Hannah Arendt

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Hannah Arendt
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{{redirect|Arendt|the surname|Arendt (surname)|the film|Hannah Arendt (film)}}{{short description|German-American Jewish philosopher and political theorist}}{{Use American English|date=February 2019}}{{Good article}}

Linden-Limmer>Linden, Prussian Hanover, German Empire1975410df=yes}}|death_place = Manhattan, New York City, US|resting_place = Bard College, New York, USGerman (1906–37)Statelessness>Stateless (1937–50)|United States (from 1950)}}|other_names = Hannah Arendt BluecherPaul Arendt|Martha Cohn}}Günther Stern1937Heinrich Blücher1970|end=died}}Max Arendt|de}} (grandfather)Henriette Arendt (aunt)|signature = Signature of Hannah Bluecher-Arendt.pngweblink}}|module=

Philosophy of life{{sfn>Bowen-Mooreloc=p. 119}}{{sfn2001|loc=p. 48}}Classical republicanism{{sfn>Lovett|2018}}}}Karl Jaspers{{sfn>Grunenbergloc=p. 3}}|education = University of BerlinUniversity of MarburgUniversity of FreiburgUniversity of Heidelberg (PhD, 1929)| notable_works ={{collapsible list|The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951)The Human Condition (book)>The Human Condition (1958)|On Revolution (1963)}}|main_interests = Political theory, theory of totalitarianism, philosophy of history, theory of modernity|notable_ideas ={{collapsible list| Humanity as Homo faberanimal laborans{{sfn>Yar|2018}}| The labor–work distinction| The banality of evilThe Human Condition (book)>vita activa and vita contemplativa (''praxis (process) as the highest level of the vita activa''){{sfn>Fry|2009}}d'Entreves|2014}}}}Socrates, Aristotle, Augustine of Hippo>Saint Augustine, Immanuel Kant, Goethe, Karl Marx, Martin Heidegger>Heidegger, Karl Jaspers, Walter Benjamin, Heinrich Blücher, Rosa LuxemburgGiorgio Agamben, Seyla Benhabib, Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, Mario Kopić, Jacques Ranciere,{{sfn>BerkowitzClaude Lefort,{{sfn>Lefort|2002}} Julia Kristeva}}}}{{Republicanism sidebar|expanded=}}Johanna "Hannah" Cohn Arendt ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|ɛər|É™|n|t|,_|ˈ|ɑːr|-}},AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY, Arendt, 30 June 2019, WEB,weblink Arendt, Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins, 30 June 2019, OXFORD DICTIONARIES, Arendt, Hannah, 30 June 2019, also {{IPAc-en|US|É™|ˈ|r|É›|n|t}},MERRIAM-WEBSTER, Arendt, 30 June 2019, {{IPA-de|ˈaːʁənt|lang}};{{sfn|Collins|2012}} 14 October 1906 â€“ 4 December 1975), also known as Hannah Arendt Bluecher, was a German-American philosopher and political theorist. Her many books and articles on topics ranging from totalitarianism to epistemology have had a lasting influence on political theory. