Henri Matisse

aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Henri Matisse
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{Redirect|Matisse}}{{EngvarB|date=December 2013}}{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2013}}

| birth_place = Le Cateau-Cambrésis, Francedf=yes11186931}}| death_place = Nice, France| nationality = FrenchAmélie Noellie Parayre1939|end=div}}| children = 3| movement = Fauvism, Modernism, Post-Impressionism| awards = | patrons = Gertrude Stein, Etta Cone, Claribel Cone, Sarah Stein, Albert C. Barnes| field = Painting, printmaking, sculpture, drawing, collage| training = Académie Julian, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Gustave MoreauWoman with a Hat (1905)Le bonheur de vivre>The Joy of Life (1906)''Blue Nude (Souvenir de Biskra) (1907)Dance (Matisse)>La Danse (1909)L'Atelier Rouge'' (1911)}}Henri Émile Benoît Matisse ({{IPA-fr|ɑ̃ʁi emil bənwɑ matis|lang}}; 31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter.JOURNAL, Myers, Terry R., The Brooklyn Rail, July–August 2010,weblink Matisse-on-the-Move, Matisse is commonly regarded, along with Pablo Picasso, as one of the artists who best helped to define the revolutionary developments in the visual arts throughout the opening decades of the twentieth century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture.WEB,weblink Tate Modern: Matisse Picasso,, 13 February 2010, NEWS, Adrian Searle,weblink Searle, Adrian, A momentous, tremendous exhibition, The Guardian, Tuesday 7 May 2002, Guardian, UK, 7 May 2002, 13 February 2010, WEB,weblink Trachtman, Paul, Matisse & Picasso, Smithsonian, February 2003,, 13 February 2010, NEWS,weblink Duchamp's urinal tops art survey,, 10 December 2010, 1 December 2004, The intense colorism of the works he painted between 1900 and 1905 brought him notoriety as one of the Fauves (wild beasts). Many of his finest works were created in the decade or so after 1906, when he developed a rigorous style that emphasized flattened forms and decorative pattern. In 1917, he relocated to a suburb of Nice on the French Riviera, and the more relaxed style of his work during the 1920s gained him critical acclaim as an upholder of the classical tradition in French painting.Wattenmaker, Richard J.; Distel, Anne, et al. (1993). Great French Paintings from the Barnes Foundation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. {{ISBN|0-679-40963-7}}. p. 272 After 1930, he adopted a bolder simplification of form. When ill health in his final years prevented him from painting, he created an important body of work in the medium of cut paper collage.His mastery of the expressive language of colour and drawing, displayed in a body of work spanning over a half-century, won him recognition as a leading figure in modern art.Magdalena Dabrowski Department of Nineteenth-Century, Modern, and Contemporary Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Source: Henri Matisse (1869–1954) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art Retrieved 30 June 2010.

Early life and education

(File:Henri + Amélie Matisse Portrait 1898.jpg|thumb|left|Two greyscale photos where each photo is in the shape of an oval: Henri Matisse (left) and Amélie Matisse (right)|Henri and Amélie Matisse, 1898)File:Reading henri matisse.jpg|thumb|upright|Woman Reading (La Liseuse), 1895, oil on board, 61.5 x 48 cm, Le Cateau-Cambrésis, Musée Matisse ]]Matisse was born in Le Cateau-Cambrésis, in the Nord department in Northern France, the oldest son of a wealthy grain merchant.Spurling, Hilary (2000). The Unknown Matisse: A Life of Henri Matisse: The Early Years, 1869–1908. University of California Press, 2001. {{ISBN|0-520-22203-2}}. pp. 4–6 He grew up in Bohain-en-Vermandois, Picardie, France. In 1887, he went to Paris to study law, working as a court administrator in Le Cateau-Cambrésis after gaining his qualification. He first started to paint in 1889, after his mother brought him art supplies during a period of convalescence following an attack of appendicitis. He discovered "a kind of paradise" as he later described it,Leymarie, Jean; Read, Herbert; Lieberman, William S. (1966), Henri Matisse, UCLA Art Council, p.9. and decided to become an artist, deeply disappointing his father.Bärbel Küster. "Arbeiten und auf niemanden hören." Süddeutsche Zeitung, 6 July 2007. {{de icon}}In 1891, he returned to Paris to study art at the Académie Julian and became a student of William-Adolphe Bouguereau and Gustave Moreau. Initially he painted still lifes and landscapes in a traditional style, at which he achieved reasonable proficiency. Matisse was influenced by the works of earlier masters such as Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, Nicolas Poussin, and Antoine Watteau, as well as by modern artists, such as Édouard Manet, and by Japanese art. Chardin was one of the painters Matisse most admired; as an art student he made copies of four of Chardin's paintings in the Louvre.Spurling, Hilary. The Unknown Matisse: A Life of Henri Matisse, the Early Years, 1869–1908. p.86. accessed online 15 July 2007In 1896, Matisse, an unknown art student at the time, visited the Australian painter John Russell on the island Belle ÃŽle off the coast of Brittany.{{sfnp| Spurling|1998|loc= 119–138}}WEB,weblink The Unknown Matisse ... – Book Talk, interview with Hilary Spurling, 8 June 2005, ABC Online, 1 August 2016, Russell introduced him to Impressionism and to the work of Vincent van Gogh—who had been a friend of Russell—and gave him a Van Gogh drawing. Matisse's style changed completely; abandoning his earth-coloured palette for bright colours. He later said "Russell was my teacher, and Russell explained colour theory to me." The same year, Matisse exhibited five paintings in the salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, two of which were purchased by the state.Henri and Pierre Matisse, Cosmopolis, No 2, January 1999{{sfnp|Spurling|1998|loc= 138}}With the model Caroline Joblau, he had a daughter, Marguerite, born in 1894. In 1898, he married Amélie Noellie Parayre; the two raised Marguerite together and had two sons, Jean (born 1899) and Pierre (born 1900). Marguerite and Amélie often served as models for Matisse.Marguerite Matisse Retrieved 13 December 2010In 1898, on the advice of Camille Pissarro, he went to London to study the paintings of J. M. W. Turner and then went on a trip to Corsica.Oxford Art Online, "Henri Matisse" Upon his return to Paris in February 1899, he worked beside Albert Marquet and met André Derain, Jean Puy, and Jules Flandrin.weblink on page 23 of Google Book Link Matisse immersed himself in the work of others and went into debt from buying work from painters he admired. The work he hung and displayed in his home included a plaster bust by Rodin, a painting by Gauguin, a drawing by van Gogh, and Cézanne's Three Bathers. In Cézanne's sense of pictorial structure and colour, Matisse found his main inspiration.Leymarie, Jean; Read, Herbert; Lieberman, William S. (1966), Henri Matisse, UCLA Art Council, p.10.Many of Matisse's paintings from 1898 to 1901 make use of a Divisionist technique he adopted after reading Paul Signac's essay, "D'Eugène Delacroix au Néo-impressionisme". His paintings of 1902–03, a period of material hardship for the artist, are comparatively somber and reveal a preoccupation with form. Having made his first attempt at sculpture, a copy after Antoine-Louis Barye, in 1899, he devoted much of his energy to working in clay, completing The Slave in 1903.Leymarie, Jean; Read, Herbert; Lieberman, William S. (1966), Henri Matisse, UCLA Art Council, pp.19–20.

