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House of Stuart
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{{Redirect|Stuarts|the defunct New England store chain|Stuarts (store)}}{{EngvarB|date=August 2014}}







factoids
|region = |early_forms = |etymology = |origin = 1150}}|founder = Walter Fitzalan (c.1110-1177)|current_head = Clan Stewart of Appin>Stewart of AppinStewart of Balquhidder>Stewart of Ardvorlich|Stewart of BallechinEarl Castle Stewart>Stewart of Castle Stewart|Stewart of DarnleyEarl of Galloway>Stewart of Galloway}}|final_ruler = Anne, Queen of Great Britain (1665–1714)|final_head = |titles = {{Collapsible listlist of Scottish monarchs>King and Queen of Scotlandlist of English monarchs#House of Stuart>King and Queen of EnglandMonarchy of Ireland#List of monarchs of Ireland>King and Queen of Irelandlist of British monarchs#House of Stuart (1707–1714)>Queen of Great BritainEnglish claims to the French throne>King and Queen of Francetitular claim rather than de facto|High Steward of Scotland|Duke of Aubigny|Duke of Albany|Marquess of Bute|Earl of Lennox|Earl of Moray}}|styles = |members = |connected_members = |other_families = |distinctions = |traditions = |motto = |motto_lang = |motto_trans = |heirlooms = |estate = |website = |footnotes = }}The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house of Scotland with Breton originweblink They had held the office of High Steward of Scotland since Walter fitz Alan (appx 1150). The royal Stewart line was founded by Robert II whose descendants were kings and queens of Scotland from 1371 until the union with England in 1707. Mary, Queen of Scots was brought up in France where she adopted the French spelling of the name Stuart.In 1503, James IV married Margaret Tudor, thus linking the royal houses of Scotland and England. Elizabeth I of England died without issue in 1603, and James IV's great grandson James VI of Scotland succeed the thrones of England and Ireland as James I in the Union of the Crowns. The Stuarts were monarchs of the British Isles and its growing empire until the death of Queen Anne in 1714, except for the period of the Commonwealth between 1649 and 1660.{{refn|The Earls of Galloway are the senior surviving line of the Stuarts. They are descended from a line which originated from the second son of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland and are not members of the Stewart/Stuart royal line; however, they are part of the peerage.|group=note}}In total, nine Stewart/Stuart monarchs ruled Scotland alone from 1371 until 1603. The last ruler of Scotland alone was James VI, who became the first dual monarch of England and Scotland in 1603. Two Stuart queens ruled the isles following the Glorious Revolution in 1688: Mary II and Anne. Both were the Protestant daughters of James VII and II by his first wife Anne Hyde and the great-grandchildren of James VI and I. Their father had converted to Catholicism and his new wife gave birth to a son in 1688, who was brought up a Roman Catholic and preceded his half-sisters; so James was deposed by Parliament in 1689, in favour of his daughters. But neither had any children who survived to adulthood, so the crown passed to the House of Hanover on the death of Queen Anne in 1714 under the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Act of Security 1704.

Origins

Etymology

{{Unreferenced section|date=July 2012}}The name Stewart derives from the political position of office similar to a governor, known as a steward. It was originally adopted as the family surname by Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland, who was the third member of the family to hold the position. Prior to this, family names were not used, but instead they had patronyms defined through the father; for example the first two High Stewards were known as FitzAlan and FitzWalter respectively. The gallicised spelling was first borne by John Stewart of Darnley after his time in the French wars. During the 16th century, the French spelling Stuart was adopted by Mary, Queen of Scots, when she was living in France. She sanctioned the change to ensure the correct pronunciation of the Scots version of the name Stewart, because retaining the letter "w" would have made it difficult for French speakers, who followed the Germans in usually rendering "w" as /v/. The spelling Stuart was also used by her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley; he was the father of James VI and I, so the official spelling Stuart for the British royal family derives from him.{{wide image|House of Stuart.png|850px|Principal members of the house of Stuart following the 1603 Union of the Crowns.}}

Background

The ancestral origins of the Stuart family are obscure—their probable ancestry is traced back to Alan FitzFlaad, a Breton who came over to Great Britain not long after the Norman conquest.WEB, J.H. Round: The Origin of the Stewarts: Part 1,weblink MedievalGenealogy.org.uk, Retrieved on 13 November 2008. Alan had been the hereditary steward of the Bishop of Dol in the Duchy of Brittany;Bartlett, England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings, 1075–1225, 544. Alan had a good relationship with Henry I of England who awarded him with lands in Shropshire. The FitzAlan family quickly established themselves as a prominent Anglo-Norman noble house, with some of its members serving as High Sheriff of Shropshire.Lieber, Encyclopædia Americana, 30. It was the great-grandson of Alan named Walter FitzAlan who became the first hereditary High Steward of Scotland, while his brother William's family went on to become Earls of Arundel.When the civil war in the Kingdom of England, known as The Anarchy, broke out between legitimist claimant Matilda, Lady of the English and her cousin who had usurped her, King Stephen, Walter had sided with Matilda.King, The Anarchy of King Stephen's Reign, 249. Another supporter of Matilda was her uncle David I of Scotland from the House of Dunkeld. After Matilda was pushed out of England into the County of Anjou, essentially failing in her legitimist attempt for the throne, many of her supporters in England fled also. It was then that Walter followed David up to the Kingdom of Scotland, where he was granted lands in Renfrewshire and the title for life of Lord High Steward. The next monarch of Scotland, Malcolm IV, made the High Steward title a hereditary arrangement. While High Stewards, the family were based at Dundonald, South Ayrshire between the 12th and 13th centuries.

