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Haredi Judaism
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File:MORNING TORA READING.jpg|thumb|290px|right|Elderly Haredi Jewish men during cantillation of the Torah.]]{{Jews and Judaism sidebar}}Haredi Judaism ( {{transl|he|Ḥaredi}}, {{IPA-he|χaʁeˈdi|IPA}}; also spelled Charedi, plural Haredim or Charedim) consists of groups within Orthodox Judaism characterized by a strict adherence to their interpretation of Jewish law and values as opposed to modern values and practices.WEB,weblink Haredim (Charedim), or Ultra-Orthodox Jews, Raysh Weiss, My Jewish Learning, What unites haredim is their absolute reverence for Torah, including both the Written and Oral Law, as the central and determining factor in all aspects of life. ... In order to prevent outside influence and contamination of values and practices, haredim strive to limit their contact with the outside world, WEB,weblink Orthodox Judaism, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace & World Affairs, Haredi Judaism, on the other hand, prefers not to interact with secular society, seeking to preserve halakha without amending it to modern circumstances and to safeguard believers from involvement in a society that challenges their ability to abide by halakha., Its members are often referred to as strictly Orthodox or ultra-Orthodox in English, although the term "ultra-Orthodox" is considered pejorative by many of its adherents.WEB,weblink Should ultra-Orthodox Jews be able to decide what they're called?, Markoe, Lauren, February 6, 2014, Washington Post, 2017-01-13, Haredi Jews regard themselves as the most religiously authentic group of Jews,BOOK, Tatyana Dumova, Richard Fiordo, Blogging in the Global Society: Cultural, Political and Geographical Aspects,weblink 30 September 2011, Idea Group Inc (IGI), 978-1-60960-744-9, 126, Haredim regard themselves as the most authentic custodians of Jewish religious law and tradition which, in their opinion, is binding and unchangeable. They consider all other expressions of Judaism, including Modern Orthodoxy, as deviations from God's laws., WEB,weblink Orthodox Judaism, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace & World Affairs, Orthodox Judaism claims to preserve Jewish law and tradition from the time of Moses., although this claim is contested by other streams.BOOK, Nora L. Rubel, Doubting the Devout: The Ultra-Orthodox in the Jewish American Imagination,weblink 24 July 2013, 2010, Columbia University Press, 978-0-231-14187-1, 148, Mainstream Jews have—until recently—maintained the impression that the ultraorthodox are the 'real' Jews., {{harvnb|Ilan|2012}}: "One of the main sources of power enabling Haredi Jews' extreme behavior is the Israeli public's widely held view that their way of life represents traditional Judaism, and that when it comes to Judaism, more radical means more authentic. This is among the most strongly held and unfounded myths in Israel society."Haredi Judaism is a reaction to societal changes, including emancipation, the Haskalah movement derived from the Enlightenment, acculturation, secularization, religious reform in all its forms from mild to extreme, the rise of the Jewish national movements, etc.For example: Arnold Eisen, Rethinking Modern Judaism, University of Chicago Press, 1998. p. 3. In contrast to Modern Orthodox Judaism, which accepted modernity, followers of Haredi Judaism maintain their adherence to Jewish Law and custom by segregating themselves from modern society.{{harvnb|Batnitzky|2011|pp=184–185}} However, many Haredi communities encourage their young people to get a professional degree or establish a business, and contact takes place between Haredi and non-Haredi Jews, as well as between Haredi Jews and non-Jews.Haredi communities are found primarily in Israel, North America, and Western Europe. Their estimated global population numbers 1.5–1.8 million, and, due to a virtual absence of interfaith marriage and a high birth rate, the Haredi population is growing rapidly.BOOK, Norman S. Cohen, The Americanization of the Jews,weblink 1 January 2012, NYU Press, 978-0-8147-3957-0, 389, Given the high fertility and statistical insignificance of intermarriage among ultra-Orthodox haredim in contrast to most of the rest of the Jews..., {{harvnb|Wise|2007}}WEB, Buck, Tobias,weblink Israel's secular activists start to fight back, Financial Times, 2011-11-06, 2013-03-26, JOURNAL, Berman, Eli, Sect, Subsidy, and Sacrifice: An Economist's View of Ultra-Orthodox Jews, 2000, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115, 3, 905–953, 10.1162/003355300554944, Their numbers have also been boosted by a substantial number of secular Jews adopting a Haredi lifestyle as part of the Baal teshuva movement.BOOK, Šelomo A. Dešen, Charles Seymour Liebman, Moshe Shokeid, Israeli Judaism: The Sociology of Religion in Israel,weblink 1 January 1995, Transaction Publishers, 978-1-4128-2674-7, 28, The number of baalei teshuvah, "penitents" from secular backgrounds who become Ultraorthodox Jews, amounts to a few thousand, mainly between the years 1975-87, and is modest compared with the natural growth of the haredim; but the phenomenon has generated great interest in Israel., {{harvnb|Harris|1992|p=490}}: "This movement began in the US, but is now centred in Israel, where, since 1967, many thousands of Jews have consciously adopted an ultra-Orthodox lifestyle."{{harvnb|Weintraub|2002|p=211}}: "Many of the ultra-Orthodox Jews living in Brooklyn are baaley tshuva, Jews who have gone through a repentance experience and have become Orthodox, though they may have been raised in entirely secular Jewish homes."Returning to Tradition: The Contemporary Revival of Orthodox Judaism, By M. Herbert Danzger: "A survey of Jews in the New York metropolitan area found that 24% of those who were highly observant ... had been reared by parents who did not share such scruples. [...] The ba'al t'shuva represents a new phenomenon for Judaism; for the first time there are not only Jews who leave the fold ... but also a substantial number who "return". p. 2; and: "Defined in terms of observance, then, the number of newly Orthodox is about 100,000." p. 193.{{TOC limit|3}}

Terminology

(File:Haredi Judaism.jpg|thumb|Haredi Jews in Jerusalem)The term most commonly used by outsiders, including most American news organizations, is ultra-Orthodox Judaism. Hillel Halkin suggests the origins of the term may date to the 1950s, a period in which Haredi survivors of the Holocaust first began arriving in America.NEWS,weblink Just How Orthodox Are They?, Halkin, Hillel, 2013-02-17, The Forward, 2017-01-13, However, Isaac Leeser (1806–1868) was described in 1916 as "ultra-Orthodox".BOOK, 71, Max B., May, Isaac Mayer Wise : Founder of American Judaism : A Biography, G.P. Putnam's, New York, 1916,weblink Haredi is a Modern Hebrew adjective derived from the Biblical verb {{transl|he|hared}}, which appears in the Book of Isaiah ({{Bibleverse-nb||is|66:2|HE}}; its plural haredim appears in Isaiah {{Bibleverse-nb||is|66:5|HE}}){{harvnb|Stadler|2009|p=4}} and is translated as "[one who] trembles" at the word of God. The word connotes an awe-inspired fear and anxiety to perform the will of God;{{harvnb|Ben-Yehuda|2010|p=17}} it is used to distinguish them from other Orthodox Jews (similar to the name used by Christian Quakers to describe their relationship to God).White, John Kenneth (1998). Political Parties and the Collapse of the Old Orders. State University of New York Press. p. 157.Keysar, Ariela (2009). Secularism, Women & the State: The Mediterranean World in the 21st Century. Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture. p. 86. The word Haredi is often used in the Jewish diaspora in place of the term ultra-Orthodox, which many view as inaccurate or offensive,Ayalon, Ami (1999). "Language as a barrier to political reform in the Middle East", International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Volume 137, pp. 67–80: "Haredi" has none of the misleading religious implications of "ultra-Orthodox": in the words of Shilhav (1989: 53), "They are not necessarily [objectively] more religious, but religious in a different way."; and "'Haredi'... is preferable, being a term commonly used by such Jews themselves... Moreover, it carries none of the venom often injected into the term 'ultra-Orthodox' by other Jews and, sadly, by the Western media..."Sources describing the term as pejorative or derogatory include:
  • Kobre, Eytan. One People, Two Worlds. A Reform Rabbi and an Orthodox Rabbi Explore the Issues That Divide Them, reviewed by Eytan Kobre, Jewish Media Resources, February 2003. Retrieved August 25, 2009. "'Indeed, the social scientist Marvin Schick calls attention to the fact that "through the simple device of identifying [some Jews] ... as "ultra-Orthodox", ... [a] pejorative term has become the standard reference term for describing a great many Orthodox Jews... No other ethnic or religious group in this country is identified in language that conveys so negative a message.'"
  • Goldschmidt, Henry. Race and Religion among the Chosen Peoples of Crown Heights, Rutgers University Press, 2006, p. 244, note 26. "I am reluctant to use the term 'ultra-Orthodox', as the prefix 'ultra' carries pejorative connotations of irrational extremism."
  • Longman, Chia. "Engendering Identities as Political Processes: Discources of Gender Among Strictly Orthodox Jewish Women", in Rik Pinxten, Ghislain Verstraete, Chia Longmanp (eds.) Culture and Politics: Identity and Conflict in a Multicultural World, Berghahn Books, 2004, p. 55. "Webber (1994: 27) uses the label 'strictly Orthodox' when referring to Haredi, seemingly more adequate as a purely descriptive name, yet carrying less pejorative connotations than ultra-Orthodox."
  • Shafran, Avi. Don't Call Us 'Ultra-Orthodox', The Jewish Daily Forward, February 2014. Retrieved July 9, 2014. "Considering that other Orthodox groups have self-identified with prefixes like "modern" or "open", why can't we Haredim just be, simply, "Orthodox"? Our beliefs and practices, after all, are those that most resemble those of our grandparents. But, whatever alternative is adopted, "ultra" deserves to be jettisoned from media and discourse. We Haredim aren't looking for special treatment, or to be called by some name we just happen to prefer. We're only seeking the mothballing of a pejorative."BOOK,weblink Orthodox by Design: Judaism, Print Politics, and the ArtScroll Revolution, Stolow, Jeremy, 2010-01-01, University of California Press, 9780520264250, en, it being seen as a derogatory term suggesting extremism; English-language alternatives that have been proposed include fervently Orthodox,Lipowsky, Josh. "Paper loses 'divisive' term". Jewish Standard. January 30, 2009. "... JTA [Jewish Telegraphic Agency] faced the same conundrum and decided to do away with the term, replacing it with 'fervently Orthodox'. ... 'Ultra-Orthodox' was seen as a derogatory term that suggested extremism." strictly Orthodox, or traditional Orthodox. Others, however, dispute the characterization of the term as pejorative. Ari L. Goldman, a professor at Columbia University, notes that the term simply serves a practical purpose to distinguish a specific part of the Orthodox community, and is not meant as pejorative. Others, such as Samuel Heilman, criticized terms such as ultra-Orthodox and traditional Orthodox, arguing that they misidentify Haredi Jews as more authentically Orthodox than others, as opposed to adopting customs and practises that reflect their desire to separate from the outside world.NEWS,weblink Ultra-Orthodox Jews Shouldn't Have a Monopoly on Tradition, Heilman, Samuel, The Forward, 2017-01-13,
The community has sometimes been characterized as traditional Orthodox, in contradistinction to the Modern Orthodox, the other major branch of Orthodox Judaism, and not to be confused with the movement represented by the Union for Traditional Judaism, which originated in Conservative Judaism).BOOK, Heilman, Samuel C., Synagogue Life: A Study in Symbolic Interaction, 1976, Transaction Publishers, 978-1412835497, 15–16, BOOK, Ritzer, George, Ryan, J. Michael, The concise encyclopedia of sociology, 2011, Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 978-1444392647, 335, Haredi Jews also use other terms to refer to themselves. Common Yiddish words include {{transl|yi|Yidn}} ('Jews'), {{transl|yi|erlekhe Yidn}} ('virtuous Jews'), {{transl|he|ben Torah}} ('son of the Torah'), {{transl|yi|frum}} ('pious'), and {{transl|yi|heimish}} ('home-like', i e.,'"our crowd').In Israel, Haredi Jews are sometimes also called by the derogatory slang words {{transl|he|dos}} (plural {{transl|he|dosim}}), that mimics the traditional Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation of the Hebrew word {{transl|he|datim}}, meaning 'religious',Donna Rosenthal. The Israelis: Ordinary People in an Extraordinary Land. Simon and Schuster, 2005. p. 183. "Dossim, a derogatory word for Haredim, is Yiddish-accented Hebrew for 'religious'." and more rarely, {{transl|he|sh'chorim}} ('blacks'), a reference to the black clothes they typically wear;Nadia Abu El-Haj. Facts on the ground: Archaeological practice and territorial self-fashioning in Israeli society. University of Chicago Press, 2001. p. 262. a related informal term used in English is black hat.BOOK, Benor, Sarah Bunin, Becoming frum how newcomers learn the language and culture of Orthodox Judaism, 2012, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, N.J., 978-0813553917, 9,

History

File:Hasidic boys in Poland.jpg|thumb|Hasidic boys in ŁódźŁódźAccording to its adherents, the forebears of the contemporary Haredi Jews were the traditionalists of Eastern Europe who fought against modernization. Indeed, adherents see their beliefs as part of an unbroken tradition dating from the revelation at Sinai.BOOK,weblink Doubting the Devout: The Ultra-Orthodox in the Jewish American Imagination, Rubel, Nora L., 2009-11-01, Columbia University Press, 9780231512589, en, However, most historians of Orthodoxy consider Haredi Judaism, in its modern incarnation, to date back no earlier than the start of the 20th century.For centuries, before Jewish emancipation, European Jews were forced to live in ghettos where Jewish culture and religious observance were preserved. Change began in the wake of the Age of Enlightenment when some European liberals sought to include the Jewish population in the emerging empires and nation states. The influence of the Haskalah movementJOURNAL, Kogman, Tal, Science and the Rabbis: Haskamot, Haskalah, and the Boundaries of Jewish Knowledge in Scientific Hebrew Literature and Textbooks, The Leo Baeck Institute Year Book, 7 January 2017, 62, 135–149, 10.1093/leobaeck/ybw021, (Jewish Enlightenment) was also evidence. Supporters of the Haskalah held that Judaism must change in keeping with the social changes around them. Other Jews insisted on strict adherence to halakha (Jewish law and custom).In Germany, the opponents of Reform rallied to Samson Raphael Hirsch, who led a secession from German Jewish communal organizations to form a strictly Orthodox movement with its own network of synagogues and schools. His approach was to accept the tools of modern scholarship and apply them in defence of Orthodoxy. In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (including areas traditionally considered Lithuanian), Jews true to traditional values gathered under the banner of Agudas Shlumei Emunei Yisroel.WEB,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120219185858weblink">weblink February 19, 2012, Ner Tamid Emblem Workbook, January 20, 2008, Moses Sofer was opposed to any philosophical, social, or practical change to customary Orthodox practice. Thus, he did not allow any secular studies to be added to the curriculum of his Pressburg Yeshiva. Sofer's student Moshe Schick, together with Sofer's sons Shimon and Samuel Benjamin, took an active role in arguing against the Reform movement. Others, such as Hillel Lichtenstein, advocated an even more stringent position for Orthodoxy.A major historic event was the meltdown after the Universal Israelite Congress of 1868–1869 in Pest. In an attempt to unify all streams of Judaism under one constitution, the Orthodox offered the Shulchan Aruch as the ruling Code of law and observance. This was dismissed by the reformists, leading many Orthodox rabbis to resign from the Congress and form their own social and political groups. Hungarian Jewry split into two major institutionally sectarian groups, Orthodox and Neolog. However, some communities refused to join either of the groups calling themselves Status Quo.Schick demonstrated support in 1877 for the separatist policies of Samson Raphael Hirsch in Germany. Schick's own son was enrolled in the Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary that taught secular studies and was headed by Azriel Hildesheimer. Hirsch, however, did not reciprocate, and expressed astonishment at Schick's halakhic contortions in condemning even those Status Quo communities that clearly adhered to halakhah.WEB,weblink YIVO | Schick, Mosheh, Yivoencyclopedia.org, 2013-03-26, Lichtenstein opposed Hildesheimer and his son Hirsh Hildesheimer as they made use of the German language in sermons from the pulpit and seemed to sway to the direction of Modern Zionism.WEB,weblink Kolmyya, Ukraine (Pages 41-55, 85-88), Jewishgen.org, 2011-02-12, 2013-03-26, Shimon Sofer was somewhat more lenient than Lichtenstein on the use of German in sermons, allowing the practice as needed for the sake of keeping cordial relations with the various governments. Likewise, he allowed extra-curricular studies of the gymnasium for students whose rabbinical positions would be recognized by the governments, stipulating the necessity to prove the strict adherence to the God-fearing standards per individual case.WEB,weblink Rabbi Shimon Sofer • "The Author of Michtav Sofer", Hevratpinto.org, 2013-03-26, File:Orthodox Jews in Leopoldstadt 1915.JPG|thumb|left|Ultra-Orthodox Jews from Galicia at the {{Interlanguage link multi|Karmelitermarkt|de}} in Vienna's second district LeopoldstadtLeopoldstadtIn 1912, the World Agudath Israel was founded to differentiate itself from the Torah Nationalists Mizrachi and secular Zionist organizations. It was dominated by the Hasidic rebbes and Lithuanian rabbis and roshei yeshiva. Agudah nominated rabbis who were elected as representatives in the Polish government Sejm, such as Meir Shapiro and Yitzhak-Meir Levin. Not all Hasidic factions joined the Agudath Israel, remaining independent such as Machzikei Hadat of Galicia.WEB,weblink New Religious Party, Archive.jta.org, 1934-09-13, 2013-03-26, In 1919, Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld and Yitzchok Yerucham Diskin founded the Edah HaChareidis as part of Agudath Israel in then Mandate Palestine.In 1924, Agudath Israel obtained 75 percent of the votes in the Kehilla elections.WEB,weblink Berlin Conference Adopts Constitution for World Union Progressive Judaism, Archive.jta.org, 1928-08-21, 2013-03-26, The Orthodox community polled some 16,000 of a total 90,000 at the Knesseth Israel in 1929.WEB,weblink Agudah Claims 16,205 Palestine Jews Favor Separate Communities, Archive.jta.org, 1929-02-28, 2013-03-26, But Sonnenfeld lobbied Sir John Chancellor, the High Commissioner, for separate representation in the Palestine Communities Ordinance from that of the Knesseth Israel. He explained that the Agudas Israel community would cooperate with the Vaad Leumi and the National Jewish Council in matters pertaining to the municipality, but sought to protect its religious convictions independently. The community petitioned the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations on this issue. The one community principle was victorious despite their opposition, but this is seen as the creation of the Haredi community in Israel separate from the other modern Orthodox and Zionist movements.WEB,weblink Palestine Communities Ordinance Promulgated, Archive.jta.org, 1927-07-20, 2013-03-26, In 1932, Sonnenfeld was succeeded by Yosef Tzvi Dushinsky, a disciple of the Shevet Sofer, one of the grandchildren of Moses Sofer. Dushinsky promised to build up a strong Jewish Orthodoxy at peace with the other Jewish communities and the non-Jews.WEB,weblink Rabbi Dushinsky Installed As Jerusalem Chief Rabbi of Orthodox Agudath Israel, Archive.jta.org, 1933-09-03, 2013-03-26,

Post-Holocaust

In general, the present-day Haredi population originate from two distinct post-Holocaust waves:
  1. The vast majority of Hasidic and Litvak communities were destroyed during the Holocaust.WEB,weblink Hasidism: Historical Overview, 2, David, Assaf, The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, 2010, JOURNAL,weblink Michael, MacQueen, The Context of Mass Destruction: Agents and Prerequisites of the Holocaust in Lithuania, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 2014, 12, 1, 27–48, 1476-7937, 10.1093/hgs/12.1.27, Though Hasidic customs have largely been preserved, the customs of Lithuanian Jewry, including its unique Hebrew pronunciation, have been almost lost. Litvish customs are still preserved primarily by the few older Jews who were born in Lithuania prior to the Holocaust. In the decade or so after 1945, there was a strong drive to revive and maintain these lifestyles by some notable Haredi leaders.
  2. The Chazon Ish was particularly prominent in the early days of the State of Israel. Aharon Kotler established many of the Haredi schools and Yeshivas in the United States and Israel; and Joel Teitelbaum had a significant impact on revitalizing Hasidic Jewry, as well as many of the Jews who fled Hungary during 1956 revolution who became followers of his Satmar dynasty, and became the largest Hasidic group in the world. These Jews would typically only have maintained a connection with other religious family members. As such, those growing up in such families have little or no contact with non-Haredi Jews.WEB,weblink Haredim (Chareidim), Raysh, Weiss, myjewishlearning.com,
  3. The second wave began in the 1970s associated with the religious revival of the so-called baal teshuva movement, although most of the newly religious become Orthodox, and not necessarily fully Haredi.{{citation needed|date=June 2014}} The formation and spread of the Sephardic Haredi lifestyle movement also began in the 1980s by Ovadia Yosef, alongside the establishment of the Shas party in 1984. This led many Sephardi Jews to adopt the clothing and culture of the Lithuanian Haredi Judaism, though it had no historical basis in their own tradition.{{citation needed|date=June 2014}} Many yeshivas were also established specifically for new adopters of the Haredi way of life.{{citation needed|date=June 2014}}
The original Haredi population has been instrumental in the expansion of their lifestyle, though criticisms have been made of discrimination towards the later adopters of the Haredi lifestyle in Shidduchim (matchmaking)JOURNAL, Power, Boundaries and Institutions: Marriage in Ultra-Orthodox Judaism, David, Lehmann, Batia, Siebzehner, European Journal of Sociology, 50, 2, August 2009, 273–308, 10.1017/s0003975609990142, and the school system.WEB,weblink Sephardi haredim complain to court about 'ghettos', Yonah Jeremy, Bob, 19 April 2013, 22 June 2014, The Jerusalem Post,

