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Human cloning
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(File:The development and the ways to rejuvenate cells - en.svg|thumbnail|Diagram of the ways to reprogram cells along with the development of humans.)Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy (or clone) of a human. The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. It does not refer to the natural conception and delivery of identical twins. The possibility of human cloning has raised controversies. These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality.Two commonly discussed types of theoretical human cloning are: therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, {{As of|2017|04|lc=y}}. Two common methods of therapeutic cloning that are being researched are somatic-cell nuclear transfer and, more recently, pluripotent stem cell induction. Reproductive cloning would involve making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific cells or tissues.

History

Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s.Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post.JOURNAL, Lederberg Joshua, 1966, Experimental Genetics and Human Evolution, The American Naturalist, 100, 915, 519–531, 10.1086/282446, He sparked a debate with conservative bioethicist Leon Kass, who wrote at the time that "the programmed reproduction of man will, in fact, dehumanize him." Another Nobel Laureate, James D. Watson, publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971.Watson, James. "Moving Toward a Clonal Man: Is This What We Want?" The Atlantic Monthly (1971).With the cloning of a sheep known as Dolly in 1996 by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the idea of human cloning became a hot debate topic.NEWS, Researchers Clone Cells From Two Adult Men, Alice, Park, April 17, 2014, Time,weblink April 18, 2014, Many nations outlawed it, while a few scientists promised to make a clone within the next few years. The first hybrid human clone was created in November 1998, by Advanced Cell Technology. It was created using SCNT - a nucleus was taken from a man's leg cell and inserted into a cow's egg from which the nucleus had been removed, and the hybrid cell was cultured, and developed into an embryo. The embryo was destroyed after 12 days.NEWS,weblink BBC News, Details of hybrid clone revealed, June 18, 1999, April 30, 2010, In 2004 and 2005, Hwang Woo-suk, a professor at Seoul National University, published two separate articles in the journal Science claiming to have successfully harvested pluripotent, embryonic stem cells from a cloned human blastocyst using somatic-cell nuclear transfer techniques. Hwang claimed to have created eleven different patent-specific stem cell lines. This would have been the first major breakthrough in human cloning.Fischbak, Ruth L., John D. Loike, Janet Mindes, and Columbia Center for New Media Teaching & Learning. The Cloning Scandal of Hwang Woo-Suk, part of the online course, Stem Cells: Biology, Ethics, and Applications However, in 2006 Science retracted both of his articles on clear evidence that much of his data from the experiments was fabricated.JOURNAL, Kennedy D, Responding to fraud, Science, 314, 5804, 1353, 2006, 17138870, 10.1126/science.1137840, In January 2008, Dr. Andrew French and Samuel Wood of the biotechnology company Stemagen announced that they successfully created the first five mature human embryos using SCNT. In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. The embryos were developed only to the blastocyst stage, at which point they were studied in processes that destroyed them. Members of the lab said that their next set of experiments would aim to generate embryonic stem cell lines; these are the "holy grail" that would be useful for therapeutic or reproductive cloning.Rick Weiss for the Washington Post January 18, 2008 Mature Human Embryos Created From Adult Skin CellsJOURNAL, French AJ, Adams CA, Anderson LS, Kitchen JR, Hughes MR, Wood SH, Development of human cloned blastocysts following somatic cell nuclear transfer with adult fibroblasts, Stem Cells, 26, 2, 485–93, 2008, 18202077, 10.1634/stemcells.2007-0252, In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for cloning.JOURNAL, Noggle S, Fung HL, Gore A, Martinez H, Satriani KC, Prosser R, Oum K, Paull D, Druckenmiller S, Freeby M, Greenberg E, Zhang K, Goland R, Sauer MV, Leibel RL, Egli D, Human oocytes reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state, Nature, 478, 7367, 70–5, 2011, 21979046, 10.1038/nature10397, JOURNAL, Daley GQ, Solbakk JH, Stem cells: Triple genomes go far, Nature, 478, 7367, 40–1, 2011, 21979039, 10.1038/478040a, In 2013, a group of scientists led by Shoukhrat Mitalipov published the first report of embryonic stem cells created using SCNT. In this experiment, the researchers developed a protocol for using SCNT in human cells, which differs slightly from the one used in other organisms. Four embryonic stem cell lines from human fetal somatic cells were derived from those blastocysts. All four lines were derived using oocytes from the same donor, ensuring that all mitochondrial DNA inherited was identical.JOURNAL, Trounson A, DeWitt ND, Pluripotent stem cells from cloned human embryos: success at long last, Cell Stem Cell, 12, 6, 636–8, 2013, 23746970, 10.1016/j.stem.2013.05.022, A year later, a team led by Robert Lanza at Advanced Cell Technology reported that they had replicated Mitalipov's results and further demonstrated the effectiveness by cloning adult cells using SCNT.JOURNAL, Chung YG, Eum JH, Lee JE, Shim SH, Sepilian V, Hong SW, Lee Y, Treff NR, Choi YH, Kimbrel EA, Dittman RE, Lanza R, Lee DR, Human somatic cell nuclear transfer using adult cells, Cell Stem Cell, 14, 6, 777–80, 2014, 24746675, 10.1016/j.stem.2014.03.015, In 2018, the first successful cloning of primates using somatic cell nuclear transfer, the same method as Dolly the sheep, with the birth of two live female clones (crab-eating macaques named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua) was reported.JOURNAL, Liu, Zhen et al., Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer,weblink 24 January 2018, Cell (journal), Cell, 10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.020, 24 January 2018, *JOURNAL, Normile, Dennis, These monkey twins are the first primate clones made by the method that developed Dolly,weblink 24 January 2018, Science (journal), Science, 10.1126/science.aa1066, 24 January 2018,
  • JOURNAL, Cyranoski, David, First monkeys cloned with technique that made Dolly the sheep – Chinese scientists create cloned primates that could revolutionize studies of human disease.,weblink 24 January 2018, Nature (journal), Nature, 553, 387–388, 24 January 2018, WEB, Maron, Dina Fine, First Primate Clones Produced Using the "Dolly" Method – The success with monkeys could ignite new ethical debates and medical research,weblink 24 January 2018, Scientific American, 24 January 2018, NEWS, Briggs, Helen, First monkey clones created in Chinese laboratory,weblink 24 January 2018, BBC News, 24 January 2018, NEWS, Kolata, Gina, Yes, They’ve Cloned Monkeys in China. That Doesn’t Mean You’re Next.,weblink 24 January 2018, The New York Times, 25 January 2018,
.