History

{{Unreferenced section|date=July 2012}}{| style="width:300px; height:350px" border=0" align="right"! (File:Arms of Stewart.svg|70px|center|undiffered arms of stewart){{small|Stewart of Stewart}}! (File:Blason Robert Stuart d'Albany.svg|70px|center|Arms of Stewart of Albany){{small|Stewart of Albany}}! ! (File:Stewart of Barclye arms.svg|70px|center|Arms of Stewart of Barclye){{small|Stewart of Barclye}}! (File:Stewart of Garlies arms.svg|70px|center|Arms of Stewart of Garlies){{small|Stewart of Garlies}}! (File:Stewart of Blantyre arms.svg|70px|center|Arms of Stewart of Minto){{small|Stewart of Minto}}! (File:Arms of Stewart, Earl of Atholl (1596 creation).svg|70px|center|Arms of Stewart of Atholl){{small|Stewart of Atholl}}! (File:Arms of Stuart, Marquess of Bute.svg|70px|center|Arms of Stewart of Bute){{small|Stewart of Bute}}! (File:Arms of Stuart of Bute.svg|70px|center|Arms of Stuart of Bute){{small|Stuart of Bute}}! (File:Blason Stewart of Ardvorlich.svg|70px|center|Arms of Stewart of Ardvorlich){{small|Stewart of Ardvorlich}}! (File:Blason Stewart of Physgill (Ecosse).svg|70px|center|Arms of Stewart of Physgill){{small|Stewart of Physgill}}! (File:Stuart de Rothesay arms.svg|70px|center|Arms of Stewart of Rothesay){{small|Stewart of Rothesay}}!The sixth High Steward of Scotland, Walter Stewart (1293–1326), married Marjorie, daughter of Robert the Bruce, and also played an important part in the Battle of Bannockburn gaining further favour. Their son Robert was heir to the House of Bruce, the Lordship of Cunningham and the Bruce lands of Bourtreehill; he eventually inherited the Scottish throne when his uncle David II died childless in 1371.In 1503, James IV attempted to secure peace with England by marrying King Henry VII's daughter, Margaret Tudor. The birth of their son, later James V, brought the House of Stewart into the line of descent of the House of Tudor, and the English throne. Margaret Tudor later married Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, and their daughter, Margaret Douglas, was the mother of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. In 1565, Darnley married his half-cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, the daughter of James V. Darnley's father was Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, a member of the Stewart of Darnley branch of the House. Lennox was a descendant of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland, also descended from James II, being Mary's heir presumptive. Thus Darnley was also related to Mary on his father's side and because of this connection, Mary's heirs remained part of the House of Stuart. Following John Stewart of Darnley's ennoblement for his part at the Battle of Baugé in 1421 and the grant of lands to him at Aubigny and Concressault, the Darnley Stewarts' surname was gallicised to Stuart.Both Mary, Queen of Scots, and Lord Darnley had strong claims on the English throne, through their mutual grandmother, Margaret Tudor. This eventually led to the accession of the couple's only child James as King of Scotland, England, and Ireland in 1603. However, this was a Personal Union, as the three Kingdoms shared a monarch, but had separate governments, churches, and institutions. Indeed, the personal union did not prevent an armed conflict, known as the Bishops' Wars, breaking out between England and Scotland in 1639. This was to become part of the cycle of political and military conflict that marked the reign of Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland, culminating in a series of conflicts known as the War of the Three Kingdoms. The trial and execution of Charles I by the English Parliament in 1649 began 11 years of republican government known as the English Interregnum. Scotland initially recognised the late King's son, also called Charles, as their monarch, before being subjugated and forced to enter Cromwell's Commonwealth by General Monck's occupying army. During this period, the principal members of the House of Stuart lived in exile in mainland Europe. The younger Charles returned to Britain to assume his three thrones in 1660 as "Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland", but dated his reign from his father's death eleven years before.In feudal and dynastic terms, the Scottish reliance on French support was revived during the reign of Charles II, whose own mother was French. His sister Henrietta married into the French royal family. Charles II left no legitimate children, but his numerous illegitimate descendants included the Dukes of Buccleuch, the Dukes of Grafton, the Dukes of Saint Albans and the Dukes of Richmond.File:0 Monument funéraire des derniers Stuarts - Basilique St-Pierre - Vatican (1).JPG|thumb|right|upright 1.3|Monument to the Royal Stuarts in St. Peter's Basilica – Work of Antonio CanovaAntonio CanovaThese French and Roman Catholic connections proved unpopular and resulted in the downfall of the Stuarts, whose mutual enemies identified with Protestantism and because James VII and II offended the Anglican establishment by proposing tolerance not only for Catholics but for Protestant Dissenters. The Glorious Revolution caused the overthrow of King James in favour of his son-in-law and his daughter, William and Mary. James continued to claim the thrones of England and Scotland to which he had been crowned, and encouraged revolts in his name, and his grandson Charles (also known as Bonnie Prince Charlie) led an ultimately unsuccessful rising in 1745, ironically becoming symbols of conservative rebellion and Romanticism. Some blame the identification of the Roman Catholic Church with the Stuarts for the extremely lengthy delay in the passage of Catholic emancipation until Jacobitism (as represented by direct Stuart heirs) was extinguished; however it was as likely to be caused by entrenched anti-Catholic prejudice among the Anglican establishment of England. Despite the Whig intentions of tolerance to be extended to Irish subjects, this was not the preference of Georgian Tories and their failure at compromise played a subsequent role in the present division of Ireland.{{Citation needed|date=May 2009}}

Present-day

The Royal House of Stuart became extinct with the death of Cardinal Henry Benedict Stuart, brother of Charles Edward Stuart, in 1807. Duke Francis of Bavaria is the current senior heir.WEB,weblink Act repeal could make Franz Herzog von Bayern new King of England and Scotland, 22 June 2008, Richard, Alleyne, de Quetteville, Harry, 7 April 2008, Daily Telegraph, However, Charles II had a number of illegitimate sons whose surviving descendants in the male line include Charles Gordon-Lennox, 11th Duke of Richmond; Henry FitzRoy, 12th Duke of Grafton; Murray Beauclerk, 14th Duke of St Albans; and Richard Scott, 10th Duke of Buccleuch. In addition, James II's illegitimate son, James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, founded the House of FitzJames comprising two branches, one in France and one in Spain. The last of the French branch died in 1967; the senior heir of James II's male line descendants is Jacobo Hernando Fitz-James Stuart, 16th Duke of Peñaranda de Duero.

