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Heraclitus
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{{short description|Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher}}{{Other people|Heracleitus}}







factoids
Ephesus, Ionia (satrapy)>Ionia, Persian Empire475 BC60|lk=no}})|death_place = |main_interests = Metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, politics, cosmology|influences = Anaximander, Pythagoras, Bias of Priene, Zoroaster, HomerParmenides, Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Stoicism, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel>Hegel, Friedrich Engels, Friedrich Nietzsche>Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger, Alfred North Whitehead>Whitehead, Oswald Spengler, Karl Popper>Popper, Terence McKenna, Walter Pater>Pater, D. H. LawrenceLogos, "everything flows"">#Panta rhei, "everything flows">"everything flows", fire is the arche, idios kosmos, unity of oppositesIonian School (philosophy)>Ionian}}Heraclitus of Ephesus ({{IPAc-en|ËŒ|h|É›r|É™|ˈ|k|l|aɪ|t|É™|s|}};BOOK, Collins English Dictionary, Patrick, Hanks, Patrick Hanks, Laurence, Urdang, Laurence Urdang,weblink Collins, London, Glasgow, 1979, 978-0-00-433078-5, ; {{circa|535|475 BC|lk=on}}) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus,EB1911, Heraclitus, 13, 309–310, then part of the Persian Empire. He was of distinguished parentage. Little is known about his early life and education, but he regarded himself as self-taught and a pioneer of wisdom. From the lonely life he led, and still more from the apparently riddled and allegedly paradoxicalWilliam Harris – Heraclitus: The Complete Philosophical Fragments nature of his philosophy and his stress upon the heedless unconsciousness of humankind,"The waking have one common world, but the sleeping turn aside each into a world of his own" (DK B89). he was called "The Obscure" and the "Weeping Philosopher".Heraclitus was famous for his insistence on ever-present change as being the fundamental essence of the universe, as stated in the famous saying, "No man ever steps in the same river twice"This is how Plato puts Heraclitus' doctrine. See Cratylus, 402a. (see panta rhei below). This is commonly considered to be a key contribution in the development of the philosophical concept of becoming, as contrasted with "being", and has sometimes been seen in a dialectical relationship with Parmenides' statement that "whatever is, is, and what is not cannot be", the latter being understood as a key contribution in the development of the philosophical concept of being. For this reason, Parmenides and Heraclitus are commonly considered to be two of the founders of ontology. Scholars have generally believed that either Parmenides was responding to Heraclitus, or Heraclitus to Parmenides, though opinion on who was responding to whom has varied over the course of the 20th and 21st centuries.BOOK,weblink Parmenides, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, John Palmer, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 2016, Heraclitus' position was complemented by his stark commitment to a unity of opposites in the world, stating that "the path up and down are one and the same". Through these doctrines Heraclitus characterized all existing entities by pairs of contrary properties, whereby no entity may ever occupy a single state at a single time. This, along with his cryptic utterance that "all entities come to be in accordance with this Logos" (literally, "word", "reason", or "account") has been the subject of numerous interpretations.