Methods

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)

(File:Cloning diagram english.svg|thumb|Diagram of SCNT Process)In somatic cell nuclear transfer ("SCNT"), the nucleus of a somatic cell is taken from a donor and transplanted into a host egg cell, which had its own genetic material removed previously, making it an enucleated egg. After the donor somatic cell genetic material is transferred into the host oocyte with a micropipette, the somatic cell genetic material is fused with the egg using an electric current. Once the two cells have fused, the new cell can be permitted to grow in a surrogate or artificially.BOOK, Gilbert, Scott F., 2013-06-30, Developmental Biology, 10th, Sinauer Associates, Inc., 32–33, 9780878939787, This is the process that was used to successfully clone Dolly the sheep (see section on History in this article).

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)

(File:Overview of iPS cells.png|thumb|left|Overview of iPS cells)Creating induced pluripotent stem cells ("iPSCs") is a long and inefficient process. Pluripotency refers to a stem cell that has the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers: endoderm (interior stomach lining, gastrointestinal tract, the lungs), mesoderm (muscle, bone, blood, urogenital), or ectoderm (epidermal tissues and nervous tissue).BOOK, Binder, Marc D., Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, 2009, Springer, Berlin, 978-3540237358, [Online-Ausg.], Hirokawa, Nobutaka, Uwe, Windhorst, A specific set of genes, often called "reprogramming factors", are introduced into a specific adult cell type. These factors send signals in the mature cell that cause the cell to become a pluripotent stem cell. This process is highly studied and new techniques are being discovered frequently on how to better this induction process.Depending on the method used, reprogramming of adult cells into iPSCs for implantation could have severe limitations in humans. If a virus is used as a reprogramming factor for the cell, cancer-causing genes called oncogenes may be activated. These cells would appear as rapidly dividing cancer cells that do not respond to the body's natural cell signaling process. However, in 2008 scientists discovered a technique that could remove the presence of these oncogenes after pluripotency induction, thereby increasing the potential use of iPSC in humans.NEWS,weblink Cancer threat removed from stem cells, scientists say, Los Angeles Times, Karen, Kaplan, March 6, 2009,

Comparing SCNT to reprogramming

Both the processes of SCNT and iPSCs have benefits and deficiencies. Historically, reprogramming methods were better studied than SCNT derived embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, more recent studies have put more emphasis on developing new procedures for SCNT-ESCs. The major advantage of SCNT over iPSCs at this time is the speed with which cells can be produced. iPSCs derivation takes several months while SCNT would take a much shorter time, which could be important for medical applications. New studies are working to improve the process of iPSC in terms of both speed and efficiency with the discovery of new reprogramming factors in oocytes.{{citation needed|date=May 2014}} Another advantage SCNT could have over iPSCs is its potential to treat mitochondrial disease, as it utilizes a donor oocyte. No other advantages are known at this time in using stem cells derived from one method over stem cells derived from the other.JOURNAL, Langerova A, Fulka H, Fulka J, Somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived embryonic stem cell lines in humans: pros and cons, Cell Reprogram, 15, 6, 481–3, 2013, 24180743, 10.1089/cell.2013.0054, {{clear}}

Uses, actual and potential

(File:Stem cell treatments.png|thumb|Stem cell treatments)Work on cloning techniques has advanced our basic understanding of developmental biology in humans. Observing human pluripotent stem cells grown in culture provides great insight into human embryo development, which otherwise cannot be seen. Scientists are now able to better define steps of early human development. Studying signal transduction along with genetic manipulation within the early human embryo has the potential to provide answers to many developmental diseases and defects. Many human-specific signaling pathways have been discovered by studying human embryonic stem cells. Studying developmental pathways in humans has given developmental biologists more evidence toward the hypothesis that developmental pathways are conserved throughout species.JOURNAL, Zhu Z, Huangfu D, Human pluripotent stem cells: an emerging model in developmental biology, Development, 140, 4, 705–17, 2013, 23362344, 3557771, 10.1242/dev.086165, iPSCs and cells created by SCNT are useful for research into the causes of disease, and as model systems used in drug discovery.JOURNAL, Subba Rao M, Sasikala M, Nageshwar Reddy D, Thinking outside the liver: induced pluripotent stem cells for hepatic applications, World J. Gastroenterol., 19, 22, 3385–96, 2013, 23801830, 3683676, 10.3748/wjg.v19.i22.3385, JOURNAL, Tobe BT, Brandel MG, Nye JS, Snyder EY, Implications and limitations of cellular reprogramming for psychiatric drug development, Exp. Mol. Med., 45, e59, 2013, 24232258, 3849573, 10.1038/emm.2013.124, Cells produced with SCNT, or iPSCs could eventually be used in stem cell therapy,JOURNAL, Singec I, Jandial R, Crain A, Nikkhah G, Snyder EY, The leading edge of stem cell therapeutics, Annu. Rev. Med., 58, 313–28, 2007, 17100553, 10.1146/annurev.med.58.070605.115252,weblink or to create organs to be used in transplantation, known as regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. Bone marrow transplantation is a widely used form of stem cell therapy.Bone Marrow Transplantation and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation In National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet web site. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010. Cited August 24, 2010 No other forms of stem cell therapy are in clinical use at this time. Research is underway to potentially use stem cell therapy to treat heart disease, diabetes, and spinal cord injuries.Cell Basics: What are the potential uses of human stem cells and the obstacles that must be overcome before these potential uses will be realized?. In Stem Cell Information World Wide Web site. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009. cited Sunday, April 26, 2009JOURNAL, Cummings BJ, Uchida N, Tamaki SJ, Salazar DL, Hooshmand M, Summers R, Gage FH, Anderson AJ, Human neural stem cells differentiate and promote locomotor recovery in spinal cord-injured mice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102, 39, 14069–74, September 2005, 16172374, 1216836, 10.1073/pnas.0507063102, Regenerative medicine is not in clinical practice, but is heavily researched for its potential uses. This type of medicine would allow for autologous transplantation, thus removing the risk of organ transplant rejection by the recipient.JOURNAL, Svendsen CN, Back to the future: how human induced pluripotent stem cells will transform regenerative medicine, Hum. Mol. Genet., 22, R1, R32–8, 2013, 23945396, 3782070, 10.1093/hmg/ddt379, For instance, a person with liver disease could potentially have a new liver grown using their same genetic material and transplanted to remove the damaged liver.JOURNAL, Booth C, Soker T, Baptista P, Ross CL, Soker S, Farooq U, Stratta RJ, Orlando G, Liver bioengineering: current status and future perspectives, World J. Gastroenterol., 18, 47, 6926–34, 2012, 23322990, 3531676, 10.3748/wjg.v18.i47.6926, In current research, human pluripotent stem cells have been promised as a reliable source for generating human neurons, showing the potential for regenerative medicine in brain and neural injuries.JOURNAL, Jongkamonwiwat N, Noisa P, Biomedical and clinical promises of human pluripotent stem cells for neurological disorders, Biomed Res Int, 2013, 656531, 2013, 24171168, 3793324, 10.1155/2013/656531,