List of monarchs

Monarchs of Scotland

{{refimprove section|date=July 2012}}{| width=90% class="wikitable"! width=8% | Portrait! width=20% | Name! width=7% | From! width=7% | Until! width=20% | Relationship with predecessor(File:Robert II Stewart.jpgRobert II of Scotland>22 February 1371align="center"The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography of David II of Scotland>David II who died without issue. Robert's mother Marjorie Bruce was daughter of Robert I.(File:Robert III Stewart.jpgRobert III of Scotland >19 April 1390align="center"|son of Robert II of Scotland.(File:King James I of Scotland.jpgJames I of Scotland >4 April 1406align="center"|son of Robert III of Scotland.(File:James II, King of Scotland.pngJames II of Scotland >21 February 1437align="center"|son of James I of Scotland.(File:James III, King of Scotland.pngJames III of Scotland >3 August 1460align="center"|son of James II of Scotland.(File:James IV of Scotland.jpgJames IV of Scotland >11 June 1488align="center"|son of James III of Scotland.(File:James V of Scotland2.jpgJames V of Scotland >9 September 1513align="center"|son of James IV of Scotland.(File:Mary Queen of Scots portrait.jpgMary, Queen of Scots >14 December 1542align="center"|daughter of James V of Scotland.(File:James VI of Scots.jpgJames VI and I>24 July 1567align="center"|son of Mary, Queen of Scots.

Monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland

{{Unreferenced section|date=July 2012}}These monarchs used the title "King/Queen of Great Britain", although England and Scotland were not united as the single kingdom of Great Britain until the Acts of Union 1707 came into effect on 1 May 1707.{| width=90% class="wikitable"! width=8% | Portrait! width=20% | Name! width=7% | From! width=7% | Until! width=20% | Relationship with predecessor(File:Paul van Somer - James I of England (James VI of Scotland) - Google Art Project.jpgJames VI and I 24 March 1603align="center"Henry VII of England. King of Scotland alone until inheriting the titles King of England and Ireland, including claim to France from the extinct House of Tudor>Tudors.(File:Anthony van Dyck - Equestrian Portrait of Charles I, King of England (Copy) - WGA07384.jpgCharles I of England>27 March 1625align="center"|son of James VI and I(File:Charles II of England by Kneller.jpgCharles II of England>30 January 1649 (de jure); 2 May 1660 (de facto)align="center"|son of Charles I. Prohibited by Parliament from assuming the throne during a republican period of government known as the Commonwealth of England, but then accepted as king in 1661.(File:Sir Peter Lely - James VII and II, when Duke of York, 1633 – 1701 - Google Art Project.jpgJames II of England>6 February 1685align="center"Glorious Revolution>Revolution of 1688. Died in 1701. (File:Queen Mary II.jpgMary II of England>13 February 1689align="center"William III of England>William III & II who outlived his wife.(File:Anniex.jpgAnne, Queen of Great Britain>8 March 1702align="center"|sister of Mary II. daughter of James II & VII. Name of state changed to Great Britain with the political Acts of Union 1707, though family has used title since James I & VI. Died childless, rights pass to House of Hanover.{{#tag:timeline|Define $width = 900 # 12 pixels per year ($end - $start) × 12Define $warning = 1080 # $width - 120Define $height = 500 # 14 × 25 + 150Define $footnote = 800 # $width - 400Define $start = 1300Define $end = 1720ImageSize = width:$width height:$heightPlotArea = right:10 left:1 bottom:80 top:60Period = from:$start till:$endTimeAxis = orientation:horizontalLegend = orientation:vertical position:bottom columns:1Colors =
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from:1316.17 till:1371.15 shift:(-0,$dy) textcolor:NAME text:Robert II
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}}File:Armorial tablet of the Stewarts, Falkland Palace, Fife Scotland.jpg|thumb|upright|240px|Armorial tablet of the Stewarts at Falkland PalaceFalkland Palace

Family tree

{{see also|Scottish monarchs' family tree#House of Stewart|l1=Stuart Scottish monarchs family tree|British monarchs' family tree#House of Stuart|l2=Stuart British monarchs family tree}}Round provided a family treeWEB,weblink Studies in peerage and family history, to embody his essential findings, which is adapted below.{{familytree/start}}{{familytree| | | | |Al|Al=Alan,Dapifer Dolensis(Seneschal or Steward of Dol)}}{{familytree| |,|-|-|-|+|-|-|.|}}{{familytree|Al| |Fl| |Rh|Al=Alan,Dapifer Dolensis,Took part in First Crusade, 1097.|Fl=FlaaldOccurs at Monmouth, 1101/2|Rh=RhiwallonMonk of St Florent.}}{{familytree| | | | | |!|}}{{familytree| | | | |Al|Al=Alan Fitz Flaad,Founder of Sporle Priory|boxstyle_Al= background-color: #ccddcc;|}}{{familytree| |,|-|-|-|+|-|-|.|}}{{familytree|Jor| |Will| |Wal|Jor=Jordan Fitz Alan,Dapifer in Britanny,Benefactor of Sele Priory.|Will=William Fitz Alan,Lord of OswestryFounder/benefactor of Haughmond Abbey,Died 1160|Wal=Walter Fitz AlanDapifer Regis Scotiae,Founder of Paisley Abbey,Died 1177|}}{{familytree| |!| | | |!| | |!|}}{{familytree|Al| |Will| |Al2|Al=Alan Fitz Jordan,Dapifer Dolensis.|Will=William Fitz Alan II,Lord of Oswestry and Clun|Al2=Alan the StewardSenescallus Regis Scotiae|}}{{familytree/end}}{{familytree/end}}

Origin

{{Tree list}} William Fitz Alan, 2nd Lord of Oswestry and Clun {{Tree list/final branch}} John Fitzalan, Lord of Oswestry* {{Tree list/final branch}} John FitzAlan, 6th Earl of Arundel** {{Tree list/final branch}} House of FitzAlan {{Tree list/final branch}} Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland* Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland** James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland*** {{Tree list/final branch}} Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of ScotlandRobert II of Scotland {{Tree list/final branch}} John Stewart of Ralston** {{Tree list/final branch}} John Stewart of Bonkyll*** Alexander Stewart of Bonkyll {{Tree list/final branch}} Earls of Angus (extinct 1361)*** Alan Stewart of Dreghorn {{Tree list/final branch}} Stewart of Darnley* Earls of Lennox* {{Tree list/final branch}} Stewart of Garlies** Earls of Galloway** Stewart of Burray** Stewart of Physgill (Phisgal)** Stewart of Minto*** {{Tree list/final branch}} Lords Blantyre** Stewart of Tongrie** {{Tree list/final branch}} Stewart of Barclye*** Walter Stewart of Garlies and Dalswinton {{Tree list/final branch}} John Stewart of Dalswinton* {{Tree list/final branch}} Walter Stewart of Garlies and Dalswinton*** James Stewart of Pearston {{Tree list/final branch}} Stewart of Pearston* Stewart of Lorn** {{Tree list/final branch}} Clan Stewart of Appin* Earls of Atholl* {{Tree list/final branch}} Earls of Buchan** {{Tree list/final branch}} Earls of Traquair (illegitimate)*** John Stewart of Daldon*** {{Tree list/final branch}} Robert Stewart of Daldowie* Walter Bailloch** {{Tree list/final branch}} Earls of Menteith* {{Tree list/final branch}} Robert Stewart, Lord of Darnley {{Tree list/end}}

