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Hiroshima
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factoids
0.1em}}}}|official_name = City of HiroshimaThe City of Hiroshima official web site {{En icon}}Cities designated by government ordinance of Japan>Designated city|image_skyline = Hiroshima montage2.jpg|imagesize =|image_alt =Hiroshima Castle, baseball game of Hiroshima Toyo Carp in Mazda Zoom-Zoom Stadium Hiroshima>Hiroshima Municipal Baseball Stadium, Hiroshima Peace Memorial (Genbaku Dome), night view of Ebisu-cho, Shukkei-en (Asano Park)|image_flag = Flag of Hiroshima City.svg|flag_alt =|image_seal = Emblem of Hiroshima, Hiroshima.svg|seal_alt =|image_shield =|shield_alt =|image_blank_emblem =|nickname =|motto =frame=yestype=shapestroke-color=#000000|zoom=9}}|image_map1 = Hiroshima in Hiroshima Prefecture Ja.svg|map_alt1 =|map_caption1 = Location of Hiroshima in Hiroshima Prefecture|image_dot_map =|dot_mapsize =|dot_map_base_alt =|dot_map_alt =|dot_map_caption =dot_y =|pushpin_map = Japan#Asia#Earth|pushpin_label_position = |pushpin_map_alt =|pushpin_map_caption =  34N27region:JP-34|display=it}}|coor_pinpoint = |coordinates_footnotes = | subdivision_type = Country|subdivision_name = JapanList of regions of Japan>RegionChÅ«goku region>ChÅ«goku (San'yō)Prefectures of Japan>Prefecture|subdivision_name2 = Hiroshima Prefecture|subdivision_type3 =|subdivision_name3 =|established_title = |established_date =|founder =|named_for =|seat_type = |seat =|government_footnotes = |leader_party =|leader_title = Mayor|leader_name = Kazumi Matsui|leader_title1 =|leader_name1 = |total_type = |unit_pref = |area_magnitude = |area_footnotes = |area_total_km2 = 906.68|area_total_sq_mi = |area_land_km2 =|area_land_sq_mi =|area_water_km2 =|area_water_sq_mi =|area_water_percent =|area_note =|elevation_footnotes = |elevation_m =|elevation_ft =|population_footnotes = |population_total = 1199391|population_as_of = June 1, 2019|population_density_km2 = auto|population_density_sq_mi=|population_est =|pop_est_as_of =|population_demonym = |population_note =PUBLISHER=CENTER FOR SPATIAL INFORMATION SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF TOKYO, January 26, 2019, (2015)List of metropolitan areas in Japan by population>10th)|timezone1 = Japan Standard Time|utc_offset1 = +9|postal_code_type =|postal_code =|area_code_type = |area_code =|blank_name_sec1 = City Symbols|blank1_name_sec1 = TreeCinnamomum camphora>Camphor Laurel|blank2_name_sec1 = FlowerNerium>Oleander|blank3_name_sec1 =|blank3_info_sec1 =|blank4_name_sec1 =|blank4_info_sec1 =|blank5_name_sec1 =|blank5_info_sec1 =|blank6_name_sec1 =|blank6_info_sec1 =|blank7_name_sec1 =|blank7_info_sec1 =|blank_name_sec2 = Phone number|blank_info_sec2 = 082-245-2111|blank1_name_sec2 = Address|blank1_info_sec2 = 1-6-34 Kokutaiji,Naka-ku, Hiroshima-shi 730-8586weblink}}|footnotes =}}







