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Hong Kong
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{{About|Chinese administrative region}}{{Redirect|HK}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{short description|Special administrative region of China }}{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2019}}{{Use Hong Kong English|date=October 2018}}









factoids
conventional_long_name Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China | common_name = Hong Kong



subbox=yes |bodystyle=font-size:76%;font-weight:normal;
| image_flag = Flag of Hong Kong.svg| alt_flag = A flag with a white 5-petalled flower design on solid red background| image_coat = Hong Kong SAR Regional Emblem.svg
upright=1.15|frameless)| map_width = 250px| map_caption = Location of Hong KongChinese language{{efn>name=chinese-varietiesCantonese, the de facto regional standard.{{harvnb>LeungOfficial Languages Ordinance}}.{{harvnb2016English language{{efn>name=language-statusTraditional Chinese characters are authoritative over ones inscribed with Simplified Chinese characters.{{harvnb>Legislative Council Disclaimer and Copyright Notice}}. English shares equal status with Chinese in all official proceedings.{{harvnb2011}}.}}}}| languages_type = Regional languageCantonese{{efn>name=chinese-varieties}}| languages2_type = Official scriptsTraditional Chinese{{efn>name=language-status}}English alphabetHan Chinese>Chinese2.5% Filipinos in Hong Kong2.1% Indonesians in Hong Kong>Indonesian0.8% White people2.6% other{{harvnb>Population By-Censusp=46}}.| ethnic_groups_year = 2016| religion = Hongkongers>HongkongerHong Kongese| membership = China| membership_type = Sovereign stateDevolution>Devolved Executive (government) system within a Socialist state>socialist republicChief Executive of Hong Kong>Chief Executive| leader_name1 = Carrie LamChief Secretary for Administration>Chief Secretary| leader_name2 = Matthew CheungFinancial Secretary (Hong Kong)>Financial SecretaryPaul Chan Mo-po>Paul ChanSecretary for Justice (Hong Kong)>Secretary for JusticeTeresa Cheng (politician)>Teresa ChengPresident of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong>LegCo President| leader_name5 = Andrew LeungChief Justice of the Court of Final Appeal>Chief Justice| leader_name6 = Geoffrey MaLegislative Council of Hong Kong>Legislative Council







factoids
.}}
Special administrative regions of China>Special administrative region {{noboldChina>People's Republic of China}}British Hong Kong>British occupation| established_date1 = 26 January 1841| established_event2 = Treaty of Nanking| established_date2 = 29 August 1842| established_event3 = Convention of Peking| established_date3 = 18 October 1860Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory>Extension of Hong Kong Territory Convention| established_date4 = 9 June 1898Japanese occupation of Hong Kong>Imperial Japanese military occupation25 December 1941to 30 August 1945}}| established_event6 = Sino-British Joint Declaration| established_date6 = 19 December 1984Transfer of sovereigntyfrom the United Kingdom}}| established_date7 = 1 July 1997PUBLISHER=CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY THE WORLD FACTBOOK >ACCESSDATE=2 OCTOBER 2018 ARCHIVE-DATE=3 MAY 2009 DF=DMY-ALL, | area_rank = 168th| area_sq_mi = 1,073 2}}; 13.51 sq mi)Monthly Statistics for Junep=4}}.| population_census = | population_estimate_year = 2018| population_estimate_rank = 102nd| population_census_year = Population By-Censusp=34}}.| population_density_sq_mi = 17,024 | population_density_rank = 4th| GDP_PPP = $502 billionPUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 24 June 2019, | GDP_PPP_rank = 44th| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $66,517| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 10th| GDP_nominal = $381 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal_rank = 35th| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $50,542| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 16th| Gini = 53.9 | Gini_year = 2016| Gini_change = increase Household Income Distributionp=7}}.| HDI = 0.933 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increaseUN Human Development Indices and Indicatorsp=22}}.| HDI_rank = 7th| currency = Hong Kong dollar (HK$)| currency_code = HKD| time_zone = Hong Kong Time| utc_offset = +8| date_format = dd-mm-yyyyyyyy年mm月dd日Right- and left-hand traffic>left{{efnHong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge#Hong Kong Link Road>Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Hong Kong Link Road, which drives on the righweblink}}| calling_code = +852| iso3166code = HK.hk|.香港}}| today = }}Hong Kong ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-ca-Hong Kong.oga|ˌ|h|ɒ|ŋ|ˈ|k|ɒ|ŋ|}}; {{zh|香港}}, {{small|Hong Kong Cantonese:}} {{IPA-yue|hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ||Yue-heung1gong2.ogg}}), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities{{efn|Hong Kong permanent residents can be of any nationality. A person without Chinese nationality who has entered Hong Kong with a valid travel document, has ordinarily resided there for a continuous period not less than seven years, and is permanently domiciled in the territory would be legally recognized as a Hongkongese.{{harvnb|Basic Law Chapter III}} Article 24.}} in a {{convert|1104|km2|adj=on}} territory, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated places in the world.Originally a sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, Hong Kong Island became a colony of the British Empire at the end of the First Opium War in 1842, followed by Kowloon in 1860 after the Second Opium War, and the modern territory was completed in 1898 with a 99 year British lease over the New Territories, which comprise 86% of Hong Kong's land.{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|pp=15–21}}. Sovereignty over the territory was restored to China in 1997.{{harvnb|Gargan|1997}}. As a special administrative region, Hong Kong maintains governing and economic systems separate from those of mainland China, under the "one country, two systems" designation.{{harvnb|Sino-British Joint Declaration}} Article 3 Its people tend to identify as Hongkongers rather than Chinese.WEB,weblink HKU POP HKU POP final farewell: Rift widens between Chinese and Hongkong identities, national pride plunges to one in four, HKU POP Site, Public Opinion Programme, University of Hong Kong, 27 June 2019, 29 June 2019, Identity indices of 76 and 23, respectivelyToday the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.{{harvnb|Global Financial Centres Index|2017}}. It was estimated to be the world's tenth-largest exporter, ninth-largest importer,WEB,weblink Country Comparison: Exports, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 16 June 2019, WEB,weblink Country Comparison: Imports, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 16 June 2019, and seventh-largest trading entity, and the Hong Kong dollar is the world's 13th-most traded currency.{{harvnb|Triennial Central Bank Survey|2016|p=10}}. Hong Kong hosts the largest concentration of ultra high-net-worth individuals of any city in the world,{{harvnb|Liu|2018}}.{{harvnb|Frank|2018}}. and has one of the worlds's highest per capita incomes, but it also has severe income inequality.WEB,weblink Country Comparison: GDP (Purchasing Power Parity), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 15 January 2018,weblink 4 June 2011, no, Hong Kong is classified as an alpha+ global city, indicating its influence throughout the world.WEB,weblink GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2018, Lboro.ac.uk, April 13, 2018, March 22, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170503165246weblink">weblink May 3, 2017, no, mdy-all, It is one of the most significant global financial centres, holding the highest Financial Development Index score and consistently ranking as the most competitive and freest economic area in the world (2012, 2016, 2017).{{harvnb|IMD World Competitiveness Ranking|2017}}. The city has the largest number of skyscrapers, most surrounding Victoria Harbour.WEB,weblink Hong Kong, The Skyscraper Center, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, 15 January 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171111114955weblink">weblink 11 November 2017, no, dmy-all, On the Human Development Index, it ranks the highest in Asia and seventh in the world, and it has one of the world's highest life expectancies.WEB,weblink Life Expectancy at Birth, Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, 7 February 2019, dmy-all, Over 90 percent of its population uses public transportation; however, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has caused a high level of atmospheric particulates in the region.{{harvnb|Yu|Huang|Ng|2013|p=57}}.{{harvnb|Public Transport Strategy Study|2017|p=1}}.{{TOC limit|limit=3}}

Etymology









factoids
{{harvnb
2007|p=1}}hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋor{{IPA-yue>hœ̂ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ|}}Yue-heung1gong2.ogghelp=no}}or Hèunggóng| j = Hoeng1gong2| gd = Hêng1gong2| h = Hiong1gong3| p = XiānggÇŽng| w = Hsiang1-kang3| bpmf = ㄒㄧㄤ   ã„ã„¤Ë‡| gr = Shianggaang| myr = SyānggÇŽngx1g3}}| wuu = shianå¹³kaon上| poj = Hiong-kang|pic2=Hong Kong in Chinese 2.svg|piccap2="Hong Kong" in Chinese characters|picupright2=0.45|picsize2 = 100px| altname = Hong Kong Special Administrative RegionorHèunggóng Dahkbiht HàhngjingkÄ“ui(Hèunggóng DahkkÄ“ui)| j2 = Hoeng1gong2 Dak6bit6 Hang4zing3keoi1(Hoeng1gong2 Dak6keoi1)| gd2 = Hêng1gong2 Deg6⁠bid6 Heng4⁠jing3⁠kêu1 (Hêng1gong2 Deg6kêu1)hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ tɐ̀kÌš.pìːtÌš hɐ̏ŋ.tsÄ“Å‹.kʰɵ́yhœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ tɐ̀kÌš.kʰɵ́yor{{IPA-yue>hœ̂ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ tɐ̀kÌš.pìːtÌš hɐ̏ŋ.tsÄ“Å‹.kʰɵ́yhœ̂ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ tɐ̀kÌš.kʰɵ́y|}})| h2 = Hiong1gong3 Tet6⁠piet6 Hang2⁠zin4⁠ki1(Hiong1gong3 Tet6ki1)| w2= Hsiang1-kang3 Tʻê4-⁠pieh2 Hsing2-⁠chêng4-⁠chʻü1 (Hsiang1-kang3 Tʻê4-chʻü1)| p2 = XiānggÇŽng Tèbié XíngzhèngqÅ«(XiānggÇŽng TèqÅ«)| gr2 = Shianggaang Tehbye Shyngjenqchiu(Shianggaang Tehchiu)| bpmf2 = ㄒㄧㄤ   ã„ã„¤Ë‡ã„Šã„œË‹   ã„…ㄧㄝˊㄒㄧㄥˊ   ã„“ㄥˋ   ã„‘ã„©(ㄒㄧㄤ   ã„ã„¤Ë‡   ã„Šã„œË‹   ã„‘ã„©)| myr2 = SyāngggÇŽng Tèbyé SyíngjèngchyÅ«(SyānggÇŽng TèchyÅ«)x1g3t4b2x2zh4qu}}({{IPAc-cmniang.ang-e.1|}})| wuu2 = shianå¹³kaon上 deh入⁠bihå…¥ghan平⁠tsen去⁠chiuå¹³(shianå¹³kaon上 dehå…¥chiuå¹³)| poj2 = Hiong-kang Te̍k-⁠pia̍t Hêng-⁠chèng-⁠khu(Hiong-kang Te̍k-khu)| showflag = y}}The name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780,{{harvnb|Empson|1992|p=94}}. originally referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between British sailors and local fishermen.{{harvnb|Bishop|Roberts|1997|p=218}}. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is generally believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hÄ“ung góng. The name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".{{harvnb|Room|2005|p=168}}. "Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the [hide]
  • River (China)|Pearl River[edih] or to the odour from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export before Victoria Harbour developed. Sir John Davis (the second colonial governor) offered an alternative origin; Davis said that the name derived from "Hoong-keang" ("red torrent"), reflecting the colour of soil over which a waterfall on the island flowed.{{harvnb|Davis|1841|p=6}}.
The simplified name Hong Kong was frequently used by 1810,{{harvnb|Empson|1992|p=96}}. also written as a single word, Hongkong, common until 1926, when the government officially adopted the two-word name.{{harvnb|Hong Kong Government Gazette|1926}}, No. 479. Some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric, Hongkong and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC).{{harvnb|HSH Annual Report|2017|p=6}}.{{harvnb|HSBC Annual Report|2011|p=2}}.