Life

File:Efez agora odeon prytaneion RB.jpg|right|250px|thumb|Ephesus on the coast of Asia MinorAsia MinorThe main source for the life of Heraclitus is Diogenes Laërtius, although some have questioned the validity of his account as "a tissue of Hellenistic anecdotes, most of them obviously fabricated on the basis of statements in the preserved fragments".BOOK, Kahn, Charles, The Art and Thought of Heraclitus: Fragments with Translation and Commentary, London, Cambridge University Press, 1979, 1–23, 978-0-521-28645-9, Diogenes said that Heraclitus flourished in the 69th Olympiad,Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 1 504–501 BC. All the rest of the evidence—the people Heraclitus is said to have known, or the people who were familiar with his work—confirms the floruit. His dates of birth and death are based on a life span of 60 years, the age at which Diogenes says he died,Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 3 with the floruit in the middle.Heraclitus was born to an aristocratic family {{circa|540 BC}} in Ephesus,BOOK, Historia de la Filosofía, Francisco, Ríos Pedraza, Fernando, Haya Segovia, 2009, 32, Oxford University Press, 978-84-673-5147-7,weblink in the Persian Empire, in what is now called present-day Efes, Turkey.{{sfn|Naddaf|2005|page=126}}{{sfn|Wiesehöfer|2003|pages=201–202}} His father was named either Blosôn or Herakôn. Diogenes says that he abdicated the kingship (basileia) in favor of his brotherDiogenes Laërtius, ix. 6 and Strabo confirms that there was a ruling family in Ephesus descended from the Ionian founder, Androclus, which still kept the title and could sit in the chief seat at the games, as well as a few other privileges.Strabo, Chapter 1, section 3. How much power the king had is another question. Ephesus had been part of the Persian Empire since 547 and was ruled by a satrap, a more distant figure, as the Great King allowed the Ionians considerable autonomy. Diogenes says that Heraclitus used to play knucklebones with the youths in the temple of Artemis and when asked to start making laws he refused saying that the constitution (politeia) was ponêra,Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 2 which can mean either that it was fundamentally wrong or that he considered it toilsome. Two extant letters between Heraclitus and Darius I, quoted by Diogenes, are undoubtedly later forgeries.G. S. Kirk (2010), Heraclitus: The Cosmic Fragments, Cambridge University Press, p. 1. {{ISBN|0521136679}}With regard to education, Diogenes says that Heraclitus was "wondrous" (thaumasios, which, as Socrates explains in Plato's Theaetetus and Gorgias, is the beginning of philosophy) from childhood. Diogenes relates that Sotion said he was a "hearer" of Xenophanes, which contradicts Heraclitus' statement (so says Diogenes) that he had taught himself by questioning himself. Burnet states in any case that "... Xenophanes left Ionia before Herakleitos was born."Chapter 3 beginning. Diogenes relates that as a boy Heraclitus had said he "knew nothing" but later claimed to "know everything".Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 5 His statement that he "heard no one" but "questioned himself", can be placed alongside his statement that "the things that can be seen, heard and learned are what I prize the most."DK B55.Diogenes relates that Heraclitus had a poor opinion of human affairs. He believed that Hesiod and Pythagoras lacked understanding though learnedDK B40. and that Homer and Archilochus deserved to be beaten.DK B42. Laws needed to be defended as though they were city walls.DK B44. Timon of Phlius is said to have called him a "mob-reviler". Heraclitus hated the Athenians and his fellow Ephesians, wishing the latter wealth in punishment for their wicked ways.DK B125a. According to Diogenes Laërtius: "Finally, he became a hater of his kind (misanthrope) and wandered the mountains [...] making his diet of grass and herbs."Heraclitus' life as a philosopher was interrupted by dropsy. The physicians he consulted were unable to prescribe a cure. Diogenes lists various stories about Heraclitus' death: In two versions, Heraclitus was cured of the dropsy and died of another disease. In one account, however, the philosopher "buried himself in a cowshed, expecting that the noxious damp humour would be drawn out of him by the warmth of the manure", while another says he treated himself with a liniment of cow manure and, after a day prone in the sun, died and was interred in the marketplace. According to Neathes of Cyzicus, after smearing himself with dung, Heraclitus was devoured by dogs.Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 4WEB, Fairweather, Janet,weblink Death of Heraclitus, 1973, 2, He died after 478 BC from a hydropsy.

Works

File:Raphael School of Athens Michelangelo.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Heraclitus (with the face and in the style of Michelangelo) sits apart from the other philosophers in Raphael's School of Athens.]]Diogenes states that Heraclitus' work was "a continuous treatise On Nature, but was divided into three discourses, one on the universe, another on politics, and a third on theology." Theophrastus says (in Diogenes) "...some parts of his work [are] half-finished, while other parts [made] a strange medley."Diogenes also tells us that Heraclitus deposited his book as a dedication in the great temple of Artemis, the Artemisium, one of the largest temples of the 6th century BC and one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Ancient temples were regularly used for storing treasures, and were open to private individuals under exceptional circumstances; furthermore, many subsequent philosophers in this period refer to the work. Says Kahn: "Down to the time of Plutarch and Clement, if not later, the little book of Heraclitus was available in its original form to any reader who chose to seek it out." Diogenes says: "the book acquired such fame that it produced partisans of his philosophy who were called Heracliteans."As with the other pre-Socratics, his writings survive now only in (:s:Fragments of Heraclitus|fragments) quoted by other authors. These are catalogued using the Diels–Kranz numbering system.

Ancient characterizations

"The Obscure"

At some time in antiquity he acquired this epithet denoting that his major sayings were difficult to understand. According to Diogenes Laërtius, Timon of Phlius called him "the Riddler" (; {{transl|grc|ainiktēs}}), and explained that Heraclitus wrote his book "rather unclearly" (asaphesteron) so that only the "capable" should attempt it. By the time of Cicero he had become "the dark" (; {{transl|grc|ho Skoteinós}})De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum, Chapter 2, Section 15. because he had spoken nimis obscurē, "too obscurely", concerning nature and had done so deliberately in order to be misunderstood. The customary English translation of follows the Latin, "the Obscure".