factoids
File:Hiroshima Metropolitan Employment Area.svg|thumb|Hiroshima Urban Employment AreaUrban Employment Area{{nihongo|Hiroshima |広島市|Hiroshima-shi|extra={{IPAc-en|ËŒ|h|ɪr|oÊŠ|ˈ|ʃ|iː|m|É™}}, also {{IPAc-en|UK|h|ɪ|ˈ|r|É’|ʃ|ɪ|m|É™}},LPD, 3, {{IPAc-en|US|h|ɪ|ˈ|r|oÊŠ|ʃ|ɪ|m|É™}}, {{IPA-ja|çiɾoÉ•ima|lang}}}} is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture in Japan. {{As of|2019|6|1|df=US}}, the city had an estimated population of 1,199,391. The gross domestic product (GDP) in Greater Hiroshima, Hiroshima Urban Employment Area, was US$61.3 billion as of 2010.WEB,weblink Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data, Yoshitsugu Kanemoto, Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo, Conversion rates – Exchange rates – OECD Data Kazumi Matsui has been the city's mayor since April 2011.Hiroshima was founded in 1589 as a castle town on the ÅŒta River delta. Following the Meiji Restoration in 1868, Hiroshima rapidly transformed into a major urban center and industrial hub. In 1889, Hiroshima officially gained city status. The city was a center of military activities during the imperial era, playing significant roles such as the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War, and the two world wars.Towards the end of World War II, Hiroshima is best remembered as the first city targeted by a nuclear weapon, when the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped an atomic bomb on the city at 8:15 a.m. on August 6, 1945.BOOK, Hakim, Joy, Joy Hakim, A History of US: Book 9: War, Peace, and All that Jazz, Oxford University Press, 5 January 1995, New York City, New York, 978-0195095142, A History of US, Most of the city was destroyed, and by the end of the year 90,000–166,000 had died as a result of the blast and its effects. The Hiroshima Peace Memorial (a UNESCO World Heritage Site) serves as a memorial of the bombing.Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war. It has since become the largest city in the ChÅ«goku region of western Honshu, the largest island of Japan.

History

{{see also|Timeline of Hiroshima}}

Sengoku and Edo periods (1589–1871)

File:Hiroshima Castle.jpg|thumb|Hiroshima CastleHiroshima CastleHiroshima was established on the delta coastline of the Seto Inland Sea in 1589 by powerful warlord Mōri Terumoto.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080130190042weblink">weblink 2008-01-30, The Origin of Hiroshima, Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation, 2007-08-17, WEB,weblink Hiroshima: History, City, Event, Scott O'Bryan, 2009, About Japan: A Teacher's Resource, 2010-03-14, Hiroshima Castle was quickly built, and in 1593 Mōri moved in. Terumoto was on the losing side at the Battle of Sekigahara. The winner of the battle, Tokugawa Ieyasu, deprived Mōri Terumoto of most of his fiefs, including Hiroshima and gave Aki Province to Masanori Fukushima, a daimyō who had supported Tokugawa.BOOK, Kosaikai, Yoshiteru, Hiroshima Peace Reader, Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation, 2007, History of Hiroshima, From 1619 until 1871, Hiroshima was ruled by the Asano clan.

Imperial period (1871–1939)

(File:Hiroshima map circa 1930.PNG|thumb|Map of Hiroshima City in the 1930s (Japanese edition))After the Han was abolished in 1871, the city became the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture. Hiroshima became a major urban center during the imperial period, as the Japanese economy shifted from primarily rural to urban industries. During the 1870s, one of the seven government-sponsored English language schools was established in Hiroshima.Bingham (US Legation in Tokyo) to Fish (US Department of State), September 20, 1876, in Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, transmitted to congress, with the annual message of the president, December 4, 1876, p. 384 Ujina Harbor was constructed through the efforts of Hiroshima Governor Sadaaki Senda in the 1880s, allowing Hiroshima to become an important port city.The San'yō Railway was extended to Hiroshima in 1894, and a rail line from the main station to the harbor was constructed for military transportation during the First Sino-Japanese War. During that war, the Japanese government moved temporarily to Hiroshima, and Emperor Meiji maintained his headquarters at Hiroshima Castle from September 15, 1894, to April 27, 1895.Kosakai, Hiroshima Peace Reader The significance of Hiroshima for the Japanese government can be discerned from the fact that the first round of talks between Chinese and Japanese representatives to end the Sino-Japanese War was held in Hiroshima, from February 1 to February 4, 1895.Dun (US Legation in Tokyo) to Gresham, February 4, 1895, in Foreign relations of United States, 1894, Appendix I, p. 97 New industrial plants, including cotton mills, were established in Hiroshima in the late 19th century.BOOK, The Origin of Modern Capitalism and Eastern Asia, Jacobs, Norman, Hong Kong University, 1958, 51, Further industrialization in Hiroshima was stimulated during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, which required development and production of military supplies. The Hiroshima Prefectural Commercial Exhibition Hall was constructed in 1915 as a center for trade and exhibition of new products. Later, its name was changed to Hiroshima Prefectural Product Exhibition Hall, and again to Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall.BOOK, Sanko, Hiroshima Peace Memorial (Genbaku Dome), 1998, The City of Hiroshima and the Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation, During World War I, Hiroshima became a focal point of military activity, as the Japanese government entered the war on the Allied side. About 500 German prisoners of war were held in Ninoshima Island in Hiroshima Bay.weblink The growth of Hiroshima as a city continued after the First World War, as the city now attracted the attention of the Catholic Church, and on May 4, 1923, an Apostolic Vicar was appointed for that city.{{Catholic-hierarchy|diocese|dhiro|Diocese of Hiroshima|21 January 2015}}

World War II and the atomic bombing (1939–1945)

During World War II, the Second General Army and ChÅ«goku Regional Army were headquartered in Hiroshima, and the Army Marine Headquarters was located at Ujina port. The city also had large depots of military supplies, and was a key center for shipping.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041011111052weblink">weblink 2004-10-11, U. S. Strategic Bombing Survey: The Effects of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, June 1946, United States Strategic Bombing Survey, nuclearfiles.org, 2009-07-26, The bombing of Tokyo and other cities in Japan during World War II caused widespread destruction and hundreds of thousands of civilian deaths.BOOK, Bombing to Win: Airpower and Coercion in War, Pape, Robert, 1996, Cornell University Press, 978-0-8014-8311-0, 129, There were no such air raids on Hiroshima. However, a real threat existed and was recognized. In order to protect against potential firebombings in Hiroshima, school children aged 11–14 years were mobilized to demolish houses and create firebreaks.WEB,weblink Japan in the Modern Age and Hiroshima as a Military City, The Chugoku Shimbun, 2007-08-19, On Monday, August 6, 1945, at 8:15 a.m., the nuclear weapon "Little Boy" was dropped on Hiroshima from an American Boeing B-29 Superfortress, the Enola Gay, flown by Colonel Paul Tibbets,The Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160303233319weblink |date=2016-03-03 }}, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of History and Heritage Resources. directly killing at least 70,000 people, including thousands of Korean slave laborers. Fewer than 10% of the casualties were military.JOURNAL, Barton, Bernstein, Reconsidering the ‘Atomic General’: Leslie R. Groves, Journal of Military History, 67, 3, July 2003, 904-905,weblink By the end of the year, injury and radiation brought the total number of deaths to 90,000–166,000.WEB,weblink Frequently Asked Questions – Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Rerf.or.jp, 2011-07-29,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070919143939weblink">weblink 2007-09-19, dead, The population before the bombing was around 345,000. About 70% of the city's buildings were destroyed, and another 7% severely damaged.The public release of film footage of the city following the attack, and some of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission research the human effects of the attack, were restricted during the occupation of Japan, and much of this information was censored until the signing of the Treaty of San Francisco in 1951, restoring control to the Japanese.Ishikawa and Swain (1981), p. 5As Ian Buruma observed, "News of the terrible consequences of the atom bomb attacks on Japan was deliberately withheld from the Japanese public by US military censors during the Allied occupation—even as they sought to teach the natives the virtues of a free press. Casualty statistics were suppressed. Film shot by Japanese cameramen in Hiroshima and Nagasaki after the bombings was confiscated. "Hiroshima", the account written by John Hersey for The New Yorker, had a huge impact in the US, but was banned in Japan. As [John] Dower says: 'In the localities themselves, suffering was compounded not merely by the unprecedented nature of the catastrophe ... but also by the fact that public struggle with this traumatic experience was not permitted."JOURNAL, Seldon, Mark, December 2016, American Fire Bombing and Atomic Bombing of Japan in History and Memory,weblink The Asia-Pacific Journal, 14, Japan Focus, The US occupation authorities maintained a monopoly on scientific and medical information about the effects of the atomic bomb through the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, which treated the data gathered in studies of hibakusha as privileged information rather than making the results available for the treatment of victims or providing financial or medical support to aid victims.{{Citation needed|date=August 2018}}The book Hiroshima by John Hersey was originally published in article form in the magazine The New Yorker, on 31 August 1946. It is reported to have reached Tokyo, in English, at least by January 1947 and the translated version was released in Japan in 1949weblink The pure horror of Hiroshima, published in The Japan Times by Donald Richie. Despite the fact that the article was planned to be published over four issues, "Hiroshima" made up the entire contents of one issue of the magazine.Sharp, "From Yellow Peril to Japanese Wasteland: John Hersey's 'Hiroshima'", Twentieth Century Literature 46 (2000): 434–452, accessed March 15, 2012.Jon Michaub, "Eighty-Five From the Archive: John Hersey" The New Yorker, June 8, 2010, np. Hiroshima narrates the stories of six bomb survivors immediately prior to and four months after the dropping of the Little Boy bomb.Roger Angell, From the Archives, "Hersey and History", The New Yorker, July 31, 1995, p. 66.John Hersey, Hiroshima (New York: Random House, 1989).Oleander (Nerium) is the official flower of the city of Hiroshima because it was the first to bloom again after the explosion of the atomic bomb in 1945.WEB,weblink ja:広島市 市の木・市の花, 2012-07-15, File:AtomicEffects-Hiroshima.jpg|Hiroshima after the bombingFile:Hiroshima aftermath.jpg|Hiroshima after the bombing

Postwar period (1945–present)

On September 17, 1945, Hiroshima was struck by the Makurazaki Typhoon (Typhoon Ida). Hiroshima Prefecture suffered more than 3,000 deaths and injuries, about half the national total.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20120710150554weblink">weblink dead, 2012-07-10, ja:Excite エキサイト, More than half the bridges in the city were destroyed, along with heavy damage to roads and railroads, further devastating the city.Ishikawa and also Swain (1981), p. 6Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with help from the national government through the Hiroshima Peace Memorial City Construction Law passed in 1949. It provided financial assistance for reconstruction, along with land donated that was previously owned by the national government and used by the Imperial military.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080206124545weblink">weblink 2008-02-06, Peace Memorial City, Hiroshima, Hiroshima Peace Culture Foundation, 2007-08-14, File:Hiroshima Peace Memorial.jpg|thumb|Atomic Bomb Dome by Jan LetzelJan LetzelIn 1949, a design was selected for the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall, the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation, was designated the Genbaku Dome (原爆ドーム) or "Atomic Dome", a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. The Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum was opened in 1955 in the Peace Park.WEB,weblink Fifty Years for the Peace Memorial Museum, Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, 2007-08-17, Hiroshima also contains a Peace Pagoda, built in 1966 by Nipponzan-Myōhōji. Uniquely, the pagoda is made of steel, rather than the usual stone.WEB,weblink Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, Japan Deluxe Tours, 2017-05-23, Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament in 1949, at the initiative of its mayor, Shinzo Hamai (1905–1968). As a result, the city of Hiroshima received more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate interpretation for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of all nuclear weapons and the Mayor of Hiroshima is the president of Mayors for Peace, an international mayoral organization mobilizing cities and citizens worldwide to abolish and eliminate nuclear weapons by the year 2020.WEB,weblink Surviving the Atomic Attack on Hiroshima, 1944, Eyewitnesstohistory.com, 1945-08-06, 2009-07-17, WEB,weblink Library: Media Gallery: Video Files: Rare film documents devastation at Hiroshima, Nuclear Files, 2009-07-17, On May 27, 2016, Barack Obama became the first sitting United States president to visit Hiroshima since the atomic bombing.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080206124545weblink">weblink 2008-02-06, President Obama Visits Hiroshima, The New York Times, 2016-05-31, dead, ScheduleHiroshima is situated on the Ōta River delta, on Hiroshima Bay, facing the Seto Inland Sea on its south side. The river's six channels divide Hiroshima into several islets.

Geography

Climate

Hiroshima has a humid subtropical climate characterized by cool to mild winters and hot humid summers. Like much of the rest of Japan, Hiroshima experiences a seasonal temperature lag in summer; with August rather than July being the warmest month of the year. Precipitation occurs year-round, although winter is the driest season. Rainfall peaks in June and July, with August experiencing sunnier and drier conditions.{{Weather box|location = Hiroshima, Hiroshima (1981–2010)|metric first = yes|single line = yes|Jan record high C = 18.8|Feb record high C = 21.5|Mar record high C = 23.7|Apr record high C = 29.0|May record high C = 31.5|Jun record high C = 34.4|Jul record high C = 38.7|Aug record high C = 37.9|Sep record high C = 36.9|Oct record high C = 31.2|Nov record high C = 26.3|Dec record high C = 22.3|year record high C = 38.7|Jan high C = 9.7|Feb high C = 10.6|Mar high C = 14.0|Apr high C = 19.7|May high C = 24.1|Jun high C = 27.2|Jul high C = 30.8|Aug high C = 32.5|Sep high C = 29.0|Oct high C = 23.4|Nov high C = 17.4|Dec high C = 12.3|year high C = 20.9|Jan mean C = 5.2|Feb mean C = 6.0|Mar mean C = 9.1|Apr mean C = 14.7|May mean C = 19.3|Jun mean C = 23.0|Jul mean C = 27.1|Aug mean C = 28.2|Sep mean C = 24.4|Oct mean C = 18.3|Nov mean C = 12.5|Dec mean C = 7.5|year mean C = 16.3|Jan low C = 1.7|Feb low C = 2.1|Mar low C = 4.8|Apr low C = 9.9|May low C = 14.7|Jun low C = 19.4|Jul low C = 23.8|Aug low C = 24.8|Sep low C = 20.8|Oct low C = 14.2|Nov low C = 8.5|Dec low C = 3.7|year low C = 12.4|Jan record low C = -8.5|Feb record low C = -8.3|Mar record low C = -7.2|Apr record low C = -1.4|May record low C = 1.8|Jun record low C = 6.6|Jul record low C = 14.1|Aug record low C = 13.7|Sep record low C = 8.6|Oct record low C = 1.5|Nov record low C = -2.6|Dec record low C = -8.6|year record low C = -8.6|precipitation colour=green|Jan precipitation mm = 44.6|Feb precipitation mm = 66.6|Mar precipitation mm = 123.9|Apr precipitation mm = 141.7|May precipitation mm = 177.6|Jun precipitation mm = 247.0|Jul precipitation mm = 258.6|Aug precipitation mm = 110.8|Sep precipitation mm = 169.5|Oct precipitation mm = 87.9|Nov precipitation mm = 68.2|Dec precipitation mm = 41.2|year precipitation mm = 1537.6|Jan snow cm = 5|Feb snow cm = 4|Mar snow cm = 1|Apr snow cm = 0|May snow cm = 0|Jun snow cm = 0|Jul snow cm = 0|Aug snow cm = 0|Sep snow cm = 0|Oct snow cm = 0|Nov snow cm = 0|Dec snow cm = 3|year snow cm = 12|Jan humidity = 68|Feb humidity = 67|Mar humidity = 64|Apr humidity = 63|May humidity = 66|Jun humidity = 72|Jul humidity = 74|Aug humidity = 71|Sep humidity = 70|Oct humidity = 68|Nov humidity = 69|Dec humidity = 69|year humidity = 68|Jan snow days = 8.7|Feb snow days = 7.1|Mar snow days = 2.6|Apr snow days = 0.0|May snow days = 0.0|Jun snow days = 0.0|Jul snow days = 0.0|Aug snow days = 0.0|Sep snow days = 0.0|Oct snow days = 0.0|Nov snow days = 0.2|Dec snow days = 4.5|Jan sun = 137.2|Feb sun = 139.7|Mar sun = 169.0|Apr sun = 190.1|May sun = 206.2|Jun sun = 161.4|Jul sun = 179.5|Aug sun = 211.2|Sep sun = 165.3|Oct sun = 181.8|Nov sun = 151.6|Dec sun = 149.4|year sun = 2042.3|source 1 = HTTP://WWW.DATA.JMA.GO.JP/OBD/STATS/ETRN/VIEW/NML_SFC_YM.PHP?PREC_NO=67&BLOCK_NO=47765&YEAR=&MONTH=&DAY=&VIEW= >SCRIPT-TITLE=JA:気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値), Japan Meteorological Agency, }}

Wards

Hiroshima has eight wards (ku):{| class="wikitable"!Ward!Japanese!Population!Area (km²)!Density(per km²)!MapAki-ku, Hiroshima>Aki-ku(Aki ward)|安芸区80,70294.08857(File:Hiroshima wards.png|300px)Asakita-ku, Hiroshima>Asakita-ku(Asa-North ward)|安佐北区148,426353.33420Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima>Asaminami-ku(Asa-south ward)|安佐南区241,007117.242,055Higashi-ku, Hiroshima>Higashi-ku(East ward)|東区121,01239.423,069Minami-ku, Hiroshima>Minami-ku(South ward)|南区141,21926.305,369Naka-ku, Hiroshima>Naka-ku(Central ward)*administrative center|中区130,87915.328,543Nishi-ku, Hiroshima>Nishi-ku(West ward)|西区189,79435.615,329Saeki-ku, Hiroshima>Saeki-ku(Saeki ward)|佐伯区137,838225.22612Population as of March 31, 2016