Ethical implications

(File:Cloning -Twins 1990.jpg|250px|thumb|rigth| Human cloning)In bioethics, the ethics of cloning refers to a variety of ethical positions regarding the practice and possibilities of cloning, especially human cloning. While many of these views are religious in origin, the questions raised by cloning are faced by secular perspectives as well. Human therapeutic and reproductive cloning are not commercially used; animals are currently cloned in laboratories and in livestock production.Advocates support development of therapeutic cloning in order to generate tissues and whole organs to treat patients who otherwise cannot obtain transplants,WEB,weblink Cloning Fact Sheet,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130502125744weblink">weblink U.S. Department of Energy Genome Program, 2009-05-11, 2013-05-02, to avoid the need for immunosuppressive drugs,JOURNAL, Kfoury C, Therapeutic cloning: Promises and issues, McGill Journal of Medicine, 10, 2, 112–20, 2007, 18523539, 2323472, and to stave off the effects of aging.BOOK, de Grey, Aubrey, Rae, Michael, 2007, Ending Aging: The Rejuvenation Breakthroughs that Could Reverse Human Aging in Our Lifetime, New York, NY, St. Martin's Press, 0-312-36706-6, Advocates for reproductive cloning believe that parents who cannot otherwise procreate should have access to the technology.NEWS, Staff, Times Higher Education, August 10, 2001,weblink In the news: Antinori and Zavos, Opposition to therapeutic cloning mainly centers around the status of embryonic stem cells, which has connections with the abortion debate.JOURNAL, Kfoury C, 2007, Therapeutic cloning: promises and issues, Mcgill J Med., 10, 2, 112–20, 18523539, 2323472, Some opponents of reproductive cloning have concerns that technology is not yet developed enough to be safe - for example, the position of the American Association for the Advancement of Science {{As of|2014|lc=y}},WEB,weblink AAAS Statement on Human Cloning, while others emphasize that reproductive cloning could be prone to abuse (leading to the generation of humans whose organs and tissues would be harvested),WEB, McGee, G., Primer on Ethics and Human Cloning, October 2011, American Institute of Biological Sciences,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20130223142719weblink">weblink yes, 2013-02-23, WEB, UNESCO, 1997-11-11,weblink Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, 2008-02-27, and have concerns about how cloned individuals could integrate with families and with society at large.BOOK, McGee, Glenn, 2000, The Perfect Baby: Parenthood in the New World of Cloning and Genetics, Lanham, Rowman & Littlefield, 2nd, 0-8476-9758-4, WEB, Havstad, Joyce, Human Reproductive Cloning: A Conflict of Liberties, San Diego State University, 3 May 2012, Religious groups are divided, with some{{which|date=May 2014}} opposing the technology as usurping god's (in monotheistic traditions) place and, to the extent embryos are used, destroying a human life; others support therapeutic cloning's potential life-saving benefits.WEB, Bob, Sullivan, MSNBC, November 26, 2003,weblink Religions reveal little consensus on cloning, September 15, 2016, JOURNAL, William, Sims Bainbridge,weblink Religious Opposition to Cloning, Journal of Evolution and Technology, 13, October 2003, {{dead link|date=April 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}