History

The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago.{{harvnb|Meacham|1999|p=2}}. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation.{{harvnb|Li|2012|p=38}}. The Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue.{{harvnb|Ban|Ban|Ban|111}}. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom (a predecessor state of Vietnam) after the Qin collapse,{{harvnb|Keat|2004|p=932}}. and recaptured by China after the Han conquest.{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|p=9}}. During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was briefly located in modern-day Kowloon City (the Sung Wong Toi site) before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen.{{harvnb|Barber|2004|p=48}}. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty.{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|p=10}}. The earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513.{{harvnb|Porter|1996|p=63}}.{{harvnb|Edmonds|2002|p=1}}. Portuguese merchants established a trading post (tamão) in Hong Kong waters, and began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s,{{harvnb|von Glahn|1996|p=116}}. Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were re-established by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557, paying an annual rent of 500 taels of silver.{{harvnb|Wills|1998|pp=342–344}}.{{harvnb|Chan|2003|p=496}}.After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies. The Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684.{{harvnb|Zhihong|2006|pp=8–9}}. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more strictly, restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.{{harvnb|Schottenhammer|2007|p=33}}. Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea, silk, and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant, so that Chinese goods could only be bought with precious metals. To reduce the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade.{{harvnb|Chen|2011}}. The Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade,{{harvnb|Hoe|Roebuck|1999|pp=82, 87}}. triggering a British military response and the First Opium War. The Qing surrendered early in the war and ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries were dissatisfied and did not ratify the agreement.{{harvnb|Tsang|2007|p=12}}. After more than a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking.{{harvnb|Courtauld|Holdsworth|Vickers|1997|pp=38–58}}. File:Flag of Hong Kong 1959.svg|thumb|right|250px|Colonial Hong Kong flag from 1959–1997]] When the British Union Flag was raised over Possession Point on 26 January 1841, the population of Hong Kong island was about 7,450, mostly Tanka fishermen and Hakka charcoal burners living in coastal villages.John Thomson 1837–1921, Chap on Hong Kong, Illustrations of China and Its People (London,1873–1874)Info Gov HK. "Hong Kong Gov Info {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070418054929weblink|date=18 April 2007}}." History of Hong Kong. Retrieved on 16 February 2007. Administrative infrastructure was quickly built by early 1842, but piracy, disease, and hostile Qing policies prevented the government from attracting merchants. During the Taiping Rebellion in the 1850s, many Chinese, including the wealthy, fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colony, contributing to its economy. The British colony became known as a refuge from floods, typhoons, and famines in the region. Further tensions between the British and Qing over the opium trade escalated into the Second Opium War. The Qing were again defeated, and forced to give up Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutter's Island in the Convention of Peking.{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|pp=21–24}}. By the end of this war, Hong Kong had evolved from a transient colonial outpost into a major entrepôt. Rapid economic improvement during the 1850s attracted foreign investment, as potential stakeholders became more confident in Hong Kong's future.{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|p=30}}. The colony was further expanded in 1898, when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories.{{harvnb|Scott|1989|p=6}}. The University of Hong Kong was established in 1911 as the territory's first institution of higher education.{{harvnb|Chu|2005|p=90}}. Kai Tak Airport began operation in 1924, and the colony avoided a prolonged economic downturn after the 1925–26 Canton–Hong Kong strike.{{harvnb|Wordie|2007|p=243}}.{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|p=103}}. At the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, Governor Geoffry Northcote declared Hong Kong a neutral zone to safeguard its status as a free port.{{harvnb|Yanne|Heller|2009|p=71}}. The colonial government prepared for a possible attack, evacuating all British women and children in 1940.{{harvnb|Snow|2003|p=43}}. The Imperial Japanese Army attacked Hong Kong on 8 December 1941, the same morning as its attack on Pearl Harbor.{{harvnb|Snow|2003|pp=53–73}}. Hong Kong was occupied by Japan for almost four years before Britain resumed control on 30 August 1945.{{harvnb|Kwong|2015}}.Its population rebounded quickly after the war, as skilled Chinese migrants fled from the Chinese Civil War, and more refugees crossed the border when the Communist Party took control of mainland China in 1949.{{harvnb|Wiltshire|1997|p=148}}. Hong Kong became the first of the Four Asian Tiger economies to industrialise during the 1950s.{{harvnb|Buckley|1997|pp=64, 92}}. With a rapidly increasing population, the colonial government began reforms to improve infrastructure and public services. The public-housing estate programme, the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC), and Mass Transit Railway were established during the post-war decades to provide safer housing integrity in the civil service, and more-reliable transportation.{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|pp=145, 174–175}}.AV MEDIA, Forsyth, Neil (Director), 1990, Underground Pride, Motion picture, Hong Kong, MTR Corporation, Although the territory's competitiveness in manufacturing gradually declined due to rising labour and property costs, it transitioned to a service-based economy. By the early 1990s, Hong Kong had established itself as a global financial centre and shipping hub.{{harvnb|Dodsworth|Mihaljek|1997|p=54}}.The colony faced an uncertain future as the end of the New Territories lease approached, and Governor Murray MacLehose raised the question of Hong Kong's status with Deng Xiaoping in 1979.{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|pp=176–178}}. Diplomatic negotiations with China resulted in the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration, in which the United Kingdom agreed to transfer the colony in 1997, and China would guarantee Hong Kong's economic and political systems for 50 years after the transfer—"one country, two systems".{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|p=181}}. The impending transfer triggered a wave of mass emigration as residents feared an erosion of civil rights, the rule of law, and quality of life.{{harvnb|Wong|1992|p=9}}. Over half a million people left the territory during the peak migration period, from 1987 to 1996.{{harvnb|Population Policy Report|2002|pp=27–28}}. Hong Kong was transferred to China on 1 July 1997, after 156 years of British rule.Immediately after the transfer, Hong Kong was severely affected by several crises. The government was forced to use substantial foreign-exchange reserves to maintain the Hong Kong dollar's currency peg during the 1997 Asian financial crisis, and the recovery from this was muted by an H5N1 avian-flu outbreak{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|p=218}} and a housing surplus.{{harvnb|Cheung|Ho|2013}}. This was followed by the 2003 SARS epidemic, during which the territory experienced its most serious economic downturn.{{harvnb|Lee|2006|pp=63–70}}.Political debates after the transfer of sovereignty have centred around the region's democratic development and the central government's adherence to the "one country, two systems" principle. After reversal of the last colonial-era Legislative Council democratic reforms following the handover,{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|p=200}}. the regional government unsuccessfully attempted to enact national-security legislation pursuant to Article 23 of the Basic Law.{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|pp=226, 233}}. The central government decision to implement nominee pre-screening before allowing Chief Executive elections triggered a series of protests in 2014 which became known as the Umbrella Revolution.{{harvnb|Kaiman|2014}}. Discrepancies in the electoral registry and disqualification of elected legislators after the 2016 Legislative Council elections{{harvnb|Bland|2016}}.{{harvnb|Haas|2017}}.{{harvnb|Huang|2016}}. and enforcement of national law in the West Kowloon high-speed railway station raised concerns about the region's autonomy.{{harvnb|Siu|Chung|2017}}. In June 2019, large protests again erupted in response to a proposed bill permitting extradition of fugitives to mainland China. The protests have continued well into August, becoming the largest-scale protest movement in Chinese history, with several street marches known to have attracted more than 1.5 million Hong Kong residents each time..

Government and politics

File:Legislative Council Complex 2011 Chamber.JPG|thumb|alt=Large, round room with desks and a dais|The legislature meets in the Legislative Council Complex in Tamar.]]Hong Kong is a special administrative region of China, with executive, legislative, and judicial powers devolved from the national government.{{harvnb|Tam|Chan|Choi Kwan|Leung|2012|p=80}}. The Sino-British Joint Declaration provided for economic and administrative continuity through the transfer of sovereignty, resulting in an executive-led governing system largely inherited from the territory's history as a British colony.{{harvnb|Tam|Chan|Choi Kwan|Leung|2012|pp=66, 80–81}}. Under these terms and the "one country, two systems" principle, the Basic Law of Hong Kong is the regional constitution.{{harvnb|Ng Ka Ling and Another v the Director of Immigration}}.The regional government is composed of three branches:
  • Executive: The Chief Executive is responsible for enforcing regional law, can force reconsideration of legislation,{{harvnb|Tam|Chan|Choi Kwan|Leung|2012|p=77}}. and appoints Executive Council members and principal officials.{{harvnb|Young|Cullen|2010|p=39}}. Acting with the Executive Council, the Chief Executive-in-Council can propose new bills, issue subordinate legislation, and has authority to dissolve the legislature.{{harvnb|Adaptation of Laws Guidelines|1998|p=7}}.
  • Legislature: The unicameral Legislative Council enacts regional law, approves budgets, and has the power to impeach a sitting Chief Executive.{{harvnb|Tam|Chan|Choi Kwan|Leung|2012|p=73}}.
  • Judiciary: The Court of Final Appeal and lower courts, whose judges are appointed by the Chief Executive on the advice of a recommendation commission,{{harvnb|Gittings|2009|p=153}}. interpret laws and overturn those inconsistent with the Basic Law.{{harvnb|Gittings|2009|p=150}}.
The Chief Executive is the head of government, and serves for a maximum of two five-year terms. The State Council (led by the Premier of China) appoints the Chief Executive after nomination by the Election Committee, which is composed of 1,200 business, community, and government leaders.{{harvnb|Young|Cullen|2010|pp=13–16}}.{{harvnb|Basic Law Chapter IV}} Article 45.{{harvnb|Amendment to the Basic Law Annex I}}.The Legislative Council has 70 members, each serving a four-year term.{{harvnb|Guidelines on the Legislative Council Election|2016|p=1}}. 35 are directly elected from geographical constituencies and 35 represent functional constituencies (FC). Thirty FC councilors are selected from limited electorates representing sectors of the economy or special-interest groups,{{harvnb|Guidelines on the Legislative Council Election|2016|pp=3–4}}. and the remaining five members are nominated from sitting District Council members and selected in region-wide double direct elections.{{harvnb|Guidelines on the Legislative Council Election|2016|pp=3, 52–53}}. All popularly elected members are chosen with proportional representation. The 30 limited electorate functional constituencies fill their seats using first-past-the-post, or instant-runoff, voting.Twenty-two political parties had representatives elected to the Legislative Council in the 2016 election.{{harvnb|LegCo and DC Member Political Affiliations|2017}}. These parties have aligned themselves into three ideological groups: the pro-Beijing camp (the current government), the pro-democracy camp, and localist groups.{{harvnb|Bush|Whelan-Wuest|2017}}. The Communist Party does not have an official political presence in Hong Kong, and its members do not run in local elections.{{harvnb|Sala|2016}}. Hong Kong is represented in the National People's Congress by 36 deputies chosen through an electoral college, and 203 delegates in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference appointed by the central government.File:HK Chater Road LegCo view.jpg|thumb|left|The Court of Final Appeal Building formerly housed the Supreme Court and the Legislative CouncilLegislative CouncilChinese national law does not generally apply in the region, and Hong Kong is treated as a separate jurisdiction. Its judicial system is based on common law, continuing the legal tradition established during British rule.{{harvnb|Tam|Chan|Choi Kwan|Leung|2012|pp=80–81}}. Local courts may refer to precedents set in English law and overseas jurisprudence.{{harvnb|Gittings|2009|p=148}}. Interpretative and amending power over the Basic Law and jurisdiction over acts of state lie with the central authority, however, making regional courts ultimately subordinate to the mainland's socialist civil law system.{{harvnb|Jordan|1997|p=335}}. Decisions made by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress can also override territorial judicial processes.{{harvnb|Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Another v the President of the Legislative Council}}.The territory's jurisdictional independence is most apparent in its immigration and taxation policies. The Immigration Department issues passports for permanent residents which differ from those of the mainland or Macau,{{harvnb|Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passports Ordinance}}. and the region maintains a regulated border with the rest of the country. All travellers between Hong Kong and China and Macau must pass through border controls, regardless of nationality.WEB,weblink Control Point Locations, Immigration Department (Hong Kong), Immigration Department, 18 November 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171122092430weblink">weblink 22 November 2017, no, Mainland Chinese citizens do not have right of abode in Hong Kong and are subject to immigration controls.{{harvnb|Basic Law Chapter II}} Article 22. Public finances are handled separately from the national government; taxes levied in Hong Kong do not fund the central authority.{{harvnb|Basic Law Chapter V}} Article 106.{{harvnb|Public Finance Facts|2018}}.The Hong Kong Garrison of the People's Liberation Army is responsible for the region's defence.{{harvnb|Lendon|2017}}. Although the Chairman of the Central Military Commission is supreme commander of the armed forces,{{harvnb|Constitution of the People's Republic of China}} Chapter 3 § 4 (93). the regional government may request assistance from the garrison.{{harvnb|Basic Law Chapter II}} Article 14. Hong Kong residents are not required to perform military service and current law has no provision for local enlistment, so its defence is composed entirely of non-Hongkongers.{{harvnb|Mok|Lee|2015}}.The central government and Ministry of Foreign Affairs handle diplomatic matters, but Hong Kong retains the ability to maintain separate economic and cultural relations with foreign nations.{{harvnb|Basic Law Chapter VII}} Article 152. The territory actively participates in the World Trade Organization, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the International Olympic Committee, and many United Nations agencies.WEB,weblink Hong Kong Committee for UNICEF, UNICEF, 27 December 2017,weblink 28 December 2017, no, WEB,weblink UNHCR Hong Kong, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 27 December 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171228054213weblink">weblink 28 December 2017, no, WEB,weblink List of Treaties in Force and Applicable to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Department of Justice (Hong Kong), Department of Justice, 25 October 2017, 27 December 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171228054117weblink">weblink 28 December 2017, no, The regional government maintains trade offices in Greater China and other nations.WEB,weblink Offices Outside Hong Kong, Hong Kong Government, 18 November 2017,weblink 14 June 2018, no,

Administrative divisions

The territory is divided into 18 districts. A 479-seat District Council, 452 of which are directly elected, represents each district and advises the government on local issues such as public facility provisioning, community programme maintenance, cultural promotion, and environmental policy.{{harvnb|District Administration Facts|2016}}. Rural committee chairmen, representing outlying villages and towns, fill the 27 non-elected seats.{{harvnb|District Councils Ordinance}}.{{Hong Kong districts imagemap}}

Political reforms and sociopolitical issues

File:190616 HK Protest Incendo 03.jpg|thumb|2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protestsUniversal suffrage for Chief Executive and all Legislative Council elections is a defined goal of Basic Law Articles 45 and 68.{{harvnb|Basic Law Chapter IV}} Articles 45, 68. Although the legislature is partially directly elected, the executive is not.{{harvnb|King|Lee|1981|p=132}}. The government has been repeatedly petitioned to introduce direct election of the Chief Executive and all Legislative Council members.{{harvnb|Wong|Lim|2017}}. These efforts have been partially successful; the Election Committee no longer selects a portion of the Legislative Council.{{harvnb|Ming|2006}}.Ethnic minorities (except those of European ancestry) have marginal representation in government, and often experience discrimination in housing, education, and employment.{{harvnb|Ngo|Cheung|2016}}.{{harvnb|Zhao|2015}}. Employment vacancies and public service appointments frequently have language requirements which minority job seekers do not meet, and language education resources remain inadequate for Chinese learners.{{harvnb|Chao|2013}}.{{harvnb|Lhatoo|2015}}. Foreign domestic helpers, predominantly women from the Philippines and Indonesia, have little protection under regional law. Although they live and work in Hong Kong, these workers are not treated as ordinary residents and are ineligible for right of abode in the territory.{{harvnb|"Meanings of Right of Abode and Other Terms", Immigration Department}}.The Joint Declaration guarantees the Basic Law for 50 years after the transfer of sovereignty. It does not specify how Hong Kong will be governed after 2047, and the central government's role in determining the territory's future system of government is the subject of political debate and speculation. Hong Kong's political and judicial systems may be reintegrated with China's at that time, or the territory may continue to be administered separately.{{harvnb|Cheung|2016}}.{{harvnb|Cheung|2015}}.

Geography

(File:Hong Kong, China.jpg|alt=Satellite image showing areas of vegetation and conurbation.|thumb|Areas of urban development and vegetation are visible in this satellite image.)Hong Kong is on China's southern coast, {{convert|60|km|mi|abbr=on}} east of Macau, on the east side of the mouth of the Pearl River estuary. It is surrounded by the South China Sea on all sides except the north, which neighbours the Guangdong city of Shenzhen along the Sham Chun River. The territory's {{convert|2755|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} area consists of Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula, the New Territories, Lantau Island, and over 200 other islands. Of the total area, {{convert|1073|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} is land and {{convert|35|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} is water. The territory's highest point is Tai Mo Shan, {{convert|957|m|ft}} above sea level.{{harvnb|Owen|Shaw|2007|p=13}}. Urban development is concentrated on the Kowloon Peninsula, Hong Kong Island, and in new towns throughout the New Territories.{{harvnb|Population By-Census|2016|pp=34–35}}. Much of this is built on reclaimed land, due to the lack of developable flat land; {{convert|70|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} (six per cent of the total land or about 25 per cent of developed space in the territory) is reclaimed from the sea.{{harvnb|Land Policy Report|2017|p=1}}.Undeveloped terrain is hilly to mountainous, with very little flat land, and consists mostly of grassland, woodland, shrubland, or farmland.{{harvnb|Owen|Shaw|2007|p=2}}.{{harvnb|"Land Utilization in Hong Kong 2017", Planning Department}}. About 40 per cent of the remaining land area are country parks and nature reserves.{{harvnb|Morton|Harper|1995|p=9}}. The territory has a diverse ecosystem; over 3,000 species of vascular plants occur in the region (300 of which are native to Hong Kong), and thousands of insect, avian, and marine species.{{harvnb|Hu|2003}}.WEB,weblink The Natural Environment, Plants & Animals in Hong Kong, Hong Kong Government, 15 November 2017,weblink 15 November 2017, no,

