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Holy Roman Emperor
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{{short description|Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire}}{{distinguish|Roman emperor}}{{For|the racehorse|Holy Roman Emperor (horse)}}{{use dmy dates|date=September 2010}}







factoids
The Holy Roman Emperor, officially the Emperor of the Romans (), and also the German-Roman Emperor (), was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (considered by itself and by the Roman Catholic Church to be the successor of the Roman Empire) during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was, almost without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany (rex teutonicorum) throughout the 12th to 18th centuries.Peter Hamish Wilson, The Holy Roman Empire, 1495–1806, MacMillan Press 1999, London, page 2.Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn: The Menace of the Herd or Procrustes at Large – Page: 164.Robert Edwin Herzstein, Robert Edwin Herzstein: +The Holy Roman Empire in the Middle Ages: universal state or German catastrophe?"{{year needed|date=January 2019}}{{page needed|date=January 2019}}From an autocracy in Carolingian times (AD 800–924) the title by the 13th century evolved into an elective monarchy, with the emperor chosen by the prince-electors.Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, became de facto hereditary holders of the title, notably the Ottonians (962–1024) and the Salians (1027–1125). Following the late medieval crisis of government, the Habsburgs kept possession of the title without interruption from 1440–1740. The final emperors were from the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, from 1765–1806. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by Francis II, after a devastating defeat to Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.The emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right, though he often contradicted or rivaled the pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy. In theory, the emperor was primus inter pares (first among equals) among other Catholic monarchs. In practice, an emperor was only as strong as his army and alliances, including marriage alliances, made him. The Holy Roman Empire never had an empress regnant, though women such as Theophanu and Maria Theresa exerted strong influence.Throughout its history, the position was viewed as a defender of the Roman Catholic faith. Until Maximilian I in 1508, the emperor-elect (imperator electus) was required to be crowned by the pope before assuming the imperial title. Charles V was the last to be crowned by the pope in 1530. Even after the Reformation, the elected emperor always was a Roman Catholic. There were short periods in history when the electoral college was dominated by Protestants, and the electors usually voted in their own political interest.