Early paintings

File:Matisse the study of moreau.jpg|Gustave Moreau's Studio, 1894-1895File:Matisse - Blue Pot and Lemon (1897).jpg|Blue Pot and Lemon (1897), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, RussiaFile:Matisse Mur Rose.jpg|Le Mur Rose, 1898, Jewish Museum FrankfurtFile:Matisse - Fruit and Coffeepot (1898).jpg|Fruit and Coffeepot (1898), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, RussiaFile:Matisse - Vase of Sunflowers (1898).jpg|Vase of Sunflowers (1898), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, RussiaFile:Study of a nude by Matisse.jpg|Study of a Nude, 1899, Bridgestone Museum of Art, TokyoFile:Henri Matisse, 1899, Still Life with Compote, Apples and Oranges, oil on canvas, 46.4 x 55.6 cm, The Cone Collection, Baltimore Museum of Art.jpg|Still Life with Compote, Apples and Oranges, 1899, The Cone Collection, Baltimore Museum of ArtFile:Matisse - Crockery on a Table (1900).jpg|Crockery on a Table (1900), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia


File:Matisse-Woman-with-a-Hat.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Woman with a Hat, 1905. San Francisco Museum of Modern ArtSan Francisco Museum of Modern ArtFauvism as a style began around 1900 and continued beyond 1910. The movement as such lasted only a few years, 1904–1908, and had three exhibitions.John Elderfield, The "Wild Beasts" Fauvism and Its Affinities, 1976, Museum of Modern Art, p.13, {{ISBN|0-87070-638-1}}Freeman, Judi, et al., The Fauve Landscape, 1990, Abbeville Press, p. 13, {{ISBN|1-55859-025-0}}. The leaders of the movement were Matisse and André Derain. Matisse's first solo exhibition was at Ambroise Vollard's gallery in 1904, without much success. His fondness for bright and expressive colour became more pronounced after he spent the summer of 1904 painting in St. Tropez with the neo-Impressionists Signac and Henri-Edmond Cross. In that year, he painted the most important of his works in the neo-Impressionist style, Luxe, Calme et Volupté. In 1905, he travelled southwards again to work with André Derain at Collioure. His paintings of this period are characterised by flat shapes and controlled lines, using pointillism in a less rigorous way than before.Matisse and a group of artists now known as "Fauves" exhibited together in a room at the Salon d'Automne in 1905. The paintings expressed emotion with wild, often dissonant colours, without regard for the subject's natural colours. Matisse showed Open Window and Woman with the Hat at the Salon. Critic Louis Vauxcelles commented on a lone sculpture surround by an "orgie of pure tones" as "Donatello chez les fauves" (Donatello among the wild beasts),Vauxcelles, Louis. weblink, Gil Blas, Supplément à Gil Blas du 17 octobre 1905, p.8, col.1, Salle VII (end). Retrieved from France Gallica, bibliothèque numérique (digital library), Bibliothèque nationale de France, 01 December 2013. referring to a Renaissance-type sculpture that shared the room with them.Chilver, Ian (Ed.). "Fauvism", The Oxford Dictionary of Art, Oxford University Press, 2004. Retrieved from, 26 December 2007. His comment was printed on 17 October 1905 in Gil Blas, a daily newspaper, and passed into popular usage. The exhibition garnered harsh criticism—"A pot of paint has been flung in the face of the public", said the critic Camille Mauclair—but also some favourable attention. When the painting that was singled out for special condemnation, Matisse's Woman with a Hat, was bought by Gertrude and Leo Stein, the embattled artist's morale improved considerably.File:Matissetoits.gif|thumb|Les toits de Collioure, 1905, oil on canvas, The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, RussiaSt. Petersburg, RussiaMatisse was recognised as a leader of the Fauves, along with André Derain; the two were friendly rivals, each with his own followers. Other members were Georges Braque, Raoul Dufy, and Maurice de Vlaminck. The Symbolist painter Gustave Moreau (1826–1898) was the movement's inspirational teacher. As a professor at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, he pushed his students to think outside of the lines of formality and to follow their visions.In 1907, Guillaume Apollinaire, commenting about Matisse in an article published in La Falange, wrote, "We are not here in the presence of an extravagant or an extremist undertaking: Matisse's art is eminently reasonable."Picasso and Braque pioneering cubism, William Rubin, published by the Museum of Modern Art, New York, copyright 1989, {{ISBN|0-87070-676-4}} p.348. But Matisse's work of the time also encountered vehement criticism, and it was difficult for him to provide for his family. His painting Nu bleu (1907) was burned in effigy at the Armory Show in Chicago in 1913.{{Britannica|369401}}The decline of the Fauvist movement after 1906 did not affect the career of Matisse; many of his finest works were created between 1906 and 1917, when he was an active part of the great gathering of artistic talent in Montparnasse, even though he did not quite fit in, with his conservative appearance and strict bourgeois work habits. He continued to absorb new influences. He travelled to Algeria in 1906 studying African art and Primitivism. After viewing a large exhibition of Islamic art in Munich in 1910, he spent two months in Spain studying Moorish art. He visited Morocco in 1912 and again in 1913 and while painting in Tangier he made several changes to his work, including his use of black as a colour.WEB,weblink Henri Matisse. The Moroccans. Issy-les-Moulineaux, late 1915 and fall 1916 - MoMA, WEB,weblink Matisse in Morocco, Review: John Russell, Matisse and the Mark Left On Him By Morocco, NY Times The effect on Matisse's art was a new boldness in the use of intense, unmodulated colour, as in L'Atelier Rouge (1911).Matisse had a long association with the Russian art collector Sergei Shchukin. He created one of his major works La Danse specially for Shchukin as part of a two painting commission, the other painting being Music, 1910. An earlier version of La Danse (1909) is in the collection of The Museum of Modern Art in New York City.