Current law

In 2015 it was reported that about 70 countries had banned human cloning.WEB, Cohen, Haley, How Champion-Pony Clones Have Transformed the Game of Polo,weblink Vanity Fair (magazine), Vanity Fair, 27 December 2015, 31 July 2015,

Argentina

Human cloning is banned by the Presidential Decree 200/97 of 7 March 1997.WEB,weblink Decree 200/97, InfoLEG, 15 October 2017, Spanish,

Australia

Australia has prohibited human cloning,WEB,weblink Prohibition of Human Cloning for Reproduction Act 2002, Australia, National Health and Medical Research Council, 12 June 2007, NHMRC.gov.au, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090607085815weblink">weblink 7 June 2009, though {{As of|2006|12|lc=y}}, a bill legalizing therapeutic cloning and the creation of human embryos for stem cell research passed the House of Representatives. Within certain regulatory limits, and subject to the effect of state legislation, therapeutic cloning is now legal in some parts of Australia.WEB, April 2014,weblink Research cloning - Legal Aspects, Deutches Referenzzentrum fur Ethik in den Biowissenschaften, en, 19 April 2014,

Canada

Canadian law prohibits the following: cloning humans, cloning stem cells, growing human embryos for research purposes, and buying or selling of embryos, sperm, eggs or other human reproductive material.NEWS, Canada Closes Door on Cloning, Wired, Philipkoski, Kristen,weblink 17 March 2004, It also bans making changes to human DNA that would pass from one generation to the next, including use of animal DNA in humans. Surrogate mothers are legally allowed, as is donation of sperm or eggs for reproductive purposes. Human embryos and stem cells are also permitted to be donated for research.{{Citation needed|date=April 2014}}There have been consistent calls in Canada to ban human reproductive cloning since the 1993 Report of the Royal Commission on New Reproductive Technologies. Polls have indicated that an overwhelming majority of Canadians oppose human reproductive cloning, though the regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity.WEB, Overview of World Human Cloning Policies, Connexions, September 15, 2016,weblink Kristin, Matthews, Rice University, WEB, Canada Bans Human Cloning, republished at Questia.com, The Hastings Center Report, 7 December 2011, Francoise, Baylis,weblink WEB, Kristen, Philipkoski, March 17, 2004, Canada Closes Door on Cloning, Wired.com, September 15, 2016, WEB, Regulating and treating conception problems, CBC.ca, December 21, 2010, 7 December 2011,weblink

Colombia

Human cloning is prohibited in Article 133 of the Colombian Penal Code.WEB, Ley 599 de 2000 (Julio 24) Por la cual se expide el Código Penal, es, Law 599 of 2000 (July 24) which issued the Penal Code, July 24, 2000,weblink alcaldiabogota.gov.co, Bogota Mayoral Office, Bogota, Colombia, September 15, 2016,