The "weeping philosopher"

missing image!
- Bust of Heraclitus, 'The Weeping Philosopher' LACMA M.83.4.jpg -
Bust of Heraclitus, "The Weeping Philosopher" by (:de:Johann Christoph Ludwig Lücke|Johann Christoph Ludwig Lücke) c. 1757
Diogenes Laërtius ascribes the theory that Heraclitus did not complete some of his works because of melancholia to Theophrastus. Later he was referred to as the "weeping philosopher", as opposed to Democritus, who is known as the "laughing philosopher".BOOK, Seneca, Lucius Annaeus, Seneca the younger, John M. Cooper, J.F. Procopé, Moral and Political Essays, 1995, Cambridge University Press, 50 note 17, 978-0-521-34818-8, If StobaeusIII.20.53 writes correctly, Sotion in the early 1st century AD was already combining the two in the imaginative duo of weeping and laughing philosophers: "Among the wise, instead of anger, Heraclitus was overtaken by tears, Democritus by laughter." The view is expressed by the satirist Juvenal:Satire X. Translation from BOOK, Juvenal, Juvenal, Sidney George Owen (trans.), Thirteen Satires of Juvenal, Methuen & Co, London, 1903, 61, {{blockquote|The first of prayers, best known at all the temples, is mostly for riches... Seeing this then do you not commend the one sage Democritus for laughing... and the master of the other school Heraclitus for his tears?}}The motif was also adopted by Lucian of Samosata in his "Sale of Creeds", in which the duo is sold together as a complementary product in the satirical auction of philosophers. Subsequently, they were considered an indispensable feature of philosophic landscapes. Montaigne proposed two archetypical views of human affairs based on them, selecting Democritus' for himself.BOOK, de Montaigne, Michel, Michel de Montaigne, Of Democritus and Heraclitus, The Essays, Project Gutenberg,weblink 2004-10-26, The weeping philosopher may have been mentioned in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice.Act I Scene II Line 43. Donato Bramante painted a fresco, "Democritus and Heraclitus," in Casa Panigarola in Milan.BOOK, Levenson, Jay, Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1991, 978-0-300-05167-4, 229,

Philosophy

Logos

"The idea that all things come to pass in accordance with this Logos"DK B1. and "the Logos is common,"DK B2. is expressed in two famous but obscure fragments:This Logos holds always but humans always prove unable to understand it, both before hearing it and when they have first heard it. For though all things come to be in accordance with this Logos, humans are like the inexperienced when they experience such words and deeds as I set out, distinguishing each in accordance with its nature and saying how it is. But other people fail to notice what they do when awake, just as they forget what they do while asleep. (DK 22B1)For this reason it is necessary to follow what is common. But although the Logos is common, most people live as if they had their own private understanding. (DK 22B2)The meaning of Logos also is subject to interpretation: "word", "account", "principle", "plan", "formula", "measure", "proportion", "reckoning."For the etymology see WEB, Calvert, Watkins, Appendix I: Indo-European Roots: leg-,weblink The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition, 2000, Though Heraclitus "quite deliberately plays on the various meanings of logos",K.F. Johansen, "Logos" in Donald Zeyl (ed.), Encyclopedia of Classical Philosophy, Greenwood Press 1997. there is no compelling reason to suppose that he used it in a special technical sense, significantly different from the way it was used in ordinary Greek of his time.pp. 419ff., W. K. C. Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy, vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, 1962.The later Stoics understood it as "the account which governs everything,"DK B72, from Marcus Aurelius, Meditations iv. 46 and Hippolytus, in the 3rd century AD, identified it as meaning the Christian Word of God.DK B2, DK B50, from Hippolytus, Refutation of all Heresies, ix. 9

{{anchor|Panta rhei}}Panta rhei, "everything flows"

{{see also|Becoming (philosophy)}}{{see also|Impermanence}} {{see also|Change (philosophy)}}File:Hendrik ter Brugghen - Heraclitus.jpg|right|250px|thumb|Heraclitus by Hendrick ter BrugghenHendrick ter BrugghenThe phrase (panta rhei) "everything flows"Beris, A.N. and A.J. Giacomin, ": Everything Flows", Cover Article, Applied Rheology, 24(5), 52918 (2014), pp. 1–13; Errata: In line 2 of each abstract, "" should be "". either was spoken by Heraclitus or survived as a quotation of his. This famous aphorism used to characterize Heraclitus' thought comes from Simplicius,Barnes (1982), p. 65, and also BOOK, Francis E., Peters, Greek Philosophical Terms: A Historical Lexicon, NYU Press, 1967, 978-0814765524, 178, Commentary on Aristotle's Physics, 1313.11. a neoplatonist, and from Plato's Cratylus. The word rhei (as in rheology) is the Greek word for "to stream", and is etymologically related to Rhea according to Plato's Cratylus.For the etymology see WEB, Calvert, Watkins, Appendix I: Indo-European Roots: sreu,weblink The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth, 2000, In pronunciation the -ei- is a diphthong sounding like the -ei- in reindeer. The initial r is aspirated or made breathy, which indicates the dropping of the s in *sreu-.The philosophy of Heraclitus is summed up in his cryptic utterance:DK22B12, quoted in Arius Didymus (wikt:apud|apud) Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica, 15.20.2 Potamoisi toisin autoisin embainousin, hetera kai hetera hudata epirrei"Ever-newer waters flow on those who step into the same rivers." The quote from Heraclitus appears in Plato's Cratylus twice; in 401d as:Cratylus Paragraph Crat. 401 section d line 5.Ta onta ienai te panta kai menein ouden"All entities move and nothing remains still"and in 402aCratylus Paragraph 402 section a line 8.Panta chōrei kai ouden menei kai dis es ton auton potamon ouk an embaies"Everything changes and nothing remains still ... and ... you cannot step twice into the same stream"This sentence has been translated by Seneca in Epistulae, VI, 58, 23.Instead of "flow" Plato uses chōrei, "to change place" (; {{transl|grc|chōros}}).The assertions of flow are coupled in many fragments with the enigmatic river image:DK B49a, Harris 110. Others like it are DK B12, Harris 20; DK B91, Harris 21."We both step and do not step in the same rivers. We are and are not."Compare with the Latin adages Omnia mutantur and Tempora mutantur (8 AD) and the Japanese tale Hōjōki, (1200 AD) which contains the same image of the changing river, and the central Buddhist doctrine of impermanence.However, the German classicist and philosopher (:de:Karl-Martin Dietz|Karl-Martin Dietz) interprets this fragment as an indication by Heraclitus, for the world as a steady constant: "You will not find anything, in which the river remains constant. [...] Just the fact, that there is a particular river bed, that there is a source and a estuary etc. is something, that stays identical. And this is [...] the concept of a river".BOOK, Heraklit von Ephesus und die Entwicklung der Individualität, Dietz, Karl-Martin, Verlag Freies Geistesleben, 2004, 978-3772512735, Stuttgart, 60,

Hodos ano kato, "the way up and the way down"

In DK B60 the structure anō katō is more accurately{{Original research inline|date=February 2013}} translated as a hyphenated word: "the upward-downward path". They go on simultaneously and instantaneously and result in "hidden harmony".DK B54. A way is a series of transformations: the , "turnings of fire",DK B31 first into sea, then half of sea to earth and half to rarefied air.The transformation is a replacement of one element by another: "The death of fire is the birth of air, and the death of air is the birth of water."DK B76.This world, which is the same for all, no one of gods or men has made. But it always was and will be: an ever-living fire, with measures of it kindling, and measures going out.DK B30. This latter phraseology is further elucidated:All things are an interchange for fire, and fire for all things, just like goods for gold and gold for goods.DK B90Heraclitus considered fire as the most fundamental element. He believed fire gave rise to the other elements and thus to all things. He regarded the soul as being a mixture of fire and water, with fire being the noble part of the soul, and water the ignoble part. A soul should therefore aim toward becoming more full of fire and less full of water: a "dry" soul was best. According to Heraclitus, worldly pleasures made the soul "moist", and he considered mastering one's worldly desires to be a noble pursuit which purified the soul's fire.Russell, Bertrand, History of Western Philosophy Norman Melchert interpreted Heraclitus as using "fire" metaphorically, in lieu of Logos, as the origin of all things.BOOK, Melchert, Norman, 2006, The Great Conversation, 5th, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-530682-8,

Dike eris, "strife is justice"

If objects are new from moment to moment so that one can never touch the same object twice, then each object must dissolve and be generated continually momentarily and an object is a harmony between a building up and a tearing down. Heraclitus calls the oppositional processes ({{transl|grc|eris}}), "strife", and hypothesizes that the apparently stable state, ({{transl|grc|dikê}}), or "justice", is a harmony of it:DK B80: "".We must know that war ( polemos) is common to all and strife is justice, and that all things come into being through strife necessarily.As Diogenes explains:Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 8All things come into being by conflict of opposites, and the sum of things ( ta hola, "the whole") flows like a stream.In the bow metaphor Heraclitus compares the resultant to a strung bow held in shape by an equilibrium of the string tension and spring action of the bow:DK B51.There is a harmony in the bending back ( palintropos) as in the case of the bow and the lyre.

Hepesthai to koino, "follow the common"

People must "follow the common" ( {{transl|grc|hepesthai tō koinō}})The initial part of DK B2, often omitted because broken by a note explaining that ksunos (Ionic) is koinos (Attic). and not live having "their own judgement (phronēsis)". He distinguishes between human laws and divine law ( {{transl|grc|toū theiou}} {{Literal translation|"of God"|lk=on}}).DK B114. By "God" Heraclitus does not mean the Judeo-Christian version of a single God as primum movens of all things, God as Creator, but the divine as opposed to human; the immortal as opposed to the mortal, the cyclical as opposed to the transient. It is more accurate to speak of "the Divine" and not of "God".He removes the human sense of justice from his concept of God; i.e., humanity is not the image of God: "To God all things are fair and good and just, but people hold some things wrong and some right."DK B102. God's custom has wisdom but human custom does not,DK B78. and yet both humans and God are childish (inexperienced): "human opinions are children's toys"DK B70. and "Eternity is a child moving counters in a game; the kingly power is a child's."DK B52.Wisdom is "to know the thought by which all things are steered through all things",DK B41. which must not imply that people are or can be wise. Only Zeus is wise.DK B32. To some degree then Heraclitus seems to be in the mystic's position of urging people to follow God's plan without much of an idea what that may be. In fact there is a note of despair: "The fairest universe ( {{transl|grc|kállistos kósmos}}) is but a heap of rubbish ( {{transl|grc|sárma}} {{Literal translation|"sweepings"}}) piled up ( {{transl|grc|kechuménon}}, i.e. "poured out") at random ( {{transl|grc|eikê}} "aimlessly")."DK B124.