Selected works: Paris, 1901–1910

File:Matisse - Luxembourg Gardens (1901).jpg|Luxembourg Gardens, 1901, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, RussiaFile:Matisse - Dishes and Fruit (1901).jpg|Dishes and Fruit, 1901, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, RussiaFile:Henri Matisse, 1902, Notre-Dame, une fin d'après-midi, oil on paper mounted on canvas, 72.4 x 54.6 cm, Albright-Knox Art Gallery.jpg|A Glimpse of Notre-Dame in the Late Afternoon, 1902, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New YorkFile:Henri Matisse, 1904, Nu (Carmelita), oil on canvas, 81.3 x 59 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.jpg|Nu (Carmelita), 1904, Museum of Fine Arts, BostonFile:Matisse-Luxe.jpg|Luxe, Calme et Volupté, 1904, Musée d'Orsay, Paris, FranceMatisse, Luxe, calme et volupté, 1904, Musée d'Orsay, Paris, FranceFile:Matisse Les toits.jpg|Landscape at Collioure, 1905, Museum of Modern ArtFile:Matisse-Open-Window.jpg|Open Window, Collioure, 1905, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.Image:Matisse - Green Line.jpeg|Portrait of Madame Matisse (The green line), 1905, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, DenmarkFile:Bonheur Matisse.jpg|Le bonheur de vivre, 1905–6, Barnes FoundationFile:Henri Matisse Self-Portrait in a Striped T-shirt (1906).jpg|Self-Portrait in a Striped T-shirt 1906, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, DenmarkImage:Young Sailor II.jpg|The Young Sailor II, 1906, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York CityFile:Matisse - Vase, Bottle and Fruit (1906).jpg|Vase, Bottle and Fruit, 1906, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, RussiaFile:Matisse Souvenir de Biskra.jpg|Blue Nude, 1907, Baltimore Museum of ArtFile:Henri Matisse, 1907, La coiffure, 116 x 89 cm, oil on canvas, Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart.jpg|La coiffure, 1907, Staatsgalerie StuttgartFile:Matisse.mme-matisse-madras.jpg|Madras Rouge, The Red Turban, 1907, Barnes Foundation. Exhibited at the 1913 Armory ShowFile:Henri Matisse, Le Luxe II, 1907–8, Distemper on canvas; 82 1-2 x 54 3-4 in. (209.5 x 138 cm), Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen.jpg|Le Luxe II, 1907–08, Statens Museum for Kunst, CopenhagenFile:Henri Matisse, 1907, Les trois baigneuses (Three Bathers), oil on canvas, 60.3 x 73 cm, The Minneapolis Institute of Arts.jpg|Les trois baigneuses (Three Bathers), 1907, The Minneapolis Institute of ArtsThree Bathers, 1907, oil on canvas, 60.3 x 73 cm, The Minneapolis Institute of ArtsFile:Bathers with a turtle.jpg|Bathers with a Turtle, 1908, Saint Louis Art Museum, St. LouisFile:Matisse - Game of Bowls.jpg|Game of Bowls, 1908, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, RussiaFile:La danse (I) by Matisse.jpg|The Dance (first version), 1909, The Museum of Modern Art, New York CityFile:Henri Matisse, 1909, Still Life with Dance, oil on canvas, 89.5 x 117.5 cm, Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg.jpg|Still Life with Dance, 1909, Hermitage Museum, Saint PetersburgImage:Matissedance.jpg|The Dance, 1910, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, RussiaFile:Henri Matisse, 1910-12, Les Capucines (Nasturtiums with The Dance II), oil on canvas, 193 x 114 cm, Pushkin Museum.jpg|Les Capucines (Nasturtiums with The Dance II), 1910–12, Pushkin MuseumFile:Matisse - Music.jpg|Music, 1910, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia


File:Matisse - left to right 'The Back I', 1908-09, 'The Back II', 1913, 'The Back III' 1916, 'The Back IV', c. 1931, bronze, Museum of Modern Art (New York City).jpg|thumb|300px|Henri Matisse, The Back Series, bronze, left to right: The Back I, 1908–09, The Back II, 1913, The Back III 1916, The Back IV, c. 1931, all (Museum of Modern Art]], New York CityThe Guardian, Hillary Spurling on The Back SeriesWEB,weblink Henri Matisse. The Back (III). Issy-les-Moulineaux, by May 13, 1913 - early fall 1916 - MoMA, WEB,weblink Back I, Henri Matisse c.1909–10, cast 1955–6 - Tate, Tate, )File:Henri Matisse, 1900-1904, Le Serf (The Serf, Der Sklave), bronze.jpg|Henri Matisse, 1900-1904, Le Serf (The Serf, Der Sklave), bronzeFile:Henri Matisse, 1905, Sleep, wood, exhibition Blue Rose (Голубая Роза), 1907, location unknown.jpg|Henri Matisse, 1905, Sleep, wood, exhibition Blue Rose (Голубая Роза), 1907, location unknownFile:Henri Matisse, 1906-07, Nu couché, I (Reclining Nude, I), exhibited at Montross Gallery, New York, 1915.jpg|Henri Matisse, 1906–07, Nu couché, I (Reclining Nude, I), bronze, exhibited at Montross Gallery, New York, 1915File:Henri Matisse, 1907, Awakening, plaster, exhibition Salon of the Golden Fleece (Салон Золотого Руна) 1908.jpg|Henri Matisse, 1907, Awakening, plaster, exhibition Salon of the Golden Fleece (Салон Золотого Руна) 1908File:Henri Matisse, 1908, Figure décorative, bronze.jpg|Henri Matisse, 1908, Figure décorative, bronze

Gertrude Stein, Académie Matisse, and the Cone sisters

File:Portrait of Henri Matisse 1933 May 20.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Henri Matisse, 1933 May 20. Photograph by Carl Van VechtenCarl Van VechtenAround April 1906, he met Pablo Picasso, who was 11 years younger than Matisse.The Unknown Matisse, pp 352–553..., ABC Radio National, 8 June 2005 The two became lifelong friends as well as rivals and are often compared. One key difference between them is that Matisse drew and painted from nature, while Picasso was more inclined to work from imagination. The subjects painted most frequently by both artists were women and still lifes, with Matisse more likely to place his figures in fully realised interiors. Matisse and Picasso were first brought together at the Paris salon of Gertrude Stein with her companion Alice B. Toklas. During the first decade of the twentieth century, the Americans in Paris—Gertrude Stein, her brothers Leo Stein, Michael Stein, and Michael's wife Sarah—were important collectors and supporters of Matisse's paintings. In addition, Gertrude Stein's two American friends from Baltimore, the Cone sisters Claribel and Etta, became major patrons of Matisse and Picasso, collecting hundreds of their paintings and drawings. The Cone collection is now exhibited in the Baltimore Museum of Art.Cone Collection {{webarchive|url= |date=19 October 2014 }}, Baltimore Museum of Art. Retrieved 29 July 2007.File:Henri Matisse, 1915-16, The Moroccans, oil on canvas, 181.3 x 279.4 cm, Museum of Modern Art.jpg|thumb|250px|Henri Matisse, The Moroccans, 1915-16, oil on canvas, 181.3 x 279.4 cm, Museum of Modern ArtMuseum of Modern ArtWhile numerous artists visited the Stein salon, many of these artists were not represented among the paintings on the walls at 27 rue de Fleurus. Where the works of Renoir, Cézanne, Matisse, and Picasso dominated Leo and Gertrude Stein's collection, Sarah Stein's collection particularly emphasised Matisse.(MoMA, 1970 at 28)Contemporaries of Leo and Gertrude Stein, Matisse and Picasso became part of their social circle and routinely joined the gatherings that took place on Saturday evenings at 27 rue de Fleurus. Gertrude attributed the beginnings of the Saturday evening salons to Matisse, remarking:"More and more frequently, people began visiting to see the Matisse paintings—and the Cézannes: Matisse brought people, everybody brought somebody, and they came at any time and it began to be a nuisance, and it was in this way that Saturday evenings began."Mellow, 1974, p. 84'Among Pablo Picasso's acquaintances who also frequented the Saturday evenings were Fernande Olivier (Picasso's mistress), Georges Braque, André Derain, the poets Max Jacob and Guillaume Apollinaire, Marie Laurencin (Apollinaire's mistress and an artist in her own right), and Henri Rousseau.Mellow, 1974, p. 94-95His friends organized and financed the Académie Matisse in Paris, a private and non-commercial school in which Matisse instructed young artists. It operated from 1907 until 1911. The initiative for the academy came from the Steins and the Dômiers, with the involvement of Hans Purrmann, Patrick Henry Bruce, and Sarah Stein.Christopher Green, Art in France, 1900-1940, Pelican History of Art Series, Yale University Press, 2003, p. 64, {{ISBN|0300099088}}Matisse spent seven months in Morocco from 1912 to 1913, producing about 24 paintings and numerous drawings. His frequent orientalist topics of later paintings, such as odalisques, can be traced to this period.BOOK
, Matisse in Morocco: The Paintings and Drawings, 1912–1913, Jack, Cowart, Pierre, Schneider, John, Elderfield, 1990,