Title

File:Wapen 1545 Kaiserwappen des Heiligen Römischen Reichs Polychromie.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Coats of arms of prince electors surround the imperial coat of arms; from a 1545 armorial. Electors voted in an Imperial Diet for a new Holy Roman Emperor.]]File:Empereur en majesté (musée de l'Oeuvre Notre-Dame, Strasbourg) (36005712991).jpg|thumb|upright|Depiction of Charlemagne in a 12th-century stained glass window, Strasbourg Cathedral, now at Musée de l’Œuvre Notre-DameMusée de l’Œuvre Notre-Dame{{further|Emperor}}From the time of Constantine I (r. 306–337), the Roman emperors had, with very few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity.The reign of Constantine established a precedent for the position of the Christian emperor in the Church. Emperors considered themselves responsible to the gods for the spiritual health of their subjects, and after Constantine they had a duty to help the Church define orthodoxy and maintain orthodoxy. The emperor's role was to enforce doctrine, root out heresy, and uphold ecclesiastical unity.Richards, Jeffrey. The Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages 476–752 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979) pp. 14–15. Both the title and connection between Emperor and Church continued in the Eastern Roman Empire throughout the medieval period (in exile during 1204–1261). The ecumenical councils of the 5th to 8th centuries were convoked by the Eastern Roman Emperors.Richards, Jeffrey. The Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages 476–752 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979) p. 16.In Western Europe, the title of Emperor became defunct after the death of Julius Nepos in 480, although the rulers of the barbarian kingdoms continued to recognize the authority of the Eastern Emperor at least nominally well into the 6th century. In 797, the Eastern Emperor Constantine VI was deposed and replaced as monarch by his mother, Irene. The Papacy, which up until this point had continued to recognize the rulers in Constantinople as Roman Emperors, viewed the imperial throne as vacant since in their mind, a woman could not rule the empire.James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce, The Holy Roman Empire, 1864, pp 62–64For this reason, Charlemagne, the King of the Franks and King of Italy, was crowned Emperor of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum) by Pope Leo III, as the successor of Constantine VI as Roman Emperor under the concept of translatio imperii. The Eastern Empire eventually relented to recognizing Charlemagne and his successors as emperors, but as "Frankish" and "German emperors", at no point referring to them as Roman, a label they reserved for themselves.WEB,weblink Eduard Eichmann, Die Kaiserkrönung im Abendland. Ein Beitrag zur, Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des kirchlichen Rechts, der Liturgie und der Kirchenpolitik : Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte. Kanonistische Abteilung, 2018-02-22, web.archive.org, 2019-07-10, The title of Emperor in the West implied recognition by the pope. As the power of the papacy grew during the Middle Ages, popes and emperors came into conflict over church administration. The best-known and most bitter conflict was that known as the investiture controversy, fought during the 11th century between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII.After the coronation of Charlemagne, his successors maintained the title until the death of Berengar I of Italy in 924. The comparatively brief interregnum between 924 and the coronation of Otto the Great in 962 is taken as marking the transition from the Frankish Empire to the Holy Roman Empire.Under the Ottonians, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia fell within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire.Since 911, the various German princes had elected the King of the Germans from among their peers. The King of the Germans would then be crowned as emperor following the precedent set by Charlemagne, during the period of 962–1530. Charles V was the last emperor to be crowned by the pope, and his successor, Ferdinand I, merely adopted the title of "Emperor elect" in 1558. The final Holy Roman Emperor-elect, Francis II, abdicated in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars that saw the Empire's final dissolution.The term sacrum (i.e., "holy") in connection with the German Roman Empire was first used in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa.Peter Moraw, Heiliges Reich, in: Lexikon des Mittelalters, Munich & Zurich: Artemis 1977–1999, vol. 4, columns 2025–2028.The standard designation of the Holy Roman Emperor was "August Emperor of the Romans" (Romanorum Imperator Augustus). When Charlemagne was crowned in 800, he was styled as "most serene Augustus, crowned by God, great and pacific emperor, governing the Roman Empire," thus constituting the elements of "Holy" and "Roman" in the imperial title.BOOK, Bryce, James, The Holy Roman Empire, Macmillan, 1968, 530, The word Roman was a reflection of the principle of translatio imperii (or in this case restauratio imperii) that regarded the (Germanic) Holy Roman Emperors as the inheritors of the title of Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, despite the continued existence of the Eastern Roman Empire.In German-language historiography, the term Römisch-deutscher Kaiser ("Roman-German emperor") is used to distinguish the title from that of Roman Emperor on one hand, and that of German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) on the other. The English term "Holy Roman Emperor" is a modern shorthand for "emperor of the Holy Roman Empire" not corresponding to the historical style or title, i.e., the adjective "holy" is not intended as modifying "emperor"; the English term "Holy Roman Emperor" gained currency in the interbellum period (1920s to 1930s); formerly the title had also been rendered "German-Roman emperor" in English.The New International Encyclopædia vol. 10 (1927), p. 675.Carlton J. H. Hayes, A Political and Cvltvral History of Modern Europe vol. 1 (1932), p. 225.