Ethos anthropoi daimon, "Man's character is [his] fate"

This influential quote by Heraclitus "" (DK 22B119) has led to numerous interpretations. Whether in this context "daimon" can indeed be translated to mean "fate" is disputed; however, it lends much sense to Heraclitus' observations and conclusions about human nature in general. While the translation with "fate" is generally accepted as in Kahn's "a man's character is his divinity", in some cases, it may also stand for the soul of the departed.Thomas L. Cooksey (2010). Plato's 'Symposium': A Reader's Guide. p. 69. Continuum International Publishing Group (London & New York). {{ISBN|978-0-8264-4067-9}}

Influence

File:Bramante heracleitus and democritus.jpeg|thumb|250px|Crying Heraclitus and laughing Democritus, from a 1477 fresco by Donato BramanteDonato Bramante

Plato

To Heraclitus, a perceived object is a harmony between two fundamental units of change, a waxing and a waning. He typically uses the ordinary word "to become" (gignesthai or ginesthai, present tense or aorist tense of the verb, with the root sense of "being born"), which led to his being characterized as the philosopher of becoming rather than of being. He recognizes the fundamental changing of objects with the flow of time.Plato argues against Heraclitus as follows:Cratylus Paragraph 440 sections c-d.How can that be a real thing which is never in the same state? ... for at the moment that the observer approaches, then they become other ... so that you cannot get any further in knowing their nature or state .... but if that which knows and that which is known exist ever ... then I do not think they can resemble a process or flux ....In Plato one experienced unit is a state, or object existing, which can be observed. The time parameter is set at "ever"; that is, the state is to be presumed present between observations. Change is to be deduced by comparing observations and is thus presumed a function that happens to objects already in being, rather than something ontologically essential to them (such that something that does not change cannot exist) as in Heraclitus. In Plato, no matter how many of those experienced units you are able to tally, you cannot get through the mysterious gap between them to account for the change that must be occurring there. This limitation is considered a fundamental limitation of reality by Plato and in part underpins his differentiation between imperfect experience from more perfect Forms. The fact that this is no limitation for Heraclitus motivates Plato's condemnation.{{Citation needed|date=February 2016}}

Stoics

Stoicism was a philosophical school which flourished between the 3rd century BC and about the 3rd century AD. It began among the Greeks and became the major philosophy of the Roman Empire before declining with the rise of Christianity in the 3rd century.Throughout their long tenure the Stoics believed that the major tenets of their philosophy derived from the thought of Heraclitus.BOOK, A.A., Long, Stoic Studies, University of California Press, 2001, 978-0-520-22974-7, Chapter 2, true, According to Long, "the importance of Heraclitus to later Stoics is evident most plainly in Marcus Aurelius."Long (2001), p. 56. Explicit connections of the earliest Stoics to Heraclitus showing how they arrived at their interpretation are missing but they can be inferred from the Stoic fragments, which Long concludes are "modifications of Heraclitus."Long (2001), p. 51.The Stoics were interested in Heraclitus' treatment of fire. In addition to seeing it as the most fundamental of the four elements and the one that is quantified and determines the quantity (logos) of the other three, he presents fire as the cosmos, which was not made by any of the gods or men, but "was and is and ever shall be ever-living fire."DK B60. Fire is both a substance and a motivator of change, it is active in altering other things quantitatively and performing an activity Heraclitus describes as "the judging and convicting of all things."DK B66. It is "the thunderbolt that steers the course of all things."DK B64. There is no reason to interpret the judgement, which is actually "to separate" (κρίνειν krinein), as outside of the context of "strife is justice" (see subsection above).The earliest surviving Stoic work, the Hymn to Zeus of Cleanthes,Different translations of this critical piece of literature, transitional from pagan polytheism to the modern religions and philosophies, can be found at WEB, T.W., Rolleston, Stoic Philosophers: Cleanthes' Hymn to Zeus,weblink www.numinism.net, 2007-11-28,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090805153252weblink">weblink 2009-08-05, WEB, M.A.C., Ellery, Cleanthes' Hymn to Zeus,weblink Tom Sienkewicz atweblink 1976, 2007-11-28, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071224143142weblink">weblink 2007-12-24, WEB, not stated, Hymn to Zeus,weblink Holy, Holy, Holy at thriceholy.net: Hypatia's Bookshelf, though not explicitly referencing Heraclitus, adopts what appears to be the Heraclitean logos modified. Zeus rules the universe with law (nomos) wielding on its behalf the "forked servant", the "fire" of the "ever-living lightning." So far nothing has been said that differs from the Zeus of Homer. But then, says Cleanthes, Zeus uses the fire to "straighten out the common logos" that travels about (phoitan, "to frequent") mixing with the greater and lesser lights (heavenly bodies). This is Heraclitus' logos, but now it is confused with the "common nomos", which Zeus uses to "make the wrong (perissa, left or odd) right (artia, right or even)" and "order (kosmein) the disordered (akosma)."The ancient Greek can be found in BOOK, E.H., Blakeney, Edward Henry Blakeney, The Hymn of Cleanthes: Greek Text Translated into English: with Brief Introduction and Notes, New York, The MacMillan Company, Downloadable Google Books at weblink.The Stoic modification of Heraclitus' idea of the Logos was also influential on Jewish philosophers such as Philo of Alexandria, who connected it to "Wisdom personified" as God's creative principle. Philo uses the term Logos throughout his treatises on Hebrew Scripture in a manner clearly influenced by the Stoics.

