 1515 UTC on October 26, the Bermuda Weather Service issued a tropical storm watch for Bermuda, reflecting the enormous size of the storm and the anticipated wide-reaching impacts.REPORT,weblink Hurricane Sandy Tropical Cyclone Update, Richard Pasch, October 26, 2012, National Hurricane Center, October 26, 2012,

United States

File:White House teleconference for Hurricane Sandy.jpg|thumb|left|White House conference with FEMA and Department of Homeland Security in preparation for arrival of the hurricane.]]{{wikinews|U.S. prepares for arrival of Hurricane Sandy}}Much of the East Coast of the United States, in Mid-Atlantic and New England regions, had a good chance of receiving gale-force winds, flooding, heavy rain and possibly snow early in the week of October 28 from an unusual hybrid of Hurricane Sandy and a winter storm producing a Fujiwhara effect.NEWS, Forecasters warn East Coast about 'Frankenstorm' next week; damage could top $1 billion, Associated Press,,weblink October 25, 2012, October 4, 2013, Government weather forecasters said there was a 90% chance that the East Coast would be impacted by the storm. Jim Cisco of the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center coined the term "Frankenstorm", as Sandy was expected to merge with a storm front a few days before Halloween.NEWS, Borenstein, Seth, East Coast braces for monster 'Frankenstorm',weblink Associated Press, October 26, 2012, WEB, Cisco, Jim, Extended Forecast Discussion – Issued 1342Z Oct 25, 2012,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 29, 2012, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, October 26, 2012, October 25, 2012, NEWS, Borenstein, Seth, Forecasters warn East Coast about 'Frankenstorm' next week; damage could top $1 billion,weblink October 26, 2012, The Washington Post, October 25, 2012, Associated Press, As coverage continued, several media outlets began eschewing this term in favor of "superstorm".NEWS,weblink Hurricane Sandy: Five Reasons It's a Superstorm, Associated Press, October 29, 2012, October 29, 2012, Fox News, NEWS, Patrick Kevin, Day,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink No 'Frankenstorm' for CNN, October 26, 2012, October 29, 2012, January 21, 2013, Los Angeles Times, dead, Utilities and governments along the East Coast attempted to head off long-term power failures Sandy might cause. Power companies from the Southeast to New England alerted independent contractors to be ready to help repair storm damaged equipment quickly and asked employees to cancel vacations and work longer hours. Researchers from Johns Hopkins University, using a computer model built on power outage data from previous hurricanes, conservatively forecast that 10 million customers along the Eastern Seaboard would lose power from the storm.NEWS,weblink Cause for concern: the 7 most alarming Hurricane Sandy images, Washington Post, October 28, 2012, Jason, Samenow, October 28, 2012, (File:President Obama discusses preparations for Hurricane Sandy.ogv|thumb|President Obama discusses preparations for Hurricane Sandy)Through regional offices in Atlanta, Philadelphia, New York City, and Boston, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) monitored Sandy, closely coordinating with state and tribal emergency management partners in Florida and the Southeast, Mid-Atlantic, and New England states.WEB, Anderson, Lars, October 25, 2012, Closely Monitoring Hurricane Sandy,weblink FEMA, October 26, 2012, President Obama signed emergency declarations on October 28 for several states expected to be impacted by Sandy, allowing them to request federal aid and make additional preparations in advance of the storm.NEWS,weblink It's watch and wait as Hurricane Sandy approaches,, October 29, 2012, October 28, 2012, Flight cancellations and travel alerts on the U.S. East Coast were put in place in the Mid-Atlantic and the New England areas.WEB, Hurricane Sandy wreaks havoc on airline flights,weblink The Wall St. Journal, October 28, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 28, 2013, Over 5,000 commercial airline flights scheduled for October 28 and 29 were canceled by the afternoon of October 28NEWS,weblink Hurricane Sandy Flight Cancellations: Thousands Of Flights Canceled Due To Storm,, October 29, 2012, October 28, 2012, and Amtrak canceled some services through October 29 in preparation for the storm.WEB, Amtrak begins to cancel some service in advance of Hurricane Sandy,weblink Amtrak, October 28, 2012, In addition, the National Guard and U.S. Air Force put as many as 45,000 personnel in at least seven states on alert for possible duty in response to the preparations and aftermath of Sandy.NEWS, Hurricane Sandy Barrels Northward, May Hit New Jersey,weblink Bloomberg, October 28, 2012, Brian K, Sullivan, Dan, Hart, October 28, 2012,


File:Sandy Oct 28 2012 1600Z.jpg|thumb|A tilted satellite image of the storm on October 28, with most of the U.S. coastline artificially highlighted. The entire east coast is visible, with a cloudless Florida coast seen at the bottom of the image and the outline of the coast of MaineMaine


Schools on the Treasure Coast announced closures for October 26 in anticipation of Sandy.NEWS, UPDATED: Hurricane Sandy closings and cancellations,weblink WPEC-TV, Man, Karl, Smith, Scott T., Wright, Michele, October 25, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 27, 2012, A Russian (Signals intelligence operational platforms by nation#Russia: Ship Platforms|intelligence-gathering ship) was allowed to stay in Jacksonville to avoid Sandy; the port is not far from Kings Bay Naval Submarine Base.NEWS, Russian Sub Skirts Coast, Gertz, Bill,weblink Washington Free Beacon, Center for American Freedom, November 5, 2012, November 5, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink November 6, 2012,


At 0900 UTC on October 26, a tropical storm watch was issued from the mouth of the Savannah River in South Carolina to Oregon Inlet, North Carolina, including Pamlico Sound.REPORT,weblink Hurricane Sandy Advisory Number 16, Michael Brennan, October 26, 2012, National Hurricane Center, December 13, 2012, Twelve hours later, the portion of the tropical storm watch from the Santee River in South Carolina to Duck, North Carolina, including Pamlico Sound, was upgraded to a warning.REPORT,weblink Hurricane Sandy Advisory Number 18, Richard Pasch, October 26, 2012, National Hurricane Center, December 13, 2012, Governor of North Carolina Beverly Perdue declared a state of emergency for 38 eastern counties on October 26, which took effect on the following day.WEB, Perdue declares state of emergency before Sandy arrives,weblink, October 26, 2012, By October 29, the state of emergency was extended to 24 counties in western North Carolina, with up to a foot (30 cm) of snow attributed to Sandy anticipated in higher elevations. The National Park Service closed at least five sections of the Blue Ridge Parkway.WEB, Perdue declares state of emergency for Western NC,weblink, October 29, 2012,



On October 26, Governor of Virginia Bob McDonnell declared a state of emergency. The U.S. Navy sent more than twenty-seven ships and forces to sea from Naval Station Norfolk for their protection. Governor McDonnell authorized the National Guard to activate 630 personnel ahead of the storm.NEWS, National Guard soldiers activated for Hurricane Sandy,weblink Army Times,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-01-17, July 24, 2019, dead, Republican Party presidential candidate Mitt Romney canceled campaign appearances scheduled for October 28 in Virginia Beach, Virginia, and New Hampshire October 30 because of Sandy. Vice President Joe Biden canceled his appearance on October 27 in Virginia Beach and an October 29 campaign event in New Hampshire.NEWS, Hurricane Sandy scrambles campaign schedule, Romney cancels Virginia rallies,weblink Fox News, October 28, 2012, October 27, 2012, President Barack Obama canceled a campaign stop with former President Bill Clinton in Virginia scheduled for October 29, as well as a trip to Colorado Springs, Colorado, the next day because of the impending storm.NEWS, Obama cancels stops in Virginia, Colorado because of storm,weblink Chicago Tribune, October 28, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink October 30, 2012, dead,

Washington, D.C.

On October 26, Mayor of Washington, D.C. Vincent Gray declared a state of emergency,NEWS,weblink District Government Prepares for Hurricane Sandy, October 26, 2012,, December 13, 2012, which President Obama signed on October 28.NEWS,weblink Pres. Obama Signs D.C. Emergency Declaration, Associated Press, October 28, 2012, WUSA (TV), CBS DC, December 13, 2012, The United States Office of Personnel Management announced federal offices in the Washington, D.C. area would be closed to the public on October 29–30.WEB,weblink Federal Government Operating Status Washington D.C. Area, October 29, 2012, In addition, Washington D.C. Metro service, both rail and bus, was canceled on October 29 due to expected high winds, the likelihood of widespread power outages, and the closing of the federal government.NEWS,weblink Metro system to shut down on Monday, Washington Post, October 28, 2012, Martin, Weil, October 28, 2012, The Smithsonian Institution closed for the day of October 29.NEWS, A state-by-state look at the East Coast superstorm,weblink AP, October 29, 2012,


Governor of Maryland Martin O'Malley declared a state of emergency on October 26.NEWS, Northeast in crosshairs of 'superstorm' Sandy,weblink CNN, October 26, 2012, October 27, 2012, By the following day, Smith Island residents were evacuated with the assistance of the Maryland Natural Resources Police, Dorchester County opened two shelters for those in flood prone areas, and Ocean City initiated Phase I of their Emergency Operations Plan.WEB, Smith Island Evacuations Under Way,weblink WBOC, October 27, 2012, WEB, Dorchester County Offering Shelter During Hurricane Sandy,weblink WBOC, October 27, 2012, WEB, O.C. Implementing Phase I of Emergency Operations Plan,weblink WBOC, October 27, 2012, Baltimore Gas and Electric Co. put workers on standby and made plans to bring in crews from other states. On October 28, President Obama declared an emergency in Maryland and signed an order authorizing the Federal Emergency Management Agency to aid in disaster relief efforts.WEB, Obama Signs Maryland Emergency Declaration,weblink WBOC, October 28, 2012, Also, numerous areas were ordered to be evacuated including part of Ocean City, Worcester County, Wicomico County, and Somerset County.WEB, Worcester County Issues Mandatory Evacuations,weblink WMDT, October 28, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 30, 2012, WEB, Ocean City Declares Local State Of Emergency,weblink WMDT, October 28, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 30, 2012, Officials warned that more than a hundred million tons of dirty sediment mixed with tree limbs and debris floating behind Conowingo Dam could be eventually poured into the Chesapeake Bay, posing a potential environmental threat.NEWS,weblink Sandy poses environmental threat to Conowingo Dam, October 27, 2012, Washington Post, Darryl, Fears, The Maryland Transit Administration canceled all service for October 29 and 30. The cancellations applied to buses, light rail, and Amtrak and MARC train service.WEB, MTA Suspends Bus & Train Service On Monday; BWI Delaying & Canceling Flights Due To Hurricane Sandy,weblink CBS News Baltimore, October 29, 2012, On October 29, six shelters opened in Baltimore, and early voting was canceled for the day. Maryland Insurance Commissioner Therese M. Goldsmith activated an emergency regulation requiring pharmacies to refill prescriptions regardless of their last refill date.WEB, Insurance Commissioner Issues Emergency Regulation Regarding Prescriptions, Pharmacy Payments,weblink Maryland Insurance Administration, October 28, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 29, 2012, On October 29, the Chesapeake Bay Bridge over the Chesapeake Bay and the Millard E. Tydings Memorial Bridge and Thomas J. Hatem Memorial Bridge over the Susquehanna River were closed to traffic in the midday hours.WEB, Chesapeake Bay Bridge Now Closed,weblink WBOC TV, October 29, 2012,