European Union

The European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine prohibits human cloning in one of its additional protocols, but this protocol has been ratified only by Greece, Spain and Portugal. The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union explicitly prohibits reproductive human cloning. The charter is legally binding for the institutions of the European Union under the Treaty of Lisbon and for member states of the Union implementing EU law.Treaty of Lisbon (2007/C 306/01) Article 6 (1)WEB, EU Charter of Fundamental Rights,weblink Europa (web portal), 7 May 2015,

India

India does not have specific law regarding cloning but has guidelines prohibiting whole human cloning or reproductive cloning. India allows therapeutic cloning and the use of embryonic stem cells for research proposes.NEWS,weblink Should India ban human cloning?, Pallava, Bagla, Jun 24, 2009, Apr 18, 2014, NDTV, New Delhi, WEB,weblink Cloning Ethical Policies on the Human Genome, Genetic Research and Services [India], Genetics & Public Policy Center, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140420050704weblink">weblink 2014-04-20,

Russia

The Federal Assembly of Russia introduced the Federal Law N 54-FZ "On the temporary ban on human cloning" in April 19, 2002. On May 20, 2002 President Vladimir Putin signed this moratorium on the implementation of human cloning. On March 29, 2010 The Federal Assembly introduced second revision of this law without time limit.Федеральный закон от 20 мая 2002 г. N 54-ФЗ "О временном запрете на клонирование человека"

Serbia

Human cloning is explicitly prohibited in Article 24, "Right to Life" of the 2006 Constitution of Serbia.WEB,weblink Constitution of the Republic of Serbia, II Human and Minority Rights and Freedoms, Government of Serbia, May 15, 2013,

South Africa

{{unreferenced section|date=February 2016}}In terms of section 39A of the Human Tissue Act 65 of 1983weblink genetic manipulation of gametes or zygotes outside the human body is absolutely prohibited. A zygote is the cell resulting from the fusion of two gametes; thus the fertilised ovum. Section 39A thus prohibits human cloning.

United Kingdom

On January 14, 2001 the British government passed The Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Research Purposes) Regulations 2001{{UK-LEG|title=Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Research Purposes) Regulations 2001 (No. 188)|path=uksi/2001/188/contents/made|asmade=yes}} to amend the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 by extending allowable reasons for embryo research to permit research around stem cells and cell nuclear replacement, thus allowing therapeutic cloning. However, on November 15, 2001, a pro-life group won a High Court legal challenge, which struck down the regulation and effectively left all forms of cloning unregulated in the UK. Their hope was that Parliament would fill this gap by passing prohibitive legislation.{{citation |title=Medical Law and Ethics |author=SD Pattinson |year=2006 |publisher=Sweet & Maxwell |isbn=978-0-421-88950-7}}NEWS,weblink Campaigners win cloning challenge, BBC News, 15 November 2001, 2008-09-06, London, Parliament was quick to pass the Human Reproductive Cloning Act 2001 which explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning. The remaining gap with regard to therapeutic cloning was closed when the appeals courts reversed the previous decision of the High Court.NEWS,weblink Lords uphold cloning law, BBC News, 13 March 2003, London, The first license was granted on August 11, 2004 to researchers at the University of Newcastle to allow them to investigate treatments for diabetes, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071009024233weblink">weblink yes, 9 October 2007, Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, HFEA, HFEA grants the first therapeutic cloning licence for research, 11 August 2004, 2008-09-06, The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008, a major review of fertility legislation, repealed the 2001 Cloning Act by making amendments of similar effect to the 1990 Act. The 2008 Act also allows experiments on hybrid human-animal embryos.NEWS,weblink MPs support embryology proposals, BBC News, 23 October 2008, London,