Church Fathers

File:Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem 01.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Democriet (laughing) & Herakliet (crying) by Cornelis van HaarlemCornelis van HaarlemThe Church Fathers were the leaders of the early Christian Church during its first five centuries of existence, roughly contemporaneous to Stoicism under the Roman Empire. The works of dozens of writers in hundreds of pages have survived.All of them had something to say about the Christian form of the Logos. The Catholic Church found it necessary to distinguish between the Christian logos and that of Heraclitus as part of its ideological distancing from paganism. The necessity to convert by defeating paganism was of paramount importance. Hippolytus of Rome therefore identifies Heraclitus along with the other Pre-Socratics (and Academics) as sources of heresy. Church use of the methods and conclusions of ancient philosophy as such was as yet far in the future, even though many were converted philosophers.In Refutation of All HeresiesBook IX leading sentence. Hippolytus says: "What the blasphemous folly is of Noetus, and that he devoted himself to the tenets of Heraclitus the Obscure, not to those of Christ." Hippolytus then goes on to present the inscrutable DK B67: "God (theos) is day and night, winter and summer, ... but he takes various shapes, just as fire, when it is mingled with spices, is named according to the savor of each." The fragment seems to support pantheism if taken literally. German physicist and philosopher Max Bernard Weinstein classed these views with pandeism.Max Bernhard Weinsten, Welt- und Lebensanschauungen, Hervorgegangen aus Religion, Philosophie und Naturerkenntnis ("World and Life Views, Emerging From Religion, Philosophy and Nature") (1910), p. 233: "Dieser Pandeismus, der von Chrysippos (aus Soloi 280-208 v. Chr.) herrühren soll, ist schon eine Verbindung mit dem Emanismus; Gott ist die Welt, insofern als diese aus seiner Substanz durch Verdichtung und Abkühlung entstanden ist und entsteht, und er sich strahlengleich mit seiner Substanz durch sie noch verbreitet. Daß Gott als feurig gedacht wird (jedoch auch als Atem oder Äther) ist dem Menschen entnommen, dessen Wärme sein Lebensprinzip bedeutet; eine Idee, die sich schon bei den ersten griechischen Philosophen und namentlich bei Heraklit findet."Hippolytus condemns the obscurity of it. He cannot accuse Heraclitus of being a heretic so he says instead: "Did not (Heraclitus) the Obscure anticipate Noetus in framing a system ...?" The apparent pantheist deity of Heraclitus (if that is what DK B67 means) must be equal to the union of opposites and therefore must be corporeal and incorporeal, divine and not-divine, dead and alive, etc., and the Trinity can only be reached by some sort of illusory shape-shifting.WEB, Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, Book IX Chapter 5, New Advent,weblink 2007-12-01, The Christian apologist Justin Martyr, however, took a much more positive view of him. In his First Apology, he said both Socrates and Heraclitus were Christians before Christ: "those who lived reasonably are Christians, even though they have been thought atheists; as, among the Greeks, Socrates and Heraclitus, and men like them." WEB, Martyr, Justin, First Apology of Justin, Early Christian Writings,weblink

See also

The following articles on other topics contain non-trivial information that relates to Heraclitus in some way.{{col-begin}}{{col-2}} {{col-2}} {{col-end}}