Climate

Hong Kong has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), characteristic of southern China. Summer is hot and humid, with occasional showers and thunderstorms and warm air from the southwest. Typhoons occur most often then, sometimes resulting in floods or landslides. Winters are mild and usually sunny at the beginning, becoming cloudy towards February; an occasional cold front brings strong, cooling winds from the north. The most temperate seasons are spring (which can be changeable) and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry.WEB,weblink Climate of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Observatory, 5 September 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170602080336weblink">weblink 2 June 2017, no, When there is snowfall, which is extremely rare, it is usually at high elevations. Hong Kong averages 1,709 hours of sunshine per year;{{harvnb|Geography and Climate|2010}}. the highest and lowest recorded temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatory are {{convert|36.6|°C|°F|sigfig=3}} on 22 August 2017 and {{convert|0.0|°C|°F|sigfig=3}} on 18 January 1893.WEB,weblink Extreme Values and Dates of Occurrence of Extremes of Meteorological Elements between 1884–1939 and 1947–2017 for Hong Kong, Hong Kong Observatory, 25 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180324065716weblink">weblink 24 March 2018, no, The highest and lowest recorded temperatures in all of Hong Kong are {{convert|39.0|°C|°F|sigfig=3}} at Wetland Park on 22 August 2017,{{harvnb|"HK records hottest day before typhoon", EJ Insight}}. and {{convert|−6.0|°C|°F|sigfig=3}} at Tai Mo Shan on 24 January 2016.{{Hong Kong weatherbox|collapsed=Y}}

Architecture

{{See also|List of tallest buildings in Hong Kong}}File:Montane Mansion Quarry Bay.B.JPG|thumb|alt=Tall blocks of flats, attached on three sides|Stacked apartment units in Quarry BayQuarry BayHong Kong has the world's largest number of skyscrapers, with 317 towers taller than {{convert|150|m|ft}}, and the third-largest number of high-rise buildings in the world.WEB,weblink Skyline Ranking, Emporis, 24 June 2018,weblink 23 June 2018, no, The lack of available space restricted development to high-density residential tenements and commercial complexes packed closely together on buildable land.{{harvnb|Tong|Wong|1997}}. Single-family detached homes are extremely rare, and generally only found in outlying areas.{{harvnb|Forrest|La Grange|Yip|2004|pp=215, 222}}.The International Commerce Centre and Two International Finance Centre are the tallest buildings in Hong Kong and among the tallest in the Asia-Pacific region.WEB,weblink The World's Tallest Buildings, Emporis, 24 June 2018,weblink 24 June 2018, no, Other distinctive buildings lining the Hong Kong Island skyline include the HSBC Main Building, the anemometer-topped triangular Central Plaza, the circular Hopewell Centre, and the sharp-edged Bank of China Tower.{{harvnb|Kohlstedt|2016}}.{{harvnb|Hollingsworth|Zheng|2017}}.Demand for new construction has contributed to frequent demolition of older buildings, freeing space for modern high-rises.{{harvnb|Zheng|2017}}. However, many examples of European and Lingnan architecture are still found throughout the territory. Older government buildings are examples of colonial architecture. The 1846 Flagstaff House, the former residence of the commanding British military officer, is the oldest Western-style building in Hong Kong.{{harvnb|McKercher|Ho|du Cros|2004}}. Some (including the Court of Final Appeal Building and the Hong Kong Observatory) retain their original function, and others have been adapted and reused; the Former Marine Police Headquarters was redeveloped into a commercial and retail complex,{{harvnb|Tourism Facts|2016}}. and Béthanie (built in 1875 as a sanatorium) houses the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts.{{harvnb|Béthanie|2015|p=3}}. The Tin Hau Temple, dedicated to the sea goddess Mazu (originally built in 1012 and rebuilt in 1266), is the territory's oldest existing structure.{{harvnb|Ingham|2007|p=225}}. The Ping Shan Heritage Trail has architectural examples of several imperial Chinese dynasties, including the Tsui Sing Lau Pagoda (Hong Kong's only remaining pagoda).{{harvnb|Declared Monuments|2007|pp=5–6}}.Tong lau, mixed-use tenement buildings constructed during the colonial era, blended southern Chinese architectural styles with European influences. These were especially prolific during the immediate post-war period, when many were rapidly built to house large numbers of Chinese migrants.{{harvnb|Xue|2016|p=99}}. Examples include Lui Seng Chun, the Blue House in Wan Chai, and the Shanghai Street shophouses in Mong Kok. Mass-produced public-housing estates, built since the 1960s, are mainly constructed in modernist style.{{harvnb|Xue|2016|p=41}}.{{wide image|Hong Kong at night.jpg|1200px|align-cap=center|alt=Skyline at night, with building lights reflected in water|The Hong Kong Island skyline, viewed from the Victoria Harbour waterfront}}{{wide image|Kowloon Panorama by Ryan Cheng 2010.jpg|1600px|align-cap=center|City view of Kowloon, Hong Kong Island, and the Hong Kong skyline}}

Demographics

File:Bevölkerungspyramide Hongkong 2016.png|thumb|alt=Population graph|2016 population pyramidpopulation pyramidThe Census and Statistics Department estimated Hong Kong's population at 7,482,500 in mid-2019. The overwhelming majority (92 per cent) is Han Chinese, most of whom are Taishanese, Teochew, Hakka, and a number of other Cantonese peoples.{{harvnb|Fan|1974}}.{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|pp=144–147}}.{{harvnb|Yu|2013}}. The remaining eight per cent are non-ethnic Chinese minorities, primarily Filipinos, Indonesians, and South Asians.{{harvnb|Erni|Leung|2014|pp=18, 22}}. About half the population have some form of British nationality, a legacy of colonial rule; 3.4 million residents have British National (Overseas) status, and 260,000 British citizens live in the territory.{{harvnb|FCO Written Evidence|2014}}. The vast majority also hold Chinese nationality, automatically granted to all ethnic Chinese residents at the transfer of sovereignty.{{harvnb|Standing Committee Interpretation Concerning Implementation of Chinese Nationality Law in Hong Kong}}.The predominant language is Cantonese, a variety of Chinese originating in Guangdong. It is spoken by 94.6 per cent of the population, 88.9 per cent as a first language and 5.7 per cent as a second language. Slightly over half the population (53.2 per cent) speaks English, the other official language; 4.3 per cent are native speakers, and 48.9 per cent speak English as a second language. Code-switching, mixing English and Cantonese in informal conversation, is common among the bilingual population.{{harvnb|Lee|2012}}. Post-handover governments have promoted Mandarin, which is currently about as prevalent as English; 48.6 per cent of the population speaks Mandarin, with 1.9 per cent native speakers and 46.7 per cent speaking it as a second language. Traditional Chinese characters are used in writing, rather than the simplified characters used on the mainland.{{harvnb|Developing a Supplementary Guide to the Chinese Language Curriculum for Non-Chinese Speaking Students|2008|p=9}}.Among the religious population, the traditional "three teachings" of China, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism, have the most adherents (20 per cent), and are followed by Christianity (12 per cent) and Islam (four per cent).{{harvnb|Religion and Custom Facts|2016}}. Followers of other religions, including Sikhism, Hinduism, Judaism, and the Bahá'í Faith, generally originate from regions where their religion predominates.Life expectancy in Hong Kong was 82.2 years for males and 87.6 years for females in 2018, the sixth-highest in the world. Cancer, pneumonia, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and accidents are the territory's five leading causes of death.{{harvnb|Health Facts|2017}}. The universal public healthcare system is funded by general-tax revenue, and treatment is highly subsidised; on average, 95 per cent of healthcare costs are covered by the government.{{harvnb|Wong|Yeoh|Chau|Yam|2015|p=262}}.Income inequality has risen since the transfer of sovereignty, as the region's ageing population has gradually added to the number of nonworking people.{{harvnb|Household Income Distribution|2016|p=1}}. Although median household income steadily increased during the decade to 2016, the wage gap remained high;{{harvnb|Household Income Distribution|2016|p=86}}. the 90th percentile of earners receive 41 per cent of all income. The city has the most billionaires per capita, with one billionaire per 109,657 people.{{harvnb|Desjardins|2018}}. Despite government efforts to reduce the growing disparity,{{harvnb|Household Income Distribution|2016|p=5}}. median income for the top 10 per cent of earners is 44 times that of the bottom 10 per cent.{{harvnb|Yau|Zhou|2017}}.{{harvnb|Household Income Distribution|2016|p=80}}.