Selected works: Paris, 1910–1917

File:Matisse518.jpg|Still Life with Geraniums, 1910, Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich, GermanyFile:Atelier rouge matisse 1.jpg|L'Atelier Rouge, 1911, The Museum of Modern Art, New York CityFile:Matisse Conversation.jpg|The Conversation, c.1911, The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, RussiaFile:Henri Matisse, 1911-12, La Fenêtre à Tanger (Paysage vu d'une fenêtre Landscape viewed from a window, Tangiers), oil on canvas, 115 x 80 cm, Pushkin Museum.jpg|Window at Tangier, 1911-12, The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, MoscowFile:Zorah on the Terrace.jpg|Zorah on the Terrace, 1912, The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, RussiaFile:Matisse Riffian.jpg|Le Rifain assis, 1912–13, 200 × 160 cm. Barnes FoundationFile:Henri Matisse, 1913, Portrait of the Artist's Wife, oil on canvas, 146 x 97.7 cm, Hermitage, Saint Petersburg.jpg|Portrait of the Artist's Wife, 1913, Hermitage Museum, Saint PetersburgFile:Henri Matisse, 1913, La glace sans tain (The Blue Window), oil on canvas, 130.8 x 90.5 cm, Museum of Modern Art.jpg|La glace sans tain (The Blue Window), 1913, Museum of Modern ArtFile:Matisse Woman on a high stool.jpg|Woman on a High Stool, 1914, Museum of Modern Art, New York CityFile:Henri Matisse - View of Notre Dame. Paris, quai Saint-Michel, spring 1914.jpg|View of Notre-Dame, 1914, Museum of Modern ArtFile:Henri Matisse, 1914, Les poissons rouges (Interior with a Goldfish Bowl), oil on canvas, 147 x 97 cm, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.jpg|Les poissons rouges (Interior with a Goldfish Bowl), Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, ParisFile:Porte-Fenetre a Collioure 1914.jpg|French Window at Collioure, 1914. Musée National d'Art Moderne, ParisFile:Yellow Curtain.jpg|The Yellow Curtain, 1915, Museum of Modern Art, New YorkFile:Henri Matisse, 1916-17, Auguste Pellerin II, oil on canvas, 150.2 x 96.2 cm, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.jpg|Auguste Pellerin II, 1916–17, Musée National d'Art Moderne, ParisFile:Henri Matisse, 1916-17, Le Peintre dans son atelier (The Painter and His Model), oil on canvas, 146.5 x 97 cm, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.jpg|The Painter and His Model (Le Peintre dans son atelier), 1916–17, Musée National d'Art Moderne, ParisFile:Henri Matisse, 1917, Three Sisters and The Rose Marble Table (Les Trois sÅ“urs à La Table de marbre rose), oil on canvas, 194.3 x 96.2 cm, Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia.jpg|Three Sisters and The Rose Marble Table (Les Trois sÅ“urs à La Table de marbre rose), 1917, Barnes Foundation, PhiladelphiaFile:Henri Matisse, 1917, Portrait de famille (The Music Lesson), oil on canvas, 245.1 x 210.8 cm, Barnes Foundation.jpg|Portrait de famille (The Music Lesson), 1917, oil on canvas, 245.1 x 210.8 cm, Barnes Foundation

After Paris

File:Henri Matisse, 1918, Portrait du peintre (Autoportrait, Self-portrait), oil on canvas, 65 x 54 cm, Matisse Museum (Le Cateau).jpg|thumb|Self-portrait, 1918, Matisse Museum (Le Cateau)Matisse Museum (Le Cateau)File:Henri Matisse et Léonide Massine (Ballets russes, Opéra) (4565877526).jpg|thumb|Matisse with Léonide Massine preparing Le chant du rossignol. The ballet debut occurred on 2 February 1920 at the (Palais Garnier|Théâtre National de l'Opéra]] in Paris. Massine did the choreography and Matisse the sets, costumes and curtain designs.Joseph, Charles M. (2002) "Stravinsky and Balanchine, A Journey of Invention", New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN ML 410 S932 J6 652002)File:Le chant du Rossignol, Tamara Karsavina with dancers. Costume designs by Henri Matisse, 1920.jpg|thumb|Le Chant du Rossignol, Tamara KarsavinaTamara KarsavinaFile:Henri Matisse, 1920-21, Odalisque, oil on canvas, 61.4 x 74.4 cm, Stedelijk Museum.jpg|thumb|Odalisque, 1920-21, oil on canvas, 61.4 x 74.4 cm, Stedelijk MuseumStedelijk MuseumIn 1917, Matisse relocated to Cimiez on the French Riviera, a suburb of the city of Nice. His work of the decade or so following this relocation shows a relaxation and softening of his approach. This "return to order" is characteristic of much post-World War I art, and can be compared with the neoclassicism of Picasso and Stravinsky as well as the return to traditionalism of Derain.Matisse's orientalist odalisque paintings are characteristic of the period; while this work was popular, some contemporary critics found it shallow and decorative.Jack Cowart and Dominique Fourcade. Henri Matisse: The Early Years in Nice 1916–1930. Henry N. Abrams, Inc., 1986. p. 47. {{ISBN|978-0810914421}}.In the late 1920s, Matisse once again engaged in active collaborations with other artists. He worked with not only Frenchmen, Dutch, Germans, and Spaniards, but also a few Americans and recent American immigrants.After 1930, a new vigor and bolder simplification appeared in his work. American art collector Albert C. Barnes convinced Matisse to produce a large mural for the Barnes Foundation, The Dance II, which was completed in 1932; the Foundation owns several dozen other Matisse paintings. This move toward simplification and a foreshadowing of the cutout technique is also evident in his painting Large Reclining Nude (1935). Matisse worked on this painting for several months and documented the progress with a series of 22 photographs, which he sent to Etta Cone.Henri Matisse Photographic documentation of 22 progressive states of Large Reclining Nude, 1935, The Jewish Museum {{webarchive |url= |date=29 May 2013 }}