House of Stewart

{{Tree list}} Alexander Stewart, Duke of Rothesay James II of Scotland* James III of Scotland** James IV of Scotland*** James, Duke of Rothesay*** Arthur Stewart, Duke of Rothesay*** James V of Scotland James, Duke of Rothesay Arthur, Duke of Albany {{Tree list/final branch}} Mary, Queen of Scots*** {{Tree list/final branch}} Alexander Stewart, Duke of Ross** James Stewart, Duke of Ross** {{Tree list/final branch}} John Stewart, Earl of Mar* Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany** Alexander Stewart, Bishop of Moray** {{Tree list/final branch}} John Stewart, Duke of Albany* David Stewart, Earl of Moray* {{Tree list/final branch}} John Stewart, Earl of Mar {{Tree list/final branch}} Sir John Stewart (illegitimate)* {{Tree list/final branch}} Stewart of Ballechin Robert Stewart Walter Stewart* {{Tree list/final branch}} Lords Avandale** {{Tree list/final branch}} Lords Stuart of Ochiltree*** {{Tree list/final branch}} Barons Castle Stewart {{Tree list/final branch}} Earls Castle Stewart Alasdair Stewart {{Tree list/final branch}} James Mor Stewart* {{Tree list/final branch}} James "Beg" Stewart (illegitimate)** {{Tree list/final branch}} Stewart of Balquhidder*** Stewart of Ardvorlich*** Stewart of Glen Buckie*** Stewart of Gartnafuaran*** {{Tree list/final branch}} Stewart of Annat {{Tree list/final branch}} Stewart of Atholl {{Tree list/end}}

House of Stuart

Descended from the Stewarts of Darnley (Stewarts of Lennox){{Tree list}} Charles II of England* James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth (illegitimate)** {{Tree list/final branch}} Dukes of Buccleuch* Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth (illegitimate)* Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland (illegitimate)** {{Tree list/final branch}} Dukes of Cleveland (extinct 1774)* Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton (illegitimate)** {{Tree list/final branch}} Dukes of Grafton* George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland (illegitimate)* Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans (illegitimate)** {{Tree list/final branch}} Dukes of St Albans* {{Tree list/final branch}} Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond (illegitimate)** {{Tree list/final branch}} Dukes of Richmond, Lennox and Gordon James II of England* Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge* James Stuart, Duke of Cambridge* Charles Stuart, Duke of Kendal* Edgar, Duke of Cambridge* Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge* James Francis Edward Stuart** Charles Edward Stuart** {{Tree list/final branch}} Henry Benedict Stuart* James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick (illegitimate)** {{Tree list/final branch}} House of FitzJames*** Dukes of Berwick*** {{Tree list/final branch}} Dukes of Fitz-James (extinct 1967)* {{Tree list/final branch}} Henry FitzJames (illegitimate) {{Tree list/final branch}} Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester {{Tree list/end}}

See also

Notes

{{Reflist|group=note}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Sources

  • BOOK, The Anarchy of King Stephen's Reign,weblink King, Edmund, 1994, Oxford University Press, 0-19-820364-0,
  • BOOK, Barrow, G. W. S., G. W. S. Barrow, The Kingdom of the Scots, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 2003, 0-7486-1802-3,
  • BOOK, Barrow, G. W. S., G. W. S. Barrow, 2004, Stewart family (per. c.1110–c.1350), online, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 10.1093/ref:odnb/49411,weblink 11 October 2010,
  • BOOK, Round, J. Horace, Studies in Peerage and Family History, Westminster, London, Archibald Constable & Co Ltd, 1901,

Further reading

  • Addington, Arthur C. The Royal House of Stuart: The Descendants of King James VI of Scotland (James I of England). 3v. Charles Skilton, 1969–76.
  • Cassavetti, Eileen. The Lion & the Lilies: The Stuarts and France. Macdonald & Jane's, 1977.

External links

{{Commons category|House of Stuart}}

| years=1707–1714 }}
{{English, Scottish and British monarchs}}{{Kingdom of England}}{{Kingdom of Scotland}}{{Royal houses of Europe}}{{House of Stuart Lord High Treasurers}}{{House of Stuart Chancellors of the Exchequer}}{{Masters of the Mint}}{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2014}}{{Authority control}}

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