Notes

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

Editions and translations

  • Botten, Mick. (2012). Herakleitos – Logos Made Manifest, Upfront Publishing. {{ISBN|978-1-78035-064-6}} All fragments, in Greek and English, with commentary and appendices
  • BOOK, Davenport, Guy (translator), Guy Davenport, Herakleitos and Diogenes, Bolinas, Grey Fox Press, 1979, 978-0-912516-36-3, Complete fragments of Heraclitus in English
  • BOOK, Heraclitus, Haxton (translator), Brooks, Hillman (Forward), James, James Hillman, 2001, Fragments: The Collected Wisdom of Heraclitus, New York, Viking (The Penguin Group, Penguin Putnam, Inc.), 978-0-670-89195-5, registration,weblink . Parallel Greek & English
  • BOOK, Kahn, Charles H., The Art and Thought of Heraclitus. An Edition of the Fragments with Translation and Commentary, 1979, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 978-0-521-21883-2,
  • BOOK, Kirk, G.S., Heraclitus, the Cosmic Fragments, 1954, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
  • BOOK, Marcovich, Miroslav, Heraclitus. Greek Text with a Short Commentary, Academia Verlag, Sankt Augustin, 2001, 978-3-89665-171-6, First edition: Heraclitus, editio maior. Mérida, Venezuela, 1967
  • BOOK, Patrick, G.T.W., Heraclitus of Ephesus: The Fragments, 1889,
  • BOOK, Robinson, T.M., 1987, Heraclitus: Fragments: A Text and Translation with a Commentary, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 978-0-8020-6913-9,
  • BOOK, Sallis, John, Maly, Kenneth, Heraclitean fragments, 1980, University of Alabama Press, University, 978-0-8173-0027-2,
  • BOOK, Wright, M.R., 1985, The Presocratics: The main Fragments in Greek with Introduction, Commentary and Appendix Containing Text and Translation of Aristotle on the Presocratics, Bristol Classical Press, Bristol, 978-0-86292-079-1,

Selected bibliography

  • BOOK, Bakalis, Nikolaos, 2005, Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics: Analysis and Fragments, Trafford Publishing, 978-1-4120-4843-9, 26–45 under Heraclitus,
  • BOOK, Barnes, Jonathan, Jonathan Barnes, 1982, The Presocratic Philosophers [Revised Edition], Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, London & New York, 978-0-415-05079-1,
  • BOOK, Burnet, John, John Burnet (classicist), 2003, Early Greek Philosophy,weblink Kessinger Publishing, 978-0-7661-2826-2, First published in 1892, this book has had dozens of editions and has been used as a textbook for decades. The first edition is downloadable from Google Books
  • (:de:Karl-Martin Dietz|Dietz, Karl-Martin) (2004): Metamorphosen des Geistes. Freies Geistesleben, Stuttgart 2004, Band 1: Prometheus der Vordenker: Vom göttlichen zum menschlichen Wissen. Band 2: Platon und Aristoteles. Das Erwachen des europäischen Denkens. Band 3: Heraklit von Ephesus und die Entwicklung der Individualität. Freies Geistesleben, Stuttgart, 2004, {{ISBN|3-7725-1300-X}}
  • BOOK, Dilcher, Roman, Studies in Heraclitus, 1995, Olms, Hildesheim, 978-3-487-09986-6,
  • BOOK, Fairbanks, Arthur, The First Philosophers of Greece,weblink 1898, Scribner, New York,
  • BOOK, Graham, D.W., Caston, V., Graham, D.W., Presocratic Philosophy: Essays in Honour of Alexander Mourelatos, Ashgate, Aldershot, 978-0-7546-0502-7, Heraclitus and Parmenides, 27–44, 2002,
  • BOOK, Graham, D.W., P., Curd, Graham, D.W., The Oxford Handbook of Presocratic Philosophy, 2008, Oxford University Press, New York, 978-0-19-514687-5, 169–188, Heraclitus: Flux, Order, and Knowledge,
  • BOOK, Guthrie, W.K.C., A History of Greek Philosophy: The Earlier Presocratics and the Pythagoreans, 1, 1962, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
  • BOOK, Heidegger, Martin, Martin Heidegger, Fink, Eugen, Eugen Fink, Seibert (translator), Charles H., Heraclitus Seminar, Northwestern University Press, 1993, Evanston, 978-0-8101-1067-0, . Transcript of seminar in which two German philosophers analyze and discuss Heraclitus' texts.
  • BOOK, Raven, J.E., Kirk, G.S., The Pre-Socratic Philosophers: A Critical History with a Selection of Texts, 1957, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2nd,
  • BOOK, Lavine, T.Z., 1984, From Socrates to Sartre: The Philosophic Quest, New York, Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc. (Bantam Books), 978-0-553-25161-6, Chapter 2: Shadow and Substance; Section: Plato's Sources: The Pre–SocraticPhilosophers: Heraclitus and Parmenides, true,
  • LOTEP, Heraclitus,
  • BOOK, Luchte, James, Early Greek Thought: Before the Dawn, 2011, Bloomsbury Publishing, London, 978-0567353313,
  • BOOK, Magnus, Magus, Magus Magnus, Heraclitean Pride, Furniture Press Books, Fuchs, Wolfgang (introduction), Towson, 2010, 978-0-9826299-2-5, Creative re-creation of Heraclitus' lost book, from the fragments
  • BOOK, McKirahan, R.D., Philosophy before Socrates, An Introduction With Text and Commentary, Hackett, Indianapolis, 2011, 978-1-60384-183-2,
  • BOOK, Mourelatos, Alexander, The Pre-Socratics : a collection of critical essays, 1993, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 978-0-691-02088-4, Rev.,
  • BOOK, Naddaf, Gerard, The Greek Concept of Nature, 2005, SUNY Press, 978-0791463734, harv,
  • Pyle, C.M. (1997). 'Democritus and Heracleitus: An Excursus on the Cover of this Book,' Milan and Lombardy in the Renaissance. Essays in Cultural History. Rome, La Fenice. (Istituto di Filologia Moderna, Università di Parma: Testi e Studi, Nuova Serie: Studi 1.) (Fortuna of the Laughing and Weeping Philosophers topos)
  • JOURNAL, Rodziewicz, A., Heraclitus historicus politicus, Studia Antyczne I Mediewistyczne, 2011, 44, 5–35, 0039-3231,
  • BOOK, Schofield, Malcolm, Nussbaum, Martha Craven, Language and logos : studies in ancient Greek philosophy presented to G.E.L. Owen, 1982, Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, 978-0-521-23640-9,
  • Taylor, C.C.W. (ed.), Routledge History of Philosophy: From the Beginning to Plato, Vol. I, pp. 80–117. {{ISBN|0-203-02721-3}} Master e-book ISBN, {{ISBN|0-203-05752-X}} (Adobe eReader Format) and {{ISBN|0-415-06272-1}} (Print Edition).
  • JOURNAL, Tarán, L., 337–378, Elenchos, 1999, 20, 9–52,
  • JOURNAL, Vlastos, G., On Heraclitus, American Journal of Philology, 1955, 76, 337–378, 10.2307/292270, 4, 292270,
  • BOOK, Wheelwright, Philip, Heraclitus, 1959, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Heracleitus of Ephesus, Wiesehöfer, Josef, Josef Wiesehöfer,weblink Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XII, Fasc. 2, 201–202, 2003, harv, HERACLEITUS OF EPHESUS – Encyclopaedia Iranica,