War years

Matisse's wife Amélie, who suspected that he was having an affair with her young Russian emigre companion, Lydia Delectorskaya, ended their 41-year marriage in July 1939, dividing their possessions equally between them. Delectorskaya attempted suicide by shooting herself in the chest; remarkably, she survived with no serious after-effects, and instead returned to Matisse and worked with him for the rest of his life, running his household, paying the bills, typing his correspondence, keeping meticulous records, assisting in the studio and coordinating his business affairs.WEB,weblink Biography of Henri Matisse, Matisse was visiting Paris when the Nazis invaded France in June 1940 but managed to make his way back to Nice. His son, Pierre, by then a gallery owner in New York, begged him to flee while he could. Matisse was about to embark for Brazil to escape the Occupation but changed his mind and remained in Nice, in Vichy France. "It seemed to me as if I would be deserting," he wrote Pierre in September 1940. "If everyone who has any value leaves France, what remains of France?" Although he was never a member of the resistance, it became a point of pride to the occupied French that one of their most acclaimed artists chose to stay, though of course, being non-Jewish, he had that option."Art & Politics in the Vichy Period," by Hilton Kramer, The New Criterion, March 1992weblink the Nazis occupied France from 1940 to 1944, they were more lenient in their attacks on "degenerate art" in Paris than they were in the German-speaking nations under their military dictatorship. Matisse was allowed to exhibit along with other former Fauves and Cubists whom Hitler had initially claimed to despise, though without any Jewish artists, all of whose works had been purged from all French museums and galleries; any French artists exhibiting in France had to sign an oath assuring their "Aryan" status—including Matisse.Pryce-Jones, David (1981). Paris in the Third Reich: A History of the German Occupation, 1940–1944. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, p. 220. He also worked as a graphic artist and produced black-and-white illustrations for several books and over one hundred original lithographs at the Mourlot Studios in Paris.In 1941, Matisse was diagnosed with duodenal cancer. The surgery, while successful, resulted in serious complications from which he nearly died.Daniels, Patricia. "Matisse: A biography". Being bedridden for three months resulted in his developing a new art form using paper and scissors.{{Citation |last=Lacayo |first=Richard |title=The Paper Chase. At MOMA, a dazzling display of Matisse’s blissful "Cut-Outs" |date=3 November 2014 |url= |accessdate=9 April 2015}}That same year, a nursing student named Monique Bourgeois responded to an ad placed by Matisse for a nurse. A platonic friendship developed between Matisse and Bourgeois. He discovered that she was an amateur artist and taught her about perspective. After Bourgeois left the position to join a convent in 1944, Matisse sometimes contacted her to request that she model for him. Bourgeois became a Dominican nun in 1946, and Matisse painted a chapel in Vence, a small town he moved to in 1943, in her honor.Matisse remained for the most part isolated in southern France throughout the war but his family was intimately involved with the French resistance. His son Pierre, the art dealer in New York, helped the Jewish and anti-Nazi French artists he represented to escape occupied France and enter the United States. In 1942, he held an exhibit in New York, "Artists in Exile," which was to become legendary. Matisse's estranged wife, Amélie, was a typist for the French Underground and jailed for six months. Matisse was shocked when he heard that his daughter Marguerite, who had been active in the Résistance during the war, was tortured (almost to death) by the Gestapo in a Rennes prison and sentenced to the Ravensbrück concentration camp in Germany. Marguerite managed to escape from the train to Ravensbrück, which was halted during an Allied air raid; she survived in the woods in the chaos of the closing days of the war, until rescued by fellow resisters.Heftrig, Ruth; Olaf Peters; Barbara Maria Schellewald [editors] (2008), Kunstgeschichte im "Dritten Reich": Theorien, Methoden, Praktiken, Akademie Verlag, p. 429; Spurling, Hilary, Matisse the Master: A Life of Henri Matisse, the Conquest of Colour, 1909–1954, p.424. Matisse's student Rudolf Levy was killed in the Auschwitz concentration camp in 1944.BOOK, Gilbert, Martin, Martin Gilbert, The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust,weblink 2002, Psychology Press, 978-0-415-28145-4, 10, BOOK, Ruhrberg, Karl, Twentieth Century art: Painting and Sculpture in the Ludwig Museum,weblink 1986, RCS MediaGroup, Rizzoli, 978-0-8478-0755-0, 55,

Final years


{{See also|Jazz (Henri Matisse)}}Diagnosed with abdominal cancer in 1941, Matisse underwent surgery that left him chair- and bedbound. Painting and sculpture had become physical challenges, so he turned to a new type of medium. With the help of his assistants, he began creating cut paper collages, or decoupage. He would cut sheets of paper, pre-painted with gouache by his assistants, into shapes of varying colours and sizes, and arrange them to form lively compositions. Initially, these pieces were modest in size, but eventually transformed into murals or room-sized works. The result was a distinct and dimensional complexity—an art form that was not quite painting, but not quite sculpture.{{Citation | last =Cotter | first =Holland| title =Wisps From an Old Man’s Dreams ‘Henri Matisse: The Cut-Outs,’ a Victory Lap at MoMA
| newspaper =New York Times| pages =| year =| date =9 October 2014
| url =| accessdate =17 February 2015}}{{Citation| last =MoMA | first =| title =Henri Matisse: The Cut-Outs| pages =| year = 2014| date =
| url =| accessdate =19 February 2015}}
Although the paper cut-out was Matisse's major medium in the final decade of his life, his first recorded use of the technique was in 1919 during the design of decor for the Le chant du rossignol, an opera composed by Igor Stravinsky. Albert C. Barnes arranged for cardboard templates to be made of the unusual dimensions of the walls onto which Matisse, in his studio in Nice, fixed the composition of painted paper shapes. Another group of cut-outs were made between 1937 and 1938, while Matisse was working on the stage sets and costumes for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. However, it was only after his operation that, bedridden, Matisse began to develop the cut-out technique as its own form, rather than its prior utilitarian origin.BOOK
, Elderfield, John, The Cut-Outs of Henri Matisse, George Braziller, 1978, New York, 8, 0807608866, BOOK, Matisse, Henri, Jazz, Prestel Publishing, 2001, New York, 10, 379132392X,
He moved to the hilltop of Vence in 1943, where he produced his first major cut-out project for his artist's book titled Jazz. However, these cut-outs were conceived as designs for stencil prints to be looked at in the book, rather than as independent pictorial works. At this point, Matisse still thought of the cut-outs as separate from his principal art form. His new understanding of this medium unfolds with the 1946 introduction for Jazz. After summarizing his career, Matisse refers to the possibilities the cut-out technique offers, insisting "An artist must never be a prisoner of himself, prisoner of a style, prisoner of a reputation, prisoner of success…"The number of independently conceived cut-outs steadily increased following Jazz, and eventually led to the creation of mural-size works, such as Oceania the Sky and Oceania the Sea of 1946. Under Matisse's direction, Lydia Delectorskaya, his studio assistant, loosely pinned the silhouettes of birds, fish, and marine vegetation directly onto the walls of the room. The two Oceania pieces, his first cut-outs of this scale, evoked a trip to Tahiti he made years before.{{Citation
| last =Cotter | first =Holland| title =Wisps From an Old Man’s Dreams ‘Henri Matisse: The Cut-Outs,’ a Victory Lap at MoMA
| newspaper =New York Times| pages =| year =| date =9 October 2014
| url =| accessdate =17 February 2015}}