Economy

File:Kwai Tsing Container Terminals.jpg|thumb|alt=Busy harbour|Hong Kong is one of the world's busiest container ports.]]Hong Kong has a capitalist mixed service economy, characterised by low taxation, minimal government market intervention, and an established international financial market.{{harvnb|Jiang|Tang|Law|Sze|2003}}. It is the world's 35th-largest economy, with a nominal GDP of approximately HK$2.74 trillion (US$381 billion). Although Hong Kong's economy has ranked at the top of the Heritage Foundation's economic freedom index since 1995,WEB,weblink Hong Kong ranked world's freest economy for 18th consecutive year, Hong Kong Government, 12 January 2012, 28 May 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121028215314weblink">weblink 28 October 2012, no, WEB, Top 10 Countries, The Heritage Foundation,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080124041217weblink">weblink 24 January 2008, 1 February 2008, the territory has a relatively high level of income disparity. The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the seventh-largest in the world, with a market capitalisation of HK$30.4 trillion (US$3.87 trillion) {{As of|2018|12|lc=y}}.{{harvnb|HKSE Market Statistics|2018|p=2}}.Hong Kong is the tenth-largest trading entity in exports and imports (2017), trading more goods in value than its gross domestic product. Over half of its cargo throughput consists of transshipments (goods travelling through Hong Kong). Products from mainland China account for about 40 per cent of that traffic.{{harvnb|Economic Statistical Highlights|2017}}. The city's location allowed it to establish a transportation and logistics infrastructure which includes the world's seventh-busiest container port{{harvnb|Park|2019}}. and the busiest airport for international cargo.WEB,weblink Cargo Traffic 2016, Airports Council International, 1 January 2018, 7 June 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180612141937weblink">weblink 12 June 2018, no, The territory's largest export markets are mainland China and the United States.It has little arable land and few natural resources, importing most of its food and raw materials. More than 90 per cent of Hong Kong's food is imported, including nearly all its meat and rice.{{harvnb|Kong|2013}}. Agricultural activity is 0.1% of GDP, and consists of growing premium food and flower varieties.{{harvnb|Agriculture and Fisheries Facts|2017}}.Although the territory had one of Asia's largest manufacturing economies during the latter half of the colonial era, Hong Kong's economy is now dominated by the service sector. The sector generates 92.7 per cent of economic output, with the public sector accounting for about 10 per cent.{{harvnb|Economy Facts|2016}}. Between 1961 and 1997 Hong Kong's gross domestic product increased by a factor of 180, and per capita GDP increased by a factor of 87.{{harvnb|Preston|Haacke|2003}}.{{harvnb|Yeung|2008|p=16}}. The territory's GDP relative to mainland China's peaked at 27 per cent in 1993; it fell to less than three per cent in 2017, as the mainland developed and liberalised its economy.{{harvnb|"HK vs China GDP: A sobering reality", EJ Insight}}.File:Hong Kong Exchange Trade Lobby 2007.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Large, empty room, with many desks and computer terminals|Trading floor of the Hong Kong Stock ExchangeHong Kong Stock ExchangeEconomic and infrastructure integration with China has increased significantly since the 1978 start of market liberalisation on the mainland. Since resumption of cross-boundary train service in 1979, many rail and road links have been improved and constructed (facilitating trade between regions).{{harvnb|Lung|Sung|2010|p=5}}.{{harvnb|Griffiths|Lazarus|2018}}. The Closer Partnership Economic Arrangement formalised a policy of free trade between the two areas, with each jurisdiction pledging to remove remaining obstacles to trade and cross-boundary investment.WEB,weblink Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA), Trade and Industry Department, 31 October 2017, 26 December 2017,weblink 26 December 2017, no, A similar economic partnership with Macau details the liberalisation of trade between the special administrative regions.WEB,weblink Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Macao Special Administrative Region Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (HK-Macao CEPA), Trade and Industry Department, 17 November 2017, 28 December 2017,weblink 29 December 2017, no, Chinese companies have expanded their economic presence in the territory since the transfer of sovereignty. Mainland firms represent over half of the Hang Seng Index value, up from five per cent in 1997.{{harvnb|Baldwin|Lee|Jim|2014}}.{{harvnb|Lam|Qiu|2017}}.As the mainland liberalised its economy, Hong Kong's shipping industry faced intense competition from other Chinese ports. Fifty per cent of China's trade goods were routed through Hong Kong in 1997, dropping to about 13 per cent by 2015.{{harvnb|House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee Tenth Report|2015|p=18}}. The territory's minimal taxation, common law system, and civil service attract overseas corporations wishing to establish a presence in Asia. The city has the second-highest number of corporate headquarters in the Asia-Pacific region.{{harvnb|Cushman & Wakefield RHQ Report|2016|p=8}}. Hong Kong is a gateway for foreign direct investment in China, giving investors open access to mainland Chinese markets through direct links with the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges. The territory was the first market outside mainland China for renminbi-denominated bonds, and is one of the largest hubs for offshore renminbi trading.{{harvnb|House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee Tenth Report|2015|pp=18–19}}.The government has had a passive role in the economy. Colonial governments had little industrial policy, and implemented almost no trade controls. Under the doctrine of "positive non-interventionism", post-war administrations deliberately avoided the direct allocation of resources; active intervention was considered detrimental to economic growth.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Big Market, Small Government, Donald, Tsang, 18 September 2006, Hong Kong Government, 8 June 2018,weblink 12 June 2018, no, While the economy transitioned to a service basis during the 1980s, late colonial governments introduced interventionist policies. Post-handover administrations continued and expanded these programmes, including export-credit guarantees, a compulsory pension scheme, a minimum wage, anti-discrimination laws, and a state mortgage backer.{{harvnb|"End of an experiment", The Economist}}.Tourism is a major part of the economy, accounting for five per cent of GDP. In 2016, 26.6 million visitors contributed HK$258 billion (US$32.9 billion) to the territory, making Hong Kong the 14th most popular destination for international tourists. It is the most popular Chinese city for tourists, receiving over 70 per cent more visitors than its closest competitor (Macau).{{harvnb|WTO|2017|p=6}}. The city is ranked as one of the most expensive cities for expatriates.WEB,weblink Despite worldwide changes, multinationals focus on mobile workforces to support career growth and ensure competitiveness, Mercer (consulting firm), Mercer, New York, 21 June 2017, 26 December 2017,weblink 13 January 2018, no, WEB,weblink Worldwide Cost of Living survey 2009, 29 June 2010, Mercer (consulting firm), Mercer, 25 August 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110725215323weblink">weblink 25 July 2011,

Infrastructure

Transport

File:Cross Harbour Tunnel (1).JPG|thumb|alt=Tunnel entrance at night, with heavy traffic|Entrance to the Cross-Harbour Tunnel in Hung Hom, KowloonKowloonHong Kong has a highly developed, sophisticated transport network. Over 90 per cent of daily trips are made on public transport, the highest percentage in the world. The Octopus card, a contactless smart payment card, is widely accepted on railways, buses and ferries, and can be used for payment in most retail stores.{{harvnb|Poon|Chau|2001|p=102}}.The Mass Transit Railway (MTR) is an extensive passenger rail network, connecting 93 metro stations throughout the territory.{{harvnb|Railway Network Facts|2018}}. With a daily ridership of over five million, the system serves 41 per cent of all public transit passengers in the city{{harvnb|Transport Statistical Highlights|2016}}. and has an on-time rate of 99.9 per cent.{{harvnb|Report on Rail Service|2014|p=1}}. Cross-boundary train service to Shenzhen is offered by the East Rail line, and longer-distance inter-city trains to Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Beijing are operated from Hung Hom Station.WEB,weblink Cross Boundary Train Services, Mass Transit Railway, 20 November 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171119030307weblink">weblink 19 November 2017, no, Connecting service to the national high-speed rail system is provided at West Kowloon railway station.{{harvnb|Kwok|2018}}.Although public transport systems handle most passenger traffic, there are over 500,000 private vehicles registered in Hong Kong.{{harvnb|Vehicle Registration and Licensing|2018}}. Automobiles drive on the left (unlike in mainland China), due to historical influence of the British Empire.{{harvnb|Labarre|2010}}. Vehicle traffic is extremely congested in urban areas, exacerbated by limited space to expand roads and an increasing number of vehicles.{{harvnb|Traffic Congestion Study|2014|pp=2–3}}. More than 18,000 taxicabs, easily identifiable by their bright colour, are licensed to carry riders in the territory.{{harvnb|Transport Facts|2016}}. Bus services operate more than 700 routes across the territory, with smaller public light buses (also known as minibuses) serving areas standard buses do not reach as frequently or directly.{{harvnb|Cullinane|2002}}. Highways, organised with the Hong Kong Strategic Route and Exit Number System, connect all major areas of the territory.MAP, Hong Kong Strategic Route Map,weblink Transport Department, 29 June 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180615112730weblink">weblink 15 June 2018, no, The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge provides a direct route to the western side of the Pearl River estuary.File:HK Tung Chung Line Train.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Light-rail train on a straightaway|MTR train on the Tung Chung lineTung Chung lineHong Kong International Airport is the territory's primary airport. Over 100 airlines operate flights from the airport, including locally based Cathay Pacific (flag carrier), Hong Kong Airlines, regional carrier Cathay Dragon, low-cost airline HK Express and cargo airline Air Hong Kong.{{harvnb|HKIA Annual Report|2017|p=152}}. It is the eighth-busiest airport by passenger traffic,{{harvnb|NY/NJ Port Authority Airport Traffic|2017|p=32}}. and handles the most air-cargo traffic in the world.{{harvnb|NY/NJ Port Authority Airport Traffic|2017|p=58}}. Most private recreational aviation traffic flies through Shek Kong Airfield, under the supervision of the Hong Kong Aviation Club.{{harvnb|Wordie|2007|p=242}}.The Star Ferry operates two lines across Victoria Harbour for its 53,000 daily passengers.WEB,weblink Operational Information, Star Ferry, 20 November 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171130062543weblink">weblink 30 November 2017, no, Ferries also serve outlying islands inaccessible by other means. Smaller kai-to boats serve the most remote coastal settlements.{{harvnb|Cushman|1993|p=57}}. Ferry travel to Macau and mainland China is also available.WEB,weblink Ferry Services to Macau and the Mainland Ports, Hong Kong Government, 20 November 2017,weblink 19 November 2017, no, Junks, once common in Hong Kong waters, are no longer widely available and are used privately and for tourism.{{harvnb|Tatlow|2017}}.The Peak Tram, Hong Kong's first public transport system, has provided funicular rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since 1888.{{harvnb|Mok|2018}}. The Central and Western District has an extensive system of escalators and moving pavements, including the Mid-Levels escalator (the world's longest outdoor covered escalator system).{{harvnb|Gold|2001}}. Hong Kong Tramways covers a portion of Hong Kong Island. The MTR operates its Light Rail system, serving the northwestern New Territories.

Utilities

Hong Kong imports nearly all its generated electricity and fuel.{{harvnb|Energy Statistics Report|2017|p=1}}. The vast majority of this energy comes from fossil fuels, with 46 per cent from coal and 47 per cent from petroleum.{{harvnb|Energy Statistics Report|2017|p=9}}. The rest is from other imports, including nuclear energy generated on the mainland.{{harvnb|Energy Statistics Report|2017|p=29}}. Renewable sources account for a negligible amount of energy generated for the territory.{{harvnb|Energy Statistics Report|2017|p=6}}. Small-scale wind-power sources have been developed, and a small number of private homes have installed solar panels.{{harvnb|Chan|2017}}.With few natural lakes and rivers, high population density, inaccessible groundwater sources, and extremely seasonal rainfall, the territory does not have a reliable source of fresh water. The Dongjiang River in Guangdong supplies 70 per cent of the city's water,{{harvnb|Lee|2013}}. and the remaining demand is filled by harvesting rainwater.{{harvnb|Water Supply Facts|2016}}. Toilets flush with seawater, greatly reducing freshwater use.Broadband Internet access is widely available, with 92.6 per cent of households connected. Connections over fibre-optic infrastructure are increasingly prevalent,WEB,weblink Key Communications Statistics, Office of the Communications Authority, 8 July 2018,weblink 20 June 2018, no, contributing to the high regional average connection speed of 21.9 Mbit/s (the world's fourth-fastest).{{harvnb|Akamai's State of the Internet|2017|p=54}}. Mobile-phone use is ubiquitous;{{harvnb|IT and Internet Usage|2017|p=9}}. there are more than 18 million mobile-phone accounts,{{harvnb|Monthly Statistics for June|2019|p=242}}. more than double the territory's population.