External links

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  • {{wikisource-inline|Fragments of Heraclitus}}
  • {{commons category inline}}
  • WEB, Elpenor, Heraclitus: The Word is Common, The Greek Word: Three Millennia of Greek Literature, Elpenor,weblink 2007-10-10, Heraclitus bilingual anthology from DK in Greek and English, side by side, the translations being provided by the organization, Elpenor.
  • WEB, Graham, Daniel W., Heraclitus, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The editors, 2006,weblink 2007-10-09,
  • WEB, Graham, Daniel W., Heraclitus, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The editors, 2011,weblink 2013-08-25,
  • WEB, Harris, William, translator, Heraclitus: The Complete Fragments: Translation and Commentary and The Greek Text, Humanities and the Liberal Arts: Greek Language and Literature: Text and Commentary, Middlebury College, 1994,weblink 2007-10-09,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927033213weblink">weblink 2007-09-27, yes, Greek and English with DK numbers and commentary.
  • WEB, Heraclitus the Obscure: The Father of the Doctrine of Flux and the Unity of Opposites, Archimedes' Laboratory,weblink 2007-11-09, Text and selected aphorisms in Greek, English, Italian and French.
  • WEB, Hooker, Richard, Heraclitus, World Civilizations: An Internet Classroom and Anthology: Greek Philosophy, 1996,weblink Washington State University, 2007-10-11, Selected fragments translated by Hooker.
  • WEB, Hoyt, Randy, The Fragments of Heraclitus, 2002,weblink 2007-10-09, The fragments also cited in DK in Greek (Unicode) with the English translations of John Burnet (see Bibliography).
  • WEB, June, Daniel, The Logos: a Modern Adapted Translation of the Complete Fragments of Heraclitus, 2012,weblink 2015-04-21,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131202235656weblink">weblink 2013-12-02,
  • WEB, Knierim, Thomas, Heraclitus: (Ephesus, around 500 BC), 2007, thebigview.com,weblink Essay on the flux and fire philosophy of Heraclitus.
  • WEB, Béreau, M. Samuel, M. Daniel, Lancereau, Heraclitus, Philoctetes: ΦΙΛΟΚΤΗΤΗΣ, 2007,weblink 2007-10-10, Site with links to pdf's containing the fragments of DK in Greek (Unicode) with the English translations of John Burnet (see Bibliography) and translations into French, either in parallel columns or interlinear, with links on the lexical items to Perseus dictionaries. Includes also Heraclitus article from Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition.
  • WEB, Stamatellos, Giannis, Heraclitus of Ephesus: Life and Work,weblink 2007-10-12,
  • WEB, Trix, Heraclitus' Epistemological Views, sym•pos•i•a: σuμποσια: the online philosophy journal,weblink 2007-10-10,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070929094137weblink">weblink 2007-09-29,
  • WEB, Osho, Osho discourse on Heraclitus, The Hidden Harmony,weblink
  • WEB, Heraclitus Series,weblink Heraclitus' fragments rendered into the language of deductive logic on Triple Canopy (online magazine).
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