Chapel and museum

In 1948, Matisse began to prepare designs for the Chapelle du Rosaire de Vence, which allowed him to expand this technique within a truly decorative context. The experience of designing the chapel windows, chasubles, and tabernacle door—all planned using the cut-out method—had the effect of consolidating the medium as his primary focus. Finishing his last painting in 1951 (and final sculpture the year before), Matisse utilized the paper cut-out as his sole medium for expression up until his death.BOOK
, Elderfield, John, The Cut-Outs of Henri Matisse, George Braziller, 1978, New York, 9, 0807608866,
This project was the result of the close friendship between Matisse and Bourgeois, now Sister Jacques-Marie, despite his being an atheist.BOOK, Henri Matisse: Modernist Against the Grain, 2009, Penn State Press, 9780271035123, Catherine Bock-Weiss, 147, Natural enough, since he was surrounded by priests and nuns during his later illnesses and while working on the Venice Chapel, even though he remained a convinced atheist., Sister Jacques-Marie Influence for Matisse's Rosary Chapel, Dies, NY Times, 29 September 2005 Retrieved 27 July 2010 They had met again in Vence and started the collaboration, a story related in her 1992 book Henri Matisse: La Chapelle de Vence and in the 2003 documentary "A Model for Matisse".French Professor Directs "Model for Matisse", Carnegie Mellon Today, 30 June 2003. Retrieved 30 July 2007.In 1952, he established a museum dedicated to his work, the Matisse Museum in Le Cateau, and this museum is now the third-largest collection of Matisse works in France.According to David Rockefeller, Matisse's final work was the design for a stained-glass window installed at the Union Church of Pocantico Hills near the Rockefeller estate north of New York City. "It was his final artistic creation; the maquette was on the wall of his bedroom when he died in November of 1954", Rockefeller writes. Installation was completed in 1956.David Rockefeller, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the Union Church of Pocantico Hills, Union Church of Pocantico Hills website, accessed 30 July 2010Matisse died of a heart attack at the age of 84 on 3 November 1954. He is interred in the cemetery of the Monastère Notre Dame de Cimiez, near Nice.BOOK
, Schneider, Pierre, Matisse, George Braziller, 1984, New York, 740, 0500091668,


File:Tombe Henri Matisse Nice.jpg|thumb|left|Tombstone of Henri Matisse and his wife Amélie Noellie, cemetery of the Monastère Notre Dame de Cimiez, CimiezCimiezThe first painting of Matisse acquired by a public collection was Still Life with Geraniums (1910), exhibited in the Pinakothek der Moderne.Butler, Desmond. "Art/Architecture; A Home for the Modern In a Time-Bound City", The New York Times, 10 November 2002. Retrieved 25 December 2007.His The Plum Blossoms (1948) was purchased on 8 September 2005 for the Museum of Modern Art by Henry Kravis and the new president of the museum, Marie-Josée Drouin. Estimated price was US$25 million. Previously, it had not been seen by the public since 1970.The Modern Acquires a 'Lost' Matisse, The New York Times, 8 September 2005 In 2002, a Matisse sculpture, Reclining Nude I (Dawn), sold for US$9.2 million, a record for a sculpture by the artist.Matisse's daughter Marguerite often aided Matisse scholars with insights about his working methods and his works. She died in 1982 while compiling a catalogue of her father's work."Marguerite Duthuit, a Model In Art of Matisse, Her Father", New York Times, 3 April 1982Matisse's son Pierre Matisse (1900–1989) opened a modern art gallery in New York City during the 1930s. The Pierre Matisse Gallery, which was active from 1931 until 1989, represented and exhibited many European artists and a few Americans and Canadians in New York often for the first time. He exhibited Joan Miró, Marc Chagall, Alberto Giacometti, Jean Dubuffet, André Derain, Yves Tanguy, Le Corbusier, Paul Delvaux, Wifredo Lam, Jean-Paul Riopelle, Balthus, Leonora Carrington, Zao Wou Ki, Sam Francis, sculptors Theodore Roszak, Raymond Mason, and Reg Butler, and several other important artists, including the work of Henri Matisse.Russell, John (1999). Matisse, Father & Son. New York: Harry N. Abrams. pp.387–389 {{ISBN|0-8109-4378-6}}Metropolitan Museum exhibition of works from the Pierre Matisse Gallery, accessed online 20 June 2007 {{webarchive |url= |date=19 February 2009 }}Henri Matisse's grandson Paul Matisse is an artist and inventor living in Massachusetts. Matisse's great-granddaughter Sophie Matisse is active as an artist. Les Heritiers Matisse functions as his official Estate. The U.S. copyright representative for Les Heritiers Matisse is the Artists Rights Society.Most frequently requested artists list of the Artists Rights Society {{webarchive |url= |date=6 February 2015 }}