Culture

{{See also|Lingnan culture}}Hong Kong is characterised as a hybrid of East and West. Traditional Chinese values emphasising family and education blend with Western ideals, including economic liberty and the rule of law.{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|p=169}}. Although the vast majority of the population is ethnically Chinese, Hong Kong has developed a distinct identity. The territory diverged from the mainland due to its long period of colonial administration and a different pace of economic, social, and cultural development. Mainstream culture is derived from immigrants originating from various parts of China. This was influenced by British-style education, a separate political system, and the territory's rapid development during the late 20th century.{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|pp=167–172}}.{{harvnb|He|2013}}. Most migrants of that era fled poverty and war, reflected in the prevailing attitude toward wealth; Hongkongers tend to link self-image and decision-making to material benefits.{{harvnb|Tam|2017}}.{{harvnb|Lam|2015}}. Residents sense of local identity has increased markedly post-handover: 53 per cent of the population identify as "Hongkongers", while 11 per cent describe themselves as "Chinese". The remaining population purport mixed identities, 23 per cent as "Hongkonger in China" and 12 per cent as "Chinese in Hong Kong".Traditional Chinese family values, including family honour, filial piety, and a preference for sons, are prevalent.{{harvnb|Family Survey|2013|pp=12–13}}. Nuclear families are the most common households, although multi-generational and extended families are not unusual.{{harvnb|Population By-Census|2016|p=77}}. Spiritual concepts such as feng shui are observed; large-scale construction projects often hire consultants to ensure proper building positioning and layout. The degree of its adherence to feng shui is believed to determine the success of a business. Bagua mirrors are regularly used to deflect evil spirits,{{harvnb|Fowler|Fowler|2008|p=263}}. and buildings often lack floor numbers with a 4;{{harvnb|Xi|Ingham|2003|p=181}}. the number has a similar sound to the word for "die" in Cantonese.{{harvnb|Chan|Chow|2006|p=3}}.

Cuisine

{{Multiple image
align=right total_width=350height1=600 |width1=800|alt1=An assortment of items in a Dim Sum breakfast mealheight2=1200 |width2=1600|alt2=French Toast on left, Milk Tea on right|footer=(left) Typical fare at a dim sum restaurant; (right) cha chaan teng breakfast food with Hong Kong-style milk tea}}Food in Hong Kong is based on Cantonese cuisine, despite the territory's exposure to foreign influences and its residents' varied origins. Rice is the staple food, and is usually served plain with other dishes.{{harvnb|Long|2015|p=271}}. Freshness of ingredients is emphasised. Poultry and seafood are commonly sold live at wet markets, and ingredients are used as quickly as possible.{{harvnb|Curry|Hanstedt|2014|pp=9–12}}. There are five daily meals: breakfast, lunch, afternoon tea, dinner, and siu yeh.{{harvnb|Long|2015|p=272}}. Dim sum, as part of yum cha (brunch), is a dining-out tradition with family and friends. Dishes include congee, cha siu bao, siu yuk, egg tarts, and mango pudding. Local versions of Western food are served at cha chaan teng (fast, casual restaurants). Common cha chaan teng menu items include macaroni in soup, deep-fried French toast, and Hong Kong-style milk tea.

Cinema

File:Hong kong bruce lee statue.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Statue of Bruce Lee in a fighting pose|Statue of Bruce Lee on the Avenue of Stars, a tribute to the city's film industry]]Hong Kong developed into a filmmaking hub during the late 1940s as a wave of Shanghai filmmakers migrated to the territory, and these movie veterans helped rebuild the colony's entertainment industry over the next decade.{{harvnb|Fu|2008|pp=381, 388–389}}. By the 1960s, the city was well known to overseas audiences through films such as The World of Suzie Wong.{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|p=148}}. When Bruce Lee's Way of the Dragon was released in 1972, local productions became popular outside Hong Kong. During the 1980s, films such as A Better Tomorrow, As Tears Go By, and Zu Warriors from the Magic Mountain expanded global interest beyond martial arts films; locally made gangster films, romantic dramas, and supernatural fantasies became popular.{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|p=168}}. Hong Kong cinema continued to be internationally successful over the following decade with critically acclaimed dramas such as Farewell My Concubine, To Live, and Chungking Express. The city's martial arts film roots are evident in the roles of the most prolific Hong Kong actors. Jackie Chan, Donnie Yen, Jet Li, Chow Yun-fat, and Michelle Yeoh frequently play action-oriented roles in foreign films. At the height of the local movie industry in the early 1990s, over 400 films were produced each year; since then, industry momentum shifted to mainland China. The annual number of films produced has declined, to about 60 in 2017.{{harvnb|Ge|2017}}.{{clear left}}

Music

{{Multiple image
align=right total_width=300height1=241 alt1=Leslie Cheung with a microphoneheight2=500 alt2=A serious-looking Andy Lau, seated and wearing a suit|footer=Leslie Cheung (left) is considered a pioneering Cantopop artist, and Andy Lau has been an icon of Hong Kong music and film for several decades as a member of the Four Heavenly Kings.}}Cantopop is a genre of Cantonese popular music which emerged in Hong Kong during the 1970s. Evolving from Shanghai-style shidaiqu, it is also influenced by Cantonese opera and Western pop.{{harvnb|Chu|2017|pp=1–9, 24–25}}. Local media featured songs by artists such as Sam Hui, Anita Mui, Leslie Cheung, and Alan Tam; during the 1980s, exported films and shows exposed Cantopop to a global audience.{{harvnb|Chu|2017|pp=77–85}}. The genre's popularity peaked in the 1990s, when the Four Heavenly Kings dominated Asian record charts.{{harvnb|Chu|2017|pp=107–116}}. Despite a general decline since late in the decade,{{harvnb|Chu|2017|pp=9–10}}. Cantopop remains dominant in Hong Kong; contemporary artists such as Eason Chan, Joey Yung, and Twins are popular in and beyond the territory.{{harvnb|Chu|2017|pp=159–164}}.Western classical music has historically had a strong presence in Hong Kong, and remains a large part of local musical education.{{harvnb|Smith|Moir|Brennan|Rambarran|2017|p=101}}. The publicly funded Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra, the territory's oldest professional symphony orchestra, frequently host musicians and conductors from overseas. The Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra, composed of classical Chinese instruments, is the leading Chinese ensemble and plays a significant role in promoting traditional music in the community.{{harvnb|Ho|2011|p=147}}.

Sport and recreation

File:Crowd cheering, Hong Kong Sevens 2009.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Cheering rugby fans, seen from the stands|The Hong Kong Sevens, considered the premier tournament of the World Rugby Sevens SeriesWorld Rugby Sevens SeriesDespite its small area, the territory is home to a variety of sports and recreational facilities. The city has hosted a number of major sporting events, including the 2009 East Asian Games, the 2008 Summer Olympics equestrian events, and the 2007 Premier League Asia Trophy.{{harvnb|Shen|Kee|2017|p=247}}. The territory regularly hosts the Hong Kong Sevens, Hong Kong Marathon, Hong Kong Tennis Classic and Lunar New Year Cup, and hosted the inaugural AFC Asian Cup and the 1995 Dynasty Cup.{{harvnb|Ghoshal|2011}}.{{harvnb|Horne|Manzenreiter|2002|p=128}}.Hong Kong represents itself separately from mainland China, with its own sports teams in international competitions. The territory has participated in almost every Summer Olympics since 1952, and has earned three medals. Lee Lai-shan won the territory's first and only Olympic gold medal at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics.{{harvnb|Lam|Chang|2005|p=141}}. Hong Kong athletes have won 126 medals at the Paralympic Games and 17 at the Commonwealth Games. No longer part of the Commonwealth of Nations, the city's last appearance in the latter was in 1994.{{harvnb|Lam|Chang|2005|p=99}}.Dragon boat races originated as a religious ceremony conducted during the annual Tuen Ng Festival. The race was revived as a modern sport as part of the Tourism Board's efforts to promote Hong Kong's image abroad. The first modern competition was organised in 1976, and overseas teams began competing in the first international race in 1993.{{harvnb|Sofield|Sivan|2003}}.The Hong Kong Jockey Club, the territory's largest taxpayer,{{harvnb|Littlewood|2010|pp=16–17}}. has a monopoly on gambling and provides over seven per cent of government revenue.{{harvnb|Inland Revenue Annual Report|2017|p=4}}. Three forms of gambling are legal in Hong Kong: lotteries and betting on horse racing and football.