On October 28, Governor Markell declared a state of emergency, with coastal areas of Sussex County evacuated. In preparation for the storm, the Delaware Department of Transportation suspended some weekend construction projects, removed traffic cones and barrels from construction sites, and removed several span-wire overhead signs in Sussex County.WEB, DelDOT is preparing for a possible major storm, Delaware Department of Transportation, October 26, 2012,weblink July 16, 2014, Delaware Route 1 through Delaware Seashore State Park was closed due to flooding.WEB,weblink Sussex County Update on Hurricane Sandy, October 28, 2012, WBOC-TV, October 28, 2012, Delaware roads were closed to the public, except for emergency and essential personnel,WEB, Delaware roads closed to public after 5 a.m,weblink 6 Action News, October 29, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink October 30, 2012, dead, and tolls on I-95 and Delaware Route 1 were waived.WEB, Tolls Waived on I-95 and Route One,weblink State of Delaware, October 29, 2012, DART First State transit service was also suspended during the storm.WEB, DART & Paratransit Service Suspended Monday, Delaware Department of Transportation, October 28, 2012,weblink July 16, 2014,

New Jersey

File:NJ National Guard Prepares for Hurricane Sandy.jpg|thumb|Airmen of the New Jersey National GuardNew Jersey National Guard
missing image!
- HurricaneSANDYCheltenham.jpg -
A downed tree in Cheltenham Township, Pennsylvania.
Preparations began on October 26, when officials in Cape May County advised residents on barrier islands to evacuate. There was also a voluntary evacuation for Mantoloking, Bay Head, Barnegat Light, Beach Haven, Harvey Cedars, Long Beach, Ship Bottom, and Stafford in Ocean County.NEWS, Asbury Park Press, Ocean County towns issue voluntary evacuations, October 27, 2012, Staff, October 27, 2012,weblink NEWS, ABC7, Shore towns issue voluntary evac orders, October 26, 2012, October 26, 2012,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink October 29, 2012, dead, NEWS, Point Pleasant Patch, Bay Head and Mantoloking Advising Voluntary Evacuations. Mantoloking police department urging residents to leave ahead of Sandy, October 26, 2012, Denise DiStephan, October 27, 2012,weblink Governor of New Jersey Chris Christie ordered all residents of barrier islands from Sandy Hook to Cape May to evacuate and closed Atlantic City casinos. Tolls were suspended on the northbound Garden State Parkway and the westbound Atlantic City Expressway starting at 6 a.m. on October 28.NEWS, CBS2, Christie Declares State of Emergency; Orders Evacuations In Some Parts of N.J, October 27, 2012, October 27, 2012,weblink President Obama signed an emergency declaration for New Jersey, allowing the state to request federal funding and other assistance for actions taken before Sandy's landfall.WEB, President signs emergency declaration for NJ,weblink Newsday, October 29, 2012, On October 28, Mayor of Hoboken Dawn Zimmer ordered residents of basement and street-level residential units to evacuate, due to possible flooding.WEB, Hoboken mayor announces evacuation of all basements and street-level residences,weblink, October 29, 2012, On October 29, residents of Logan Township were ordered to evacuate.WEB, Hurricane Sandy: Parts of Logan Township issued evacuation order,weblink Jersey Central Power & Light told employees to prepare to work extended shifts.MAGAZINE, Eastern utilities brace for expected super storm,weblink The Washington Examiner, October 26, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 6, 2013, Most schools, colleges and universities were closed October 29 while at least 509 out of 580 school districts were closed October 30.WEB, Sandy makes landfall near Atlantic City; 348K N.J. homes without power,weblinkitem/46253-power-outages-spread-as-sandy-accelerates-toward-new-jersey-shore/, NewsWorks, October 29, 2012, October 29, 2012, dead,, May 4, 2013, Although tropical storm conditions were inevitable and hurricane-force winds were likely, the National Hurricane Center did not issue any tropical cyclone watches or warnings for New Jersey, because Sandy was forecast to become extratropical before landfall and thus would not be a tropical cyclone.NEWS,, Experts wonder why hurricane warning was never issued for N.J. as Sandy approached, Stephen Stirling, November 1, 2012, The Star-Ledger (New Jersey On-Line), December 12, 2012,


Preparations in Pennsylvania began when Governor Tom Corbett declared a state of emergency on October 26. Mayor of Philadelphia Michael Nutter asked residents in low-lying areas and neighborhoods prone to flooding to leave their homes by 1800 UTC October 28 and move to safer ground.WEB, Philly Mayor Tells People in Flood-Prone Areas to Leave,weblink NBC 10 Philadelphia, October 26, 2012, The Philadelphia International Airport suspended all flight operations for October 29.WEB, Phila. Airport flights to be suspended Monday,weblink 6 Action News, October 29, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink October 30, 2012, dead, On October 29, Philadelphia shut down its mass transit system. On October 28, Mayor of Harrisburg Linda D. Thompson declared a state of disaster emergency for the city to go into effect at 5 a.m. October 29. Electric utilities in the state brought in crews and equipment from other states such as New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma, to assist with restoration efforts.WEB, Central Pennsylvania prepares for Hurricane Sandy,weblink WITF TV, October 29, 2012,

New York

(File:Sandy Poweroutage 1.jpg|thumb|left|Manhattan suffered a widespread power outage during the storm.)File:Damage from Hurricane Sandy to house in Brooklyn, NY.jpeg|thumb|Damage from Hurricane Sandy to a house in Brooklyn, New York.]]Governor Andrew Cuomo declared a statewide state of emergency and asked for a pre-disaster declaration on October 26,WEB, NYC shutting down transit, evacuating 375,000,weblink The Wall Street Journal, October 29, 2012, which President Obama signed later that day.WEB, Obama Signs Emergency Declaration For State Of New York,weblink CBS News New York, October 29, 2012, By October 27, major carriers canceled all flights into and out of JFK, LaGuardia, and Newark-Liberty airports, and the Metro North and Long Island Rail Roads suspended service.WEB, Hurricane Sandy forces mass transit closure, evacuations,weblink MyFoxNY, October 29, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 29, 2012, The Tappan Zee Bridge was closed,WEB, 3:15 p.m.: 'Tappan Zee Bridge to close at 4; 'Significant' storm surge expected to peak at midnight; Metro-North reports on tracks,weblink, October 29, 2012, and later the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel and Holland Tunnel were also closed.NEWS, Two key New York City tunnels closing; bridges open for now: governor,weblink Reuters, October 29, 2012, October 29, 2012, Paul, Thomasch, On Long Island, an evacuation was ordered for South Shore, including areas south of Sunrise Highway, north of Route 25A, and in elevations of less than {{convert|16|ft|m}} above sea level on the North Shore.WEB, Nassau County calls for evacuations in coastal areas,weblink WABC TV, October 29, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink November 6, 2012, dead, In Suffolk County, mandatory evacuations were ordered for residents of Fire Island and six towns.WEB, Evacuations on Long Island ahead of Sandy,weblink WABC TV, October 29, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink November 6, 2012, dead, Most schools closed in Nassau and Suffolk counties on October 29.WEB, Nassau Community, Molloy, Hofstra, Adelphi cancel classes,weblink Valley Stream Herald, October 29, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 6, 2013, File:Hugh L. Carey Tunnel during Hurricane Sandy vc.jpg|thumb|The Brooklyn–Battery TunnelBrooklyn–Battery TunnelNew York City began taking precautions on October 26. Governor Cuomo ordered the closure of MTA and its subway on October 28, and the MTA suspended all subway, bus, and commuter rail service beginning at 2300 UTC.NEWS, Mann, Ted,weblink New York City Subways to Shut Down,, October 28, 2012, October 28, 2012, After Hurricane Irene nearly submerged subways and tunnels in 2011,NEWS, Navarro, Mireya, New York Is Lagging as Seas and Risks Rise, Critics Warn,weblink New York Times, November 3, 2012, September 10, 2012, Irene .. one foot short of paralyzing transportation, entrances and grates were covered just before Sandy, but were still flooded.NEWS, Caruso, David B., Crippled NYC subways could hamper storm recovery,weblink Associated Press, November 3, 2012, October 30, 2012, Yahoo news, PATH train service and stations as well as the Port Authority Bus Terminal were shut down in the early morning hours of October 29.Later on October 28, officials activated the coastal emergency plan, with subway closings and the evacuation of residents in areas hit by Hurricane Irene in 2011. More than 76 evacuation shelters were open around the city. On October 29, Mayor Michael Bloomberg ordered public schools closedWEB, New York City schools, transit close ahead of Sandy,weblink WABC TV, October 29, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink October 29, 2012, dead, and called for a mandatory evacuation of Zone A, which comprised areas near coastlines or waterways.WEB, NYC Evacuation Zones: Bloomberg Orders 'Zone A' Residents to Evacuate,weblink AllMediaNY, October 29, 2012, Additionally, 200 National Guard troops were deployed in the city.WEB, Transit Systems, Schools Plan Closings Ahead Of Sandy's Arrival,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, January 30, 2013, NY1, October 29, 2012, NYU Langone Medical Center canceled all surgeries and medical procedures, except for emergency procedures. Additionally, one of NYU Langone Medical Center's backup generators failed on October 29, prompting the evacuation of hundreds of patients, including those from the hospital's various intensive care units.NEWS,weblink Superstorm Sandy Tests Hospital Preparedness, Katie Moisse, Sydney Lupkin, ABC News, October 30, 2012, November 3, 2012, U.S. stock trading was suspended for October 29–30.NEWS,weblink Sandy keeps financial markets closed Tuesday, CBS News, October 30, 2012,

New England

File:Flooding in Marblehead Massachusetts caused by Hurricane Sandy.jpg|thumb|left|Flooding in Marblehead, MassachusettsMarblehead, MassachusettsConnecticut Governor Dannel Malloy partially activated the state's Emergency Operations Center on October 26WEB, Governor Malloy to Partially Activate the State Emergency Operations Center at 8am Saturday,weblink Hurricane Sandy News and Information,, October 27, 2012, and signed a Declaration of Emergency the next day.WEB, Gov. Malloy Signs Declaration of Emergency,weblink Hurricane Sandy News and Information,, October 27, 2012, On October 28, President Obama approved Connecticut's request for an emergency declaration, and hundreds of National Guard personnel were deployed.WEB, Obama approves pre-landfall emergency declaration for Connecticut,weblink The Hour, October 29, 2012, On October 29, Governor Malloy ordered road closures for all state highways.WEB, All Connecticut highways closed as Sandy approaches,weblink WABC TV, October 29, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink October 29, 2012, dead, Numerous mandatory and partial evacuations were issued in cities across Connecticut.WEB,weblink Town-By-Town Evacuations, October 28, 2012, October 29, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 30, 2012, Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick ordered state offices to be closed October 29 and recommended schools and private businesses close. On October 28, President Obama issued a Pre-Landfall Emergency Declaration for Massachusetts. Several shelters were opened, and many schools were closed.WEB, Mass. Braces For Hurricane Sandy,weblink WBUR Radio, October 29, 2012, The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority shut down all services on the afternoon of October 29.NEWS, Boston's MBTA to shut down at 2 pm,weblink, October 29, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink November 1, 2012, On October 28, Vermont Governor Peter Shumlin, New Hampshire Governor John Lynch, and Maine's Governor Paul LePage all declared states of emergency.WEB, Goswami, Neal, Vt. in state of emergency ahead of Sandy,weblink The Bennington Banner, October 29, 2012, WEB, Edwards, Holly, Gov. LePage signs emergency declaration ahead of Sandy,weblink, October 27, 2012,