Places of interest

Hiroshima has many interesting places to visit. A popular destination outside the city is Itsukushima Island, also known as Miyajima, which is a sacred island with many temples and shrines. But inside Hiroshima there are many popular destinations as well, and according to online guidebooks, these are the most popular tourist destinations in Hiroshima:WEB,weblink Hiroshima – Most famous Sights {{!, Planetyze|website=Planetyze|language=en|access-date=2017-07-27}}
  1. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum
  2. The Atomic Bomb Dome
  3. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park
  4. Mazda Zoom-Zoom Stadium Hiroshima
  5. Hiroshima Castle
  6. Shukkei-en
  7. Mitaki-dera Temple
  8. Hiroshima Gogoku Shrine
  9. Kamiyacho and Hatchobori (A major center in Hiroshima which is a shopping area. It is directly connected to the Hiroshima Bus Center )
  10. Senko-ji Temple (Senko-ji Park)
Other popular places in the city include the Namiki-dōri shopping area.

Demographics

(File:Rijo Street.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Down town of Hiroshima City)File:Hiroshima-Hondori Shopping Street at dusk 2.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|HondōriHondōri(File:Hiroshima Zero Gate2 20160911.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|Hiroshima Zero Gate)In 2017, the city has an estimated population of 1,195,327. The total area of the city is {{convert|905.08|km²|2|abbr=out}}, with a population density of 1321 persons per km².WEB,weblink ja:広島市勢要覧, Government of Hiroshima City, The population around 1910 was 143,000.BOOK, Terry's Japanese Empire, Terry, Thomas Philip, Houghton Mifflin Co, 1914, 640, Before World War II, Hiroshima's population had grown to 360,000, and peaked at 419,182 in 1942.WEB,weblink 2006 Statistical Profile, The City of Hiroshima,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080206110108weblink">weblink 2008-02-06, 2007-08-14, Following the atomic bombing in 1945, the population dropped to 137,197. By 1955, the city's population had returned to pre-war levels.BOOK, Post-conflict Reconstruction in Japan, Republic of Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, East Timor, de Rham-Azimi, Nassrine, Matt, Fuller, Hiroko, Nakayama, United Nations Publications, 2003, 69,

Events

(File:Hiroshima FF 2011.JPG|thumb|Hiroshima Flower Festival 2011)

Culture

File:Rainbow bridge in Shukkei-en Hiroshima.jpg|thumb|Shukkei-enShukkei-enHiroshima has a professional symphony orchestra, which has performed at Wel City Hiroshima since 1963.WEB,weblink Wel City Hiroshima, Wel-hknk.com, 2011-06-13, There are also many museums in Hiroshima, including the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, along with several art museums. The Hiroshima Museum of Art, which has a large collection of French renaissance art, opened in 1978. The Hiroshima Prefectural Art Museum opened in 1968, and is located near Shukkei-en gardens. The Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art, which opened in 1989, is located near Hijiyama Park. Festivals include Hiroshima Flower Festival and Hiroshima International Animation Festival.Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, which includes the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, draws many visitors from around the world, especially for the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony, an annual commemoration held on the date of the atomic bombing. The park also contains a large collection of monuments, including the Children's Peace Monument, the Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims and many others.Hiroshima's rebuilt castle (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi Castle) houses a museum of life in the Edo period. Hiroshima Gokoku Shrine is within the walls of the castle. Other attractions in Hiroshima include Shukkei-en, Fudōin, Mitaki-dera, and Hijiyama Park.