Succession

{{see|Italienzug|Family tree of the German monarchs}}File:Balduineum Wahl Heinrich VII.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Illustration of the election of Henry VII (27 November 1308) showing (left to right) the Archbishop of Cologne, Archbishop of Mainz, Archbishop of Trier, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Saxony, Margrave of Brandenburg and King of Bohemia (Codex Balduini TrevirorumCodex Balduini TrevirorumThe elective monarchy of the kingdom of Germany goes back to the early 10th century, the election of Conrad I of Germany in 911 following the death without issue of Louis the Child, the last Carolingian ruler of Germany. Elections meant the kingship of Germany was only partially hereditary, unlike the kingship of France, although sovereignty frequently remained in a dynasty until there were no more male successors. The process of an election meant that the prime candidate had to make concessions, by which the voters were kept on the side, which was known as Wahlkapitulationen (electoral capitulation).Conrad was elected by the German dukes, and it is not known precisely when the system of seven prince-electors was established. The papal decree Venerabilem by Innocent III (1202), addressed to Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen, establishes the election procedure by (unnamed) princes of the realm, reserving for the pope the right to approve of the candidates.A letter of Pope Urban IV (1263), in the context of the disputed vote of 1256 and the subsequent the interregnum, suggests that by "immemorial custom", seven princes had the right to elect the King and future Emperor. The seven prince-electors are named in the Golden Bull of 1356: The Archbishop of Mainz, the Archbishop of Trier, the Archbishop of Cologne, the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Duke of Saxony and the Margrave of Brandenburg.After 1438, the Kings remained in the house of Habsburg and Habsburg-Lorraine, with the brief exception of Charles VII, who was a Wittelsbach. Maximilian I (Emperor 1508–1519) and his successors no longer travelled to Rome to be crowned as Emperor by the Pope. Maximilian, therefore, named himself Elected Roman Emperor (Erwählter Römischer Kaiser) in 1508 with papal approval. This title was in use by all his uncrowned successors. Of his successors, only Charles V, the immediate one, received a papal coronation.The Elector Palatine's seat was conferred on the Duke of Bavaria in 1621, but in 1648, in the wake of the Thirty Years' War, the Elector Palatine was restored, as the eighth elector. Electorate of Hanover was added as a ninth elector in 1692. The whole college was reshuffled in the German mediatization of 1803 with a total of ten electors, a mere three years before the dissolution of the Empire.

List of emperors

{{See also|List of German monarchs}}This list includes all 47 German monarchs crowned from Charlemagne until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806).Several rulers were crowned King of the Romans (King of Germany) but not emperor, although they styled themselves thus, among whom were: Conrad I of Germany and Henry the Fowler in the 10th century, and Conrad IV, Rudolf I, Adolf and Albert I during the interregnum of the late 13th century.Traditional historiography assumes a continuity between the Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, while a modern convention takes the coronation of Otto I in 962 as the starting point of the Holy Roman Empire (although the term Sacrum Imperium Romanum was not in use before the 13th century).

Frankish emperors

{{see|List of Frankish kings#Carolingians}}The rulers who were crowned as Roman emperors in Western Europe between AD 800 and 915 were as follows:

Carolingian dynasty

{| class="wikitable" style="width:95%; text-align:center;"!! Name! colspan=2 | Reign! Relationship with predecessor(s)! Other title(s)100px|)Charlemagne>Charles I, the Great (Charlemagne)(742–814) | 25 December 800| 28 January 814|| 100px|)Louis the Pious>Louis I, the Pious(778–840) | 11 September 813Egon Boshof: Ludwig der Fromme. Darmstadt 1996, p. 89| 20 June 840Charlemagne>Charles I| 100px|)| Lothair I(795–855) | 5 April 823| 29 September 855Louis the Pious>Louis I| 100px)Louis II of Italy>Louis II(825–875) | 29 September 855| 12 August 875| Son of Lothair I| 100px|)Charles the Bald>Charles II, the Bald(823–877) | 29 December 875| 6 October 877Louis the Pious>Louis I| 100px)Charles the Fat>Charles III, the Fat(839–888) | 12 February 881| 13 January 888Louis the Pious>Louis I|

Widonid dynasty

{| class="wikitable" style="width:95%; text-align:center;"!! Name! colspan=2 | Reign! Relationship with predecessor(s)! Other title(s)100px)Guy III of Spoleto>Guy I(?–894) | 891| 12 December 894Charlemagne>Charles I| 100px)Lambert of Italy>Lambert I(880–898) | 30 April 892| 15 October 898Guy III of Spoleto>Guy I|

Carolingian dynasty{| class"wikitable" style"width:95%; text-align:center;"

!! Name! colspan=2 | Reign! Relationship with predecessor(s)! Other title(s)100px|)Arnulf of Carinthia>Arnulph(850–899) | 22 February 896| 8 December 899Charles the Fat>Charles III|

Bosonid dynasty

{| class="wikitable" style="width:95%; text-align:center;"!! Name! colspan=2 | Reign! Relationship with predecessor(s)! Other title(s)| (File:Coins of Pope Benedict IV and Emperor Louis III.PNG|100px)Louis the Blind>Louis III, the Blind(880–928) | 22 February 901| 21 July 905Louis II of Italy>Louis II|

Unruoching dynasty

{| class="wikitable" style="width:95%; text-align:center;"!! Name! colspan=2 | Reign! Relationship with predecessor(s)! Other title(s)100px|)Berengar I of Italy>Berengar I(845–924) | December 915| 7 April 924Louis the Pious>Louis I|

Holy Roman Emperors

There was no emperor in the west between 924 and 962.While earlier Germanic and Italian monarchs had been crowned as Roman emperors, the actual Holy Roman Empire is usually considered to have begun with the crowning of the Saxon king Otto I. It was officially an elective position, though at times it ran in families, notably the four generations of the Salian dynasty in the 11th century. From the end of the Salian dynasty through the middle 15th century, the emperors drew from many different German dynasties, and it was rare for the throne to pass from father to son. That changed with the ascension of the Austrian House of Habsburg, as an unbroken line of Habsburgs held the imperial throne until the 18th century. Later a cadet branch known as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine passed it from father to son until the abolition of the Empire in 1806. Notably, the Habsburgs also dispensed with the requirement that emperors be crowned by the pope before exercising their office. Starting with Ferdinand I, all successive emperors forwent the traditional coronation.

Ottonian dynasty

{| class="wikitable" style="width:95%; text-align:center;"! width=8% | Image! width=20% | Name! colspan=2 width=20% | Reign! width=10% | Relationship with predecessor(s)! width=15% | Other title(s)100px|)Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor>Otto I, the Great(912–973) | 2 February 962| 7 May 973Louis the Pious>Louis I| 100px|)Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor>Otto II, the Red(955–983) | 25 December 967| 7 December 983Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor>Otto I| 100px|)Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor>Otto III(980–1002) | 21 May 996| 23 January 1002Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor>Otto II| 100px)Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry II{{NoteTag|Enumerated as successor of Henry I who was German King 919–936 but not Emperor.}}(973–1024) | 14 February 1014| 13 July 1024Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor>Otto III|

Salian dynasty

{| class="wikitable" style="width:95%; text-align:center;"! width=8% | Portrait! width=20% | Name! colspan=2 width=20% | Reign! width=10% | Relationship with predecessor(s)! width=15% | Other title(s)100px|)Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor>Conrad II, the Elder{{NoteTag|Enumerated as successor of Conrad I who was German King 911–918 but not Emperor}}(990–1039) | 26 March 1027| 4 June 1039Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor>Otto I| 100px|) Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry III, the Black(1017–1056) | 25 December 1046| 5 October 1056Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor>Conrad II| 100px|)Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry IV(1050–1116) | 5 October 1056 | 7 August 1106Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry III| 100px)Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry VHTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/?ID=RY6VMGUAACKC&PG=PA131&LPG=PA131&DQ=SUPPLINBURG+DYNASTY>TITLE=THE ORIGINS OF MODERN GERMANYLAST=BARRACLOUGHYEAR=1984, 978-0-393-30153-3, (1086–1125) | 13 April 1111 | 23 May 1125Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry IV|

Supplinburg dynasty{| class"wikitable" style"width:95%; text-align:center;"

! width=8% | Portrait! width=10% | Name! colspan=2 width=20% | Reign! width=25% | Relationship with predecessor(s)! width=10% | Other title(s)100px)Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor>Lothair II{{NoteTag|Enumerated also Lothair III as successor of Lothair II, who was King of Lotharingia 855–869 but not Emperor}}(1075–1137) | 4 June 1133| 4 December 1137Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor>Otto I|

Staufen dynasty

{| class="wikitable" style="width:95%; text-align:center;"! Portrait! Name! colspan=2 | Reign! Relationship with predecessor(s)! Other title(s)100px)Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor>Frederick I Barbarossa(1122–1190) | 8 June 1155| 10 June 1190Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry IV| 100px)Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry VI(1165–1197) | 14 April 1191 | 28 September 1197Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor>Frederick I|

Welf dynasty

{| class="wikitable" style="width:95%; text-align:center;"! Portrait! Name! colspan=2 | Reign! Relationship with predecessor(s)! Other title(s)100px)Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor>Otto IV(1175–1218) | 9 June 1198| 1215Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor>Lothair II|

Staufen dynasty{| class"wikitable" style"width:95%; text-align:center;"

! width=8% | Portrait! width=12% | Name! colspan=2 width=20% | Reign! width=18% | Relationship with predecessor(s)! width=10% | Other title(s)100px)Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor>Frederick II, Stupor Mundi (1194–1250) | 22 November 1220| 13 December 1250Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry VI| The interregnum of the Holy Roman Empire is taken to have lasted from the deposition of Frederick II by Pope Innocent IV (1245, alternatively from the death of Frederick 1250 or the death of Conrad IV 1254) to the election of Rudolf I of Germany (1273).Rudolf was not crowned emperor, nor were his successors Adolf and Albert. The next emperor was Henry VII, crowned on 29 June 1312 by Pope Clement V.

House of Luxembourg

{{see|Interregnum (Holy Roman Empire)}}{| class="wikitable" style="width:95%; text-align:center;"! width=8% | Portrait! width=8% | Coat of arms! width=12% | Name! colspan=2 width=20% | Reign! width=15% | Relationship with predecessor(s)! width=15% | Other title(s)100px)henry7}}Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry VII(1274–1313) | 29 June 1312| 24 August 1313Charles the Bald>Charles II|

House of Wittelsbach

{| class="wikitable" style="width:95%; text-align:center;"! width=8% | Portrait! width=10% | Coat of arms! width=20% | Name! colspan=2 width=20% | Reign! width=10% | Relationship with predecessor(s)! width=10% | Other title(s)100px)louis4}}Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor>Louis IV, the Bavarian(1282–1347) | October 1314| 11 October 1347Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry IV and great-great-great-great-grandson of Lothair II|

House of Luxembourg

{| class="wikitable" style="width:95%; text-align:center;"! width=8% | Portrait! width=10% | Coat of arms! width=20% | Name! colspan=2 width=20% | Reign! width=10% | Relationship with predecessor(s)! width=10% | Other title(s)100px)charles4}}Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor>Charles IV(1316–1378) | 11 July 1346| 29 November 1378Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry VII| 100px)sigismund}}Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor>Sigismund(1368–1437) | 31 May 1433| 9 December 1437Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor>Charles IV|

House of Habsburg

In 1508, Pope Julius II allowed Maximilian I to use the title of Emperor without coronation in Rome, though the title was qualified as Electus Romanorum Imperator ("elected Emperor of the Romans"). Maximilian's successors adopted the same titulature, usually when they became the sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. Maximilian's first successor Charles V was the last to be crowned Emperor.{| class="wikitable" style="width:95%; text-align:center;"! width=8% | Portrait! width=10% | Coat of arms! width=20% | Name! colspan=2 width=20% | Reign! width=10% | Relationship with predecessor(s)! width=10% | Other title(s)100px)100px) Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor>Frederick III, the Peaceful(1415–1493) | 2 February 1440| 19 August 1493| second cousin of Albert II of Germany, Emperor designate.| 100px)100px) Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor>Maximilian I(1459–1519) | 19 August 1493| 12 January 1519Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor>Frederick III| 100px)100px) Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor>Charles V(1500–1558) | 28 June 1519 (crowned 1530)| 16 January 1556Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor>Maximilian I| 100px)100px) Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor>Ferdinand I(1503–1564) | 16 January 1556 (crowned 1558)| 25 July 1564Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor>Charles V| 100px)100px) Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor>Maximilian II(1527–1576) | 25 July 1564| 12 October 1576Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor>Ferdinand I| 100px)100px) Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor>Rudolph II{{NoteTagRudolf I of Germany>Rudolph I who was German King 1273–1291.}}(1552–1612) | 12 October 1576| 20 January 1612Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor>Maximilian II| 100px)100px) Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor>Matthias(1557–1619) | 13 June 1612| 20 March 1619Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor>Rudolf II| 100px)100px) Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor>Ferdinand II(1578–1637) | 28 August 1619 | 15 February 1637Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor>Matthias| 100px)100px) Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor>Ferdinand III(1608–1657) | 15 February 1637| 2 April 1657Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor>Ferdinand II| 100px)100px) Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor>Leopold I(1640–1705) | 18 July 1658| 5 May 1705Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor>Ferdinand III| 100px)100px) Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor>Joseph I(1678–1711) | 5 May 1705| 17 April 1711Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor>Leopold I| 100px)100px) Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor>Charles VI(1685–1740) | 12 October 1711| 20 October 1740Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor>Joseph Ibullets=onFull list>King of GermanyKing of Bohemia>King of HungaryKing of Croatia>Archduke of AustriaKing of Naples>King of SicilyKing of Sardinia>Duke of LuxemburgDuke of Teschen>Duke of Parma and Piacenza|Count of Flanders}}

House of Wittelsbach

{| class="wikitable" style="width:95%; text-align:center;"! width=8% | Portrait! width=10% | Coat of arms! width=20% | Name! colspan=2 width=20% | Reign! width=10% | Relationship with predecessor(s)! width=10% | Other title(s)100px)100px) Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor>Charles VII(1697–1745) | 12 February 1742| 20 January 1745Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor>Ferdinand II; Son-in-law of Joseph I|

House of Lorraine

{| class="wikitable" style="width:95%; text-align:center;"! width=8% | Portrait! width=10% | Coat of arms! width=20% | Name! colspan=2 width=20% | Reign! width=10% | Relationship with predecessor(s)! width=10% | Other title(s)100px)100px) Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor>Francis I(1708–1765) | 13 September 1745| 18 August 1765Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor>Ferdinand III; Son-in-law of Charles VI|

House of Habsburg-Lorraine{| class"wikitable" style"width:95%; text-align:center;"

! width=8% | Portrait! width=10% | Coat of arms! width=20% | Name! colspan=2 width=20% | Reign! width=10% | Relationship with predecessor(s)! width=10% | Other title(s)100px)100px) Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor>Joseph II(1741–1790) | 18 August 1765| 20 February 1790| Son of Empress Maria Theresa, de facto ruler of the empire, and Francis I.| 100px)100px) Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor>Leopold II(1747–1792) | 30 September 1790| 1 March 1792| Son of Empress Maria Theresa,de facto ruler of the empire, and Francis I. Brother of Joseph II.| 100px)100px) Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor>Francis II(1768–1835) | 5 July 1792| 6 August 1806Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor>Leopold II|