Appalachia and the Midwest

(File:Sandy 2012 snowfall.gif|thumb|Snowfall totals in the Appalachian mountain range (amount in inches))The National Weather Service issued a storm warning for Lake Huron on October 29 that called for wave heights of {{convert|26|ft|m}}, and possibly as high as {{convert|38|ft|m}}. Lake Michigan waves were expected to reach {{convert|19|ft|m}}, with a potential of {{convert|33|ft|m}} on October 30. Flood warnings were issued in Chicago on October 29, where wave heights were expected to reach {{convert|18|to|23|ft|m}} in Cook County and {{convert|25|ft|m}} in northwest Indiana.WEB, Sandy's Winds And Rain Cause Flood Warnings, Flight And Train Cancellations,weblink CBS News Chicago, October 29, 2012, Gale warnings were issued for Lake Michigan and Green Bay in Wisconsin until the morning of October 31, and waves of {{convert|33|ft|m}} in Milwaukee and {{convert|20|ft|m}} in Sheboygan were predicted for October 30. The actual waves reached about {{convert|20|ft|m}} but were less damaging than expected.NEWS, Robbins, John, Superstorm waves cause little damage along Lake Michigan shoreline,weblink Post-Tribune, November 1, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 5, 2012, NEWS, Srubas, Paul, Wisconsin gets a taste of Sandy's fury,weblink Post-Crescent, Oct 31, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 24, 2014, The village of Pleasant Prairie, Wisconsin urged a voluntary evacuation of its lakefront area, though few residents signed up, and little flooding actually occurred.NEWS,weblink Sandy's reach spreads to Wisconsin, Green Bay Press Gazette, October 30, 2012, October 30, 2012, Paul, Srubas, Michigan was impacted by a winter storm system coming in from the west, mixing with cold air streams from the Arctic and colliding with Hurricane Sandy.NEWS,weblink Shipping on Great Lakes, flights to East Coast stopped by storm, The Detroit News, October 30, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 3, 2012, The forecasts slowed shipping traffic on the Great Lakes, as some vessels sought shelter away from the peak winds, except those on Lake Superior.NEWS,weblink Shipping on Great Lakes, flights to East Coast stopped by storm, The Detroit News, October 30, 2012, October 30, 2012, Greenwood, Tom, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 3, 2012, NEWS,weblink Duluth News Tribune, Storm slows shipping on Great Lakes, Kuchera, Steve, October 30, 2012, October 30, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 22, 2013, Detroit-based DTE Energy released 100 contract line workers to assist utilities along the eastern U.S. with storm response, and Consumers Energy did the same with more than a dozen employees and 120 contract employees.WEB,weblink 56K without power in SE Michigan, utilities on alert for wind-related outages,, October 30, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 1, 2012, Due to the widespread power outages, numerous schools had to close, especially in St. Clair County and areas along Lake Huron north of Metro Detroit.WEB,weblink High winds knock out power in parts of Michigan,, October 24, 2012, October 30, 2012, As far as Ohio's western edge, areas were under a wind advisory.NEWS,weblink Hurricane's winds, rain forcing local changes, WHIO-TV, October 28, 2012, October 29, 2012, All departing flights at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport were canceled until October 30 at 3 p.m.NEWS, For travelers, superstorm Sandy's aggravation spans globe,weblink Associated Press, October 30, 2012, October 30, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 31, 2012, Governor of West Virginia Earl Ray Tomblin declared a state of emergency ahead of storm on October 29.NEWS, West Virginia Gov. Earl Ray Tomblin declares state of emergency ahead of storm's full brunt,weblink Houston Chronicle, October 29, 2012, Up to 2 to 3 feet (0.6–0.9 m) of snow was forecast for mountainous areas of the state.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink October 30, 2012, Sandy brings snow to Virginia, Washington Post, October 29, 2012, October 29, 2012, dead,


The Canadian Hurricane Centre issued its first preliminary statement for Hurricane Sandy on October 25 from Southern Ontario to the Canadian Maritimes,WEB,weblink Weather – Canadian Hurricane Information Statements,, July 30, 2012, October 27, 2012, with the potential for heavy rain and strong winds.NEWS, Heavy rain looms for Ontario and Quebec, plus snow possible early next week, Aly, Thomson,weblink The Globe and Mail, October 28, 2012, October 30, 2012, Toronto, On October 29, Environment Canada issued severe wind warnings for the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Valley corridor, from Southwestern Ontario as far as Quebec City.WEB,weblink Weather Warnings – Environment Canada,, July 30, 2012, October 29, 2012, On October 30, Environment Canada issued storm surge warnings along the mouth of the St. Lawrence River.WEB,weblink Southern Quebec – Weather Warnings – Environment Canada,, July 30, 2012, October 30, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink November 6, 2012, Rainfall warnings were issued for the Charlevoix region in Quebec, as well as for several counties in New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, where about {{convert|2|to|3|in|mm}} of rain was to be expected.WEB,weblink Yarmouth County – Weather Warnings – Environment Canada,, October 30, 2012, October 30, 2012, WEB,weblink Shelburne County – Weather Warnings – Environment Canada,, October 30, 2012, October 30, 2012, WEB,weblink Queens County – Weather Warnings – Environment Canada,, October 30, 2012, October 30, 2012, Freezing rain warnings were issued for parts of Northern Ontario.WEB, Weather Warnings – Environment Canada,weblink Environment Canada, October 30, 2012, {| class="wikitable collapsible" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto;"|+ Summary of tropical cyclone warnings and watches associated with Hurricane Sandy ! scope="col" | Date! scope="col" | Time! scope="col" | Warning type! scope="col" style="text-align:center;"|Areas|October 22|15:00 UTCJamaicaOctober 2309:00 UTCHaiti15:00 UTCBahamasCamagüey to Guantánamo, Cuba|18:00 UTC21:00 UTCOctober 24|03:00 UTC09:00 UTCJupiter Inlet to Ocean Reef, FloridaCraig Key, Florida|12:00 UTC15:00 UTCVolusia County, Florida>Volusia/Brevard County Line to Ocean Reef, Florida21:00 UTCSebastian Inlet to Flagler Beach, FloridaOctober 2503:00 UTCLake OkeechobeeRagged Island, Bahamas09:00 UTCFernandina Beach, Florida15:00 UTCOctober 2603:00 UTC|06:00 UTCAndros Island, Bahamas|09:00 UTCSavannah River, Georgia/South Carolina to Oregon Inlet, North Carolina15:00 UTCGreat Abaco and Grand Bahama IslandBermuda18:00 UTCDeerfield Beach, Florida>Deerfield Beach to Flagler Beach, Florida21:00 UTCSt. Augustine, Florida>St. Augustine to Fernandina Beach, FloridaSouth Santee River, South CarolinaDuck, North CarolinaOctober 27|00:00 UTC|09:00 UTC15:00 UTC21:00 UTCOctober 28|03:00 UTC|09:00 UTCCape Fear (region)>Cape Fear to Duck, North Carolina|21:00 UTCSurf City, North Carolina>Surf City to Duck, North CarolinaOctober 29|15:00 UTC|21:00 UTC Deaths and damage by country style"text-align:center;"">

Impact{| class"wikitable sortable" alignright|+ Deaths and damage by country style"text-align:center;"

! rowspan="2"| Country! colspan="4"| Fatalities! rowspan="2"| Missing! rowspan="2"| Damage2012 (USD)! rowspan="2" class="unsortable" |Ref(s)! Total! Direct ! Indirect! N/A style="text-align:center;" Bermuda| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| Minimal| style="text-align:center;" The Bahamas| 2| 2| 0| 0| 0700000000$}}DATE=JANUARY 21, 2013TITLE=HAITI RAISES DEATH TOLL FROM HURRICANE SANDY TO 54; REGIONAL DEATHS UP TO 71,weblink style="text-align:center;" Canada| 2| 1| 1| 0| 0100000000$}}ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 29, 2012 DATE=OCTOBER 30, 2012, SARNIA, ONT., HYDRO WORKER DIES REPAIRING SANDY DAMAGE>URL=HTTP://WWW.CBC.CA/NEWS/CANADA/STORY/2012/10/31/SANDY-CANADA-STORM.HTML WORK=CBC NEWSPUBLISHER=YAHOO!ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130121001554/HTTP://CA.FINANCE.YAHOO.COM/NEWS/PRELIMINARY-ESTIMATES-PEG-INSURED-DAMAGES-140000907.HTMLDF=, style="text-align:center;" Cuba| 11| 6| 0| 5| 02000000000$}}ARCHIVE-URL=HTTP://WEB.ARCHIVE.BIBALEX.ORG/WEB/20121031092611/HTTP://WWW.WASHINGTONPOST.COM/WORLD/THE_AMERICAS/A-LOOK-AT-CARIBBEAN-DEATHS-AND-DAMAGE-FROM-HURRICANE-SANDY/2012/10/30/4D63FA52-22F1-11E2-92F8-7F9C4DAF276A_STORY.HTML ARCHIVE-DATE=OCTOBER 31, 2012 AGENCY=ASSOCIATED PRESS ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 31, 2012 DATE=OCTOBER 30, 2012 TITLE='SANDY' DEJA DAñOS POR 2 MIL 121 MILLONES DE PESOS EN CUBA LANGUAGE=ES ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170905140303/HTTP://WWW.ELUNIVERSAL.COM.MX/NOTAS/879316.HTML DF=, MARTINEZ, ROSA>PUBLISHER=HAVANA TIMESACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 4, 2012URL=HTTP://WWW.HAVANATIMES.ORG/?P=81443, style="text-align:center;" Dominican Republic| 2| 2| 0| 0| 030000000$}}DATE=NOVEMBER 19, 2012TITLE=THE CARIBBEAN: HURRICANE SANDY SITUATION REPORT NO. 2 (AS OF 19 NOVEMBER 2012)FORMAT=PDF, style="text-align:center;" Haiti| 54| 20| 0| 34| 21750000000$}}NEWSPAPER=THE GUARDIANACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 31, 2012URL=HTTPS://WWW.THEGUARDIAN.COM/WORLD/2012/OCT/30/HURRICANE-SANDY-HAITI-EMERGENCY-AIDARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://ARCHIVE.TODAY/20121217200322/HTTP://WWW.WAVY.COM/DPP/NEWS/WORLD_NEWS/HAITI-RAISES-SANDY-DEATH-TOLL-TO-54_97311028 ARCHIVE-DATE=DECEMBER 17, 2012 ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 1, 2012, AON PLC>PUBLISHER=SACRAMENTO BEEACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 10, 2012URL=HTTP://WWW.SACBEE.COM/2012/11/08/4970893/EARLY-US-STATE-GOVERNMENT-FIGURES.HTML, {{dead linkbot=Jarble DATE=NOVEMBER 13, 2012TITLE=HAITI STRUGGLES TO RECOVER AFTER ISSAC AND SANDY,weblink style="text-align:center;" Jamaica| 2| 1| 1| 0| 0100000000$}}DATE=NOVEMBER 1, 2012URL=HTTP://WWW.STABROEKNEWS.COM/2012/NEWS/REGIONAL/11/01/JAMAICA-PM-SAYS-SANDY-DAMAGE-AT-J5-BILLION-AND-CLIMBING/, style="text-align:center;" Puerto Rico| 1| 1| 0| 0| 0| {{N/A}}| style="text-align:center;" United States| 157| 71| 85| 1| 065000000000$}}PUBLISHER=NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTERACCESSDATE=JANUARY 26, 2018, style="text-align:center;" U.S. offshore| 2| 2| 0| 0| 0| {{N/A}}| class="sortbottom"! Totals: || {{nts|233}} || 106 || 87 || 40 || 21 || {{ntsp|68680000000||$}} ||At least 233 people were killed across the United States, the Caribbean, and Canada, as a result of the storm.NEWS, Sandy's death toll rises as Northeast begins recovery,weblink USA Today, November 1, 2012, Gary, Strauss, Carolyn, Pesce, October 31, 2012, WEB, Sandy death toll in US rises to 109; 'there could be more,' Bloomberg warns,weblink NBC News, November 3, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 13, 2016,