Recent exhibitions

Henri Matisse: The Cut-Outs was exhibited at London's Tate Modern, from April to September 2014.{{Citation
| last = | first = | author-link = | title = Henri Matisse: The Cut-Outs | publisher = Tate | date = | year = | url =weblink
| accessdate = 28 February 2015}} The show was the largest and most extensive of the cut-outs ever mounted, including approximately 100 paper maquettes—borrowed from international public and private collections—as well as a selection of related drawings, prints, illustrated books, stained glass, and textiles.{{Citation| last = | first = | author-link = | title = Henri Matisse: The Cut-Outs | publisher = Museum of Modern Art | date = | year = | url =weblink | accessdate = 28 February 2015}} In total, the retrospective featured 130 works encompassing his practice from 1937 to 1954. The Tate Modern show was the first in its history to attract more than half a million people.{{Citation| last = | first = | author-link = | title = Henri Matisse exhibition is Tate's most successful art show | publisher = BBC | date = 15 September 2014 | url =weblink | accessdate = 28 February 2015}}
The show then traveled to New York's Museum of Modern Art, where it was on display through 10 February 2015. The newly conserved cut-out, The Swimming Pool, which had been off view for more than 20 years prior, returned to the galleries as the centerpiece of the exhibition.{{Citation
| last = | first = | author-link = | title = Henri Matisse: The Cut-Outs | publisher = Museum of Modern Art | date = | year = | url =weblink | accessdate = 28 February 2015}}

Partial list of works

{{Div col|colwidth=22em}} {{div col end}}


Portrayal in media and literature

Film dramatisations
  • A film called Masterpiece, about the artist and his relationship with Monique Bourgeois,NEWS, Child, Ben, Al Pacino to play Henri Matisse,weblink 29 April 2012, The Guardian, 14 February 2011, was proposed in 2011. Deepa Mehta intended to direct with Al Pacino to play Henri Matisse.
  • Matisse was played by Yves-Antoine Spoto in the 2011 film Midnight in Paris.

Exhibition on screen
  • The Museum of Modern Art's Matisse retrospective was part of the film series "Exhibition on Screen", which broadcasts productions to movie theaters.
  • The film Matisse From MoMA and Tate Modern combines high-definition footage of the galleries with commentary from curators, museum administrators and, through narration of words from the past, Matisse himself. "We want to show the exhibition as well as we possibly can to the audience who can’t get there", said director Phil Grabsky. Inspired by a similar "event cinema" produced by the Met, Grabsky started his series to simulate the experience of strolling through an art exhibit.NEWS, Battaglia, Andy, Matisse’s Cut-Outs, Now Screening at a Theater Near You,weblink 7 April 2014, The Wall Street Journal, 11 January 2015,



Books and essays

  • Notes of a Painter ("Note d'un peintre"), 1908
  • Painter's Notes on Drawing ("Notes d'un peintre sur son dessin"), July 1939
  • Jazz, 1947
  • Matisse on Art, collected by Jack D. Flam, 1973, {{ISBN|0-7148-1518-7}}
  • Chatting with Henri Matisse: The Lost 1941 Interview, Getty Publications, 2013, {{ISBN|978-1-60606-128-2}}

References and sources

  • Alfred H. Barr, Jr., Matisse: His Art and His Public New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1951. {{ISBN|0-87070-469-9}}; {{ISBN|978-0-87070-469-7}}.
  • Olivier Berggruen and Max Hollein, Editors. Henri Matisse: Drawing with Scissors: Masterpieces from the Late Years. Prestel Publishing, 2006. {{ISBN|978-3791334738}}.
  • F. Celdran, R.R. Vidal y Plana. Triangle : Henri Matisse – Georgette Agutte – Marcel Sembat Paris, Yvelinedition, 2007. {{ISBN|978-2-84668-131-5}}.
  • Jack Cowart and Dominique Fourcade. Henri Matisse: The Early Years in Nice 1916–1930. Henry N. Abrams, Inc., 1986. {{ISBN|978-0810914421}}.
  • Raymond Escholier. Matisse. A Portrait of the Artist and the Man. London, Faber & Faber, 1960.
  • Lawrence Gowing. Matisse. New York, Oxford University Press, 1979. {{ISBN|0-19-520157-4}}.
  • Hanne Finsen, Catherine Coquio, et al. Matisse: A Second Life. Hazan, 2005. {{ISBN|978-2754100434}}.
  • David Lewis. "Matisse and Byzantium, or, Mechanization Takes Command" in Modernism/modernity 16:1 (January 2009), 51–59.
  • John Russell. Matisse, Father & Son, published by Harry N. Abrams, NYC. Copyright John Russell 1999, {{ISBN|0-8109-4378-6}}
  • Pierre Schneider. Matisse. New York, Rizzoli, 1984. {{ISBN|0-8478-0546-8}}.
  • Hilary Spurling. The Unknown Matisse: A Life of Henri Matisse, Vol. 1, 1869–1908. London, Hamish Hamilton Ltd, 1998. {{ISBN|0-679-43428-3}}.
  • Hilary Spurling. Matisse the Master: A Life of Henri Matisse, Vol. 2, The Conquest of Colour 1909–1954. London, Hamish Hamilton Ltd, 2005. {{ISBN|0-241-13339-4}}.
  • Alastair Wright. Matisse and the Subject of Modernism Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2006. {{ISBN|0-691-11830-2}}.

See also

Further reading

  • Berggruen, Olivier and Max Hollein, eds., Henri Matisse: Drawing with Scissors: Masterpieces from the Late Years, Prestel, 2006. {{ISBN|3791334735}}.
  • Bois, Yve-Alain. Matisse in the Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia: The Barnes Foundation; New York and London: Thames & Hudson, 2016.weblink{{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}
  • Kampis, Antal, Matisse, Budapest, 1959.
  • Nancy Marmer, "Matisse and the Strategy of Decoration," Artforum, March 1966, pp. 28–33.
  • Henry Matisse, A Second Life, Alastair Sooke, Penguin, 2014

External links

{{commons category}} {{Matisse}}{{Fauvism}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Henri Matisse" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 2:35pm EDT - Wed, Jul 17 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott