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Hosni Mubarak
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{{short description|20th and 21st-century Egyptian president and politician}}{{Redirect|Mubarak}}{{pp-30-500|small=yes}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2013}}







factoids
| image = Hosni Mubarak ritratto.jpg| size = | caption = Mubarak in 2009| order = 4th| office = President of Egypttitle=See listAhmad Fuad Mohieddin {{small>(1982–84)}}Kamal Hassan Ali {{smallAli Lutfi Mahmud {{small>(1985–86)}}Atef Sedki {{smallKamal Ganzouri {{small>(1996–99)}}Atef Ebeid {{smallAhmed Nazif {{small>(2004–11)}}Ahmed Shafik {{small|(2011)}}}}Omar Suleiman{{Ref label>aaa|a}}| term_start = 14 October 1981| term_end = 11 February 2011Sufi Abu Taleb {{small>(Acting)}}Mohamed Hussein Tantawi {{small>(Interim)}}| office1 = Prime Minister of EgyptSufi Abu Taleb {{small>(Acting)}}Himself| term_start1 = 7 October 1981| term_end1 = 2 January 1982| predecessor1 = Anwar Sadat| successor1 = Ahmad Fuad Mohieddin| office2 = 15th Vice-President of Egypt| president2 = Anwar Sadat| term_start2 = 16 April 1975| term_end2 = 14 October 1981| predecessor2 = Hussein el-ShafeiMahmoud FawziOmar Suleiman{{Ref label>aaa|a}}| office3 = Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement| term_start3 = 16 July 2009| term_end3 = 11 February 2011| predecessor3 = Raúl CastroMohamed Hussein Tantawi {{small>(Acting)}}Egyptian Air Force>Air Force| president4 = Anwar Sadat| term_start4 = 23 April 1972| term_end4 = 16 April 1975| predecessor4 = Ali Mustafa Baghdady| successor4 = Mahmoud Shaker| office5 = Director of the Egyptian Air Academy| term_start5 = November 1967| term_end5 = June 196weblink| predecessor5 = Yahia Saleh Al-Aidaros| successor5 = Mahmoud Shakerdf=y5|4}}Monufia Governorate>Kafr-El Meselha, Kingdom of Egypt| death_date = | death_place = National Democratic Party (Egypt)>National Democratic Party {{small|(1978–2011)}}Suzanne Mubarak>1959}} {edih}Egyptian Military AcademyEgyptian Air AcademySoviet military academies>Frunze Military Academy| religion = Sunni Islam| signature = Hosni Mubarak Signature.svgaaa}}Office vacant from 14 October 1981 to 29 January 2011b. {{noteEgyptian Armed Forces>Supreme Council of the Armed Forcesc.{{note|ccc}}c. military rank withdrawn after trialEgypt}}Egypt}}25px) – Air Chief Marshal| serviceyears = 1950–1975| commands = Egyptian Air ForceEgyptian Air AcademyBeni Suef Air BaseCairo West Air Base}}Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (, {{IPA-arz|mæˈħæmmæd ˈħosni (ʔe)sˈsæjjed moˈbɑːɾɑk}}, {{transl|ar|ALA|Muḥammad Ḥusnī Sayyid Mubārak}}; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the Egyptian Air Force. He served as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rose to the rank of air chief marshal in 1973. Some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor, remaining there until early 1959. He assumed presidency after the assassination of Anwar Sadat. Mubarak's presidency lasted almost thirty years, making him Egypt's longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha, who ruled the country from 1805 to 1848, a reign of 43 years.NEWS,weblink Hosni Mubarak, The New York Times, 8 March 2010, 25 January 2011, Michael, Slackman, Mubarak stepped down after 18 days of demonstrations during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.NEWS, Egypt Calls in Army as Protesters Rage,weblink New York Times, 28 January 2011, David D., Kirkpatrick, 28 January 2011, On 11 February 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned as president and transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.NEWS,weblink Mubarak Steps Down, Ceding Power to Military, Kirkpatrick, David D., Shadid, Anthony, Cowell, Alan, New York Times, 11 February 2011, 11 February 2011, NEWS,weblink Egypt crisis: President Hosni Mubarak resigns as leader, BBC, 11 February 2010, 11 February 2011, On 13 April 2011, a prosecutor ordered Mubarak and both of his sons (Alaa and Gamal) to be detained for 15 days of questioning about allegations of corruption and abuse of power.NEWS,weblink Prosecutors Order Mubarak and Sons Held, The New York Times, 13 March 2011, 13 April 2011, David D., Kirkpatrick, Liam, Stack, Mubarak was then ordered to stand trial on charges of negligence for failing to halt the killing of peaceful protesters during the revolution.NEWS,weblink Mubarak to be tried for murder of protesters, Reuters, 24 May 2011, 24 May 2011, These trials began on 3 August 2011.NEWS,weblink BBC, Trial of Egypt's Hosni Mubarak starts, 3 August 2011, On 2 June 2012, an Egyptian court sentenced Mubarak to life imprisonment. After sentencing, he was reported to have suffered a series of health crises. On 13 January 2013, Egypt's Court of Cassation (the nation's high court of appeal) overturned Mubarak's sentence and ordered a retrial.Egypt's Mubarak to get retrial. 3 News. Retrieved on 2014-01-16. On retrial, Mubarak and his sons were convicted on 9 May 2015 of corruption and given prison sentences.NEWS,weblink BBC News, Egypt's Hosni Mubarak jailed in corruption retrial, 9 May 2015, 9 May 2015, Mubarak was detained in a military hospital and his sons were freed 12 October 2015 by a Cairo court.NEWS, Jailed sons of Egypt's deposed leader Hosni Mubarak freed, 13 October 2015, Associated Press,weblink He was acquitted on 2 March 2017 by the Court of Cassation.NEWS, Egypt's Hosni Mubarak acquitted over 2011 protester deaths, 3 March 2017,weblink He was released on 24 March 2017.NEWS,weblink Egypt's Hosni Mubarak freed after six years in detention, 24 March 2017, BBC News, 24 March 2017, en-GB,

Early life and Air Force career

Hosni Mubarak was born on 4 May 1928 in Kafr El-Meselha, Monufia Governorate, Egypt.WEB,weblink Profile: Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, Xinhua News, 10 February 2010, 11 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110214024928weblink">weblink 14 February 2011, dmy-all, On 2 February 1949, he left the Military Academy and joined the Air Force Academy, gaining his commission as a pilot officer on 13 March 1950WEB, Air Marshal Mohammed Hosni Mubarak,weblink Egyptian Armed Forces Web Site, Egyptian Armed Forces, 30 May 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100323064657weblink">weblink 23 March 2010, and eventually receiving a bachelor's degree in aviation sciences.Mubarak served as an Egyptian Air Force officer in various formations and units; he spent two years in a Spitfire fighter squadron. Some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor, remaining there until early 1959. From February 1959 to June 1961, Mubarak undertook further training in the Soviet Union, attending a Soviet pilot training school in Moscow and another at Kant Air Base near Bishkek in the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic.Mubarak undertook training on the Ilyushin Il-28 and Tupolev Tu-16 jet bombers. In 1964 he gained a place at the Frunze Military Academy in Moscow. On his return to Egypt, he served as a wing commander, then as a base commander; he commanded the Cairo West Air Base in October 1966 then briefly commanded the Beni Suef Air Base. In November 1967, Mubarak became the Air Force Academy's commander when he was credited with doubling the number of Air Force pilots and navigators during the pre-October War years.WEB, Staff Group Captain Mohammed Hosni Mubarak,weblink Egyptian Armed Forces Web Site, Egyptian Armed Forces, 14 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110429094717weblink">weblink 29 April 2011, dmy-all, Two years later, he became Chief of Staff for the Egyptian Air Force.In 1972, Mubarak became Commander of the Air Force and Egyptian Deputy Minister of Defense. On 6 October 1973, at the breakout of the Yom Kippur War, the Egyptian Air Force launched a surprise attack on Israeli soldiers on the east bank of the Suez Canal. Egyptian pilots hit 90% of their targets, making Mubarak a national hero.CNN Library, Hosni Mubarak Fast Facts. 31 May 2014 The next year he was promoted to Air Chief Marshal in recognition of service during the October War of 1973 against Israel.NEWS, The Mubarak legend – Longtime strongman can't withstand media barrage, The Washington Times, Arnaud de Borchgrave, Arnaud, de Borchgrave, 2 February 2011, 3 February 2011,weblink Mubarak was credited in some publications for Egypt's initial strong performance in the war.NEWS, Middle East factfile: Key figures, The Daily Telegraph, UK, 15 January 2002, 7 February 2011,weblink The Egyptian analyst Mohamed Hassanein Heikal said the Air Force played a mostly psychological role in the war, providing an inspirational sight for the Egyptian ground troops who carried out the crossing of the Suez Canal, rather than for any military necessity.WEB,weblink كتابات مصراوي – هيكل يفجر قنبلة مدوية حول لغز بقاء مبارك بشرم الشيخ, Masrawy, 21 February 2011, 15 April 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110424031202weblink">weblink 24 April 2011, dmy-all, However Mubarak's influence was also disputed by Shahdan El-Shazli, the daughter of the former Egyptian military Chief of Staff Saad el-Shazly. She said Mubarak exaggerated his role in the 1973 war. In an interview with the Egyptian independent newspaper Almasry Alyoum (26 February 2011), El-Shazli said Mubarak altered documents to take credit from her father for the initial success of the Egyptian forces in 1973. She also said photographs pertaining to the discussions in the military command room were altered and Saad El-Shazli was erased and replaced with Mubarak. She stated she intends to take legal action.WEB,weblink ar:ابنة الفريق سعدالدين الشاذلى لـ"المصري اليوم": "مبارك" زوّر التاريخ ووضع صورته مكان والدى فى "غرفة عمليات أكتوبر", Almasry Alyoum, Osama, Khalid, 6 April 2012, 26 February 2011, Arabic, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110425231850weblink">weblink 25 April 2011, dmy-all,

Vice President of Egypt

In April 1975, President Anwar Sadat appointed Mubarak Vice President of Egypt. In this position, he took part in government consultations that dealt with the future disengagement of forces agreement with Israel.WEB,weblink Eilts to Kissinger, July 22, 1975, 29 January 2011, In September 1975, Mubarak went on a mission to Riyadh and Damascus to persuade the Saudi Arabian and Syrian governments to accept the disengagement agreement signed with the Israeli government ("Sinai II"), but was refused a meeting by the Syrian President Hafez Al-Assad.WEB,weblink Eilts to Kissinger, September 3, 1975, 29 January 2011, WEB,weblink Hermann Eilts (US Ambassador to Egypt) to Henry Kissinger, September 5, 1975, 29 January 2011, During his meetings with the Saudi government, Mubarak developed a friendship with the nation's powerful Crown Prince Fahd, whom Sadat had refused to meet or contact and who was now seen as major player who could help mend the failing relationship between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Mubarak also developed friendships with several other important Arab figureheads, including Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud, Oman's Sultan Qaboos, Morocco's King Hassan II, and Sudan's President Jaafar Nimeiry.Sadat also sent Mubarak to numerous meetings with foreign leaders outside the Arab world.WEB,weblink Hermann Eilts to Henry Kissinger, December 31, 1975, 29 January 2011, Mubarak's political significance as Vice-President can be seen from a conversation held on 23 June 1975 between Foreign Minister Fahmy and US Ambassador Hermann Eilts. Fahmy told Eilts that "Mubarak is, for the time being at least, likely to be a regular participant in all sensitive meetings" and he advised the Ambassador not to antagonize Mubarak because he was Sadat's personal choice. Though supportive of Sadat's earlier efforts made to bring the Sinai Peninsula back into Egyptian control, Mubarak agreed with the views of various Arab figureheads and opposed the Camp David Accords for failing to address other issues relating to the Arab–Israeli conflict.NEWS,weblink Egypt's Hosni Mubarak picks up Sadat's reins: profile, Olfat M. El Tohamy, 2, Christian Science Monitor, 14 October 1981, 23 January 2013, Sadat even transferred his decisionmaking authority to Mubarak temporarily at times he went on vacations.Hermann Eilts (US Ambassador to Egypt) to Cyrus Vance, 12 October 1978

President of Egypt

(File:Egyptian presidential referendum 1981 Akhbar newspaper.jpeg|thumbnail|Egyptian presidential referendum 1981 Akhbar newspaper)Mubarak was injured during the assassination of President Sadat in October 1981 by soldiers led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli. Following Sadat's death, Mubarak became the fourth president of Egypt.

Egypt's return to the Arab League

Until Libya's suspension from the Arab League at the beginning of the Libyan Civil War, Egypt was the only state in the history of the organization to have had its membership suspended, because of President Sadat's peace treaty with Israel. In June 1982, Mubarak met King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, which marked a beginning of an Egyptian-Saudi rapprochement.Islamic Imperialism by Efraim Karsh, Yale University Press, 2006, p. 175. Since Egypt is the most populous Arab country and Saudi Arabia the richest, the Saudi–Egyptian axis was a powerful force in the Arab world. At a Arab League summit later in 1982 in Fez, Saudi Arabia put forward an Egyptian peace plan where in exchange for Israel resolving the Israeli–Palestinian conflict by allowing a Palestinian state, the entire Arab world would make peace with Israel.The Islamic Republic of Iran had, from 1979 onward, been making the claim to be the leader of the Islamic world, and in particular Ayatollah Khomeini had called for the overthrow of the governments of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and other Arab states along the southern shores of the Persian Gulf, calling these states illegitimate.Islamic Imperialism by Efraim Karsh, Yale University Press, 2006, p. 174. The claim of the Ayatollah Khomeini to be the rightful leader of the Islamic world and his attempts to export the Iranian revolution by working to overthrow governments that Khomeini deemed un-Islamic caused profound alarm and fear in the governments that were targeted like Iraq and Saudi Arabia. In the face of the Iranian challenge, the other Arab states looked towards Egypt as an ally. For King Fahd of Saudi Arabia and the other leaders of the Arab Gulf states, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict faded into the background and the main concern was resisting Iranian pretensions to be the leader of the Islamic world, meaning that Egypt could not be ignored.During the Iran–Iraq War from 1980 to 1988, Egypt supported Iraq militarily and economically with one million Egyptians working in Iraq to take the place of Iraqi men serving on the front-line. In December 1983, Mubarak welcomed Yasser Arafat of the PLO to a summit in Cairo, marking a rapprochement with the PLO, and from that time, Egypt became the PLO's main ally.Islamic Imperialism by Efraim Karsh, Yale University Press, 2006, p. 176. In 1985, the Achille Lauro hijacking caused a major crisis in relations when the U.S Air Force forced an EgyptAir plane carrying the Achille Lauro hi-jackers to Tunisia to land in Italy; otherwise the plane would had been shot down. Mubarak stated in a press conference on 12 October 1985: "I am very wounded. Now there is coolness and strain as a result of this incident."NEWS, Hijacking Causes Chilling of U.S.-Egypt Relationship, Bernard Gwertzman, 13 October 1985, New York Times,weblink Egypt had been ostracized by the other Arab states for signing the Camp David Accords in 1979, but Egypt's weight within the Arab world had led to Egypt regaining its "central place in the Arab world" by 1989.Islamic Imperialism by Efraim Karsh, Yale University Press, 2006, p. 177. In 1989, Egypt was re-admitted as a full member to the Arab League and the League's headquarters were moved to their original location in Cairo.NEWS,weblink Middle East – Country profiles – Country profile: Egypt, 19 June 2007, 17 November 2009, BBC News,

Governing style

Throughout the 1980s, Mubarak increased the production of affordable housing, clothing, furniture, and medicine. By the time he became President, Mubarak was one of a few Egyptian officials who refused to visit Israel and vowed to take a less enthusiastic approach to normalizing relations with the Israeli government. Under Mubarak, Israeli journalists often wrote about the "cold peace" with Egypt, observing Israeli–Egyptian relations were frosty at best.Islamic Imperialism by Efraim Karsh, Yale University Press, 2006, p. 183. Mubarak was quick to deny that his policies would result in difficulties for Egyptian–Israeli dealings in the future.Despite or perhaps because of the Camp David Accords, Murbarak "fostered a culture of virulent anti-Semitism in Egypt" and turned Egypt into "the world's most prolific producer of anti-Semitic ideas and attitudes". Mubarak justified the Camp David accords in anti-Semitic terms in an interview, saying the Jews controlled the world economy. Mubarak stated: "Against us stood the most intelligent people on the earth-a people that controls the international press, the world economy and the world finances. We succeeded in compelling the Jews to do what we wanted; we received all our land back, up to the last grain of sand! We have outwitted them, and what have we given them in return? A piece of paper!...We were shrewder than the shrewdest people on the earth! We managed to hamper their steps in every direction. We have established sophisticated machinery to control and limit to the minimum contacts with the Jews. We have proven that making peace with Israel does not entail Jewish domination and that there is no obligation to develop relations with Israel beyond those we desire". During the Mubarak years, the Egyptian media portrayed the infamous anti-Semitic forgery The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion as genuine, accused the Jews of spreading venereal diseases in Egypt, of working to sabotage Egyptian agriculture, and of causing the problems of drug addiction among the Egyptian youth.Islamic Imperialism by Efraim Karsh, Yale University Press, 2006, p. 184. The anti-Semitic pamphlet Human Sacrifice in the Talmud'' was made mandatory reading by the Egyptian Ministry of Education. The Israeli historian Major Efraim Karsh wrote in 2006 that in Egypt "...numberless articles, scholarly writings, books, cartoons, public statements, and radio and television programs, Jews are painted in the blackest terms imaginable". Karsh accused Mubarak of being personally antisemitic, writing he "evidently shared the premises" of his propaganda. Egypt's heavy dependence on US aid and its hopes for US pressure on Israel for a Palestinian settlement continued under Mubarak. He quietly improved relations with the former Soviet Union. In 1987, Mubarak won an election to a second six-year term.In his early years in power, Mubarak expanded the Egyptian State Security Investigations Service (Mabahith Amn ad-Dawla) and the Central Security Forces (anti-riot and containment forces).Egypt on the Brink by Tarek Osman, Yale University Press, 2010, p. 170 According to Tarek Osman, the experience of seeing his predecessor assassinated "right in front of him" and his lengthy military career{{mdash}}which was longer than those of Nasser or Sadat{{mdash}}may have instilled in him more focus and absorption with security than seemed the case with the latter heads of state. Mubarak sought advice and confidence not in leading ministers, senior advisers or leading intellectuals, but from his security chiefs—"interior ministers, army commanders, and the heads of the ultra-influential intelligence services."Egypt on the Brink by Tarek Osman, Yale University Press, 2010, pp. 170–1 All through the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, violations of human rights by the security services in Egypt were described as "systematic" by Amnesty International.WEB, No paradise, The Economist, 15 July 2010,weblink 2016-11-30, In 2007, Amnesty International reported that the Egyptian police routinely engaged in "beatings, electric shocks, prolonged suspension by the wrists and ankles in contorted positions, death threats and sexual abuse". The state remained large under Mubarak employing 8 million people out of a population of 75 million.Because of his positions against Islamic fundamentalism and his diplomacy towards Israel, Mubarak was the target of repeated assassination attempts. According to the BBC, Mubarak survived six attempts on his life.BBC News, Profile: Hosni Mubarak. 22 August 2013. In June 1995, there was an alleged assassination attempt involving noxious gases and Egyptian Islamic Jihad while Mubarak was in Ethiopia for a conference of the Organization of African Unity.BOOK, Wright, Lawrence, Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11, Vintage Books, 2007, New York, 242–244, 1-4000-3084-6, He was also reportedly injured by a knife-wielding assailant in Port Said in September 1999.NEWS,weblink Man Killed After Injuring Mubarak, Los Angeles Times, 7 September 1999, 1 February 2011, John, Daniszewski, Neither Israel nor the United States ever made much of any issue of the antisemitism of the Egyptian media under Mubarak. A rare exception was in 2002 when the Egyptian state television aired the mini-series Horseman without a Horse which portrayed The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion as genuine. Both the Israeli and American ambassadors handed in notes of protest against the airing of Horseman without a Horse for inciting antisemitism."Egypt criticised for 'anti-Semitic' film", BBC News Online, 1 November 2002.File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-P115717, Berlin, Besuch ägyptischer Präsident Mubarak.jpg|thumb|left|Mubarak in West BerlinWest Berlin

Gulf War of 1991

Egypt was a member of the allied coalition during the 1991 Gulf War; Egyptian infantry were some of the first to land in Saudi Arabia to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Egypt's participation in the war solidified its central role in the Arab World and brought financial benefits for the Egyptian government. Reports that sums of up to {{USD|500,000}} per soldier were paid or debt forgiven were published in the news media. According to The Economist: The programme worked like a charm: a textbook case, says the [International Monetary Fund]. In fact, luck was on Hosni Mubarak's side; when the US was hunting for a military alliance to force Iraq out of Kuwait, Egypt's president joined without hesitation. After the war, his reward was that America, the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and Europe forgave Egypt around $20 billion of debt.NEWS,weblink The IMF's model pupil, 19 June 2007, The Economist, 18 March 1999, File:ACC stamp 1990 A2.jpg|thumb|Iraqi stamp about the Arab Cooperation Council (ACC), founded 1989 by President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt, President Ali Abdullah Saleh of (North) Yemen, King Hussein of Jordan and President Saddam HusseinSaddam Hussein

Stance on the invasion of Iraq in 2003

File:George W. Bush & Hosni Mubarak.jpg|thumb|With the U.S. President, George W. BushGeorge W. BushPresident Mubarak spoke out against the 2003 Iraq War, arguing that the Israeli–Palestinian conflict should have been resolved first. He also said the war would cause "100 Bin Ladens".NEWS,weblink Mubarak warns of '100 bin Ladens', CNN, 31 March 2003, 29 January 2011, However, as President he did not support an immediate US withdrawal from Iraq because he believed it would probably lead to chaos.NEWS,weblink Mubarak: "U.S withdrawal would hurt Iraq", USA Today, 9 April 2006, 29 January 2011,

2005 elections

File:Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, on September 14, 2010.jpg|thumb|Mubarak meeting with U.S. State Secretary Hillary Clinton, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu at Sharm el-SheikhSharm el-SheikhPresident Mubarak was re-elected by majority votes in a referendum for successive terms on four occasions: in 1987, 1993, and 1999. Previously,{{when|date=October 2010}} Mubarak secured his position by having himself nominated by Parliament then confirmed without opposition in a referendum.The September 2005 ballot was a multiple-candidate election rather than a referendum, but the electoral institutions and security apparatus remain under the control of the President. On 28 July 2005, Mubarak announced his candidacy. The election was scheduled for 7 September 2005; according to civil organizations that observed the election it was marred by mass rigging activities.WEB,weblink Mubarak opponents take to streets, allege rigging, LivePunjab, 12 September 2005, 1 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110211072401weblink">weblink 11 February 2011, dmy-all, In a move widely seen as political persecution, Ayman Nour, a dissident and candidate for the El-Ghad Party ("Tomorrow party") was convicted of forgery and sentenced to five years' hard labor on 24 December 2005.NEWS, Testing Egypt, Mubarak Rival Is Sent to Jail,weblink Michael, Slackman, 25 December 2005, The New York Times, 6 June 2009,

State corruption during Mubarak's presidency

While in office, political corruption in the Mubarak administration's Ministry of the Interior rose dramatically. Political figures and young activists were imprisoned without trial.WEB, Suzanne Choney,weblink Egyptian bloggers brave police intimidation, 28 January 2011, 27 January 2011, MSNBC, Illegal, undocumented, hidden detention facilities were established,WEB,weblink The C.I.A.'s Travel Agent, 30 October 2006, 28 January 2011, The New Yorker, Jane Mayer, WEB,weblink Striptease brevpapperl Agent, 18 May 2004, 28 January 2011, trojkan.se, Kalla Fakta, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110304210612weblink">weblink 4 March 2011, dmy-all, and universities, mosques, and newspaper staff were rejected because of political inclination.NEWS, Jack Shenker,weblink Egyptian elections: independents fight for hearts and minds in 'fixed ballot', The Guardian, UK, 22 November 2010, 28 January 2011, {{clarify|date=May 2011}}In 2005 Freedom House, a non-governmental organization that conducts research into democracy, reported that the Egyptian government under Mubarak expanded bureaucratic regulations, registration requirements, and other controls that often feed corruption. Freedom House said, "corruption remained a significant problem under Mubarak, who promised to do much, but in fact never did anything significant to tackle it effectively".WEB,weblink Country Report – Egypt, freedomhouse.org, 2005, 15 April 2011, In 2010, Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index report assessed Egypt with a CPI score of 3.1, based on perceptions of the degree of corruption from business people and country analysts, with 10 being very clean and 0 being highly corrupt. Egypt ranked 98th out of the 178 countries included in the report.WEB,weblink CPI 2010 table, Transparency International, 26 October 2010,

Wealth and allegations of personal corruption

In February 2011, ABC News reported that experts believed the personal wealth of Mubarak and his family was between {{USD|40 billion}} and {{USD|70 billion}} from military contracts made during his time as an air force officer.NEWS, Egypt's Mubarak likely to retain vast wealth, Susanna, Kim,weblink ABC News, 2 February 2011, 3 February 2011, The Guardian reported that Mubarak and his family might be worth up to {{USD|70 billion}} garnered from corruption, bribes and legitimate business activities. The money was said to be spread out in various bank accounts, including some in Switzerland and the UK, and invested in foreign property. The newspaper said some of the information about the family's wealth might be ten years old.Mubarak family fortune could reach $70bn, say experts, Guardian According to Newsweek, these allegations are poorly substantiated and lack credibility.NEWS, Newsweek, Dickey, Christopher, The Tragedy of Mubarak, 21 February 2011, 18, On 12 February 2011, the government of Switzerland announced it was freezing the Swiss bank accounts of Mubarak and his family.JOURNAL,weblink Deccan Herald, Switzerland freezes assets of Mubarak., On 20 February 2011, the Egyptian Prosecutor General ordered the freezing of Mubarak's assets and those of his wife Suzanne, his sons Alaa and Gamal Mubarak, and his daughters-in-law Heidi Rasekh and Khadiga Gamal. The Prosecutor General also ordered the Egyptian Foreign Minister to communicate this to other countries where Mubarak and his family could have assets. This order came two days after Egyptian newspapers reported that Mubarak filed his financial statement.WEB,weblink ط§ظ"ط£ظˆظ"ظ‰ – ط§ظ"ظ†ط§ط¦ط¨ ط§ظ"ط¹ط§ظ… ظٹط·ظ"ط¨ طھط¬ظ…ظٹط¯ ط£ط±طµط¯ط ظ…ط¨ط§ط±ظƒ ظˆط¹ط§ط¦ظ"طھظ‡, Ahram, 15 April 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110407180637weblink">weblink 7 April 2011, dmy-all, Egyptian regulations mandate government officials to submit a financial statement listing their assets and sources of income while performing government work. On 21 February 2011, the Egyptian Military Council, which was temporarily given the presidential authorities following 25 January 2011 Revolution, said it had no objection to a trial of Mubarak on charges of corruption.AlwafdOn 23 February 2011, the Egyptian newspaper Eldostor reported that a "knowledgeable source" described the order of the Prosecutor General to freeze Mubarak's assets and the threats of a legal action as nothing but a signal for Mubarak to leave Egypt after a number of attempts were made to encourage him to leave willingly.WEB,weblink تجميد أرصدة مبارك إجراء لإجباره على الخروج من مصر بعد رفضه مطالبات مسبقة, الدستور, Dostor, 22 February 2011, 15 April 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110419033301weblink">weblink 19 April 2011, dmy-all, In February 2011, Voice of America reported that Egypt's top prosecutor had ordered a travel ban and an asset freeze for Mubarak and his family as he considered further action.WEB,weblink Egypt Issues Travel Ban, Asset Freeze on Mubarak, VOA, 28 February 2011, 15 April 2011, On 21 May 2014 a Cairo court convicted Mubarak and his sons of embezzling the equivalent of {{USD|17.6 million}} of state funds which were allocated for renovation and maintenance of presidential palaces but were instead diverted to upgrade private family homes. The court ordered the repayment of {{USD|17.6 million}}, fined the trio {{USD|2.9 million}}, and sentenced Mubarak to three years in prison and each of his sons to four years.

Presidential succession

File:Gamal Mubarak.jpg|thumb|upright|Gamal MubarakGamal MubarakIn 2009, US Ambassador Margaret Scobey said, "despite incessant whispered discussions, no one in Egypt has any certainty about who will eventually succeed Mubarak nor under what circumstances."JOURNAL, Scobey, Margaret, Scenesetter: President Mubarak's visit to Washington, {{WikiLeaks cable, 09CAIRO874, |work=WikiLeaks |date=19 May 2009 |url=http://wikileaks.ch/cable/2009/05/09CAIRO874.html |accessdate=18 January 2011 |archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/5vq2wl2xM?url=http://wikileaks.ch/cable/2009/05/09CAIRO874.html |archivedate=18 January 2011 |deadurl=yes |df=dmy-all }} She said presidential son Gamal Mubarak was the most likely successor; some thought intelligence chief Omar Suleiman might seek the office, or Arab League Secretary-General Amr Moussa might stand. President Mubarak and his son denied this; they said "a multi-candidate electoral system introduced in 2005 has made the political process more transparent".NEWS, Alaa, Shahine, Egypt's Ruling Party Tightens Grip as Mubarak Succession Nears, 25 November 2010, Bloomberg L.P.,weblink 19 January 2011,weblink 19 January 2011, no, dmy-all, Nigerian Tribune journalist Abiodun Awolaja described a possible succession by Gamal Mubarak as a "hereditary pseudo-monarchy."NEWS, Abiodun, Awolaja, Between Nigeria and Egypt's presidential crises, 24 March 2010, Nigerian Tribune,weblink 19 January 2011,weblink 19 January 2011, yes, dmy-all, The National Democratic Party of Egypt continued to state that Hosni Mubarak was to be the party's only candidate in the 2011 Presidential Election. Mubarak said on 1 February 2011 that he had no intention of standing in the 2011 presidential election. When this declaration failed to ease the protests, Mubarak's vice president stated that Gamal Mubarak would not run for president. With the escalation of the demonstration and the fall of Mubarak, Hamdy El-Sayed, a former influential figure in the National Democratic Party, said Gamal Mubarak intended to usurp the presidency, assisted by then Interior Minister, Habib El-Adly.WEB,weblink حمدى السيد: جمال مبارك كان يدبر لانقلاب على أبيه بدعم العادلى – بوابة الشروق, Shorouk News, 15 April 2011,

Israeli–Palestinian conflict

During his presidency, Mubarak upheld the U.S. brokered Camp David Accords treaty signed between Egypt and Israel in 1978. Mubarak, on occasion also hosted meetings relating to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and made a number of attempts to serve as a broker between them.Jeremy M. Sharp, Egypt: Background and U. S. Relations. CRS, 2009. p.43. Mubarak was concerned that Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson didn't trust him on the issue and considered meeting him in New York.Joseph Telushkin, Rebbe: The Life and Teachings of Menachem M. Schneerson, the Most Influential Rabbi in Modern History. HarperCollins, 2014. p. 209.
In October 2000, Mubarak hosted an emergency summit meeting at Sharm el-Sheikh to discuss the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In attendance were: U.S. President Bill Clinton, P.L.O. Chairman Yasser Arafat, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, King Abdullah of Jordan, NATO Sec. General Javier Solana, and U.N. Sec. General Kofi Annan.Mubarak was involved in the Arab League, supporting Arab efforts to achieve a lasting peace in the region. At the Beirut Summit on 28 March 2002, the league adopted the Arab Peace Initiative,WEB, Council of Arab States, The Arab Peace Initiative, 2002, Al-bab, 1 October 2005,weblink 9 July 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090604091304weblink">weblinkarabdocleaguepeace02.htm, 4 June 2009, dmy-all, a Saudi-inspired plan to end the Arab–Israeli conflict.File:Netanyahu and Mubarak checking their watches.jpg|thumb|1 September 2010. During Middle East negotiations, Mubarak and Prime Minister Benjamin NetanyahuBenjamin NetanyahuIn June 2007, Mubarak held a summit meeting at Sharm el-Sheik with King Abdullah II of Jordan, President Mahmoud Abbas and Prime Minister Ehud Olmert. On 19 June 2008, the Egypt-brokered pause in hostilities between Israel and Hamas went into effect.NEWS, Rockets hit Israel, breaking Hamas truce, International Herald Tribune, Isabel Kershner, 25 June 2008,weblink Hamas offering Israel truce, not peace. USA Today. 12 March 2008. According to The New York Times, neither side fully respected the terms of the ceasefire.NEWS,weblink Gaza Truce May Be Revived by Necessity, Bronner, Ethan, 19 December 2008, New York Times, 12 February 2009, The agreement required Hamas to end rocket attacks on Israel and to enforce the ceasefire throughout Gaza. In exchange, Hamas expected the blockade to end, commerce in Gaza to resume, and truck shipments to be restored to 2005 levels.Press Conference on Gaza humanitarian situation UN. 2009. Israel tied an easing of the blockade to a reduction in rocket fire and gradually re-opened supply lines and permitted around 90 daily truck shipments to enter Gaza.Truce barely eases Gaza embargo. Aleem Maqbool. BBC News. 19 August 2008. Hamas criticized Israel for its continued blockadeRory McCarthy. (5 November 2008). weblink The Guardian. while Israel accused Hamas of continued weapons smuggling via tunnels to Egypt and pointed to continued rocket attacks.In 2009, Mubarak's government banned the Cairo Anti-war Conference, which had criticised his lack of action against Israel.WEB, Mubarak blocks resistance Cairo conference, Socialist Worker, 12 May 2009,weblink 15 May 2009,

Revolution and overthrow

File:Tahrir Square - February 9, 2011.png|thumb|Massive protests centered on Cairo's Tahrir SquareTahrir SquareProtests against Mubarak and his regime erupted in Cairo and other Egyptian cities in January 2011. On 1 February, Mubarak announced he would not contest the presidential election due in September. He also promised constitutional reform.NEWS, Kevin Connolly,weblink Egypt unrest: Hosni Mubarak vows to quit after polls, BBC, 16 May 2009, 1 February 2011, This did not satisfy most protesters, who expected Mubarak to depart immediately.NEWS,weblink Factbox{{mdash, World reaction to Egypt's Mubarak quitting in September|agency=Reuters|date=3 February 2011|accessdate=3 February 2011}} The demonstrations continued and on 2 February, violent clashes occurred between pro-Mubarak and anti-Mubarak protesters.NEWS, Wyre Davies,weblink Egypt unrest: PM apologises for Tahrir Square violence, BBC News, 3 February 2011, 5 February 2011, On 10 February, contrary to rumours,NEWS, Paul Adams,weblink Egypt protests: Hosni Mubarak to make TV address, BBC, 10 February 2011, 12 February 2011, Mubarak said he would not resign until the September election, though he would be delegating responsibilities to Vice President Omar Suleiman. The next day, Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned. The announcement sparked cheers, flag-waving, and celebrations from protesters in Egypt. Discussions about the nation's future direction began. It had been suggested that Egypt be put in the hands of a caretaker government.

Protests

On 25 January 2011, protests against Mubarak and his government erupted in Cairo and around Egypt calling for Mubarak's resignation.'Egyptians celebrate a moment in history. Retrieved 12 February 2011. Mubarak stated in a speech that he would not leave, and would die on Egyptian soil. Opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei paid no attention to Mubarak's remarks and labeled it as a trick designed to help Mubarak to stay in power.BBC on Mubarak. Retrieved 12 February 2011. In a state televised broadcast on 1 February 2011, Mubarak announced that he would not seek re-election in September but would like to finish his current term and promised constitutional reform. This compromise was not acceptable for the protestors and violent demonstrations occurred in front of the Presidential Palace. On 11 February, then Vice President Omar Suleiman announced Mubarak had resigned and that power would be turned over to the Egyptian military.Two and a half hours after Mubarak's resignation, an Egyptian military member came on air and thanked Mubarak for "putting the interests of the country first." The statement, which said "The Supreme Council is currently studying the situation," did not state what the council would do next.'President Obama hails Mubarak's Resignation, Cites 'Moral Force of Non-Violence: Uncensored News {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427013308weblink |date=27 April 2011 }}. Retrieved 12 February 2011.

Post-resignation

Mubarak made no media appearances after his resignation. Except for his family and a close circle of aides, he reportedly refused to talk to anyone{{mdash}}even his supporters. His health was speculated to be rapidly deteriorating; some reports said he was in a coma. Most sources said he was no longer interested in performing any duties and wanted to "die in Sharm El-Sheikh"."Workers at Mubarak's palace plan 'Friday of Apology' Mubarak given up, wants to die in Sharm" 15 February 2011, Al Arabiya News"Ex-Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak near death" 15 February 2011, New York Daily NewsOn 28 February 2011, the General Prosecutor of Egypt issued an order prohibiting Mubarak and his family from leaving Egypt. It was reported that Mubarak was in contact with his lawyer in case of possible criminal charges against him."General Prosecution: Mubarak and his family are not out of Egypt" 4 March 2011, Egyptian State Information Service As a result, Mubarak and his family were placed under house arrest at a presidential palace in the Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheikh.WEB,weblinkwork=YahooTora Prison; state television reported that Mubarak was in police custody in a hospital near his residence following a heart attack. Former Israeli Cabinet minister Benjamin Ben Eliezer told Israeli Radio that he had offered Mubarak refuge in the southern Israeli city of Eilat.AILING MUBARAK WHEELED INTO COURTROOM CAGE FOR TRIALWORK=CNNACCESSDATE=3 AUGUST 2011, On 11 May 2013, he told El-Watan in his first media appearance since his resignation said, "History will judge and I am still certain that the coming generations will view me fairly." He added that President Mohammed Morsi faced a tough time and that it was too early to judge him.WEB,weblink Egypt paper publishes 'Mubarak interview', Al Jazeera, 29 April 2016,

Trial

{{details|Trials and judicial hearings following the Egyptian Revolution of 2011#Mubarak family}}File:Mubark behind the bars.JPG|thumb|Mubarak appearing in a CairoCairoOn 24 May 2011, Mubarak was ordered to stand trial on charges of premeditated murder of peaceful protesters during the revolution and, if convicted, could face the death penalty. The decision to try Mubarak was made days before a scheduled protest in Tahrir Square. The full list of charges released by the public prosecutor was "intentional murder, attempted killing of some demonstrators ... misuse of influence, deliberately wasting public funds and unlawfully making private financial gains and profits".On 28 May, a Cairo administrative court found Mubarak guilty of damaging the national economy during the protests by shutting down the Internet and telephone services. He was fined LE200 million{{mdash}}about {{USD|33.6 million}}{{mdash}}which the court ordered he must pay from his personal assets. This was the first court ruling against Mubarak, who would next have to answer to the murder charges.NEWS,weblink Mubarak, other former Egypt officials fined $91 million for blocking cellphones, Internet, Hennessy-Fiske, Molly, Hassan, Amro, 29 May 2011, Los Angeles Times, 29 May 2011, NEWS,weblink Mubarak fined for mobile, Internet cut, 28 May 2011, The Egyptian Gazette, 29 May 2011,weblink 10 August 2011, yes, dmy-all, The trial of Hosni Mubarak, his sons Ala'a and Gamal, former interior minister Habib el-Adly and six former top police officials began on 3 August 2011 at a temporary criminal court at the Police Academy in north Cairo. They were charged with corruption and the premeditated killing of peaceful protesters during the mass movement to oust the Mubarak government, the latter of which carries the death penalty.Mubarak and sons to stand trial in August Al Jazeera. Retrieved 1 June 2011 The trial was broadcast on Egyptian television; Mubarak made an unexpected appearance{{mdash}}his first since his resignation. He was taken into the court on a hospital bed and held in a cage for the session. Upon hearing the charges against him, Mubarak pleaded not guilty. Judge Ahmed Refaat adjourned the court, ruling that Mubarak be transferred under continued arrest to the military hospital on the outskirts of Cairo. The second court session scheduled for 15 August.NEWS, Afify, Heba, Judge Says TV Will Show Mubarak on Trial,weblink 31 July 2011, The New York Times, 31 July 2011, Fahim, Kareem, On 15 August, the resumed trial lasted three hours. At the end of the session, Rifaat announced that the third session would take place on 5 September and that the remainder of the proceedings would be off-limits to television cameras.NEWS, Hill, Evan, Mubarak trial reined in at second hearing,weblink 16 August 2011, Al Jazeera, 15 August 2011, Lawyers were forced to take their seats and submit their requests in writing, and Rifaat adjourned the case until 5 September, after issuing a terse series of 10 decisions on how the trial would proceed., (File:Riot police outside Mubarak courthouse.jpg|thumb|Riot police outside the courthouse where Mubarak was being sentenced on 2 June 2012)The trial resumed in December 2011 and lasted until January 2012. The defense strategy was that Mubarak never actually resigned, was still president, and thus had immunity.WEB, Associated Press,weblink Egypt's Hosni Mubarak Trial: Defense Concludes, Argues Ousted Leader Still President, Huffington Post, 21 January 2012, 25 January 2012, On 2 June 2012, Mubarak was found guilty of not halting the killing of protesters by the Egyptian security forces; he was sentenced to life imprisonment.NEWS,weblink BBC, Mubarak jailed for protest deaths, 2 June 2012, 2 June 2012, The court found Mubarak not guilty of ordering the crackdown on Egyptian protesters. All other charges against Mubarak, including profiteering and economic fraud, were dismissed. Mubarak's sons, Habib el-Adly, and six senior police officials were all acquitted for their roles in the killing of demonstrators because of a lack of evidence.NEWS, Kirkpatrick, Patrick D., New Turmoil in Egypt Greets Mixed Verdict for Mubarak,weblink 2 June 2012, The New York Times, 2 June 2012, According to The Guardian, the relatives of those killed by Mubarak's forces were angered by the verdict.NEWS, Hosni Mubarak's sentence greeted with initial euphoria, then anger,weblink The Guardian, 2 June 2012, NEWS,weblink Live updates: Thousands take to Egypt street protesting 'political' ruling in Mubarak case, 2 June 2012, Ahram online, 2 June 2012, Thousands of demonstrators protested the verdict in Tahrir Square, Arbein Square and Al-Qaed Ibrahim Square.In January 2013, an appeals court overturned Mubarak's life sentence and ordered a retrial.NEWS,weblink 3 News NZ, Egypt's Mubarak to get retrial, 14 January 2013, He remained in custody and returned to court on 11 May 2013 for a retrial on charges of complicity in the murder of protesters.WEB, Ousted Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak's retrial starts,weblink BBC, 11 May 2013, On 21 August 2013, a Cairo court ordered his release. Judicial sources confirmed that the court had upheld a petition from Mubarak's longtime lawyer that called for his release."Egyptian Court Orders Mubarak's Release"' ABC News A day later, interim prime minister Hazem El Beblawi ordered that Mubarak be put under house arrest.NEWS, Egypt to place Mubarak under house arrest,weblink Times of Israel, 22 August 2013, 9 January 2014, On 21 May 2014, while awaiting retrial, Mubarak and his sons were convicted on charges of embezzlement; Mubarak was sentenced to three years in prison, while his sons received four-year sentences. The three were fined the equivalent of {{USD|2.9 million}}, and were ordered to repay {{USD|17.6 million}}.NEWS, Egypt's Mubarak gets three years in a graft case,weblink 22 May 2014, Middle East Star, In November 2014, conspiracy to kill charges were dismissed by the Cairo Criminal Court on a technicality.NEWS, Hosni Mubarak: Egypt court drops murder charges over 2011 killings,weblink 29 November 2014, BBC News, 29 November 2014, The court also cleared Mubarak of corruption charges.NEWS, Egypt: Ex-ruler Hosni Mubarak, accused in deaths of hundreds, cleared of charges,weblink 29 November 2014, CNN, CNN, 29 November 2014, On 13 January 2015, Egypt's Court of Cassation overturned Mubarak's and his sons' embezzlement charges, the last remaining conviction against him, and ordered a retrial.Egypt's high court overturns last conviction against Mubarak. Reuters. Retrieved 13 January 2015. A retrial on the corruption charges led to a conviction and sentencing to three years in prison in May 2015 for Mubarak, with four-year terms for his sons, Gamal and Alaa. It was not immediately clear whether the sentence would take into account time already served – Mubarak and his sons have already spent more than three years in prison, so potentially will not have to serve any additional time.NEWS, Hosni Mubarak and Sons Sentenced to 3 Years in Prison, Likely to Go Free, NBC News, Reuters, 9 May 2015,weblink 10 May 2015, Supporters of Mubarak jeered the decision when it was announced in a Cairo courtroom on 9 May.NEWS,weblink National Post, Egyptian court sentences former president Hosni Mubarak and sons to three years in prison for corruption, Brian, Rohan, 9 May 2015, 9 May 2015, NEWS,weblink The Guardian, Egypt: Hosni Mubarak sentenced to three years in prison, Jared, Malsin, 9 May 2015, 9 May 2015, The sentence also included a 125 million Egyptian pound (US$16.3 million) fine, and required the return of 21 million embezzled Egyptian pounds (US$2.7 million). These amounts were previously paid after the first trial.

Support for Sisi

Though mostly out of the public eye, Mubarak granted a rare interview in February 2014 with Kuwaiti journalist Fajer al-Saeed, expressing support for then-Minister of Defense and Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces Abdel Fattah el-Sisi as the next President of Egypt, recognizing that Sisi was working to restore the confidence of the Egyptian people. "The people want Sisi, and the people's will shall prevail," Mubarak noted. Mubarak also expressed great admiration and gratitude towards the late Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan of the United Arab Emirates and his children, for their continuous support of Egypt and its people.In rare interview, Mubarak says Egyptians want Sisi However, Mubarak expressed his dislike of opposition politician Hamdeen Sabbahi, a Nasserist following the policies of Gamal Abdel Nasser.WEB,weblink Mubarak supports Sisi, slams Sabbahi in phone interview, Cairo Post, 29 April 2016,