Education

File:Bishop's House, Anglican Church, Hong Kong.JPG|thumb|Old campus of St. Paul's College, the first school established in the colonial era]]Education in Hong Kong is largely modelled after that of the United Kingdom, particularly the English system.{{harvnb|Chan|Leung|2003|p=24}}. Children are required to attend school from the age of six until completion of secondary education, generally at age 18.WEB,weblink Programme Highlights, Hong Kong Government, 20 October 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130824010442weblink">weblink 24 August 2013, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Creating a better education system, Li, Arthur, 18 May 2005, Hong Kong Government, 17 August 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080303190339weblink">weblink 3 March 2008, At the end of secondary schooling, all students take a public examination and awarded the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education on successful completion.WEB,weblink HKDSE, 12 October 2010, Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority, 20 October 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101016060315weblink">weblink 16 October 2010, Of residents aged 15 and older, 81.3 per cent completed lower-secondary education, 66.4 per cent graduated from an upper secondary school, 31.6 per cent attended a non-degree tertiary program, and 24 per cent earned a bachelor's degree or higher.{{harvnb|Women and Men in Hong Kong Key Statistics|2017|p=66}}. Mandatory education has contributed to an adult literacy rate of 95.7 per cent.WEB,weblink Adult literacy rate, The Hong Kong Council of Social Service, 27 December 2017,weblink 28 December 2017, no, Lower than that of other developed economies, the rate is due to the influx of refugees from mainland China during the post-war colonial era. Much of the elderly population were not formally educated due to war and poverty.{{harvnb|Cheng|Lum|Lam|Fung|2013}}.{{harvnb|UNESCO Literacy Rates|2017|p=8}}.Comprehensive schools fall under three categories: public schools, which are fully government-run; subsidised schools, including government aid-and-grant schools; and private schools, often those run by religious organisations and that base admissions on academic merit. These schools are subject to the curriculum guidelines as provided by the Education Bureau. Private schools subsidised under the Direct Subsidy Scheme and international schools fall outside of this system and may elect to use differing curricula and teach based on other languages.File:Main Building HKU 20100926 03.JPG|thumb|left|University of Hong KongUniversity of Hong KongThe government maintains a policy of "mother tongue instruction"; schools use Cantonese as the medium of instruction, with written education in both Chinese and English. Secondary schools emphasise "bi-literacy and tri-lingualism", which has encouraged the proliferation of spoken Mandarin language education.{{harvnb|Lee|Leung|2012}}.Hong Kong has ten universities within its territory. The University of Hong Kong was founded as the city's first institute of higher education during the early colonial period in 1911.{{harvnb|Carroll|2007|pp=84–86}}. The Chinese University of Hong Kong was established in 1963 to fill the need for a university that taught using Chinese as its primary language of instruction.{{harvnb|Fulton Commission|1963}}. Along with the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and City University of Hong Kong, these universities are ranked among the best in Asia.WEB,weblink QS University Rankings, Asia 2018, QS World University Rankings, 15 November 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160616022557weblink">weblink 16 June 2016, no, dmy-all, February 2017, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,HONG KONG ORDINANCE, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Ordinance, 1075, . Hong Kong Baptist University,HONG KONG ORDINANCE, Hong Kong Baptist University Ordinance, 1126, . Lingnan University,HONG KONG ORDINANCE, Lingnan University Ordinance, 1165, . Education University of Hong Kong,HONG KONG ORDINANCE, The Education University of Hong Kong Ordinance, 444, . Open University of Hong Kong,HONG KONG ORDINANCE, The Open University of Hong Kong Ordinance, 1145, . and Hong Kong Shue Yan University were all established in subsequent years.{{harvnb|LegCo Grant to Shue Yan University|2007}}.

Media

File:Tvbcity-s1.png|thumb|alt=Modern, green-and-white building with dish antennas on top|TVB CityTVB CityHong Kong's major English-language newspaper is the South China Morning Post, with The Standard a business-oriented alternative. A variety of Chinese-language newspapers are published daily; the most prominent are Ming Pao, Oriental Daily News, and Apple Daily. Local publications are often politically affiliated, with pro-Beijing or pro-democracy sympathies. The central government has a print-media presence in the territory through the state-owned Ta Kung Pao and Wen Wei Po.{{harvnb|"Hong Kong media profile", BBC News}}. Several international publications have regional operations in Hong Kong, including The Wall Street Journal, The Financial Times, The New York Times International Edition, USA Today, Yomiuri Shimbun, and The Nikkei.{{harvnb|Media Facts|2017}}.Three free-to-air television broadcasters operate in the territory; TVB, HKTVE, and Hong Kong Open TV air three analogue and eight digital channels.{{harvnb|Licensed Broadcasting Services|2018}}. TVB, Hong Kong's dominant television network, has an 80 per cent viewer share.{{harvnb|Chow|2017}}. Pay TV services operated by Cable TV Hong Kong and PCCW offer hundreds of additional channels and cater to a variety of audiences. RTHK is the public broadcaster, providing seven radio channels and three television channels.{{harvnb|RTHK Budget|2018|pp=806, 809}}. Ten non-domestic broadcasters air programming for the territory's foreign population. Access to media and information over the Internet is not subject to mainland Chinese regulations, including the Great Firewall.{{harvnb|"Hong Kong Activists Stare Down 'Great Firewall of China'", NBC News}}.

See also

Notes and references

Notes

{{Notelist|group=lower-alpha}}

References

{{Reflist}}

Sources

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Legislation and case law

  • {{wikicite |reference=Amendment to the Basic Law Annex I (Instrument A111) |ref={{sfnref|Amendment to the Basic Law Annex I}}}}
  • {{wikicite |reference=Basic Law Annex III |ref={{sfnref|Basic Law Annex III}}}}
  • {{wikicite |reference=Basic Law Chapter II |ref={{sfnref|Basic Law Chapter II}}}}
  • {{wikicite |reference=Basic Law Chapter III |ref={{sfnref|Basic Law Chapter III}}}}
  • {{wikicite |reference=Basic Law Chapter IV |ref={{sfnref|Basic Law Chapter IV}}}}
  • {{wikicite |reference=Basic Law Chapter V |ref={{sfnref|Basic Law Chapter V}}}}
  • {{wikicite |reference=Basic Law Chapter VII |ref={{sfnref|Basic Law Chapter VII}}}}
  • {{wikicite |reference=HONG KONG CASE, Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Another v the President of the Legislative Council, HCAL, 185, 2016, 106799, 20, |ref={{sfnref|Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Another v the President of the Legislative Council}}}}
  • {{wikicite |reference=Constitution of the People's Republic of China (Instrument A1) |ref={{sfnref|Constitution of the People's Republic of China}}}}
  • {{wikicite |reference=HONG KONG ORDINANCE, District Councils Ordinance, 547, Schedule 3 |ref={{sfnref|District Councils Ordinance}}}}
  • {{wikicite |reference=HONG KONG ORDINANCE, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passports Ordinance, 539, |ref={{sfnref|Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passports Ordinance}}}}
  • {{wikicite |reference=HONG KONG CASE, Ng Ka Ling and Another v the Director of Immigration, FACV, 14, 1998, 34052, 63, |ref={{sfnref|Ng Ka Ling and Another v the Director of Immigration}}}}
  • {{wikicite |reference=HONG KONG ORDINANCE, Official Languages Ordinance, 5, 3, 1, |ref={{sfnref|Official Languages Ordinance}}}}
  • {{wikicite |reference=Sino-British Joint Declaration (Instrument A301) |ref={{sfnref|Sino-British Joint Declaration}}}}
  • {{wikicite |reference=Standing Committee Interpretation Concerning Implementation of Chinese Nationality Law in Hong Kong (Instrument A204) |ref={{sfnref|Standing Committee Interpretation Concerning Implementation of Chinese Nationality Law in Hong Kong}}}}

Academic publications

  • JOURNAL, Chen, Li, 2011, Universalism and Equal Sovereignty as Contested Myths of International Law in the Sino-Western Encounter, Journal of the History of International Law, 13, 1, 75–116, 10.1163/157180511X552054, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Cheng, Sheung-Tak, Lum, Terry, Lam, Linda C. W., Fung, Helene H., 2013, Hong Kong: Embracing a Fast Aging Society With Limited Welfare, The Gerontologist, 53, 4, 527–533, 10.1093/geront/gnt017, 23528290, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Cullinane, S., The relationship between car ownership and public transport provision: a case study of Hong Kong, 2002, 9, 1, 29–39, Transport Policy, 10.1016/S0967-070X(01)00028-2, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Fan, Shuh Ching, The Population of Hong Kong, 1974, World Population Year, 1–2,weblink 438716102, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Forrest, Ray, La Grange, Adrienne, Yip, Ngai-ming, Hong Kong as a Global City? Social Distance and Spatial Differentiation, Urban Studies (journal), Urban Studies, 41, 1, 207–227, 2004, 10.1080/0042098032000155759, harv, 10.1.1.1032.5974,
  • JOURNAL, Fu, Poshek, Japanese Occupation, Shanghai Exiles, and Postwar Hong Kong Cinema, The China Quarterly, 2008, 194, 194, 380–394, 10.1017/S030574100800043X, harv, 20192203,
  • JOURNAL, Fulton Commission, Report of the Fulton Commission, 1963: Commission to Advise on the Creation of a Federal-Type Chinese University in Hong Kong, Minerva, 1963, 1, 4, 493–507, harv, 41821589,
  • JOURNAL, Jordan, Ann D., Lost in the Translation: Two Legal Cultures, the Common Law Judiciary and the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Cornell International Law Journal,weblink 30, 2, 1997, 335–380, harv,
  • BOOK, Lee, John, A Corpus-Based Analysis of Mixed Code in Hong Kong Speech, Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Asian Language Processing, 2012, 165–168, 10.1109/IALP.2012.10, harv, 978-1-4673-6113-2,
  • JOURNAL, Lee, Kwai Sang, Leung, Wai Mun, The status of Cantonese in the education policy of Hong Kong, Multilingual Education, 2, 2, 2, 2012, 10.1186/10.1186/2191-5059-2-2, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Lee, Nelson K., The Changing Nature of Border, Scale and the Production of Hong Kong's Water Supply System since 1959, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38, 3, 903–921, 2013, 10.1111/1468-2427.12060, harv,
  • JOURNAL, McKercher, Bob, Ho, Pamela S.Y., du Cros, Hilary, Attributes of Popular Attractions in Hong Kong, Annals of Tourism Research, 31, 2, 2004, 393–407, 10.1016/j.annals.2003.12.008, harv, 10397/29409,
  • JOURNAL, Meacham, William, Neolithic to Historic in the Hong Kong Region, Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin, 18, 2, 1999, 121–128, 0156-1316,weblink harv,
  • JOURNAL, Ming, Sing, The Legitimacy Problem and Democratic Reform in Hong Kong, Journal of Contemporary China, 15, 48, 2006, 517–532, 10.1080/10670560600736558, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Poon, Simpson, Chau, Patrick, Octopus: The Growing E-payment System in Hong Kong, Electronic Markets, 11, 2, 2001, 97–106,weblink 10.1080/101967801300197016, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Sofield, Trevor H.B., Sivan, Atara, From Cultural Festival to International Sport – The Hong Kong Dragon Boat Races, Journal of Sport & Tourism, 8, 1, 9–20, 2003, 10.1080/14775080306242, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Tong, C. O., Wong, S. C., 1997, The advantages of a high density, mixed land use, linear urban development, Transportation, 24, 3, 295–307, 10.1023/A:1004987422746, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Wong, Eliza L.Y., Yeoh, Eng-kiong, Chau, Patsy Y.K., Yam, Carrie H.K., Cheung, Annie W.L., Fung, Hong, How shall we examine and learn about public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the health sector? Realist evaluation of PPPs in Hong Kong, Social Science & Medicine, 147, 2015, 261–269, 10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.11.012, 26605970, harv,