Practices and beliefs

Haredi Judaism is not an institutionally cohesive or homogeneous group, but comprises a diversity of spiritual and cultural orientations, generally divided into a broad range of Hasidic sects, Litvishe-Yeshivish streams from Eastern Europe, and Oriental Sephardic Haredi Jews. These groups often differ significantly from one another in their specific ideologies and lifestyles, as well as the degree of stringency in religious practice, rigidity of religious philosophy, and isolation from the general culture that they maintain. {{citation needed|date=August 2017}}The majority of the Haredi Jews worldwide live in neighborhoods in which reside mostly other Haredi Jews.{{citation needed|date=August 2017}}The practices and beliefs of Haredi Jews, which have been interpreted as "isolationist", can bring them into conflict with modern liberal values. In 2018, a Haredi school in the United Kingdom was rated as "inadequate" by the Office for Standards in Education, after repeated complaints were raised about the censoring of textbooks and exam papers mentioning homosexuality, containing examples of women socializing with men, pictures showing women's shoulders and legs, and information that contradicts a creationist worldview.NEWS,weblink State faith school that redacted textbooks failed by Ofsted, 2018-06-26, Humanists UK, 2018-06-28, en, BOOK,weblink School Report: Yesodey Hatorah Senior Girls School, Ofsted, 2018,

Lifestyle and family

File:Girls_and_women_of_Breslov.jpg|left|thumb|Haredi Jewish women and girls in Mea ShearimMea ShearimHaredi life, like Orthodox Jewish life in general, is very family-centered. Boys and girls attend separate schools, and proceed to higher Torah study, in a yeshiva or seminary, respectively, starting anywhere between the ages of 13 and 18. A significant proportion of young men remain in yeshiva until their marriage (which is usually arranged through facilitated dating). After marriage, many Haredi men continue their Torah studies in a kollel. Studying in secular institutions is often discouraged, although educational facilities for vocational training in a Haredi framework do exist. In the United States and Europe, the majority of Haredi males are active in the workforce. For various reasons, in Israel, around half of their members do not work, and most of those who do are not officially a part of the workforce.{{harvnb|Stadler|2009|p=79}}: "The economic situation of Haredi in Israel is unique. When comparing the Haredi community in Israel with that in the United States, Gonen (2000) found that Haredi members in the United States (both Lithuanians and Hasidic) work and participate in the labor market."{{harvnb|Stadler|2009|p=44}}: "The support of the yeshiva culture is related also to the developments of Israel's welfare policy... This is why in Israel today, Haredim live in relatively poorer conditions (Berman 2000, Dahan 1998, Shilhav 1991), and large Haredi families are totally dependent on state-funded social support systems. This situation is unique to Israel."{{harvnb|Stadler|2009|pp=77–78}}: "According to various surveys of the Haredi community, between 46 and sixty percent of its members do not participate in the labor market and 25 percent have part-time jobs (see Berman 1998; Dahan 1998). Members who work usually take specific jobs within a very narrow range of occupations, mainly those of teachers and clerical or administrative staff (Lupo 2003). In addition, because Haredim encourage large families, half of them live in poverty and economic distress (Berman 1998)." Haredi families (and Orthodox Jewish families in general) are usually much larger than non-Orthodox Jewish families, with as many as twelve or more children.Wertheimer, Jack. "What You Don't Know About the Ultra-Orthodox." Commentary Magazine. 1 July 2015. 4 September 2015.Haredi Jews are typically opposed to the viewing of television and films,WEB,weblink he:הרב הראשי לתלמידי הישיבות: אל תצפו בטלוויזיה בפיצוציות, Chief Rabbi [of Israel] To Yeshiva Students: Don't Watch TV in Kiosks, Hebrew, 29 July 2013, Ynetnews, 21 September 2013, and the reading of secular newspapers and books. There has been a strong campaign against the Internet, and Internet-enabled mobile phones without filters have also been banned by leading rabbis.WEB, Jonathan, Rosenblum, Jonathan Rosenblum,weblink Proud to be Chareidi, Jewish Media Resources, 2004-12-15, 2013-09-21, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090302061255weblink">weblink 2009-03-02, WEB,weblink Ultra-Orthodox Jews are Correct About the Dangers of the Internet, Jason, Miller, The Huffington Post, 8 June 2012, 22 June 2014, NEWS,weblink Is that cellphone kosher?, BBC News, 2008-10-06, 2013-09-21, In May 2012, 40,000 Haredim gathered at Citi Field, a baseball park in New York City, to discuss the dangers of unfiltered Internet.NEWS, Ultra-Orthodox Jews Rally to Discuss Risks of Internet,weblink 20 September 2012, The New York Times, 20 May 2012, The event was organized by the Ichud HaKehillos LeTohar HaMachane. The Internet has been allowed for business purposes so long as filters are installed.

Dress

(File:לבוש מסורתי ביישוב הישן.jpg|thumb|Styles of Haredi dress)(File:Haredi (Orthodox) Jewish Couples at Bus Stop - Outside Old City - Jerusalem (5684561290).jpg|thumb|Typical Haredi dress for men and women)The standard mode of dress for males of the Lithuanian stream is a black suit and a white shirt.{{citation needed|date=May 2016}} Headgear includes black fedora or Homburg hats, with black skull caps under their hats. Pre-war Lithuanian yeshiva students, however, also wore light coloured suits, along with beige or grey hats.WEB,weblink Question 11.1.6: Dress: Why do some Orthodox Jews, especially Chassidim, wear a distinctive style of clothing (i. e., fur hats, black coats, gartel)?, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160510042843weblink">weblink 2016-05-10, Soc.Culture.Jewish Newsgroups, The style of hat varies by groups, and the black hat is relatively modern. In the pre-war Lithuanian Yeshivot, grey suits and grey fedoras were the style, and many in the Litvish tradition still wear grey and blue suits., Beards are common among Haredi (and many other Orthodox Jewish) men, and most Hasidic males will never be clean-shaven. Women adhere to the laws of modest dress, and wear long skirts and sleeves, high necklines, and, if married, some form of hair covering.{{harvnb|Hoffman|2011|p=90}} Haredi women never wear trousers, although a small minority do wear pajama-trousers within the home at night.Over the years, it has become popular among some Haredi women to wear wigs that are more attractive than their own hair (drawing criticism from some more conservative Haredi rabbis).{{citation needed|date=November 2013}} Mainstream Sephardi Haredi rabbi Ovadia Yosef forbade the wearing of wigs altogether.WEB, Galahar, Ari, Rabbi Yosef comes out against wig-wearing,weblink Ynetnews.com, 31 January 2014, Haredi women often dress more freely and casually within the home, as long as the body remains covered in accordance with the halakha. More "modernized" Haredi women are somewhat more lenient in matters of their dress, and some follow the latest trends and fashions while conforming to the halakha.WEB,weblink A long article explaining the characteristics of female Haredi dress inside and outside the house, Peopleil.org, 2014-03-11,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131101153352weblink">weblink 2013-11-01, yes, Non-Lithuanian Hasidic men and women differ from the Lithuanian stream by having a much more specific dress code, the most obvious difference for men being the full-length suit jacket (rekel) on weekdays, and the fur hat (shtreimel) and silk caftan (bekishe) on the Sabbath.

Neighborhoods

Haredi neighborhoods tend to be safe.BOOK, Aryeh Spero, Dana Evan Kaplan, Contemporary Debates in American Reform Judaism: Conflicting Visions,weblink 11 January 2013, Routledge, 978-1-136-05574-4, 119, Orthodoxy Confronts Reform – The Two Hundred Years’ War, Haredi citizenship is beneficial, however, since it creates safe neighborhoods where robbery, mugging, or rape will not be visited on strangers walking through it, and where rules of modesty and civilized behavior are the expected norm., In Israel, the entrances to some of the most extreme Haredi neighborhoods are fitted with signs asking that modest clothing be worn.{{harvnb|Starr Sered|2001|p=196}} Some areas are known to have "modesty patrols",{{harvnb|Sharkansky|1996|p=145}}: "'Modesty patrols' exist in Bnei Brak and ultra-Orthodox neighborhoods of Jerusalem; their purpose is to keep those areas free of immoral influences." and people dressed in ways perceived as immodest may suffer harassment, and advertisements featuring scantily dressed models may be targeted for vandalism.{{harvnb|Ben-Yehuda|2010|p=115}}: "Women dressed in what is judged as immodest may experience violence and harassment, and demands to leave the area. Immodest advertising may cause Haredi boycotts, and public spaces that present immodest advertisement may be vandalized."{{harvnb|Melman|1992|p=128}}: "In one part of the city, Orthodox platoons smash billboards showing half-naked fashion models." These concerns are also addressed through public lobbying and legal avenues.{{harvnb|Heilman|2002|p=322}}: "While similar sentiments about the moral significance of "immodest" posters in public are surely shared by American haredim, they would not attack images of scantily clad models on city bus stops on their neighborhoods with the same alacrity as their Israeli counterparts.Calvin Klein bra advert ruled OK despite Charedi complaint, Jennifer Lipman, January 18, 2012 During the week-long Rio Carnival in Rio de Janeiro, many of the city's 7000 Orthodox Jews feel compelled to leave the town due to the immodest exposure of participants.Jews flee Rio during carnival, Kobi Nahshoni 15/02/13 In 2001, Haredi campaigners in Jerusalem succeeded in persuading the Egged bus company to get all their advertisements approved by a special committee.{{harvnb|Cohen|2012|p=159}} By 2011, Egged had gradually removed all bus adverts that featured women in response to their continuous defacement. A court order that stated such action was discriminatory led to Egged's decision not to feature people at all (neither male nor female).WEB, Lidman, Melanie,weblink Egged: We will not use people on J'lem bus ads, Jpost.com, 2012-08-29, 2013-09-21, Depictions of certain other creatures, such as aliens, were also banned in order not to offend Haredi sensibilities.Egged bars J’lem ads featuring aliens Times of Israel (June 28, 2013) Haredi Jews also campaign against other types of advertising that promote activities they deem offensive or inappropriate.Ban this offensive advert, Jewish leaders demand, By Chris Hastings and Elizabeth Day 27/07/03Daily TelegraphTo honor the Shabbat, most state-run buses in Israel do not run on Saturdays.BOOK, N. J. Demerath, III, Nicholas Jay Demerath, Crossing the Gods: World Religions and Worldly Politics,weblink 1 January 2003, Rutgers University Press, 978-0-8135-3207-3, 103, To honor the Sabbath, many government services are closed, and no state buses operate from sundown Friday to sundown Saturday. Recent religious demands in Jerusalem have ranged from Sabbath road closings in Jewish areas and relocating a sports stadium so that it would not disturb a particular neighborhood's Sabbath to halting the sale of non-kosher food in Jewish sectors., In a similar vein, Haredi Jews in Israel have demanded that the roads in their neighborhoods be closed on Saturdays, vehicular traffic being viewed as an "intolerable provocation" upon their religious lifestyle (see Driving on Shabbat in Jewish law). In most cases, the authorities granted permission after Haredi petitioning and demonstrations, some of them including fierce clashes between Haredi Jews and secular counter-demonstrators, and violence against police and motorists.BOOK, Issa Rose, Taking Space Seriously: Law, Space, and Society in Contemporary Israel,weblink 2004, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 978-0-7546-2351-9, 101–105, The residents of the neighbourhood considered traffic on the Sabbath an intolerable provocation directly interfering with their way of life and began to demonstrate against it (Segev, 1986).,

Gender separation

(File:Separate beach signs, Ashdod.jpg|thumb|Gender-separate beach in Israel. To accommodate Haredi and other Orthodox Jews, many coastal resorts in Israel have a designated area for gender-separate bathing.{{harvnb|Landau|1993|p=276}}{{harvnb|Ettinger|2011}})While Jewish modesty law requires gender separation under various circumstances, observers have contended that there is a growing trend among some groups of Hasidic Haredi Jews to extend its observance to the public arena.{{harvnb|Zeveloff|2011}}In the Hasidic village of Kiryas Joel, New York, an entrance sign asks visitors to "maintain gender separation in all public areas", and the bus stops have separate waiting areas for men and women.{{harvnb|Chavkin|Nathan-Kazis|2011}} In New Square, another Hasidic enclave, men and women are expected to walk on opposite sides of the road. In Israel, residents of Meah Shearim were banned from erecting a street barrier dividing men and women during the nightly week-long Sukkot festivities,{{harvnb|Rosenberg|2011}}{{harvnb|Sharon|2012}} and street signs requesting that women avoid certain pavements in Beit Shemesh have been repeatedly removed by the municipality.{{harvnb|Heller|2012}}Since 1973, buses catering for Haredi Jews running from Rockland County and Brooklyn into Manhattan have had separate areas for men and women, allowing passengers to conduct on-board prayer services.BOOK, The Jewish Spectator,weblink 1977, School of the Jewish Woman, 6, THE NEW YORK State Assembly has passed a law permitting segregated seating for women on the buses chartered by ultra-Orthodox Jews for the routes from their Brooklyn and Rockland County (Spring Valley, Monsey, New Square) neighborhoods to their places of business and work in Manhattan. The buses are equipped with mehitzot, which separate the men's section from the women's. The operator of the partitioned buses, and the sponsors of the law that permits their unequal seating argued their case by invoking freedom of religion., Although the lines are privately operated, they serve the general public, and in 2011, the set-up was challenged on grounds of discrimination, and the arrangement was deemed illegal.{{harvnb|Dashefsk|Sheskin|2012|p=129}}{{harvnb|Haughney|2011}} During 2010–2012, there was much public debate in Israel surrounding the existence of segregated Haredi Mehadrin bus lines (whose policy calls for both men and women to stay in their respective areas: men in the front of the bus,JOURNAL, Kobre, Eytan, 28 December 2011, In The Hot Seat,weblink Mishpacha, 18 December 2013, and women in the rear of the bus) following an altercation that occurred after a woman refused to move to the rear of the bus to sit among the women. A subsequent court ruling stated that while voluntary segregation should be allowed, forced separation is unlawful.NEWS, Katya Alder,weblink Israel's 'modesty buses' draw fire, BBC News, 24 April 2007, Israeli national airline El Al has agreed to provide gender-separated flights to cater for Haredi requirements.WEB,weblink El Al to launch kosher flights for haredim - Israel Jewish Scene, Ynetnews, Ynet.co.il, 2013-09-21, File:Bais-Yaakov-1.jpg|thumb|left|The Bais Yaakov graduating class of 1934 in ŁódźŁódźEducation in the Haredi community is strictly segregated by sex. The education for boys is primarily focused on the study of Jewish scriptures, such as the Torah and Talmud, while girls obtain studies both in Jewish education as well as broader secular subjects.WEB,weblink Israel: Selected Issues Paper; IMF Country Report 12/71; March 9, 2012, 2014-02-23, In 2012, A Better Safe Than Sorry Book, aimed at Haredi Jewish children, was published with some controversy, as it contains both sexes.NEWS, Rotemfirst1=Tamar, Israel's ultra-Orthodox community tackles the issue of sexual abuse,weblink 3 March 2015, HAARETZ, HAARETZ, 4 September 2012,

Newspapers and publications

File:Tziporah Heller.jpg|thumb|Tziporah Heller, a weekly columnist for HamodiaHamodiaIn pre-war Poland, the Agudath Israel published its own Yiddish language paper, Dos Yiddishe Tagblatt. In 1950, the Agudah started printing Hamodia, a Hebrew language Israeli daily.Haredi publications tend to shield their readership from objectionable material,{{harvnb|Bryant|2012}}: "Haredi press rarely reports on deviance and unconventionality among Haredim. Thus, most reports are based on the secular Press. This is consistent with Haredi press policy of 'the right of the people not to know', which aims to shield Haredi readers from exposure to information about such issues as rape, robbery, suicide, prostitution, and so on." and perceive themselves as a "counterculture", desisting from advertising secular entertainment and events. The editorial policy of a Haredi newspaper is determined by a rabbinical board, and every edition is checked by a rabbinical censor.{{harvnb|Cohen|2012|p=79}} A strict policy of modesty is characteristic of the Haredi press, and pictures of women are usually not printed.{{harvnb|Cohen|2012|p=80}} In 2009, the Israeli daily Yated Ne'eman doctored an Israeli cabinet photograph replacing two female ministers with images of men,{{harvnb|anonymous (BBC)|2009}} and in 2013, the Bakehilah magazine pixelated the faces of women appearing in a (:File:Stroop Report - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 06b.jpg|photograph of the Warsaw Ghetto).{{harvnb|Tessler|2013}} The mainstream Haredi political party Shas also refrains from publishing female images.WEB,weblink ynet ביטאון ש"ס צנזר את תמונת רחל אטיאס - יהדות, Ynet.co.il, 2014-03-11, No coverage is given to serious crime, violence, sex, or drugs, and little coverage is given to non-Orthodox streams of Judaism.{{harvnb|Cohen|2012|p=93}} Inclusion of "immoral" content is avoided, and when publication of such stories is a necessity, they are often written ambiguously. The Haredi press generally takes a non-Zionist stance, and gives more coverage to issues that concern the Haredi community, such as the drafting of girls and yeshiva students into the army, autopsies, and Shabbat observance. In Israel, it portrays the secular world as "spitefully anti-Semitic", and describes secular youth as "mindless, immoral, drugged, and unspeakably lewd".{{harvnb|Cohen|Susser|2000|p=103}}: "The Haredi press, for its part, is every bit as belligerent and dismissive. [...] Apart from the recurrent images of drug-crazed, sybaritic, terminally empty-headed young people, the secular world is also portrayed as spitefully anti-Semitic."{{harvnb|Cohen|Susser|2000|p=102}}: "Yet when the Haredi newspapers present the world of secular Israeli youth as mindless, immoral, drugged, and unspeakably lewd..." Such attacks have led to Haredi editors being warned about libelous provocations.{{harvnb|Cohen|Susser|2000|p=103}}While the Haredi press is extensive and varied in Israel,BOOK, Rita James Simon, Continuity and Change: A Study of Two Ethnic Communities in Israel,weblink 28 July 1978, CUP Archive, 978-0-521-29318-1, 73–74, only around half the Haredi population reads newspapers. Around 10% read secular newspapers, while 40% do not read any newspaper at all.{{harvnb|Cohen|2012|p=110}} According to a 2007 survey, 27% read the weekend Friday edition of HaModia, and 26% the Yated Ne'eman.{{harvnb|Cohen|2012|p=111}} In 2006, the most-read Haredi magazine in Israel was the Mishpacha weekly, which sold 110,000 copies.

Technology

In the modern era of the internet and mobile phones, it can be confusing as to what is or is not considered appropriate. The Haredi leaders have at times suggested a ban on the internet, as well as any internet-capable device.Deutsch, Nathaniel. "The Forbidden Fork, the Cell Phone Holocaust, and Other Haredi Encounters with Technology." Contemporary Jewry, vol. 29, no. 1, 2009, 4.{{harvnb|Deutsch|2009|p=5}} Their reasoning being that the immense amount of information can be corrupting, and with the ability to use the internet with no observation from the community can lead to individuation.{{harvnb|Deutsch|2009|p=8}} However, these presented reasons by the Haredi leaders could be influenced by a general fear of the loss of young Haredi members. Banning the internet for Haredi Jews could be a detriment to possible economic uses from Jewish businesses. Some Haredi businessman utilize the internet throughout the week, but they still observe Shabbat in every aspect by not accepting or processing orders from Friday evening to Saturday evening.{{harvnb|Deutsch|2009|p=4}} They utilize the internet under strict filters and guidelines. Although Haredi leaders have been unsuccessful in their attempts of banning internet use, they have influenced the world of technology. The Kosher cell phone was introduced to the Jewish public with the sole ability to call other phones. It was unable to utilize the internet, text other phones, and had no camera feature. In fact, a kosher phone plan was created, with decreased rates for kosher-to-kosher calls, to encourage community.{{harvnb|Deutsch|2009|p=9}}{{harvnb|Deutsch|2009|p=18}}

News hotlines

News hotlines are an important source of news in the Haredi world. Since many Haredi Jews do not listen to the radio or have access to the internet, even if they read newspapers, they are left with little or no access to breaking news. News hotlines were formed to fill this gap, and many have expanded to additional fields over time.NEWS,weblink קווי נייעס ספקי החדשות והרכילות של המגזר החרדי, נלחמים על חייהם, Haaretz, Hebrew, Haredi news hotlines fighting to stay alive, NEWS,weblink 12,000 Calls a Day, One Number: Behind the Scenes at FNW, Blau, Shloimy, August 23, 2012, The Voice of Lakewood, Currently, many news lines provide rabbinic lectures, entertainment, business advice, and similar services, in addition to their primary function of reporting the news. Many Hasidic sects maintain their own hotlines, where relevant internal news is reported and the group's perspective can be advocated for. In the Israeli Haredi community, there are dozens of prominent hotlines, in both Yiddish and Hebrew. Some Haredi hotlines have played significant public roles.NEWS,weblink Haredi protestors shut down Jerusalem roads for the second week in a row, The Jerusalem Post {{!, JPost.com|access-date=2018-03-07|quote=...Instructions were eventually sent out at 6:30 p.m. over the Jerusalem Faction's telephone hotlines for the protesters to disperse, and only then were the roads and junctions they had blocked open to traffic again.}}

In Israel

Attitudes towards Zionism

{{See also|Haredim and Zionism}}While most Haredi Jews were opposed to the establishment of the State of Israel, and Haredi Jews mostly still do not celebrate its national Independence Day or other state-instituted holidays, there were many who threw their considerable weight in support of the nascent state.BOOK, David Sherman, Judaism Confronts Modernity: Sermons and Essays by Rabbi David Sherman on the Meaning of Jewish Life and Ideals Today,weblink 1993, D. Sherman, 978-0-620-18195-2, 289, The establishment of the State of Israel was bitterly opposed by the ultra-orthodox who still have great difficulty in accepting it. In Mea Shearim, Yom Ha'Atzmaut, Israel Independence Day, is treated as a day of mourning. They act as if they would rather be under Arafat or Hussein., JOURNAL, Ruth Ebenstein, Israel Studies,weblink 3, 8, 2003, Indiana University Press, 149, Remembered Through Rejection: Yom HaShoah in the Ashkenazi Haredi Daily Press, 1950-2000, Project MUSE database, A few years later, in the late 1990s, we find a striking twist to the Haredi rejection of the day. Both Ha-mod'ia and Yated Ne'eman usher in Yom HaShoah with trepidation. No longer was the day simply one they found offensive, but in their experience, it now marked the start of a week-long assault on Haredim for not observing the trilogy of secular Israel's national "holy days" — Yom HaShoah, Yom Hazikaron Lehaleley Zahal (the Memorial Day for Israel's war dead), and Yom Ha'atzmaut (Independence Day). Sparked, perhaps, by media coverage of Haredim ignoring memorial sirens, Haredim now felt attacked, even hunted down, for their rejection of the day during a period described by both Haredi newspapers with the Talmudic term byimey edeyhem, referring to idolatrous holidays., File:NKUSA.ORG at AIPAC protest 2005.JPG|thumb|275px|Members of Neturei KartaNeturei KartaThe chief political division among Haredi Jews has been in their approach to the State of Israel. While ideologically non-Zionist, the United Torah Judaism alliance comprising Agudat Yisrael and Degel HaTorah (and the umbrella organizations World Agudath Israel and Agudath Israel of America) represent a moderate and pragmatic stance of cooperation with the State of Israel, and participation in the political system. UTJ has been a participant in numerous coalition governments, seeking to influence state and society in a more religious direction and maintain welfare and religious funding policies. Haredim who are more stridently anti-Zionist are under the umbrella of Edah HaChareidis, who reject participation in politics and state funding of its affiliated institutions, in contradistinction to Agudah-affiliated institutions. Neturei Karta is a very small activist organization of anti-Zionist Haredim, whose controversial activities have been strongly condemned, including by other anti-Zionist Haredim. Neither main political party has the support in numbers to elect a majority government, and so, they both rely on support from the Haredi parties.In recent years, some rebbes affiliated with Agudath Israel, such as the Sadigura rebbe Avrohom Yaakov Friedman, have taken more hard-line stances on security, settlements, and disengagement.WEB,weblink Hasidic Leader Yaakov Friedman, the Admor of Sadigura, Dies at 84, Yair, Ettinger, 21 August 2017, Haaretz, Shas represents Sephardi and Mizrahi Haredim, and, while having many points in common with Ashkenazi Haredim, differs from them by its more enthusiastic support for the State of Israel.

Divorce

Divorces among Haredim are increasing in Israel;NEWS, Rabinowitz, Aaron, 31 December 2017, Divorce Is Becoming a New Norm Among ultra-Orthodox in Israel,weblink Haaretz, Tel Aviv, 3 August 2018, NEWS, Lev, Tzvi, 3 May 2018, Israeli divorce rate drops,weblink Arutz Sheva, Israel National News, Beit El, 3 August 2018, when the divorce is linked to one spouse leaving the community, the one who chooses to leave is often shunned from his or her communities and forced to abandon their children, as most courts prefer keeping children in an established status quo.NEWS, Ruz, Eva, Pritchard, Charlotte, 6 December 2016, The strictly Orthodox Jewish mothers pressured to give up their children,weblink BBC News, London, 3 August 2018, NEWS, Otterman, Sharon, 25 May 2018, When Living Your Truth Can Mean Losing Your Children,weblink The New York Times, New York City, 3 August 2018, The Haredi communities with the highest growth of divorce rate in Israel in 2017 were Beitar Illit and Kiryat Malachi.

Education

Between 2007 and 2017, the number of Haredim studying in higher education had risen from 1,000 to 10,800.WEB,weblink Education rising, poverty dropping among haredim, Lev, Tzvi, December 31, 2017, Israel National News, In 2007, the Kemach Foundation was established to become an investor in the sector's social and economic development and provide opportunities for employment. Through the philanthropy of Leo Noé of London, later joined by the Wolfson family of New York and Elie Horn from Brazil, Kemach has facilitated academic and vocational training. With a $22m budget, including government funding, Kemach provides individualized career assessment, academic or vocational scholarships, and job placement for the entire Haredi population in Israel. The Foundation is managed by specialists who, coming from the Haredi sector themselves, are familiar with the community's needs and sensitivities. By April 2014, more than 17,800 Haredim have received the services of Kemach, and more than 7,500 have, or continue to receive, monthly scholarships to fund their academic or vocational studies. From 500 graduates, the net benefits to the government would be 80.8 million NIS if they work for one year, 572.3 million NIS if they work for 5 years, and 2.8 billion NIS (discounted) if they work for 30 years.JOURNAL, Lisa Cave and Hamutal Aboody, December 2010, The Benefits and Costs of Employment Programs for the Haredim Implemented by the Kemach Foundation,weblink Myers JDC Brookdale Institute, The Council for Higher Education announced in 2012 that it was investing NIS 180 million over the following five years to establish appropriate frameworks for the education of Haredim, focusing on specific professions.NEWS, New project to integrate Haredim in higher education, Lior Dattel,weblink Haaretz, 2012-02-10, 2012-03-02, The largest Haredi campus in Israel is The Haredi Campus - The Academic College Ono.

Military

(File:Haredi demonstration against conscription yeshiva pupils.jpg|border|thumb|upright=1.5|alt=Haredi demonstration against the conscription of yeshiva pupils|Haredi demonstration against the conscription of yeshiva pupils)Upon the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the nation's population of military-aged Haredi males were exempted from the universal conscription into the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) under the Torato Umanuto arrangement, which officially granted deferred entry into the IDF for yeshiva students, but in practice allowed young Haredi men to serve for a significantly reduced period of time or bypass military service altogether. At that time, only a small group of roughly 400 individuals was affected, since due to the historic opposition of Haredi Judaism to Zionism, the population of Haredim was very low.WEB,weblink Israel ends ultra-Orthodox military service exemptions, 12 March 2014, www.bbc.co.uk, However, the Haredim are estimated to now make up 6-10% of Israel's Jewish population,JOURNAL, Fundamentalism's encounters with citizenship: the Haredim in Israel, Citizenship Studies, 12, 3, 215–231, 2008, Nurit, Stadler, Edna, Lomsky-Feder, Eyal, Ben-Ari, 10.1080/13621020802015388, and their absence from the IDF often attracts significant resentment from Israel's secular majority. The most common criticisms of the exemption policy are:
  • The Haredim can work in those 2–3 years of their lives in which they do not serve in the IDF, while most soldiers at the IDF are usually paid anywhere between $80–250 a month, in addition to clothing and lodging.WEB,weblink משכורות בצה"ל: כמה הצבא מוציא עליכם?, Mako.co.il, 2014-03-11, All the while, Haredi yeshiva students receive significant monthly funds and payments for their religious studies.WEB,weblink סל ההטבות לאברך: 17 אלף שקל ברוטו - כללי - הארץ, Haaretz.co.il, 2012-11-13, 2014-03-11,
  • The Haredim, if they so choose, can study at that time.WEB,weblink An example for an academic program for Haredi yeshiva students at the Israeli Open University, Openu.ac.il, 2014-03-11, Only one academic institution allows this. Also, most soldiers work over 9 hours a day, and cannot afford such studies time-wise, or with their low monthly salary (see prior references to soldier's monthly income)
While a certain amount of Haredim have enlisted in the IDF every year in recent decades, the Haredim usually reject the concept and practice of IDF service. Contentions include:
  • A Yeshiva student is equal to or more important than a soldier in the IDF, because he keeps Jewish tradition alive and prays for the people of Israel to be safe.WEB,weblink תורה מגינה ומצילה, Shabes.net, 2014-03-11, WEB,weblink הרב עמאר: "ישיבת ההסדר באשקלון מגנה על העיר", Srugim.co.il, 2011-09-13, 2014-03-11, WEB,weblink שר הפנים אלי ישי: צה"ל נכשל במלחמת לבנון השנייה ×›×™ החיילים לא התפללו - חינוך וחברה - הארץ, Haaretz.co.il, 2012-01-18, 2014-03-11,
  • The army is not conducive to the Haredi lifestyle. It is regarded as a "state-sponsored quagmire of promiscuity".Mordecai Richler. "This Year in Jerusalem". Chatto & Windus, 1994. {{ISBN|0701162724}}. p. 73. Israel conscripts both men and women, and often groups them together in military activities.
The Torato Umanuto arrangement was enshrined in the Tal Law that came in force in 2002. The High Court of Justice later ruled that it could not be extended in its current form beyond August 2012. A replacement was expected. The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) was, however, experiencing a shortage of personnel, and there were pressures to reduce the scope of the Torato Omanuto exemption.NEWS, IDF facing shortage of new soldiers, Amos Harel,weblink Haaretz, 2012-02-24, 2012-03-19, The Shahar program, also known as Shiluv Haredim ("Ultra-Orthodox integration") allows Haredi men aged 22 to 26 to serve in the army for about a year and a half. At the beginning of their service, they study mathematics and English, which are not well covered in Haredi schools. The program is partly aimed at encouraging Haredi participation in the workforce after military service. However, not all beneficiaries seem to be Haredim.NEWS, Haaretz probe: Many in IDF's Haredi track aren't really Haredi, Amos Harel,weblink Haaretz, 2012-03-01, 2012-03-19, Over the years, as many as 1000 Haredi Jews have chosen to volunteer to serve in the IDF, in a Haredi Jewish unit, the Netzah Yehuda Battalion, also known as Nahal Haredi. The vast majority of Haredi men, however, continue to receive deferments from military service.Sheleg, Yair. 2000. The new religious Jews: recent developments among observant Jews in Israel (HaDati'im haHadashim: Mabat achshavi al haHevra haDatit b'Yisrael). Jerusalem: Keter (in Hebrew).In March 2014, Israel's parliament approved legislation to end exemptions from military service for Haredi seminary students. The bill was passed by 65 votes to one, and an amendment allowing civilian national service by 67 to one.WEB,weblink BBC News - Israel ends ultra-Orthodox military service exemptions, Bbc.com, 2014-03-12, 2014-08-17, There has been much uproar in Haredi society following actions towards Haredi conscription. While some Haredim see this as a great social and economic opportunity,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131104060254weblink">weblink yes, 2013-11-04, נשפיע - סקר: 68% מהחרדים בעד גיוס תלמידי ישיבות לצבא, Nashpia.co.il, 2013-04-18, 2014-03-11, others (including leading rabbis among them) strongly oppose this move.WEB,weblink הרב חיים דרוקמן בעד גיוס חרדים: "מצווה מהתורה", Kikarhashabat.co.il, 2014-03-11, Among the extreme Haredim, there have been some more severe reactions. Several Haredi leaders have threatened that Haredi populations would leave the country if forced to enlist.WEB,weblink הרב עובדיה יוסף על סכנת הגיוס: "נעזוב את הארץ", Kikarhashabat.co.il, 2014-03-11, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131102041130weblink">weblink yes, 2013-11-02, צפו בוידאו שעורר סערה: הרב אייכלר "אם תפגעו בנו נעזוב את הארץ לצמיתות", Kooker.co.il, 2013-10-17, 2014-03-11, Others have fueled public incitement against Seculars and National-Religious Jews, and specifically against politicians Yair Lapid and Naftali Bennett, who support and promote Haredi enlistment.WEB,weblink News report of mainstream Haredi Rabbis cursing and inciting against Lapid, Globes.co.il, 2013-09-29, 2014-03-11, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131102130803weblink">weblink 2013-11-02, WEB,weblink A news report regarding an incitement campaign against people supporting Haredi enlistment included a long comic book depicting Haredim as sheep, and the Secular, Nationally-Religious and their politicians as predatory animals who conspire to eat them, Ynet.co.il, 2014-03-11, Some Haredim have taken to threatening fellow Haredim who agree to enlist,WEB,weblink ynet די להסתה: גם אני חרד"ק גאה - יהדות, Ynet.co.il, 2014-03-11, WEB,weblink ynet אזהרה: בקרוב עלול להירצח חייל חרדי - יהדות, Ynet.co.il, 2014-03-11, to the point of physically attacking some of them.WEB,weblink ynet ביום שאחרי: "אף חייל לא הותקף. ספין של צה"ל" - יהדות, Ynet.co.il, 2014-08-17, WEB,weblink ynet "החיים שלנו סיוט". עדויות של חיילים חרדים - יהדות, Ynet.co.il, 2014-03-11,

Employment

{{As of|2012}}, it was estimated that 37% of Haredi men and 49% of Haredi women in Israel were employed. The more recent figures from the Central Bureau of Statistics on employment rates place Haredi women at 69.3%, comparable to 71% for the women's national figure; while the number of working Haredi men has increased to 44.5%, it is still far below the 81.5% of men nationwide.עיבודים מיוחדים של מינהל מחקר וכלכלה ללסקר כ’א של הל׳מס 2000–2013The Trajtenberg Committee, charged in 2011 with drafting proposals for economic and social change, called, among other things, for increasing employment among the Haredi population. Its proposals included encouraging military or national service and offering college prep courses for volunteers, creating more employment centers targeting Haredim and experimental matriculation prep courses after Yeshiva hours. The committee also called for increasing the number of Haredi students receiving technical training through the Industry, Trade and Labor Ministry and forcing Haredi schools to carry out standardized testing, as is done at other public schools.NEWS, Measures on Haredim vanish from labor reform, Hila Weisberg,weblink The Marker - Haaretz, 2012-01-27, 15 July 2014, It is estimated that half as many of the Haredi community are in employment as the rest of population. This has led to increasing financial deprivation, and 50% of children within the community live below the poverty line. This puts strain on each family, the community, and often the Israeli economy.The demographic trend indicates the community will constitute an increasing percentage of the population, and consequently, Israel faces an economic challenge in the years ahead due to fewer people in the labor force. A report commissioned by the Treasury found that the Israeli economy may lose more than six billion shekels annually as a result of low Haredi participation in the workforce.WEB,weblink Haredi unemployment costs billions annually, Ynetnews.com, 1995-06-20, 2014-08-17, The OECD in a 2010 report stated that, "Haredi families are frequently jobless, or are one-earner families in low-paid employment. Poverty rates are around 60% for Haredim."JOURNAL, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD Reviews of Labour Market and Social Policies OECD Reviews of Labour Market and Social Policies: Israel, 22 January 2010, 1, 286, According to data released by Central Bureau of Statistics, employment rate in the Haredi sector increased by 7% in two years, 2009-2011.Ran Rimon: Bank of Israel: 45% of Haredim worked in 2011 Ynet 3 Oct 2012.As of 2017, according to an Israeli finance ministry study, the Haredi participation rate in the labour force is 51%, compared to 89% for the rest of Israeli Jews.NEWS, The difficulty of drafting ultra-Orthodox Jews into Israel's army,weblink The Economist, 30 September 2017,

Other issues

File:Haredim allant a la synagogue.jpg|thumb|Hasidim walk to the synagogue, Rehovot, IsraelIsraelThe Haredim in general are materially poorer than most other Israelis but still represent an important market sector due to their bloc purchasing habits.Bartram, David. "Cultural Dimensions of Workfare and Welfare". Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, 7:3, 233–247, 2005 For this reason, some companies and organizations in Israel refrain from including women or other images deemed immodest in their advertisements to avoid Haredi consumer boycotts.WEB,weblink A news report on the very large Israeli company Tnuva censoring women in order to please Haredi clients, Ynet.co.il, 2013-09-21, WEB,weblink A news report (August 2013), Ynet.co.il, 2013-09-21, More than 50 percent of Haredim live below the poverty line, compared with 15 percent of the rest of the population.NEWS,weblink A Modern Marketplace for Israel's Ultra-Orthodox, 2008-05-22, Erlanger, Steven, Steven Erlanger, November 2, 2007, The New York Times, Their families are also larger, with Haredi women having an average of 6.7 children, while the average Jewish Israeli woman has 3 children.NEWS,weblink Israeli women do it by the numbers, The Jewish Chronicle, April 7, 2014, 20 May 2014, Paul Morland, Families with many children often receive economic support through governmental child allowances, government assistance in housing, as well as specific funds by their own community institutions.WEB, Dov Friedlander,weblink Fertility in Israel: Is the Transition to Replacement Level in Sight? Part of: Completing the Fertility Transition., United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, 2002, In recent years, there has been a process of reconciliation and an attempt to merge Haredi Jews with Israeli society,Ibenboim, Racheli. "Ultra-Orthodox feminism: Not a contradiction in terms." Jewish Journal. 29 June 2016. 1 July 2016. although employment discrimination is widespread.WEB,weblink Gov't: Employers discriminate against Arabs, Haredim, Marissa, Newman, 30 March 2014, 22 June 2014, The Times of Israel, Haredi Jews such as satirist Kobi Arieli, publicist Sehara Blau, and politician Israel Eichler write regularly for leading Israeli newspapers.Another important factor in the reconciliation process has been the activities of ZAKA, a Haredi organization known for providing emergency medical attention at the scene of suicide bombings, and Yad Sarah, the largest national volunteer organization in Israel established in 1977 by former Haredi mayor of Jerusalem, Uri Lupolianski. It is estimated that Yad Sarah saves the country's economy an estimated $320 million in hospital fees and long-term care costs each year.WEB,weblink Yad Sarah â€“ 30 Years Old, 9 July 2006, 8 December 2011, Israel Today Magazine, WEB,weblink Israel's Yad Sarah Makes Volunteering With Elderly A National Pastime, 22 June 2007, 8 December 2011, Marks, Abbey, Jweekly.com,

Population {| class"infobox"

! style="background: #ccf; text-align: center; float: right; clear: right;" | Large Haredicommunities|Israeli communitiesIn Jerusalem:Mea ShearimBeit Yisrael (Beis Yisroel){{·}}GeulaHar Nof{{·}}RamotRamat Shlomo{{·}}SanhedriaNeve Yaakov{{·}}Maalot DafnaRamat Eshkol{{·}}Ezrat Torah (Ezras Torah)Mattersdorf{{·}}Bayit VeganElsewhere:Bnei Brak{{·}}Modi'in IllitBeitar{{·}}Beit ShemeshKiryat Ye'arim{{·}}AshdodRekhasim{{·}}Safed{{·}}El'adNorth America:Flatbush{{·}}WilliamsburgBorough ParkCrown Heights{{·}}CanarsieEast New York{{·}}MonseyKiryas Joel{{·}}Lakewood{{·}}JacksonPassaic{{·}}Los Angeles{{·}} ChicagoCleveland{{·}} Detroit {{·}} BaltimoreMiami {{•}} Toronto {{•}} MontrealUnited Kingdom:Stamford Hill{{·}}HendonGolders Green{{·}}EdgwareBroughton Park{{·}} PrestwichGateshead
Due to its imprecise definition, lack of data collection, and rapid change over time, estimates of the global Haredi population are difficult to measure, and may significantly underestimate the true number of Haredim, due to their reluctance to participate in surveys and censuses.WEB,weblink Analysis of Nonresponse in a Social Survey with the Sharp Bounds Method, 2013-09-21, One estimate given in 2011 stated there were approximately 1.3 million Haredi Jews globally.{{harvnb|Brown|2011}} Studies have shown a very high growth rate, with a large young population.WEB,weblink Britain Sees Spike in Ultra-Orthodox Population –, Forward.com, 2010-05-24, 2013-09-21,

Israel

File:ימין לשמאל הרב יונתן שטנצל הרב אשר וייס הרב דוד יצחק מנדלבוים כתיבת ספר תורה.JPG|thumb|left|Haredi Rabbis and students writing a Torah scroll (Haredi settlement of Beitar Illit, Gush EtzionGush Etzion Israel has the largest Haredi population. While Haredim made up just 9.9% of the Israeli population in 2009, with 750,000 out of 7,552,100, by 2014, that figure had risen to 11.1%, with 910,500 Haredim out of a total Israeli population of 8,183,400. According to a December 2017 study conducted by the Israeli Democracy Institute, the number of Haredi Jews in Israel exceeded 1 million in 2017, making up 12% of the population in Israel. By 2030, the Haredi Jewish community is projected to make up 16% of the total population, and by 2065, one third of the Israeli population.The number of Haredi Jews in Israel is rising rapidly. The number of children per woman is 6.2, and the share of Haredim among those under the age of 20 was 16.3% in 2009 (29% of Jews).Ari Paltiel, Michel Sepulchre, Irene Kornilenko, Martin Maldonado: Long‐Range Population Projections for Israel: 2009‐2059 Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2014-04-21. In 1992, out of a total of 1,500,000 Orthodox Jews worldwide, about 550,000 were Haredi (half of them in Israel).BAUMEL>FIRST = SIMON D.YEAR = 2005LOCATION = NEW YORK CITY, 978-1-84545-062-5>oclc = 226230948Shas movement. The extent of people leaving the Haredi population is extremely low. The Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics forecasts that the Haredi population of Israel will number 1.1 million in 2019. It is also projected that the number of Haredim in 2059 may be between 2.73 and 5.84 million, of an estimated total number of Israeli Jews between 6.09 and 9.95 million.HTTP://WWW.YNETNEWS.COM/ARTICLES/0,7340,L-4209333,00.HTML PUBLISHER=YNETNEWS.COM ACCESSDATE=2013-08-06, Large Israeli Haredi concentrations include Jerusalem, Bnei Brak, Modi'in Illit, Beitar Illit, Beit Shemesh, Kiryat Ye'arim, Ashdod, Rekhasim, Safed, and El'ad. Two Haredi cities, Kasif and Harish, are planned.

United States

The United States has the second largest Haredi population, which has a growth rate on pace to double every 20 years. In 2000, there were 360,000 Haredi Jews in the US (7.2 per cent of the approximately 5 million Jews in the U.S.); by 2006, demographers estimate the number had grown to 468,000 or 9.4 per cent.

New York City

Most American Haredi Jews live in the greater New York metropolitan area.NEWS, Berger, Joseph, Aided by Orthodox, City's Jewish Population Is Growing Again,weblink 16 June 2014, The New York Times, June 11, 2012, NEWS, Goldberg, J.J., Time To Rethink the New York Jew: Study Leaves Out Suburbs and Ignores Splits Among Orthodox,weblink 16 June 2014, The Jewish Daily Forward, June 15, 2012,

Brooklyn

File:Hasidic Family in Street - Borough Park - Hasidic District - Brooklyn.jpg|thumb|left|Hasidic family on the street in Borough Park, BrooklynBrooklynThe largest centers of Haredi and Hasidic life in New York are found in Brooklyn.NEWS, Debra, Nussbaum Cohen, As New York Haredim multiply, Jewish Federation faces a quandary,weblink 16 June 2014, Haaretz, Feb 19, 2013, NEWS, Shwayder, Maya, NY Jewish community wields growing political power: High birthrate of ultra-Orthodox and Hasidic communities expected to have great impact on future votes.,weblink 16 June 2014, The Jerusalem Post, 2013-09-20,
  • In 1988, it was estimated that there are between 40,000 and 57,000 Haredim in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, Hasidim most belonging to Satmar.NEWS, Berger, Joseph, Divisions in Satmar Sect Complicate Politics of Brooklyn Hasidim,weblink 16 June 2014, The New York Times, July 5, 2012,
  • The Jewish population in the Borough Park neighborhood of Brooklyn, estimated at 70,000 in 1983, is also mostly Haredi, and also mostly Hasidic. The Bobov Hasidim are the largest single bloc that mainly live in Borough Park.NEWS, Fox, Margalit, Naftali Halberstam Dies at 74; Bobov Hasidim's Grand Rabbi,weblink 16 June 2014, The New York Times, March 25, 2005,
  • Crown Heights is the home base of the worldwide Chabad-Lubavitch movement with its network of shluchim ("emissaries") heading Chabad houses throughout the Jewish world.NEWS, Brenner, Elsa, Two Groups Contest Role in Promoting Lubavitch Judaism's Cause in the County,weblink 16 June 2014, The New York Times, April 3, 1994,
  • The Flatbush-Midwood,NEWS, Weichselbaum, Simone, Nearly one in four Brooklyn residents are Jews, new study finds: Growing Orthodox families across the borough account for most of the increase,weblink 16 June 2014, The New York Daily News, June 26, 2012, Kensington,BOOK, Heilman, Samuel C., Sliding to the Right: The Contest for the Future of American Jewish Orthodoxy, 2006, University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 9780520247635, 73–74,weblink 16 June 2014, Marine Park (Brooklyn)NEWS, Machberes/Matzav.com, Shea Rubenstein Claims Marine Park is "Fastest-Growing Jewish Community in the World,weblink 16 June 2014, The Jewish Press/Matzav.com, November 17, 2010, neighborhoods have tens of thousands of Haredi Jews. They are also the centers for the major non-Hasidic Haredi yeshivas such as Yeshiva Torah Vodaas, Yeshiva Rabbi Chaim Berlin, Mir Yeshiva, as well as a string of similar smaller yeshivas. The Torah Vodaas and Chaim Berlin yeshivasBOOK, Helmreich, William B., The World of the Yeshiva: An Intimate Portrait of Orthodox Jewry, 1982, The Free Press - Macmillan Publishing Company/Republished by Ktav Publishing (2000), New York, New York, 978-0881256420, 200, 226–228, 236–238, allow some students to attend college and university, presently at Touro College, and previously at Brooklyn College.

Queens

The New York City borough of Queens is home to a growing Haredi population mainly affiliated with the Yeshiva Chofetz Chaim and Yeshivas Ohr HaChaim in Kew Gardens Hills and Yeshiva Shaar Hatorah in Kew Gardens. Many of the students attend Queens College. There are major yeshivas and communities of Haredi Jews in Far Rockaway, such as Yeshiva of Far Rockaway and a number of others. Hasidic Shtibelach exist in these communities as well, mostly catering to Haredi Jews who follow Hasidic customs, while living a Litvish or Modern Orthodox cultural lifestyle, although small Hasidic enclaves do exist, such as in the Bayswater section of Far Rockaway.

Manhattan

One of the oldest Haredi communities in New York is on the Lower East SideBOOK, Diner, Hasia R. Diner, Lower East Side Memories: A Jewish Place in America, 2000, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 978-0691095455, 98–99,weblink 16 June 2014, home to the Mesivtha Tifereth Jerusalem. The Yeshiva Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch and Khal Adath Jeshurun are home to Haredi Jews in Washington Heights.NEWS, Geberer, Raanan, 'Ultra-Orthodox Jews': who are they?,weblink 16 June 2014, Brooklyn Daily Eagle, March 28, 2013,

Hudson Valley

The Hudson Valley north of New York City has the most rapidly growing Haredi communities, such as the Hasidic communities in Kiryas JoelNEWS,weblink Neighbors riled as insular Hasidic village seeks to expand, The Korea Times, February 27, 2017, March 4, 2017, NEWS, McKenna, Chris, CENSUS 2010: Orange population growth rate 2nd highest in state, but lower than expected Sullivan and Ulster also recorded increases,weblink 16 June 2014, Times Herald-Record, 2011-03-25, NEWS, Santos, Fernanda, Reverberations of a Baby Boom,weblink 16 June 2014, The New York Times, August 27, 2006, of Satmar Hasidim, and New Square of the Skver.WEB, Jewish Virtual Library, New Square,weblink jewishvirtuallibrary.org, Jewish Virtual Library/Encyclopedia Judaica, 16 June 2014, A vast community of Haredi Jews lives in the Monsey, New York, area.WEB, Jewish Virtual Library, Rockland County,weblink jewishvirtuallibrary.org, Jewish Virtual Library/Encyclopedia Judaica, 16 June 2014,

Long Island (New York)

The Yeshiva Sh'or Yoshuv, together with many synagogues in the Lawrence neighborhood and other Five Towns neighborhoods, such as Woodmere and Cedarhurst, have attracted many Haredi Jews.NEWS, Eisenberg, Carol, A clash of cultures in the Five Towns,weblink 16 June 2014, US Newsday, June 10, 2006,

New Jersey

There are significant Haredi communities in Lakewood (New Jersey), home to the largest non-Hasidic Lithuanian yeshiva in America, Beth Medrash Govoha.MAGAZINE, Landes, David, How Lakewood, N.J., Is Redefining What It Means To Be Orthodox in America: Seventy years ago, Aharon Kotler built an enduring community of yeshiva scholars by making peace with capitalism,weblink 16 June 2014, Tablet Magazine, June 5, 2013, There are also sizable communities in PassaicNEWS, Lipman, Steve, A Haredi Town Confronts Abuse From The Inside: Passaic, N.J., is waging a lonely fight against molestation in the Orthodox community. Will its example spread?,weblink 16 June 2014, The New York Jewish Week, 2009-11-11, and Edison, where a branch of the Rabbi Jacob Joseph Yeshiva opened in 1982. There is also a community of Syrian Jews favorable to the Haredim in their midst in Deal, New Jersey.NEWS, Cohler-Esses, Larry, An Inside Look at a Syrian-Jewish Enclave: Solidarity Forever, or 'Medieval Minds in Armani Designs'?,weblink 16 June 2014, The Jewish Daily Forward, July 28, 2009,

Maryland

Baltimore, Maryland, has a large Haredi population. The major yeshiva is Yeshivas Ner Yisroel, founded in 1933, with thousands of alumni and their families. Ner Yisroel is also a Maryland state-accredited college, and has agreements with Johns Hopkins University, Towson University, Loyola College in Maryland, University of Baltimore, and University of Maryland, Baltimore County allowing undergraduate students to take night courses at these colleges and universities in a variety of academic fields. The agreement also allows the students to receive academic credits for their religious studies.Silver Spring, Maryland, and its environs has a growing Haredi community mostly of highly educated and skilled professionals working for the United States government in various capacities, most living in Kemp Mill, White Oak, and Woodside,NEWS, Lubman Rathner, Janet, An Orthodox Destination,weblink 16 June 2014, The Washington Post, October 15, 2005, and many of its children attend the Yeshiva of Greater Washington and Yeshivas Ner Yisroel in Baltimore.

California

Los Angeles has many Hasidim and Haredi Jews who are not Hasidic. Most live in the Pico-Robertson and the Fairfax (Fairfax Avenue-La Brea Avenue) areas.NEWS, Klein, Amy, Two neighborhoods reveal Orthodox community's fault lines: Pico-Robertson vs. Hancock Park,weblink 16 June 2014, Jewish Journal, November 9, 2006, WEB, Tavory, Iddo, The Hollywood shtetl: From ethnic enclave to religious destination (2010),weblink academia.edu, sagepublications.com, 16 June 2014,

Illinois

Chicago is home to the Haredi Telshe Yeshiva of Chicago, with many other Haredim living in the city.MAGAZINE, Wax, Burton, Orthodoxy/Traditional Judaism in Chicago, June 10, 2012, Chicago Jewish Historical Society, Spring 2012, 36, 1, Chicago Jewish History, 15–16,weblink 16 June 2014,

Colorado

Denver has a large Haredi population of Ashkenazi origin, dating back to the early 1920s. The Haredi Denver West Side Jewish Community adheres to Litvak Jewish traditions (Lithuanian), and has several congregations located within their communities.Denver West Side Jewish Community

Massachusetts

Boston and Brookline, Massachusetts, have the largest Haredi populations in New England.

Ohio

File:Telz purim.jpg|thumb|Students of Telshe yeshivaTelshe yeshivaOne of the oldest Haredi Lithuanian yeshivas, Telshe Yeshiva transplanted itself to Cleveland in 1941.NEWS, Wittenberg, Ed, Telshe Yeshiva hidden gem in Lake County,weblink 16 June 2014, Cleveland Jewish News, August 23, 2013, WEB, Encyclopedia of Cleveland History/Case Western Reserve University, Telshe Yeshiva - The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History (13 Mar 2011),weblink ech.case.edu, The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, 16 June 2014,

United Kingdom

In 1998, the Haredi population in the Jewish community of the United Kingdom was estimated at 27,000 (13% of affiliated Jews). The largest communities are located in London, particularly Stamford Hill, in Salford and Prestwich in Greater Manchester, and in Gateshead. A 2007 study asserted that three out of four British Jewish births were Haredi, who then accounted for 17% of British Jews, (45,500 out of around 275,000). Another study in 2010 established that there were 9,049 Haredi households in the UK, which would account for a population of nearly 53,400, or 20% of the community.{{harvnb|Graham|Vulkan|2010}}{{harvnb|Pinter|2010}} The Board of Deputies of British Jews has predicted that the Haredi community will become the largest group in Anglo-Jewry within the next three decades: In comparison with the national average of 2.4 children per family, Haredi families have an average of 5.9 children, and consequently, the population distribution is heavily biased to the under-20-year-olds. By 2006, membership of Haredi synagogues had doubled since 1990.{{harvnb|Wynne-Jones|2006}}NEWS,weblink Shtetls of the mind, The Economist, 13 June 2015, 17 December 2015, An investigation by The Independent in 2014 reported that more than 1,000 children in Haredi communities were attending illegal schools where secular knowledge is banned, and they learn only religious texts, meaning they leave school with no qualifications and often unable to speak any English.NEWS,weblink Ultra orthodox Jews crowdfunding to stop parents who leave community seeing their children, Siobhan Fenton, Dina Rickman, The Independent, 14 August 2016, The 2018 Survey by the Jewish Policy Research(JPR) and the Board of Deputies of British Jews showed that the high birth rate in the Haredi Orthodox community reversed the decline in the Jewish population in Britain.WEB,weblink Haredi Orthodox responsible for reversing Jewish population decline in Britain, study says, 20 June 2018,

Elsewhere

About 25,000 Haredim live in the Jewish community of France, mostly Sephardi Jews of North African descent. Important communities are located in Paris, Strasbourg, and Lyon. Other important communities, mostly of Ashkenazi Jews, are the Antwerp community in Belgium, as well as in the Swiss communities of Zürich and Basel, and in the Dutch community in Amsterdam. There is also a Haredi community in Vienna, in the Jewish community of Austria. Other countries with significant Haredi populations include: Canada, with large Haredi centres in Montreal and Toronto; South Africa, primarily in Johannesburg; and Australia, centred in Melbourne. Hasidic communities also exist in Argentina, especially in Buenos Aires and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil, primarily in São Paulo.{|class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left;"! Country || Year || Population || Annual growth rate
Israel>|6%Daniel Gottlieb and Leonid Kushnir (2009). Social Policy Targeting and Binary Information Transfer between Surveys. Economics: The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, 3 (2009-30): 1–16weblink
United States>|5.4%
United Kingdom>Graham2008}} / 45,5004%

Past rabbinical leaders

Present leadership and organizations

Rabbis

Groups

Israeli political parties

Controversies

Shunning

Women and men that decide to leave Haredi communities are often shunned and pressured or forced to abandon their children.

Paedophilia and sexual abuse cases

{{See also|Adass Israel School sex abuse scandal|FailedMessiah.com|Sexual abuse cases in Brooklyn's Haredi community}}Cases of paedophilia, sexual violences, assaults, and abuses against women and children occur in roughly the same rates in Haredi communities as in the general population; however, they are rarely discussed or reported to the authorities, and frequently downplayed by members of the communities.NEWS, Otterman, Sharon, Rivera, Ray, 9 May 2012, Ultra-Orthodox Jews Shun Their Own For Reporting Child Sexual Abuses,weblink The New York Times, New York City, 3 August 2018, NEWS, Ketcham, Christopher, 12 November 2013, The Child-Rape Assembly Line,weblink Vice (magazine), VICE, Montreal, 3 August 2018, NEWS, Marr, David, 19 February 2015, Rabbis' absolute power: how sex abuse tore apart Australia's Orthodox Jewish community,weblink The Guardian, London, 4 August 2018, NEWS, Fenton, Siobhan, 7 April 2016, Calls for urgent inquiry into sexual abuse of Jewish children in illegal schools,weblink The Independent, London, 3 August 2018, NEWS, Tucker, Nati, 11 May 2017, The Crusaders Fighting Sex Abuse in the Underbelly of Israel's ultra-Orthodox Community,weblink Haaretz, Tel Aviv, 3 August 2018, NEWS, Eglash, Ruth, 9 September 2017, In Israel's ultra-Orthodox community, abused women are finding a way out,weblink The Washington Post, Washington, D.C., Washington, 3 August 2018, NEWS, JTA, 28 February 2018, Jerusalem Ultra-Orthodox Elementary School Accused Of Physical, Sexual Abuse,weblink The Forward, New York City, 3 August 2018,

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

Bibliography

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  • BOOK, Theocratic Democracy: The Social Construction of Religious and Secular Extremism, Nachman, Ben-Yehuda, Nachman Ben-Yehuda, Oxford University Press, 2010, 9780199813230, harv
,
  • JOURNAL, Inside the private world of London's ultra-Orthodox Jews, Brown, Mick, The Daily Telegraph, February 25, 2011,weblink 2 August 2013, harv
,
  • BOOK, The Handbook of Deviant Behavior, Routledge International Handbooks, Clifton D. D., Bryant, Clifton D. Bryant, CRC Press, 2012, 978-1134015573, harv
,
  • JOURNAL, Outside New York City, Sexes Separated on State-Funded Bus, Chavkin, Sasha, Nathan-Kazis, Josh, New York World and the Jewish Daily Forward, November 4, 2011,weblink 2 August 2013, harv
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  • BOOK, Israel and the Politics of Jewish Identity: The Secular-Religious Impasse, Cohen, Asher, Susser, Bernard, JHU Press, 2000, 978-0801863455, harv
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  • BOOK, Mikva News, God, Jews and the Media: Religion and Israel's Media, Routledge Jewish Studies Series, Yoel, Cohen, Routledge, 2012, 77–95, 978-1136338588, harv
,
  • BOOK, American Jewish Year Book 2012, Dashefsk, Arnold, Sheskin, Ira M., Springer, 2012, 9789400752047, harv
,
  • JOURNAL, Four surveys yield different totals for Haredi population, Ettinger, Yair, Haaretz, April 21, 2011,weblink 2 August 2013, harv
,
  • JOURNAL, Israel's Dead Sea to get its first gender-divided beach, Ettinger, Yair, Haaretz, September 23, 2011,weblink 7 August 2013, harv
,
  • JOURNAL


, Population Trends among Britain's Strictly Orthodox Jews
, Graham
, David
, Vulkan
, Daniel
, Board of Deputies
, June 2008
,weblink
, 9 August 2013
, harv
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,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131023142743weblink">weblink
, 23 October 2013
,
,
  • JOURNAL


, Synagogue Membership in the United Kingdom in 2010
, Graham
, David
, Vulkan
, Daniel
, Institute for Jewish Policy Research & Board of Deputies
, May 2010
,weblink
, 9 August 2013
, harv
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110718045511weblink">weblink
, 18 July 2011
,
,
  • BOOK, Contemporary Religions: A World Guide, Ian Charles, Harris, Longman Current Affairs, 1992, 978-0-582-08695-1,weblink harv
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  • JOURNAL, At Front of Brooklyn Bus, a Clash of Religious and Women's Rights, Haughney, Christine, New York Times, October 19, 2011,weblink 2 August 2013, harv
,
  • JOURNAL, Beit Shemesh: Signs excluding women still up, Heller, Moshe, Yedioth Ahronoth, August 6, 2012,weblink 6 August 2013, harv
,
  • BOOK, "Two Are Better Than One": Case Studies of Brief Effective Therapy, Seymour, Hoffman, Mondial, 2011, 9781595691965, harv
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  • BOOK, The new Israelis: an intimate view of a changing people, Yossi, Melman, Yossi Melman, Carol Pub. Co., 1992, 9781559721295,weblink harv
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  • BOOK, Haredim and the Public Square, Jewish Polity and American Civil Society: Communal Agencies and Religious Movements in the American Public Sphere, Heilman, Samuel C., Samuel Heilman, Mittleman, Alan L., Licht, Robert A., Sarna, Jonathan D., Rowman & Littlefield, 2002, 978-0742521223, harv
,
  • JOURNAL, The myth of Haredi moral authority: Haredi Judaism isn't our forefathers' religion, but a radical and dangerous new cult, Ilan, Shahar, Haaretz, July 12, 2012,weblink 2 August 2013, harv
,
  • BOOK, Piety and Power: The World of Jewish Fundamentalism, David, Landau, David Landau (journalist), Secker & Warburg, 1993, 9780436241567,weblink harv
,
  • JOURNAL, Alderman should face facts, Pinter, Abraham, Abraham Pinter, The Jewish Chronicle, June 24, 2010,weblink 9 August 2013, harv
,
  • JOURNAL, Israel High Court upholds ban on Sukkot gender segregation in Jerusalem, Rosenberg, Oz, Haaretz, October 16, 2011,weblink 7 August 2013, harv
,
  • BOOK, Religion and Public Policy, Rituals of Conflict: Religion, Politics, and Public Policy in Israel, Sharkansky, Ira, Lynne Rienner, 1996, 9781555876784, harv
,
  • JOURNAL, 'Mea She'arim not enforcing gender separation', Sharon, Jeremy, Jerusalem Post, April 10, 2012,weblink 7 August 2013, harv
,
  • BOOK, Yeshiva Fundamentalism: Piety, Gender, and Resistance in the Ultra-Orthodox World, Nurit, Stadler, NYU Press, 2009, 4, 9780814740491, harv
,
  • BOOK, Replaying the Rape of Dinah: Women's Bodies in Israeli Cultural Discourse, Jews and Gender: The Challenge to Hierarchy, Starr Sered, Susan, Susan Starr Sered, Frankel, Jonathan, Oxford University Press, 2001, 978-0195349771, harv
,
  • JOURNAL, Haredi weekly censors female Holocaust victims, Tessler, Yitzhak, Yedioth Ahronoth, March 28, 2013,weblink 7 August 2013, harv
,
  • BOOK, Poultry in Motion: The Jewish Atonement Ritual of Kapores, Jews of Brooklyn, Brandeis series in American Jewish history, culture, and life, Aviva, Weintraub, Abramovitch, Ilana, Galvin, Seán, UPNE, 2002, 9781584650034, harv
, ,
  • JOURNAL, Is this the last generation of British Jews?, Wynne-Jones, Jonathan, Daily Telegraph, November 26, 2006,weblink 9 August 2013, harv
,
  • JOURNAL, Sex-Segregation Spreads Among Orthodox: Buses, Public Sidewalks and Streets Split Between Men and Women, Zeveloff, Naomi, The Jewish Daily Forward, October 28, 2011,weblink 2 August 2013, harv
,
  • BOOK, One Above and Seven Below: A Consumer's Guide to Orthodox Judaism from the Perspective of the Chareidim, Yechezkel, Hirshman, MAZO PUBLISHERS, 2007, 9789657344385, harv
,

External links

{{Commons category|Haredi Judaism}} {{Religion in Israel}}{{Jews and Judaism}}{{OrthodoxJudaism}}{{Authority control}}

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