Jamaica was the first country directly affected by Sandy, which was also the first hurricane to make landfall on the island since Hurricane Gilbert, 24 years prior. Trees and power lines were snapped and shanty houses were heavily damaged, both from the winds and flooding rains. More than 100 fishermen were stranded in outlying Pedro Cays off Jamaica's southern coast.NEWS, Weakened hurricane lashes Bahamas after 21 deaths,weblink Associated Press, October 25, 2012, Stones falling from a hillside crushed one man to death as he tried to get into his house in a rural village near Kingston.WEB, Hurricane Sandy Hits Cuba after Jamaica,weblink Sky News, October 25, 2012, October 25, 2012, After 6 days another fatality recorded as a 27-year-old man, died due to electrocution, attempting a repair. The country's sole electricity provider, the Jamaica Public Service Company, reported that 70 percent of its customers were without power. More than 1,000 people went to shelters. Jamaican authorities closed the island's international airports, and police ordered 48-hour curfews in major towns to keep people off the streets and deter looting.NEWS, Hurricane Sandy pounds Jamaica, heads toward Cuba,weblink Reuters, October 25, 2012, October 25, 2012, Most buildings in the eastern portion of the island lost their roofs. Damage was assessed at approximately $100 million throughout the country.


In Haiti, which was still recovering from both the 2010 earthquake and the ongoing cholera outbreak, at least 54 people died, and approximately 200,000 were left homeless as a result of four days of ongoing rain from Hurricane Sandy.WEB, Charles and Morgan, Jacqueline and Curtis, Sandy's death toll climbs to 44 in Haiti,weblink The Miami Herald, October 28, 2012, Heavy damage occurred in Port-Salut after rivers overflowed their banks.NEWS, Hurricane Sandy pounds Jamaica, eyes U.S,weblink CBS, October 24, 2012, In the capital of Port-au-Prince, streets were flooded by the heavy rains, and it was reported that "the whole south of the country is underwater".NEWS, 65 dead as Hurricane Sandy crosses Caribbean; 'the whole south is under water,' says Haitian PM (with video),weblink Ottawa Citizen, October 29, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink November 3, 2012, dead, Most of the tents and buildings in the city's sprawling refugee camps and the Cité Soleil neighborhood were flooded or leaking, a repeat of what happened earlier in the year during the passage of Hurricane Isaac.WEB, Soggy Jamaica cleaning up after Hurricane Sandy,weblink Anchorage Daily News, October 25, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 3, 2012, Crops were also wiped out by the storm and the country would be making an appeal for emergency aid.WEB, Food Crisis, Cholera Feared in Haiti,weblink The Daily Beast, October 30, 2012, Damage in Haiti was estimated at $750 million (2012 USD), making it the costliest tropical cyclone in Haitian history. In the month following Sandy, a resurgence of cholera linked to the storm killed at least 44 people and infected more than 5,000 others.WEB, Agence France-Presse, ReliefWeb, November 20, 2012, November 21, 2012, Haïti : 44 décès en un mois, le choléra en hausse après Sandy,weblink es, In the neighboring Dominican Republic, two people were killed and 30,000 people evacuated. An employee of CNN estimated 70% of the streets in Santo Domingo were flooded.NEWS, Castillo, Mariano, Almasy, Steve, Sandy kills 11 in Cuba, then batters Bahamas,weblink CNN, October 26, 2012, October 26, 2012, One person was killed in Juana Díaz, Puerto Rico after being swept away by a swollen river.


{{Costliest Cuban hurricanes}}(File:Flickr - DVIDSHUB - Hurricane Sandy hits Guantanamo Bay (Image 1 of 3).jpg|thumbnail|left|Hurricane Sandy damage in Guantanamo Bay)At least 55,000 people were evacuated before Hurricane Sandy's arrival.NEWS, Hurricane Sandy growing stronger as it nears Cuba,weblink The Chicago Tribune, October 25, 2012, Jeanine, Prezioso, Jonathan, Allen,weblink" title="">weblink October 25, 2012, dead, While moving ashore, the storm produced waves up to 29 feet (9 meters) and a 6-foot (2 meter) storm surge that caused extensive coastal flooding.NEWS, Strengthening Hurricane Sandy slams into Cuba,weblink Reuters, October 25, 2012, October 25, 2012, There was widespread damage, particularly to Santiago de Cuba where 132,733 homes were damaged, of which 15,322 were destroyed and 43,426 lost their roof. Electricity and water services were knocked out, and most of the trees in the city were damaged. Total losses throughout Santiago de Cuba province is estimated as high as $2 billion (2012 USD). Sandy killed 11 people in the country – nine in Santiago de Cuba Province and two in Guantánamo Province; most of the victims were trapped in destroyed houses.WEB, Cuban state media say 11 deaths in Hurricane Sandy,weblink Atlanta Journal-Constitution, October 26, 2012, WEB, Hurricane Sandy leaves trail of destruction in Cuba,weblink, October 26, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 16, 2013, This makes Sandy the deadliest hurricane to hit Cuba since 2005, when Hurricane Dennis killed 16 people.NEWS, Hurricane Sandy rages through Bahamas, after killing 29 in the Caribbean, en route to US coast,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink November 3, 2012, The Washington Post, October 26, 2012, dead,


A NOAA automated station at Settlement Point on Grand Bahama Island reported sustained winds of 49 mph (74 km/h) and a wind gust of 63 mph (102 km/h).REPORT, Richard Pasch, Hurricane Sandy Advisory Number 18,weblink National Hurricane Center, October 26, 2012, One person died from falling off his roof while attempting to fix a window shutter in the Lyford Cay area on New Providence. Another died in the Queen's Cove area on Grand Bahama Island where he drowned after the sea surge trapped him in his apartment. Portions of the Bahamas lost power or cellular service, including an islandwide power outage on Bimini. Five homes were severely damaged near Williams's Town.NEWS, The Tribune (Nassau), October 27, 2012, Btc Post Hurricane Update, October 28, 2012,weblink Overall damage in the Bahamas was about $700 million (2012 USD), with the most severe damage on Cat Island and Exuma where many houses were heavily damaged by wind and storm surge.


Owing to the sheer size of the storm, Sandy also impacted Bermuda with high winds and heavy rains. On October 28, a weak F0 tornado touched down in Sandys Parish, damaging homes and businesses.WEB, Bermuda Weather, October 28, 2012, October 31, 2012, Hurricane Sandy Spawns a tornado in Bermuda,weblink During a three-day span, the storm produced {{convert|0.98|in|mm|abbr=on}} of rain at the L.F. Wade International Airport. The strongest winds were recorded on October 29: sustained winds reached {{convert|37|mph|km/h|abbr=on}} and gusts peaked at {{convert|58|mph|km/h|abbr=on}}, which produced scattered minor damage.WEB, Bermuda Weather Service, October 2012, October 31, 2012, Daily Climatology Written Summary: October 1, 2012 to October 30, 2012,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 16, 2009,

United States

{{Costliest U.S. Atlantic hurricanes}}File:Hurricane Sandy New Jersey Pier.jpg|thumb|left|Damage to Casino Pier in Seaside Heights, New Jersey]]A total of 24 U.S. states were in some way affected by Sandy. The hurricane caused tens of billions of dollars in damage in the United States, destroyed thousands of homes, left millions without electric service,NEWS,weblink Sandy leaves millions without power; 16 dead, October 30, 2012, November 5, 2012, USA Today, Kevin, McCoy, Elizabeth, Weise, and caused 71 direct deaths in nine states, including 49 in New York, 10 in New Jersey, 3 in Connecticut, 2 each in Pennsylvania and Maryland, and 1 each in New Hampshire, Virginia and West Virginia. There were also 2 direct deaths from Sandy in U.S. coastal waters in the Atlantic Ocean, about 90 miles (150 km) off the North Carolina coast, which are not counted in the U.S. total. In addition, the storm resulted in 87 indirect deaths. In all, a total of 160 people were killed due to the storm, making Sandy the deadliest hurricane to hit the United States mainland since Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the deadliest to hit the U.S. East Coast since Hurricane Agnes in 1972.WEB,weblink Deadliest U.S. Hurricanes of All Time | Weather Underground,, April 27, 2012, February 9, 2013, Due to flooding and other storm-related problems, Amtrak canceled all Acela Express, Northeast Regional, Keystone, and Shuttle services for October 29 and 30.WEB, Amtrak Northeast Corridor Services Canceled on Monday, October 29,weblink October 28, 2012, Amtrak, October 30, 2012, WEB, Most Amtrak Service in the Northeast remains Suspended on Tuesday, October 30,weblink October 29, 2012, Amtrak, October 30, 2012, More than 13,000 flights were canceled across the U.S. on October 29, and more than 3,500 were called off October 30.WEB, Catastrophic flooding hits Northeast as Sandy plows ashore,weblink NBC News, October 30, 2012, From October 27 through early November 1, airlines canceled a total of 19,729 flights, according to FlightAware.NEWS, Sandy: Flight cancellations push 20,000, but start to ease,weblink USA Today, November 1, 2012, Ben, Mutzabaugh, November 1, 2012, On October 31, over 6 million customers were still without power in 15 states and the District of Columbia. The states with the most customers without power were New Jersey with 2,040,195 customers; New York with 1,933,147; Pennsylvania with 852,458; and Connecticut with 486,927.WEB, Hurricane Sandy Situation Report #6, United States Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability, October 31, 2012, March 7, 2013,weblink PDF,weblink March 2, 2013, dead, (File:Sandy 2012 rainfall.gif|thumb|left|upright|Storm total rainfall for Sandy (2012) across the United States)The New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq reopened on October 31 after a two-day closure for the storm.WEB, Superstorm Sandy: 33 Dead and 8 Million Customers Without Power,weblink ABC News, October 30, 2012, More than 1,500 FEMA personnel were along the East Coast working to support disaster preparedness and response operations, including search and rescue, situational awareness, communications and logistical support. In addition, 28 teams containing 294 FEMA Corps members were pre-staged to support Sandy responders. Three federal urban search and rescue task forces were positioned in the Mid-Atlantic and ready to deploy as needed.WEB, Vicious Superstorm Sandy Smashes U.S. Northeast Cities,weblink, October 30, 2012, Direct Relief provided medical supplies to community clinics, non-profit health centers, and other groups in areas affected by Hurricane Sandy, and mapped pharmacies, gas stations, and other facilities that remained in the New York City area despite power outages.WEB,weblink Hurricane Sandy Relief, 2018-04-05, Direct Relief, en-US, 2019-03-06, On November 2, the American Red Cross announced they had 4,000 disaster workers across storm damaged areas, with thousands more en route from other states. Nearly 7,000 people spent the night in emergency shelters across the region.NEWS, Storm Aftermath: Live Updates,weblink New York Times, November 2, 2012, October 28, 2012, (Hurricane Sandy: Coming Together), a live telethon on November 2 that featured rock and pop stars such as Bruce Springsteen, Billy Joel, Jon Bon Jovi, Mary J. Blige, Sting and Christina Aguilera, raised around $23 million for American Red Cross hurricane relief efforts.WEB, Concert to Help Hurricane Sandy Victims Raises $23 Mln,weblink RIA NOVOSTI WEBSITE GROUP, November 4, 2012, As of November 5, 2012, the National Hurricane Center ranks Hurricane Sandy the second-costliest US hurricane since 1900 in constant 2010 dollars, and the sixth-costliest after adjusting for inflation, population and property values.NEWS, Is Sandy the second-most destructive U.S. hurricane ever? Or not even top 10?,weblink The Washington Post, November 5, 2012, Their report also states that due to global warming the number of future hurricanes will "either decrease or remain essentially unchanged" overall, but the ones that do form will likely be stronger, with fiercer winds and heavier rains.Scientists at the University of Utah reported the energy generated by Sandy was equivalent to "small earthquakes between magnitudes 2 and 3".NEWS,weblink 3 News NZ, Superstorm Sandy jolted United States, April 19, 2013, April 19, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink November 5, 2013, dead,