Coronation

{{See also|Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor|Papal appointment}}The Emperor was crowned in a special ceremony, traditionally performed by the Pope in Rome. Without that coronation, no king, despite exercising all powers, could call himself Emperor. In 1508, Pope Julius II allowed Maximilian I to use the title of Emperor without coronation in Rome, though the title was qualified as Electus Romanorum Imperator ("elected Emperor of the Romans"). Maximilian's successors adopted the same titulature, usually when they became the sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.” Wir Franz der Zweyte, von Gottes Gnaden erwählter römischer Kaiser {{Citation|last=Imperator Austriae|first=Fransiscus I|title=Allerhöchste Pragmatikal-Verordnung vom 11. August 1804|publisher= The HR Emperor|year=1804|page=1}} Maximilian's first successor Charles V was the last to be crowned Emperor.{|class="wikitable"! Emperor! Coronation date! Officiant! LocationCharlemagne>Charles I| 25 December 800| Pope Leo III| Rome, ItalyLouis the Pious>Louis I| 5 October 816| Pope Stephen IV| Reims, France| Lothair I| 5 April 823| Pope Paschal I| Rome, ItalyLouis II, Holy Roman Emperor>Louis II| 15 June 844| Pope Leo IV| Rome, ItalyCharles the Bald>Charles II| 29 December 875Pope John VIII| Rome, ItalyCharles the Fat>Charles III| 12 February 881| Rome, Italy| Guy III of Spoleto| 21 February 891| Pope Stephen V| Rome, Italy| Lambert II of Spoleto| 30 April 892Pope Formosus| Ravenna, Italy| Arnulf of Carinthia| 22 February 896| Rome, ItalyLouis the Blind>Louis III| 15 or 22 February 901| Pope Benedict IV| Rome, ItalyBerengar I of Italy>Berengar| December 915| Pope John X| Rome, ItalyOtto I, Holy Roman Emperor>Otto I| 2 February, 962| Pope John XII| Rome, ItalyOtto II, Holy Roman Emperor>Otto II| 25 December, 967| Pope John XIII| Rome, ItalyOtto III, Holy Roman Emperor>Otto III| 21 May, 996| Pope Gregory V| Monza, ItalyHenry II, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry II| 14 February 1014| Pope Benedict VIII| Rome, ItalyConrad II, Holy Roman Emperor>Conrad II| 26 March 1027| Pope John XIX| Rome, ItalyHenry III, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry III| 25 December 1046| Pope Clement II| Rome, ItalyHenry IV, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry IV| 31 March 1084| Antipope Clement III| Rome, ItalyHenry V, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry V| 13 April 1111| Pope Paschal II| Rome, ItalyLothair III, Holy Roman Emperor>Lothair III| 4 June 1133| Pope Innocent II| Rome, ItalyFrederick I, Holy Roman Emperor>Frederick I| 18 June 1155| Pope Adrian IV| Rome, ItalyHenry VI, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry VI| 14 April 1191| Pope Celestine III| Rome, ItalyOtto IV, Holy Roman Emperor>Otto IV| 4 October 1209| Pope Innocent III| Rome, ItalyFrederick II, Holy Roman Emperor>Frederick II| 22 November 1220| Pope Honorius III| Rome, ItalyHenry VII, Holy Roman Emperor>Henry VII| 29 June 1312Guelphs and Ghibellines>Ghibellines cardinals| Rome, ItalyLouis IV, Holy Roman Emperor>Louis IV| 17 January 1328| Senator Sciarra Colonna| Rome, ItalyCharles IV, Holy Roman Emperor>Charles IV| 5 April 1355| Pope Innocent VI's cardinal| Rome, ItalySigismund, Holy Roman Emperor>Sigismund| 31 May 1433| Pope Eugenius IV| Rome, ItalyFrederick III, Holy Roman Emperor>Frederick III| 19 March 1452| Pope Nicholas V| Rome, ItalyCharles V, Holy Roman Emperor>Charles V| 24 February 1530| Pope Clement VII| Bologna, Italy

See also

{{Wikipedia books|Holy Roman Emperors}}

Notes

{{NoteFoot}}

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

  • {{Commons-inline|Holy Roman Emperors}}
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