Institutional reports

News and magazine articles

  • NEWS, Baldwin, Clare, Lee, Yimou, Jim, Clare, 30 December 2014,weblink Special Report: The mainland's colonization of the Hong Kong economy, Reuters, 26 December 2017, harv,
  • NEWS, Bland, Ben, 31 July 2016, Hong Kong ban on pro-independence candidates sparks backlash, The Financial Times,weblink 26 June 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, Chan, Bernice, 17 July 2017, Hong Kong villagers using solar energy to help power their homes – and show its potential as a source of electricity for city,weblink South China Morning Post, 25 November 2017, harv,
  • NEWS, Chao, York, 25 May 2013, Racist Hong Kong is still a fact,weblink South China Morning Post, 18 November 2017, harv,
  • NEWS, Cheung, Stephanie, 23 March 2015, The case for extending Hong Kong's 2047 deadline, South China Morning Post,weblink 22 May 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, Cheung, Tony, 10 May 2016, Too soon to talk about 2047? Legal experts split on when Hong Kong should debate its future, South China Morning Post,weblink 22 May 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, Cheung, Tony, 28 February 2017, Who goes there? Hong Kong's participation in China's 'two sessions' explained,weblink South China Morning Post, 27 November 2017, harv,
  • NEWS, Cheung, Tony, Ho, Lauren, 19 January 2013, CY Leung insists housing policy won't cause property crash, South China Morning Post,weblink 14 November 2017, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Chow, Vivienne, 16 March 2017, Hong Kong's TVB Targeting New Revenues With OTT Platform, Productions, Variety (magazine), Variety,weblink 6 June 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, End of an experiment, The Economist, 15 July 2010,weblink 5 September 2010, {{sfnref, "End of an experiment", The Economist, }}
  • NEWS, Frank, Robert, 5 September 2018, Hong Kong topples New York as world's richest city,weblink CNBC, 21 April 2019, harv,
  • NEWS, Gargan, Edward A., 1 July 1997, China Resumes Control of Hong Kong, Concluding 156 Years of British Rule,weblink The New York Times, 5 January 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, Ge, Celine, 28 July 2017, It's fade out for Hong Kong's film industry as China moves into the spotlight,weblink South China Morning Post, 28 May 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, Gold, Anne, 6 July 2001, Hong Kong's Mile-Long Escalator System Elevates the Senses: A Stairway to Urban Heaven,weblink The New York Times, 22 October 2010, harv,
  • NEWS, Griffiths, James, Lazarus, Sarah, 22 October 2018, World's longest sea-crossing bridge opens between Hong Kong and China, CNN,weblink 15 February 2019, harv,
  • NEWS, Haas, Benjamin, 14 July 2017, Hong Kong pro-democracy legislators disqualified from parliament,weblink The Guardian, 5 July 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, He, Huifeng, 13 January 2013, Forgotten stories of the great escape to Hong Kong,weblink South China Morning Post, 27 December 2017, harv,
  • NEWS, Hollingsworth, Julia, Zheng, Sarah, 27 March 2017, Top 10 Hong Kong skyscraper nicknames, from the Big Syringe to the Hong Kong Finger,weblink South China Morning Post, 26 June 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, Huang, Echo, 15 November 2016, A Hong Kong court has disqualified two legislators who refused to take their oath "correctly",weblink Quartz (publication), 5 July 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, Kaiman, Johnathan, 30 September 2014, Hong Kong's umbrella revolution – the Guardian briefing,weblink The Guardian, 3 February 2018, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Kong, Daniel, 8 August 2013, Hong Kong Imports Over 90% of Its Food. Can It Learn to Grow?,weblink Modern Farmer (magazine), Modern Farmer, 26 October 2013, harv,
  • NEWS, Kwok, Donny, 22 September 2018,weblink All aboard: Hong Kong bullet train signals high-speed integration with China, Reuters, 26 September 2018, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Labarre, Suzanne, 15 June 2010, Ingenious Flipper Bridge Melds Left-Side Drivers With Right-Side Drivers,weblink Fast Company (magazine), Fast Company, 25 March 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, Lendon, Brad, 29 June 2017, China makes its military more visible in Hong Kong,weblink CNN, 22 December 2017, harv,
  • NEWS, Lhatoo, Yonden, 17 September 2015, Racism is rife in Hong Kong and the Equal Opportunities Commission is a toothless hamster to tackle it,weblink South China Morning Post, 18 November 2017, harv,
  • NEWS, Liu, Alfred, 5 September 2018, These Are the Cities With the Most Ultra-Rich People,weblink Bloomberg News, 21 April 2019, harv,
  • NEWS, Mok, Danny, 14 February 2018, Going up! Prices for Hong Kong's famous Peak Tram to increase for second time in less than two years,weblink South China Morning Post, 2 July 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, Mok, Danny, Lee, Eddie, 4 March 2015, Let Hongkongers serve in China's People's Liberation Army, says top military official,weblink South China Morning Post, 27 November 2017, harv,
  • NEWS, Ngo, Jennifer, Cheung, Elizabeth, 16 March 2016, A case for inclusion: Carrie Lam pledges to tout list of 16 ethnic minority Hongkongers for government advisory positions,weblink South China Morning Post, 18 November 2017, harv,
  • NEWS, Park, Kyunghee, 23 January 2019,weblink Once the World's Greatest Port, Hong Kong Sinks in Global Ranking, Bloomberg News, 14 February 2019, harv,
  • NEWS, Sala, Ilaria Maria, 1 September 2016, As Hong Kong goes to the polls, why isn't the Communist Party on the ballot?,weblink Quartz (publication), Quartz, 18 November 2017, harv,
  • NEWS, Siu, Phila, Chung, Kimmy, 27 December 2017, Controversial joint checkpoint plan approved for high-speed rail link as Hong Kong officials dismiss concerns over legality, South China Morning Post,weblink 5 July 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, Tam, Luisa, 11 September 2017, Self-centred, demanding, materialistic and arrogant: how to steer clear of the Kong Girls,weblink South China Morning Post, Hong Kong, 27 December 2017, harv,
  • NEWS, Tatlow, Didi Kirsten, 2 February 2017, On Deck With China's Last Junk Builders, Masters of an Ebbing Craft,weblink The New York Times, 31 May 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, Wong, Joshua, Lim, Emily, 23 February 2017, We must resist until China gives Hong Kong a say in our future,weblink The Guardian, 16 November 2017, harv,
  • NEWS, Yau, Cannix, Zhou, Viola, 9 June 2017, What hope for the poorest? Hong Kong wealth gap hits record high,weblink South China Morning Post, 30 November 2017, harv,
  • NEWS, Yu, Verna, 6 January 2013, Veterans who fled mainland for Hong Kong in 1970s tell their stories, South China Morning Post,weblink 9 September 2013, harv,
  • NEWS, Zhao, Shirley, 6 September 2015, 'If you tell them you are Pakistani, they won't give you the flat': Finding a Hong Kong home is battle against prejudice for ethnic minorities,weblink South China Morning Post, 18 November 2017, harv,
  • NEWS, Zheng, Sarah, 14 January 2017, Hong Kong's heritage sites face continued threat despite government grading system,weblink South China Morning Post, Hong Kong, 5 March 2018, harv,

Websites

  • WEB, Bush, Richard C., Whelan-Wuest, Maeve, 29 March 2017, Another Hong Kong election, another pro-Beijing leader—why it matters,weblink Brookings Institution, 18 November 2017, harv,
  • WEB, Desjardins, Jeff, 14 March 2018, These 25 countries have the most billionaires, Business Insider,weblink 3 April 2018, harv,
  • WEB, Disclaimer and Copyright Notice,weblink Legislative Council of Hong Kong, Legislative Council, 27 November 2017, {{sfnref, Legislative Council Disclaimer and Copyright Notice, }}
  • WEB, Ghoshal, Amoy, 1 July 2011, Asian Cup: Know Your History – Part One (1956–1988),weblink Goal (website), Goal, 5 March 2018, harv,
  • WEB, HK records hottest day before typhoon, 23 August 2017, EJ Insight, Hong Kong Economic Journal,weblink 29 August 2018, {{sfnref, "HK records hottest day before typhoon", EJ Insight, }}
  • WEB, HK vs China GDP: A sobering reality, 9 June 2017, EJ Insight, Hong Kong Economic Journal,weblink 29 January 2018, {{sfnref, "HK vs China GDP: A sobering reality", EJ Insight, }}
  • WEB, Hong Kong Activists Stare Down 'Great Firewall of China', 29 September 2014, NBC News,weblink 21 June 2018, {{sfnref, "Hong Kong Activists Stare Down 'Great Firewall of China'", NBC News, }}
  • NEWS, Hong Kong profile – Media,weblink 5 March 2018, BBC News, 29 May 2018, {{sfnref, "Hong Kong media profile", BBC News, }}
  • WEB, Kohlstedt, Kurt, 5 September 2016, Here Be Dragons: How Feng Shui Shapes the Skyline of Hong Kong,weblink 99% Invisible, 23 June 2018, harv,
  • WEB, Kwong, Chi Man, 9 September 2015, Hong Kong during World War II: A Transnational Battlefield,weblink University of Nottingham, 22 January 2018, harv,
  • WEB, Lam, Eric, Qiu, Yue, 23 June 2017, Hong Kong's Stock Market Tells the Story of China's Growing Dominance,weblink Bloomberg News, 26 December 2017, harv,
  • WEB, Land Utilization in Hong Kong 2017,weblink Town Planning Board, Planning Department, 1 September 2018, {{sfnref, "Land Utilization in Hong Kong 2017", Planning Department, }}
  • WEB, Meanings of Right of Abode and Other Terms,weblink Immigration Department (Hong Kong), Immigration Department, 18 November 2017, {{sfnref, "Meanings of Right of Abode and Other Terms", Immigration Department, }}

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Hong Kong|d=Q8646|Hong Kong}}

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Maps
  • {{Wikiatlas|Hong Kong}}
  • {{OSM relation|913110}}
{{Hong Kong topics}}{{Province-level divisions of the People's Republic of China}}{{Navboxes| list ={{Countries of Asia}}{{Pearl River Delta}}{{Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation}}{{World Trade Organization}}{{Most populous cities in the People's Republic of China}}}}{{Good article}}{{coord|22.3|114.2|type:adm1st_region:HK_dim:30000|display=title}}{{Authority control}}


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