Cuisine

File:Okonomiyaki 2.jpg|thumb|left|upright|A man making an okonomiyakiokonomiyakiHiroshima is known for okonomiyaki, a savory (umami) pancake cooked on an iron plate, usually in front of the customer. It is cooked with various ingredients, which are layered rather than mixed together as done with the Osaka version of okonomiyaki. The layers are typically egg, cabbage, bean sprouts (moyashi), sliced pork/bacon with optional items (mayonnaise, fried squid, octopus, cheese, mochi, kimchi, etc.), and noodles (soba, udon) topped with another layer of egg and a generous dollop of okonomiyaki sauce (Carp and Otafuku are two popular brands). The amount of cabbage used is usually 3 to 4 times the amount used in the Osaka style. It starts out piled very high and is generally pushed down as the cabbage cooks. The order of the layers may vary slightly depending on the chef's style and preference, and ingredients will vary depending on the preference of the customer.

Sports

Hiroshima has several professional sports clubs. The city's main football club are Sanfrecce Hiroshima, who play at the Hiroshima Big Arch. As Toyo Kogyo Soccer Club, they won the Japan Soccer League five times between 1965 and 1970 and the Emperor's Cup in 1965, 1967 and 1969. After adopting their current name in 1992, the club won the J.League in 2012 and 2013. The city's main women's football club is Angeviolet Hiroshima. Defunct clubs include Rijo Shukyu FC, who won the Emperor's Cup in 1924 and 1925, and Ẽfini Hiroshima SC.Hiroshima Toyo Carp are the city's major baseball club, and play at the Mazda Zoom-Zoom Stadium Hiroshima. Members of the Central League, the club won the Japan Series in 1979, 1980 and 1984. Other sports clubs include Hiroshima Dragonflies (basketball), Hiroshima Maple Reds (handball) and JT Thunders (volleyball).The Woodone Open Hiroshima was part of the Japan Golf Tour between 1973 and 2007. The city also hosted the 1994 Asian Games, using the Big Arch stadium, which is now used for the annual Mikio Oda Memorial International Amateur Athletic Game. The now-called Hiroshima Prefectural Sports Center was one of the host arenas of the 2006 FIBA World Championship (basketball).

Economy and infrastructure

Health care

Hospitals

  • Hiroshima City Hospital
  • Hiroshima City Asa Hospital
  • Hiroshima City Funairi Hospital
  • Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital
  • Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital & Atomic-bomb Survivors Hospital
  • Hiroshima University Hospital
  • Japan Post Hiroshima Hospital
  • JR Hiroshima Hospital

Media

The Chūgoku Shimbun is the local newspaper serving Hiroshima. It publishes both morning paper and evening editions. Television stations include Hiroshima Home Television, Hiroshima Telecasting, Shinhiroshima Telecasting, and the RCC Broadcasting. Radio stations include Hiroshima FM, Chugoku Communication Network, FM Fukuyama, FM Nanami, and Onomichi FM. Hiroshima is also served by NHK, Japan's public broadcaster, with television and radio broadcasting.

Transportation

Air

Hiroshima is served by Hiroshima Airport {{airport codes|HIJ|RJOA}}, located {{convert|50|km|mi}} east of the city, with regular flights to Tokyo, Sapporo, Sendai, Okinawa, and also to China, Taiwan, Singapore and South Korea.

Trains

Streetcars

(File:Hiroden 5006B 20150502.jpg|thumb|A Hiroshima tram, 2015)Hiroshima is notable, in Japan, for its light rail system, nicknamed Hiroden, and the "Moving Streetcar Museum." Streetcar service started in 1912,WEB,weblink ja:広島市交通科学館, Hiroshima City Transportation Museum, was interrupted by the atomic bomb, and was restored as soon as was practical. (Service between Koi/Nishi Hiroshima and Tenma-cho was started up three days after the bombing.WEB,weblink Peace Newspaper produced by Japanese teenagers: Peace Seeds:feature story, )Streetcars and light rail vehicles are still rolling down Hiroshima's streets, including streetcars 651 and 652, which survived the atomic blast and are among the older streetcars in the system. When Kyoto and Fukuoka discontinued their trolley systems, Hiroshima bought them up at discounted prices, and, by 2011, the city had 298 streetcars, more than any other city in Japan.

Automobiles

Hiroshima is served by Japan National Route 2, Japan National Route 54, Japan National Route 183, Japan National Route 261 Japan National Route 433, Japan National Route 487, Japan National Route 488, Hiroshima Prefectural Route 37 (Hiroshima-Miyoshi Route), Hiroshima Prefectural Route 70 (Hiroshima-Nakashima Route), Hiroshima Prefectural Route 84 (Higashi Kaita Hiroshima Route), Hiroshima Prefectural Route 164 (Hiroshima-Kaita Route), and Hiroshima Prefectural Route 264 (Nakayama-Onaga Route).

Tourism

The Japanese city and Perfecture of Hiroshima may have been devastated by the atomic bomb over 73 years ago, but today, this site of the destruction is one of the top tourist destinations in the entire country. Statistics released by the nation's tourist agency revealed that around 363,000 visitors went to the metropolis during 2012, with Americans making up the vast majority of that figure, followed by Australians and Chinese.WEB,weblink Hiroshima increasingly popular with tourists {{!, Inside Japan Tours|website=insidejapantours.com|access-date=2017-07-27}}

Education

(File:HiroshimaUniv SatakeMemorialHall.jpg|thumb|Satake Memorial Hall at Hiroshima University (in Higashihiroshima City))Hiroshima University was established in 1949, as part of a national restructuring of the education system. One national university was set up in each prefecture, including Hiroshima University, which combined eight existing institutions (Hiroshima University of Literature and Science, Hiroshima School of Secondary Education, Hiroshima School of Education, Hiroshima Women's School of Secondary Education, Hiroshima School of Education for Youth, Hiroshima Higher School, Hiroshima Higher Technical School, and Hiroshima Municipal Higher Technical School), with the Hiroshima Prefectural Medical College added in 1953. But, in 1972 the relocation of Hiroshima University was decided from urban areas of Hiroshima City to wider campus in Higashihiroshima City. By 1995 almost all campuses were relocated to Higashihiroshima. But, School of Medicine, School of Dentistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Graduate School in these fields in Kasumi Campus and Law School and Center for Research on Regional Economic System in Higashi-Senda Campus are still in Hiroshima City.WEB,weblink History of Hiroshima University, Hiroshima University, 2007-06-25, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070629051712weblink">weblink 2007-06-29,

International relations

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Japan}}

Twin towns and sister cities

Hiroshima has six overseas sister cities:WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110503070024weblink">weblink dead, 2011-05-03, Introduction to our Sister and Friendship Cities, City.hiroshima.jp, 2010-05-10,
  • {{flagdeco|US}} Honolulu, United States (1959)
  • {{flagdeco|RUS}} Volgograd, Russia (1972)WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081220234719weblink">weblink dead, 2008-12-20, Friendly relationship at Official website of Volgograd, Volgadmin.ru, 1994-12-01, 2011-06-13,
  • {{flagdeco|DEU}} Hanover, Germany (1983)WEB,weblink Twinnings of the City of Hannover, Presse- und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit der Landeshauptstadt Hannover, Hanover.de – Offizielles Portal der Landeshauptstadt und der Region Hannover, German, 2014-10-13,
  • {{flagdeco|PRC}} Chongqing, People's Republic of China (1986)
  • {{flagdeco|ROK}} Daegu, South Korea (1997)
  • {{flagdeco|CAN}} Montreal, Quebec, Canada (1998)
Within Japan, Hiroshima has a similar relationship with Nagasaki.

Notes

{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}

References

  • BOOK, Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombingsfirst1=Eisei
last2=Swain, Basic Books, 1981,
  • BOOK, Kowner, Rotem, Rotem Kowner, 2002, Hiroshima, M. Ember, C. Ember, Encyclopedia of Urban Cultures (Vol. II), 341–348, Grolier, 978-0717256983,weblink
,

Further reading

  • Pacific War Research Society, Japan's Longest Day (Kodansha, 2002, {{ISBN|4770028873}}), the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor.
  • Richard B. Frank, Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire Penguin, 2001 {{ISBN|0141001461}})
  • Robert Jungk, Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. ed. 1961. Gyanpedia.in PDF
  • Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, {{ISBN|067976285X}}
  • John Hersey, Hiroshima, {{ISBN|0679721037}}
  • Michihiko Hachiya, Hiroshima Diary: The Journal of a Japanese Physician, August 6 – September 30, 1945 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1955), since reprinted.
  • Masuji Ibuse, Black Rain, {{ISBN|087011364X}}
  • Tamiki Hara, Summer Flowers {{ISBN|069100837X}}
  • Robert Jay Lifton Death in life: The survivors of Hiroshima, Weidenfeld & Nicolson 1st edition (1968) {{ISBN|0297764667}}

External links

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