In South Florida, Sandy lashed the area with rough surf, strong winds, and brief squalls. Along the coast of Miami-Dade County, waves reached {{convert|10|ft|m}}, but may have been as high as {{convert|20|ft|m}} in Palm Beach County. In the former county, minor pounding occurred on a few coastal roads. Further north in Broward County, State Road A1A was inundated with sand and water, causing more than a {{convert|2|mi|km}} stretch of the road to be closed for the entire weekend. Additionally, coastal flooding extended inland up to 2 blocks in some locations and a few houses in the area suffered water damage. In Manalapan, which is located in southern Palm Beach County, several beachfront homes were threatened by erosion. The Lake Worth Pier was also damaged by rough seas. In Palm Beach County alone, losses reached $14 million.WEB,weblink Hurricane Sandy Overview, November 30, 2012, National Weather Service Miami, Florida, December 12, 2012, Sandy caused closures and cancellations of some activities at schools in Palm Beach, Broward and Miami-Dade counties.NEWS,weblink Hurricane Sandy forces cancellation of school athletic events in South Florida, Veiga, Christina Veiga, Miami Herald, October 25, 2012, October 30, 2012, Storm surge from Sandy also caused flooding and beach erosion along coastal areas in South Florida.weblink" title="">Ocean's wrath floods neighborhoods, rips up beaches by David Fleshler and Robert Nolin, South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Published October 28, 2012; retrieved 2012-10-30. Gusty winds also impacted South Florida, peaking at {{convert|67|mph|km/h|abbr=on}} in Jupiter and Fowey Rocks Light, which is near Key Biscayne. The storm left power outages across the region, which left many traffic lights out of order.NEWS, WSVN-TV, October 26, 2012, South Florida cleans up after Sandy, October 26, 2012,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink October 29, 2012, In east-central Florida, damage was minor, though the storm left about 1,000 people without power.NEWS, Click Orlando, October 26, 2012, Hurricane Sandy brings rain, strong winds to Central Florida, October 26, 2012,weblink Airlines at Miami International Airport canceled more than 20 flights to or from Jamaica or the Bahamas, while some airlines flying from Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport canceled a total of 13 flights to the islands. The Coast Guard rescued two sea men in Volusia County off New Smyrna Beach on the morning of October 26.WEB, 2 boaters rescued near New Smyrna Beach,weblink Central Florida News 13, October 27, 2012, Brevard and Volusia Counties schools canceled all extracurricular activities for October 26, including football.WEB, Hurricane Sandy cancels and postpones Brevard and Volusia County football on October 26. games,weblink CFN13, October 27, 2012, Two panther kittens escaped from the White Oak Conservation Center in Nassau County after the hurricane swept a tree into the fence of their enclosure; they were missing for 24 hours before being found in good health.NEWS, Sandy sets panthers free in Florida after falling tree destroys enclosure,weblink Daily Mail, November 2, 2012, Eddie, Wrenn, London, November 2, 2012,

North Carolina

File:121029-G-ZZ999-002 - Coast Guard rescues crewmembers aboard HMS.jpg|thumb|The 180-foot (55 m) sailing ship, BountyBountyOn October 28, Governor Bev Perdue declared a state of emergency in 24 western counties, due to snow and strong winds.WEB, Gov. Perdue Declares State of Emergency for 24 Western Counties,weblink State of NC, October 29, 2012, North Carolina was spared from major damage for the most part (except at the immediate coastline), though winds, rain, and mountain snow affected the state through October 30. Ocracoke and Highway 12 on Hatteras Island were flooded with up to {{convert|2|ft|m|sigfig=1}} of water, closing part of the highway, while 20 people on a fishing trip were stranded on Portsmouth Island.WEB,weblink Hatteras, Ocracoke get worst of Hurricane Sandy in NC,, October 28, 2012, There were three Hurricane Sandy-related deaths in the state.NEWS, Hurricane Sandy: CT, NY, NJ And Other East Coast States Assess Region After Deadly Storm,weblink The Huffington Post, November 4, 2012, November 3, 2012, On October 29, the Coast Guard responded to a distress call from Bounty, which was built for the 1962 movie Mutiny on the Bounty. It was taking on water about 90 miles (150 km) southeast of Cape Hatteras. Sixteen people were on board.NEWS, Coast Guard Monitors Tall Ship in Distress off NC,weblink ABC News, October 29, 2012, The Coast Guard said the 16 people abandoned ship and got into two lifeboats, wearing survival suits and life jackets.NEWS, Crew of tall ship off NC abandons ship,weblink The Associated Press, October 29, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 29, 2012, The ship sank after the crew got off.WEB, Hurricane Sandy sinks tall ship HMS Bounty,weblink Yahoo News, October 29, 2012, The Coast Guard rescued 14 crew members; another was found hours later but was unresponsive and later died.NEWS, SUPERSTORM SANDY SLAMS INTO NEW JERSEY COAST,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 30, 2012, Associated Press, October 30, 2012, The search for the captain, Robin Walbridge, was suspended on November 1, after efforts lasting more than 90 hours and covering approximately 12,000 square nautical miles (41,100 km²).NEWS, Search halted for missing ship captain after 3 days scouring sea off NC; ship sank in Sandy,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink November 2, 2012, The Washington Post, November 2, 2012, November 1, 2012, dead,



File:Hurricane Sandy hit Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (VA) (8141816490).jpg|thumb|Damaged road at Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge on Assateague IslandAssateague IslandOn October 29, snow was falling in parts of the state. Gov. Bob McDonnell announced on October 30 that Virginia had been "spared a significant event", but cited concerns about rivers cresting and consequent flooding of major arteries. Virginia was awarded a federal disaster declaration, with Gov. McDonnell saying he was "delighted" that President Barack Obama and FEMA were on it immediately. At Sandy's peak, more than 180,000 customers were without power, most of whom were located in Northern Virginia.WEB,weblink Gov. McDonnell: Virginia 'Spared' in Hurricane Sandy Damage, Annandale Patch, October 30, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 31, 2013, There were three Hurricane Sandy-related fatalities in the state.

Maryland and Washington, D.C.

File:Hurricane Sandy flooding Crisfield MD.jpg|thumb|left|Flooding in Crisfield, MarylandCrisfield, MarylandThe Supreme Court and the United States Government Office of Personnel Management were closed on October 30,NEWS, Supreme Court won't convene on Tuesday due to storm: spokeswoman,weblink Reuters, October 29, 2012, October 29, 2012, Joan, Biskupic, WEB,weblink Federal Government Operating Status, United States Office of Personnel Management, October 29, 2012, and schools were closed for two days.NEWS,weblink Most schools, services resume after storm, October 31, 2012, Washington Post, MARC train and Virginia Railway Express were closed on October 30, and Metro rail and bus service were on Sunday schedule, opening at 2 p.m., until the system closes.WEB, Sandy leaves behind outages, flooded roads,weblink WTOP FM, October 30, 2012, At least 100 feet (30 m) of a fishing pier in Ocean City was destroyed. Governor Martin O'Malley said the pier was "half-gone".WEB, Sandy Damages Pier in Downtown Ocean City,weblink October 29, 2012, Due to high winds, the Chesapeake Bay Bridge and the Millard E. Tydings Memorial Bridge on I-95 were closed.NEWS,weblink Md. governor: Bay Bridge closing to traffic, SFGate, October 29, 2012, During the storm, the Mayor of Salisbury instituted a Civil Emergency and a curfew.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 30, 2012, Declaration of Civil Emergency, City of Salisbury, Maryland, October 29, 2012, Interstate 68 in far western Maryland and northern West Virginia closed due to heavy snow, stranding multiple vehicles and requiring assistance from the National Guard.WEB, Sandy picks up speed, may make landfall in Delaware or southern NJ,weblink October 29, 2012, Workers in Howard County tried to stop a sewage overflow caused by a power outage October 30. Raw sewage spilled at a rate of 2 million gallons per hour. It was unclear how much sewage had flowed into the Little Patuxent River.NEWS,weblink Sandy pummels West Virginia as grueling recovery begins on East Coast, October 31, 2012, CNN, November 1, 2012, Over 311,000 people were left without power as a result of the storm.


File:Hurricane Sandy impacts Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge (DE).jpg|thumb|Before and after image of flooding caused by Hurricane Sandy at Prime Hook National Wildlife RefugePrime Hook National Wildlife RefugeBy the afternoon of October 29, rainfall at Rehoboth Beach totaled {{convert|6.53|in|mm}}. Other precipitation reports include nearly {{convert|7|in|mm}} at Indian River Inlet and more than {{convert|4|in|mm}} in Dover and Bear. At 4 p.m. on October 29, Delmarva Power reported on its website that more than 13,900 customers in Delaware and portions of the Eastern Shore of Maryland had lost electric service as high winds brought down trees and power lines. About 3,500 of those were in New Castle County, 2,900 were in Sussex, and more than 100 were in Kent County. Some residents in Kent and Sussex Counties experienced power outages that lasted up to nearly six hours. At the peak of the storm, more than 45,000 customers in Delaware were without power. The Delaware Memorial Bridge speed limit was reduced to {{convert|25|mph|km/h|abbr=on}} and the two outer lanes in each direction were closed. Officials planned to close the span entirely if sustained winds exceeded {{convert|50|mph|km/h|abbr=on}}. A wind gust of {{convert|64|mph|km/h|abbr=on}} was measured at Lewes just before 2:30 p.m. on October 29. Delaware Route 1 was closed due to water inundation between Dewey Beach and Fenwick Island. In Dewey Beach, flood waters were {{convert|1|to|2|ft|m}} in depth.WEB, Sandy picks up speed, may make landfall in Delaware or southern NJ, October 29, 2012,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 23, 2013, Following the impact in Delaware, President Barack Obama declared the entire state a federal disaster area, providing money and agencies for disaster relief in the wake of Hurricane Sandy.WEB, President Declares Disaster for Delaware,weblinkweblink dead, November 17, 2012,

New Jersey

File:121030-F-AL508-081c Aerial views during an Army search and rescue mission show damage from Hurricane Sandy to the New Jersey coast, Oct. 30, 2012.jpg|thumb|Damage to Mantoloking, New JerseyMantoloking, New JerseyA 50-foot (15 m) piece of the Atlantic City Boardwalk washed away. Half the city of Hoboken flooded; the city of 50,000 had to evacuate two of its fire stations, the EMS headquarters, and the hospital. With the city cut off from area hospitals and fire suppression mutual aid, the city's Mayor asked for National Guard help. In the early morning of October 30, authorities in Bergen County, New Jersey, evacuated residents after a berm overflowed and flooded several communities. Police Chief of Staff Jeanne Baratta said there were up to five feet (1.5 m) of water in the streets of Moonachie and Little Ferry. The state Office of Emergency Management said rescues were undertaken in Carlstadt.WEB, Thousands of people may need to be rescued from New Jersey dam break, Bergen County Police Chief of Staff says,weblink CNN, October 30, 2012, Baratta said the three towns had been "devastated" by the flood of water.NEWS, Levee breaks in Northern New Jersey, floods three towns,weblink Reuters, October 30, 2012, October 30, 2012, At the peak of the storm, more than 2,600,000 customers were without power. There were 43 Hurricane Sandy-related deaths in the state of New Jersey.NEWS,weblink Factbox: Storm Sandy blamed for at least 132 deaths in U.S., Canada, Osterman, Cynthia, November 16, 2012, Reuters, Damage in the state was estimated at $36.8 billion.NEWS,weblink CNN, November 27, 2013, July 13, 2013, Hurricane Sandy Fast Facts,


File:Hurricane Sandy downed tree Kutztown PA.jpg|thumb|Downed tree in Kutztown, PennsylvaniaKutztown, PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia Mayor Michael Nutter said the city would have no mass transit operations on any lines October 30. All major highways in and around the city of Philadelphia were closed on October 29 during the hurricane, including Interstate 95, the Blue Route portion of Interstate 476, the Vine Street Expressway, Schuylkill Expressway (I-76), and the Roosevelt Expressway; U.S. Route 1.NEWS, Philadelphia area highways, bridges shut down,weblink WPVI-TV, October 29, 2012, October 30, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink October 30, 2012, dead, The highways reopened at 4 a.m. on October 30. The Delaware River Port Authority also closed its major crossings over the Delaware River between Pennsylvania and New Jersey due to high winds, including the Commodore Barry Bridge, the Walt Whitman Bridge, the Ben Franklin Bridge and the Betsy Ross Bridge. Trees and powerlines were downed throughout Altoona, and four buildings partially collapsed.WEB,weblink Thousands still without power, The Altoona Mirror, July 22, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 17, 2016, More than 1.2 million were left without power. The Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency reported 14 deaths believed to be related to Sandy.NEWS, Death toll from Sandy now 96 in U.S,weblink CNN, November 2, 2012, November 2, 2012,

New York

File:NJ-NY lights comparison.png|thumb|Suomi NPPSuomi NPPNew York governor Andrew Cuomo called National Guard members to help in the state. Storm impacts in Upstate New York were much more limited than in New York City; there was some flooding and a few downed trees.NEWS,weblink Storm takes a toll on area trees, Democrat and Chronicle, October 30, 2012, Rochester area utilities reported slightly fewer than 19,000 customers without power, in seven counties.NEWS,weblink Power outages in the Rochester area, Democrat and Chronicle, October 30, 2012, In the state as a whole, however, more than 2,000,000 customers were without power at the peak of the storm.Mayor of New York City Michael Bloomberg announced that New York City public schools would be closed on Tuesday, October 30 and Wednesday, October 31, but they remained closed through Friday, November 2.NEWS, Hurricane Sandy closures,weblink New York Post, October 29, 2012, October 29, 2012, CUNY and NYU canceled all classes and campus activities for October 30.NEWS, Follow live Hurricane Sandy updates from around the city,weblink New York Post, October 29, 2012, Yoav, Gonen, Sally, Goldenberg, David K., Li, Amy, Stretten, Jessica, Simeone, Amber, Sutherland, Lorena, Mongelli, Larry, Celona, Antonio, Antenucci, October 30, 2012, The New York Stock Exchange was closed for trading for two days, the first weather closure of the exchange since 1985.NEWS,weblink Stock market to remain closed Tuesday, Andrew, Tangel, October 29, 2012, Los Angeles Times, October 29, 2012, It was also the first two-day weather closure since the Great Blizzard of 1888.NEWS,weblink Hurricane Sandy to keep stock markets shuttered Tuesday, Market Day, October 29, 2012, October 29, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 30, 2012, The East River overflowed its banks, flooding large sections of Lower Manhattan. Battery Park had a water surge of 13.88 ft.WEB, Long, Colleen,weblink Water, fire and darkness: NYC after the superstorm,, October 29, 2012, October 30, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 1, 2012, Seven subway tunnels under the East River were flooded.NEWS, Tracking Storm Sandy Recovery,weblink Reuters, October 30, 2012, The Metropolitan Transportation Authority said that the destruction caused by the storm was the worst disaster in the 108-year history of the New York City subway system.NEWS, Worst disaster in NYC subway's history, says MTA chief,weblink The Borneo Post, October 3, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 13, 2014, Sea water flooded the Ground Zero construction site.NEWS, Superstorm Sandy: flood, wind damage and travel chaos in New York City,weblink The Telegraph, October 30, 2012, October 30, 2012, London, Over 10 billion gallons of raw and partially treated sewage were released by the storm, 94% of which went into waters in and around New York and New Jersey.WEB,weblink Report Cites Large Release of Sewage From Hurricane Sandy, May 1, 2013, The New York Times, July 22, 2016, In addition, a four-story Chelsea building's facade crumbled and collapsed, leaving the interior on full display; however, no one was hurt by the falling masonry.NEWS,weblink Hurricane Sandy: Large sections of Manhattan left without power, October 29, 2012, November 4, 2012, The Oregonian, The Atlantic Ocean storm surge also caused considerable flood damage to homes, buildings, roadways, boardwalks and mass transit facilities in low-lying coastal areas of the outer boroughs of Queens, Brooklyn and Staten Island.After receiving many complaints that holding the marathon would divert needed resources, Mayor Bloomberg announced late afternoon November 2 that the New York City Marathon had been canceled. The event was to take place on Sunday, November 4. Marathon officials said that they did not plan to reschedule.WEB, NYC Marathon Won't Be Held Sunday: Officials,weblink WNBC TV, November 2, 2012, Gas shortages throughout the region led to an effort by the U.S. federal government to bring in gasoline and set up mobile truck distribution at which people could receive up to 10 gallons of gas, free of charge. This caused lines of up to 20 blocks long and was quickly suspended.NEWS, Fractured Recovery Divides the Region,weblink The New York Times, November 9, 2012, James, Barron, Sam, Dolnick, Michael, Schwirtz, November 3, 2012, On Thursday, November 8, Mayor Bloomberg announced odd-even rationing of gasoline would be in effect beginning November 9 until further notice.NEWS, New York City and Long Island Impose Odd-Even Gas Rationing,weblink The New York Times, November 9, 2012, Andy, Newman, November 8, 2012, On November 26, Governor Cuomo called Sandy "more impactful" than Hurricane Katrina, and estimated costs to New York at $42 billion.NEWS,weblink Cuomo, in Aid Appeal, Cites Broad Reach of Storm, November 26, 2012, December 2, 2012, The New York Times, Thomas, Kaplan, Raymond, Hernandez, Approximately 100,000 residences on Long Island were destroyed or severely damaged, including 2,000 that were rendered uninhabitable.WEB,weblink Officials: Sandy destroys more than 2,000 LI homes Newsday December 10, 2012, Newsday, October 4, 2014, There were 53 Hurricane Sandy-related deaths in the state of New York.NEWS,weblink Deaths Associated with Hurricane Sandy — October–November 2012, May 24, 2013, May 11, 2017, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, In 2016, the hurricane was determined to have been the worst to strike the New York City area since at least 1700.NEWS,weblink New research shows Hurricane Sandy was the worst storm to hit New York since at least 1700, October 28, 2016, October 29, 2016, Business Insider, Rafi, Letzter,

New England

Wind gusts to 83 mph were recorded on outer Cape Cod and Buzzards Bay.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, February 9, 2013, Highest Winds from Sandy in Massachusetts,, October 30, 2012, Nearly 300,000 customers were without power in Massachusetts, and roads and buildings were flooded.NEWS,weblink High winds, rain knock out power to thousands in Mass,, October 30, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 30, 2012, Over 100,000 customers lost power in Rhode Island.WEB, Armental, Maria,weblink More than 100,000 in RI without power, 600 without natural gas after Sandy,, October 30, 2012, Most of the damage was along the coastline, where some communities were flooded.WEB, Turn to 10,weblink Sandy pounds Southern New England; Thousands without power, October 30, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 1, 2012, Mount Washington, New Hampshire saw the strongest measured wind gust from the storm at 140 mph.WEB,weblink Mount Washington Observatory October 2012 F6 Data,, October 30, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 31, 2013, Nearly 142,000 customers lost power in the state.

Appalachia and Midwest

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West Virginia

File:Hurricane Sandy pounds West Virginia.png|thumb|right|Snow from Hurricane Sandy in West VirginiaWest VirginiaSandy's rain became snow in the Appalachian mountains, leading to blizzard conditions in some areas, especially West Virginia, when a tongue of dense and heavy Arctic air pushed south through the region. This would normally cause a Nor'easter, prompting some to dub Sandy a "nor'eastercane" or "Frankenstorm".NEWS, How Sandy Became a Snowstorm,weblink November 1, 2012, CBS News, There was {{convert|1|–|3|ft|cm}} of snowfall in 28 of West Virginia's 55 counties.NEWS,weblink Superstorm Sandy's West Virginia weapon: Killer snow, February 20, 2013, CNN, October 31, 2012, The highest snowfall accumulation was {{convert|36|in|cm}} near Richwood. Other significant totals include {{convert|32|in|cm}} in Snowshoe, {{convert|29|in|cm}} in Quinwood,WEB, Sandy's Snowy Side Turns Deadly,weblink November 1, 2012, and {{convert|28|in|cm}} in Davis, Flat Top, and Huttonsville.WEB, Post-Tropical Cyclone SANDY Public Advisory,weblink October 31, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 1, 2012, By the morning of October 31, there were still 36 roads closed due to downed trees, powerlines, and snow in the road. Approximately 271,800 customers lost power during the storm.There were reports of collapsed buildings in several counties due to the sheer weight of the wet, heavy snow.WEB, W.Va. officials confirm 6th death related to Superstorm Sandy; electricity still out for many,weblink November 1, 2012, {{dead link|date=September 2017 |bot=Jarble |fix-attempted=yes }} Overall, there were seven fatalities related to Hurricane Sandy and its remnants in West Virginia,WEB, Hurricane Sandy death toll climbs above 110, NY hardest hit,weblink X1 Law, November 4, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 10, 2013, including John Rose, Sr., the Republican candidate for the state's 47th district in the state legislature, who was killed in the aftermath of the storm by a falling tree limb broken off by the heavy snowfall.NEWS,weblink West Virginia legislative candidate killed by tree that fell in storm, Cavaliere, Victoria, October 31, 2012, New York Daily News, November 1, 2012, Governor Earl Ray Tomblin asked President Obama for a federal disaster declaration, and on October 30, President Obama approved a state of emergency declaration for the state.WEB, Obama approves state of emergency declaration for West Virginia,weblink Bluefield Daily Telegraph, October 30, 2012,


Wind gusts at Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport were reported at {{convert|68|mph}}.WEB, Buckingham, Lindsay, Rock Hall Damaged by Superstorm,weblink Fox 8 Cleveland, October 30, 2012, October 30, 2012, On October 30, hundreds of school districts canceled or delayed school across the state with at least 250,000 homes and businesses without power. Damage was reported across the state including the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame which lost parts of its siding. Snow was reported in some parts of eastern Ohio and south of Cleveland. Snow and icy roads also were reported south of Columbus.NEWS, Sandy brings high winds, snow to Ohio,weblink Toledo Blade, October 30, 2012, October 30, 2012,


The US Department of Energy reported that more than 120,000 customers lost power in Michigan as a result of the storm. The National Weather Service said that waves up to 23 feet (7 m) high were reported on southern Lake Huron.


More than one foot (300 mm) of snow fell in eastern Kentucky as Sandy merged with an Arctic front.WEB, Power outages continue after Sandy dumps snow on eastern Kentucky,weblink WKYT TV, November 1, 2012, Winter warnings in Harlan, Letcher, and Pike County were put into effect until October 31.NEWS, A state-by-state look at what's happened with Hurricane Sandy, and what to expect,weblink New York Daily News, December 23, 2015,


The remnants of Sandy produced high winds along Lake Huron and Georgian Bay, where gusts were measured at 105 km/h (63 mph). A 121 km/h (72 mph) gust was measured on top of the Bluewater Bridge.WEB,weblink Ontario – Special Weather Statements – Environment Canada,, July 30, 2012, October 31, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 30, 2012, One woman died after being hit by a piece of flying debris in Toronto. At least 145,000 customers across Ontario lost power,NEWS, Sandy leaves 145,000 Canadians without power, one dead,weblink Reuters, October 30, 2012, October 30, 2012, and a Bluewater Power worker was electrocuted in Sarnia while working to restore power.WEB,weblink Hydro worker killed during Sandy repairs in Ontario, October 31, 2012, October 4, 2014, Around 49,000 homes and businesses lost power in Quebec during the storm, with nearly 40,000 of those in the Laurentides region of the province, as well as more than 4,000 customers in the Eastern Townships and 1,700 customers in Montreal.WEB, 32,000 still without power in Quebec because of Sandy,weblink CTV Montreal, October 30, 2012, Hundreds of flights were canceled.WEB, Hurricane Sandy grounds all Porter flights from Toronto's island airport,weblink Metro, October 30, 2012, Around 14,000 customers in Nova Scotia lost power during the height of the storm.NEWS, Superstorm Sandy's death toll climbs; millions without power across the East U.S,weblink Hamilton Spectator, October 31, 2012, The Insurance Bureau of Canada's preliminary damage estimate was over $100 million for the nation.


Relief efforts

File:RedCross Obama 1.jpg|thumb|October 30, 2012, President Barack Obama visits the American Red CrossAmerican Red CrossSeveral media organizations contributed to the immediate relief effort: Disney–ABC Television Group held a "Day of Giving" on Monday, November 5, raising $17 million on their television stations for the American Red CrossNEWS, Molloy, Tim, ABC's "Day of Giving" for Sandy Raises $17million,weblink November 8, 2012, Chicago Tribune, November 7, 2012, {{dead link|date=February 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} and NBC raised $23 million during their (Hurricane Sandy: Coming Together) telethon the same day.NEWS, NBC Hurricane Sandy Telethon Raises $23 Million, November 8, 2012,weblink Rolling Stone, November 5, 2012, On October 31, 2012, News Corporation donated $1 million to relief efforts in the New York metropolitan area.NEWS, Kenneally, Tim, News Corp. Donates $1M to Hurricane Sandy Relief,weblink November 8, 2012, The Wrap, October 31, 2012, As of December 2013, the NGO Hurricane Sandy New Jersey Relief Fund had distributed much of the funding raised in New Jersey.NEWS, Nahmias, Laura, N.Y. Sandy Fund Scrutinized,weblink December 14, 2015, Wall Street Journal, December 9, 2013, File:Home in Long Beach New York Being Raised 2017.jpg|thumb|300px|left|In Long Beach, New YorkLong Beach, New YorkOn November 6, the United Nations and World Food Programme promised humanitarian aid to at least 500,000 people in Santiago de Cuba.NEWS, UN to send food for 500,000 in eastern Cuba after Sandy; power grid at 64 percent in Santiago,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink November 7, 2012, November 8, 2012, The Washington Post, November 6, 2012, dead, On December 12, 2012, the (12-12-12: The Concert for Sandy Relief) took place at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Various television channels in the United States and internationally aired the four-hour concert which was expected to reach over 1 billion people worldwide, featuring Bon Jovi, Eric Clapton, Dave Grohl, Billy Joel, Alicia Keys, Chris Martin, Paul McCartney, The Rolling Stones, Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band, Roger Waters, Eddie Vedder, Kanye West, and The Who. Web sites including,, YouTube, and the sites of AOL and Yahoo! planned to stream the performance.JOURNAL,weblink Nearly 30 Cable Nets Set to Air '12-12-12' Charity Concert, December 7, 2012, Broadcasting & Cable, December 3, 2012, On December 28, 2012, the United States Senate approved an emergency Hurricane Sandy relief bill to provide $60 billion for US states affected by Sandy,WEB, BREAKINGNEWS: Senate approves bill to provide $60B for states affected by Sandy,weblink, December 29, 2012, but the House in effect postponed action until the next session which began January 3 by adjourning without voting on the bill.NEWS, Fox News, NY lawmakers call House GOP plans to adjourn Congress without vote on Sandy aid a 'betrayal', January 2, 2013,weblink On January 4, 2013 House leaders pledged to vote on a flood insurance bill and an aid package by January 15.NEWS,weblink Fox News, House leaders pledge to vote on Sandy aid bill amid bipartisan complaints over delay, January 2, 2013, On January 28, the Senate passed the $50.5 billion Sandy aid bill by a count of 62–36.WEB, Senate Passes $50 Billion Sandy Aid Bill,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, February 16, 2013, NY1, January 28, 2013, which President Obama signed into law January 29.WEB, President Obama signs storm aid bill,weblink WNYW, January 30, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 30, 2013, In January 2013, The New York Times reported that those affected by the hurricane were still struggling to recover.NEWS, Recovery Remains Spotty 3 Months After Hurricane,weblink The New York Times, The New York Times, March 24, 2014, January 21, 2013, In June 2013, NY Governor Andrew Cuomo set out to centralize recovery and rebuilding efforts in impacted areas of New York State by establishing the Governor's Office of Storm Recovery (GOSR). He aimed to address communities' most urgent needs, and to identify innovative and enduring solutions to strengthen the State's infrastructure and critical systems. Operating under the umbrella of New York Rising, GOSR utilized approximately $3.8 billion in flexible funding made available by the U.S. Department of Housing & Urban Development's (HUD) Community Development Block Grant Disaster Recovery (CDBG-DR) program to concentrate aid in four main areas: housing, small business, infrastructure, and the community reconstruction.WEB, Governor's Office of Storm Recovery: Overview,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 5, 2014, On December 6, 2013, an analysis of Federal Emergency Management Agency data showed that fewer than half of those affected who requested disaster recovery assistance had received any, and a total of 30,000 residents of New York and New Jersey remained displaced.NEWS, McGeehan, Patrick, Displaced by Hurricane Sandy, and Living in Limbo,weblink The New York Times, The New York Times, March 24, 2014, December 6, 2013, In March 2014, Newsday reported, that 17 months after the hurricane people displaced from rental units on Long Island faced unique difficulties due to lack of affordable rental housing and delays in housing program implementations by New York State. Close to 9,000 rental units on Long Island were damaged by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012, and Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee in 2011 per the NY State Governor's Office of Storm Recovery (GOSR).WEB, Long Island storm damage,weblink Newsday, New York State Governor's Office of Storm Recovery, March 25, 2014, New York State officials said that additional assistance would soon be available from the HUD's Community Development Block Grant funds via the New York Rising program.WEB, Ramos, Victor, Displaced by Sandy, LI renters long for home,weblink Newsday, Newsday, March 25, 2014, On March 15, 2014, a group of those who remained displaced by the hurricane organized a protest at the Nassau Legislative building in Mineola, New York, to raise awareness of their frustration with the timeline for receiving financial assistance from the New York Rising program.WEB, Protesters demand Sandy recovery help in Mineola, News 12,weblink News 12, March 25, 2014, {{As of| March 2014}}, the GOSR released a press statement, that the New York Rising Community Reconstruction Program had distributed more than $280 million in payments to 6,388 homeowners for damage from Hurricane Sandy, Hurricane Irene or Tropical Storm Lee. Every eligible homeowner who had applied by January 20, 2014, had been issued a check for home reconstruction, including over 4,650 Nassau residents for over $201 million and over 1,350 Suffolk residents for over $65 million. The state also had made offers over $293 million to buy out homes of 709 homeowners.WEB, Press Release, Governor's Office of Storm Recovery, March 11, 2014,weblink

Political impact

File:President Barack Obama Tours Storm Damage in New Jersey 7.jpg|thumb|President Barack Obama and New Jersey Governor Chris Christie talking to storm victims in Brigantine ]]File:Chris Christie On Post-Sandy Obama Meet- 'I Would Do It Again' - Morning Joe - MSNBC.webm|thumb|'Chris Christie On Post-Sandy Obama Meet- 'I Would Do It Again'' video from MSNBC in 2017 in the aftermath of Hurricane HarveyHurricane HarveyHurricane Sandy sparked much political commentary. Many scientists said warming oceans and greater atmospheric moisture were intensifying storms while rising sea levels were worsening coastal effects. November 2012 Representative Henry Waxman of California, the top Democrat of the House Energy and Commerce Committee, requested a hearing in the lame duck session on links between climate change and Hurricane Sandy.NEWS, Rep. Waxman seeks lame-duck hearing on Sandy, climate change links,weblink The Hill, November 4, 2012, Some news outlets labeled the storm the October surprise of the 2012 United States Presidential election,NEWS, Hurricane Sandy: Election 2012's October surprise?,weblink Boerma, Lindsey, October 28, 2012, CBS News, NEWS, This October Surprise Could Hurt Obama,weblink Carlson, Margaret, October 29, 2012, Bloomberg, while Democrats and Republicans accused each other of politicizing the storm.NEWS, Politicizing Hurricane Sandy: Left vs. Right, Gotthardt, Karl,weblink October 31, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 5, 2012, The storm hit the United States one week before its general United States elections, and affected the presidential campaign, local and state campaigns in storm-damaged areas. New Jersey Governor Chris Christie, one of Mitt Romney's leading supporters, praised President Barack Obama and his reaction to the hurricane, and toured storm-damaged areas of his state with the president.NEWS, Horsey, David, Chris Christie and Hurricane Sandy give Obama a timely boost,weblink LA Times, November 2, 2012, October 31, 2012, It was reported at the time that Sandy might affect elections in several states, especially by curtailing early voting.WEB,weblink Hurricane Sandy effect on election could hurt Democrats, Foundation for Independent Voter Education, October 31, 2012, W.E. Messamore, The Economist wrote, "the weather is supposed to clear up well ahead of election day, but the impact could be felt in the turnout of early voters."NEWS,weblink The politics of Hurricane Sandy, The Economist, October 29, 2012, ABC News predicted this might be offset by a tendency to clear roads and restore power more quickly in urban areas.WEB,weblink Could Sandy push back Election Day?, ABC News, The storm ignited a debate over whether Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney in 2011 proposed to eliminate the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).NEWS,weblink Did Mitt Romney suggest eliminating FEMA?, Christian Science Monitor, October 30, 2012, The next day the Romney campaign promised to keep FEMA funded, but did not explain what other parts of the federal budget it would cut to pay for it.NEWS, Andrew Taylor (AP), Mitt Romney Disaster Relief Position Faces Scrutiny,weblink US News & World Report, October 31, 2012, Beyond the election, National Defense Magazine said Sandy "might cause a rethinking (in the USA) of how climate change threatens national security".NEWS, Erwin, Sandra I., Superstorm Sandy Topples Traditional Notions of National Security,weblink November 5, 2012, National Defense Magazine, October 31, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 15, 2013, In his news conference on November 14, 2012, President Obama said, "we can't attribute any particular weather event to climate change. What we do know is the temperature around the globe is increasing faster than was predicted even 10 years ago. We do know that the Arctic ice cap is melting faster than was predicted even five years ago. We do know that there have been extraordinarily — there have been an extraordinarily large number of severe weather events here in North America, but also around the globe. And I am a firm believer that climate change is real, that it is impacted by human behavior and carbon emissions. And as a consequence, I think we've got an obligation to future generations to do something about it."NEWS, Transcript of President Obama's News Conference,weblink November 14, 2012, New York Times, November 14, 2012, On January 30, 2015, days after the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers released a post-Sandy report examining flood risks for 31,200 miles (50,210 km) of the North Atlantic coast, President Obama issued an executive order directing federal agencies, state and local governments drawing federal funds to adopt stricter building and siting standards to reflect scientific projections that future flooding will be more frequent and intense due to climate change.Eilperin, Juliet In major shift, Obama administration will plan for rising seas in all federal projects The Washington Post. January 30, 2015

Financial markets impact

{{update section|date=March 2017}}Power outages and flooding in the area closed the New York Stock Exchange and other financial markets on both October 29 and 30, a weather-related closure that last happened in 1888.NEWS, Craig, Susanne, Protess, Ben, After Hurricane Sandy, Stock Exchanges Prepare to Open,weblink November 25, 2014, The New York Times, October 30, 2012, When markets reopened on October 31, investors were relieved that it closed relatively flat that day. A week later, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners Capital Markets Bureau noted a slight uptick in the market (0.8%) and suggested that the negative economic impact of Hurricane Sandy was offset by the expected positive impacts of rebuilding.NEWS, Market Volatility: The Impact of Hurricane Sandy on the Financial Markets,weblink Capital Markets Bureau Report, National Association of Insurance Commissioners, November 8, 2012,

Media coverage

As Hurricane Sandy approached the United States, forecasters and journalists gave it several different unofficial names, at first related to its projected snow content, then to its proximity to Halloween, and eventually to the overall size of the storm. Early nicknames included "Snowicane Sandy"MAGAZINE, It Is Time To Start Freaking Out About Snowicane Sandy,weblink New York Magazine, Amira, Dan, October 25, 2012, and "Snor'eastercane Sandy".NEWS, How to Feel About a Snor'eastercane, Atlantic Wire,weblink Doll, Jen, October 25, 2012, NEWS, Weather Journal: When Hurricane Meets Snowstorm, Holthaus, Eric, The Wall Street Journal,weblink October 24, 2012, The most popular Halloween-related nickname was "Frankenstorm",MAGAZINE, Frankenstorm: Why Hurricane Sandy Will Be Historic,weblink Walsh, Bryan, Time, October 29, 2012, NEWS, Biggest Moments of 2012: The Frankenstorm, Sharwood, Anthony, The Telegraph,weblink December 13, 2012, coined by Jim Cisco, a forecaster at the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center.NEWS, What's in a name? Frankenstorm vs. Sandy, Rice, Doyle, USA Today,weblink October 26, 2012, NEWS, Pre-Halloween 'Frankenstorm' takes aim at East Coast,weblink Fox News, October 27, 2012, NEWS,weblink Airlines offer travel waivers ahead of Hurricane Sandy, CBS News, October 26, 2012, CNN banned the use of the term, saying it trivialized the destruction.NEWS, Washington Post, Wemple, Erik, October 26, 2012,weblink The Washington Post, WEB, CNN Has Banned The Term 'Frankenstorm' From Its Hurricane Sandy Coverage, Alvarez, Alex,weblink The severe and widespread damage the storm caused in the United States, as well as its unusual merger with a frontal system, resulted in the nicknaming of the hurricane "Superstorm Sandy" by the media, public officials, and several organizations, including U.S. government agencies.NEWS,weblink Superstorm Sandy debris may hurt tourism,, March 3, 2013, February 18, 2013, NEWS,weblink Why is Sandy unusual?,, March 3, 2013, October 30, 2012, NEWS,weblink Superstorm Sandy triggers climate blame game,, March 3, 2013, November 2, 2012, WEB,weblink Hurrikan "Sandy": Die tödliche Kraft des Supersturms,, German, March 3, 2013, WEB, Superstorm Sandy Event Review,weblink National Weather Service, December 18, 2012, December 6, 2012, WEB, Storm Summary for Superstorm Sandy,weblink National Weather Service, December 18, 2012, WEB, Red Cross One-Month Report on Superstorm Sandy,weblink Red Cross, December 18, 2012, December 3, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink December 4, 2012, dead, This persisted as the most common nickname well into 2013.WEB, NJ to use Sandy money for boardwalk fire cleanup,weblink BloombergBusinessWeek News, October 4, 2013, September 16, 2013, WEB, Superstorm Sandy: New York City Transit Emergency Procurement Actions,weblink New York City Metropolitan Transportation Authority, October 22, 2013, September 18, 2013, The term was also embraced by climate change proponents as a term for the new type of storms caused by global warming,NEWS, Opinion:Super Storm Sandy, Trenberth, Kevin,weblink October 31, 2012, {{synthesis inline|date=September 2013}} while other writers used the term but maintained that it was too soon to blame the storm on climate change.NEWS, You can't blame the superstorm on climate change — not yet, Borenstein, Seth, MSNBC, October 30, 2012,weblink WEB, Tubb: Superstorm Sandy is not proof of global warming,weblink December 6, 2012, Meanwhile, Popular Science called it "an imaginary scare-term that exists exclusively for shock value".WEB,weblink News Writers: Stop Trying To Scare People With Made-Up Storm Language, Nosowitz, Dan, Popular Science, November 1, 2012, December 23, 2012,

Insurance fraud claims

Thousands of homeowners were denied their flood insurance claims based upon fraudulent engineers' reports, according to the whistleblowing efforts of Andrew Braum, an engineer who claimed that at least 175 of his more than 180 inspections were doctored.EPISODE, The Storm after the Storm,weblink 60 Minutes, CBS, March 1, 2015, April 6, 2015, JOURNAL, Cushman, Ted, FEMA Official Admits Fraud in Sandy Flood Cases,weblink The Journal of Light Construction, March 9, 2015, April 6, 2015, As a result, a class-action racketeering lawsuit has been filed against several insurance companies and their contract engineering firms.JOURNAL, Cushman, Ted, Texas Trial Lawyer Mostyn Changing the Game in Sandy Insurance Battle,weblink The Journal of Light Construction, February 23, 2015, April 6, 2015, {{As of |2015}}, the Federal Emergency Management Agency planned to review all flood insurance claims.{{citation | last= Dunn | first= Catherine | title= FEMA Opens Review To Every Single Hurricane Sandy Flood Insurance Claim After Fraud Allegations | url=weblink | newspaper = The International Business Times | date= March 11, 2015 | accessdate= April 6, 2015}}

Baby boom

New Jersey hospitals saw a spike in births nine months after Sandy, causing some to believe that there was a post-Sandy baby boom. The Monmouth Medical Center saw a 35% jump, and two other hospitals saw 20% increases.NEWS,weblink Is the post-Sandy baby boom real?, Josh Levs, CNN, July 24, 2013, July 24, 2013, An expert stated that post-storm births that year were higher than in past disasters.NEWS,weblink Oh, baby! Sandy baby boom due at Shore this month, Asbury Park Press, Carol Gorga Williams, July 23, 2013, July 24, 2013,

Retirement of the name

{{See also|List of retired Atlantic hurricane names}}Because of the exceptional damage and deaths caused by the storm in many countries, the name "Sandy" was later retired by the World Meteorological Organization, and will never be used again for a North Atlantic hurricane.WEB, Tropical Cyclone Naming History and Retired Names, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, December 4, 2018,weblink The name was replaced with "Sara" as a naming candidate for the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season ("Sara" ended up unused in 2018 and will next be a candidate in 2024).WEB, 'Sandy' Out, 'Sara' in For 2018 Atlantic Hurricane Names, Watch out for 'Joyce', 2018, 640 The Hurricane Sports Radio, December 4, 2018,weblinkweblink December 5, 2018, dead,

See also


Informational notes{{Reflist|group=nb}}Citations{{Reflist|30em}}Further reading
  • BOOK, Ian Roulstone, John Norbury, How Math Helped Forecast Hurricane Sandy,weblink 2013, Scientific American,

External links

{{Sister project links |wikt=no |commons=Category:Hurricane Sandy |b=no |n=Category:Hurricane Sandy (2012) |q=no |s=no |v=no}} {{2012 Atlantic hurricane season buttons}}{{Retired Atlantic hurricanes}}{{United States winter storms}}{{Hurricane Sandy series}}

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