Health problems

In July 2010, the media said Egypt was about to undergo dramatic change because Mubarak was thought to have cancer and because of the scheduled 2011 presidential election. Intelligence sources said he had esophageal cancer,NEWS,weblink The Jerusalem Post, Report: Mubarak has fallen ill, 7 July 2010, 14 February 2011, stomach or pancreatic cancer; this was denied by Egyptian authorities.NEWS, Evan Hill,weblink The Muslim Brotherhood in flux – In Depth, Al Jazeera, 21 November 2010, 28 January 2011, WEB,weblink Report: Egypt's Mubarak dying of cancer, UPI, 19 July 2010, 1 February 2011, Speculation about his ill health increased after his resignation from the presidency.NEWS,weblink Norman, Joshua, Mubarak Mystery: In Egypt, in Germany, in Coma?, CBS, 13 February 2011, 14 February 2011, According to Egyptian media, Mubarak's condition worsened after he went into exile in Sharm el-Sheikh. He was reportedly depressed, refused to take medications, and was slipping in and out of consciousness. According to the source{{mdash}}an unnamed Egyptian security official{{mdash}}"Mubarak wants to be left alone and die in his homeland". The source denied that Mubarak was writing his memoirs, stating that he was almost completely unconscious.WEB,weblink 'Mubarak ailing, wants to die in Egypt', Ynetnews, 15 February 2011, 5 January 2012, After his resignation, Egypt's ambassador to the United States Sameh Shoukry reported that his personal sources said Mubarak "is possibly in somewhat of bad health", while several Egyptian and Saudi Arabian newspapers reported that Mubarak was in a coma and close to death.NEWS,weblink Ex-Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak near death: reports; protests flare up in Bahrain, Yemen, Daily News, New York, 15 February 2011, 15 April 2011, On 12 April 2011, it was reported that he had been hospitalized after suffering a heart attack during questioning over possible corruption charges.NEWS,weblink Former Egyptian President Mubarak hospitalized, CNN, 13 April 2011, 15 April 2011, In June 2011, Mubarak's lawyer Farid el-Deeb said his client "has stomach cancer, and the cancer is growing". Mubarak had undergone surgery for the condition in Germany in 2010 and also suffered from circulatory problems with an irregular heart beat.NEWS,weblink Hosni Mubarak Has Cancer, The Telegraph, 21 June 2011, 21 June 2011, London, On 13 July 2011, unconfirmed reports stated that Mubarak had slipped into a coma at his residence after giving his final speech, and on 17 July, el-Deeb confirmed the reports.NEWS,weblink Mubarak falls into coma after final speech: report, Al Arabiya, 13 July 2011, 17 July 2001, On 26 July 2011, Mubarak was reported to be depressed and refusing solid food while in hospital being treated for a heart condition and in custody awaiting trial.NEWS, News Desk, Egypt's ousted president Hosni Mubarak is reportedly depressed and refusing solid food,weblink 5 January 2012, Global Post, 26 July 2011, On 2 June 2012, Mubarak was reported as have suffered a health crisis while being transported to prison after his conviction on the charges of complicity in the killing of protestors. Some sources reported he had had a heart attack.WEB,weblink Hosni Mubarak 'has a heart attack' while taken to prison, 2 June 2012, Daily Telegraph, 2 June 2012, WEB,weblink Mubarak has heart attack on way to jail, AP via News24, 2 June 2012, 2 June 2012, Further reports stated that Mubarak's health continued to decline; some said he had to be treated with a defibrillator.WEB,weblink Doctors twice use defibrillator on Egypt's Mubarak, CTV Montreal, 11 June 2012, 11 June 2012, WEB,weblink Hosni Mubarak 'defibrillated after heart stops', Daily Telegraphl, 11 June 2012, 11 June 2012, On 20 June 2012, as Mubarak's condition continued to decline, state-run media erroneously reported that the former president had been declared "clinically dead", causing widespread confusion. Officials later clarified that Mubarak was is a critical condition.WEB,weblink Conflicting reports about whether Mubarak has died, CNN, 19 June 2012, 24 March 2017, On 27 December 2012, Mubarak was taken from Tora Prison to the Cairo military hospital after falling and breaking a rib. He was released from prison in August 2013.Hosni Mubarak asks to vote in Egypt's constitutional referendum. The Guardian. Retrieved 16 January 2014.In a new development, on 19 June 2014, Mubarak slipped in the bathroom at the military hospital in Cairo where he is being held and broke his left leg, also fracturing his left thighbone, requiring surgery. Mubarak is serving a three-year sentence for corruption and is also awaiting retrial regarding the killing of protesters during his regime. At one time, his release was ordered. However, Mubarak had remained at the military hospital since January 2014 due to his ongoing health issues.WEB,weblink Hosni Mubarak breaks leg in jail, the Guardian, 29 April 2016,

Acquittal

On 2 March 2017, the Court of Cassation, Egypt's top appeals court, acquitted Mubarak of conspiring in the killing of protesters during the 2011 uprising. He was subsequently released on 24 March 2017.

Personal life

Hosni Mubarak is married to Suzanne Mubarak and has two sons: Alaa, and Gamal. Both sons served four years in Egyptian jail for corruption and were released in 2015. Through his son Alaa, Mubarak has two grandsons, Muhammed and Omar; and through his son Gamal, he has a granddaughter Farida. Muhammad died in 2009 from a cerebral hemorrhage.NEWS, Hosni Mubarak's grandson, 12, dies suddenly,weblink 13 January 2017, Los Angeles Times, Associated Press, 20 May 2009, NEWS, Dickey, Christopher, The Tragedy of Hosni Mubarak,weblink 13 January 2017, Newsweek, 13 February 2011, In April 2016, Alaa Mubarak was named in the Panama Papers as someone with financial interests that intersect with that of Mossack Fonseca, the firm implicated in that scandal.NEWS,weblink Africa loses more money to illicit financial flows than it receives in foreign aid, Lily Kuo, 4 April 2016, Quartz, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160417060158weblink">weblink 17 April 2016, dmy-all,

Political and military posts

{{BLP unsourced section|date=October 2017}}{{col-begin}}{{col-break|width=50%}}
  • Chairman of the Non-Aligned Movement (2009–2011)
  • Re-elected for a fifth term of office (2005)
  • Chairman of the G-15 (1998 & 2002)
  • Re-elected for a fourth term of office (1999)
  • Chairman of the Arab Summit since June (1996)
  • Chairman of the OAU (1993–94)
  • Re-elected for a third term of office (1993)
  • Chairman of the OAU (1989–90)
  • Re-elected for a second term of office (1987)
  • President of the National Democratic Party (1982)
{{col-break}}
  • President of the Republic (1981)
  • Vice-President of the National Democratic Party (NDP) (1979)
  • Vice-President of the Arab Republic of Egypt (1975)
  • Promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General / Air Marshal (1974)
  • Commander of the Air Force and Deputy Minister of Defense (1972)
  • Chief of Staff of the Air Force (1969)
  • Director of the Air Force Academy (1968)
  • Commander of Cairo West Air Base (1964)
  • Joined Frunze Military Academy, USSR (1964)
  • Lecturer in Air Force Academy (1952–59)
{{col-end}}

Awards

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{Commons category}}
  • {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070107054512weblink |date=7 January 2007 |title=President Mubarak }} at the official Egyptian government site
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100323064657weblink">Air Marshal Hosni Mubarak at the official Egyptian Air Force site
  • {{C-SPAN|hosnimubarak}}
  • {{Charlie Rose view|1180}}
  • {{IMDb name|0610804}}
  • {{Aljazeeratopic|person/hosni-mubarak}}
  • {{Guardian topic}}
  • {{NYTtopic|people/m/hosni_mubarak}}
  • {{Worldcat id|lccn-n83-198443}}
  • Hosni Mubarak: The Last Pharaoh, slideshow by Life magazine
  • European Parliament Resolution on Egypt's Human Rights Situation, 16 January 2008
}}}}{{Egyptian Revolution of 2011}}{{Arab Spring}}{{EgyptPresidents}}{{EgyptPMs}}{{Egypt topics}}{{African Union chairpersons}}{{NAMSecretary-General}}{{Authority control}}

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