United Nations

On December 13, 2001, the United Nations General Assembly began elaborating an international convention against the reproductive cloning of humans. A broad coalition of States, including Spain, Italy, the Philippines, the United States, Costa Rica and the Holy See sought to extend the debate to ban all forms of human cloning, noting that, in their view, therapeutic human cloning violates human dignity. Costa Rica proposed the adoption of an international convention to ban all forms of human cloning. Unable to reach a consensus on a binding convention, in March 2005 a non-binding United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning, calling for the ban of all forms of human cloning contrary to human dignity, was adopted."United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131215040939weblink |date=2013-12-15 }}. Bio Etica Web. March 16, 2005.WEB,weblink Ad Hoc Committee on an International Convention against the Reproductive Cloning of Human Beings, 2007-01-28, 18 May 2005, United Nations,

United States

The Patients First Act of 2017 (HR 2918, 115th Congress) aims to promote stem cell research, using cells that are “ethically obtained”, that could contribute to a better understanding of diseases and therapies, and promote the “derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines without the creation of human embryos…”.WEB, Patients First Act of 2017 (HR 2918, 115th Congress)
url=http://scipol.duke.edu/content/patients-first-act-2017-hr-2918-115th-congress, In 1998, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007 and 2009, the US Congress voted whether to ban all human cloning, both reproductive and therapeutic (see Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act). Each time, divisions in the Senate, or an eventual veto from the sitting President (President George W. Bush in 2005 and 2007), over therapeutic cloning prevented either competing proposal (a ban on both forms or on reproductive cloning only) from being passed into law. On March 10, 2010 a bill (HR 4808) was introduced with a section banning federal funding for human cloning.WEB, H.R.4808 - Stem Cell Research Advancement Act of 2009,weblink congress.gov, Such a law, if passed, would not have prevented research from occurring in private institutions (such as universities) that have both private and federal funding. However, the 2010 law was not passed.There are currently no federal laws in the United States which ban cloning completely. Fifteen American states (Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Iowa, Indiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, North Dakota, New Jersey, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Florida, Georgia, and Virginia) ban reproductive cloning and three states (Arizona, Maryland, and Missouri) prohibit use of public funds for such activities.WEB, Embryonic and fetal research laws, National Conference of State Legislatures, Jan 1, 2016,weblink

In popular culture

{{Further|Cloning#In popular culture|:Category:Cloning in fiction}}Science fiction has used cloning, most commonly and specifically human cloning, due to the fact that it brings up controversial questions of identity.JOURNAL, Hopkins, Patrick, How Popular media represent cloning as an ethical problem, 3527566, The Hastings Center, 28, 6–13, WEB,weblink Yvonne A., De La Cruz, Science Fiction Storytelling and Identity: Seeing the Human Through Android Eyes, CSUStan.edu, California State University, Stanislaus, PDF, 2012-08-19, Humorous fiction, such as Multiplicity (1996)WEB, Roger, Ebert,weblink RogerEbert.com, Multiplicity, September 15, 2016, and the Maxwell Smart feature The Nude Bomb (1980), have featured human cloning.WEB, The Nude Bomb, DVDTalk.com,weblink Todd Jr., Douglass, July 12, 2008, September 15, 2016, A recurring sub-theme of cloning fiction is the use of clones as a supply of organs for transplantation. Robin Cook's 1997 novel Chromosome 6 and Michael Bay's The Island are examples of this; Chromosome 6 also features genetic manipulation and xenotransplantation.WEB,weblink A Chiller Thriller, tech-writer, September 30, 2005, September 15, 2016, There is also a series named Orphan Black which follows human clones' stories and experiences as they deal with issues and react to being the property of a chain of scientific institutions.

References

{{reflist|33em}}

Further reading

  • Araujo, Robert John, "The UN Declaration on Human Cloning: a survey and assessment of the debate," 7 The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 129 - 149 (2007).
  • Oregon Health & Science University. "Human skin cells converted into embryonic stem cells: First time human stem cells have been produced via nuclear transfer." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 15 May 2013. weblink.

External links



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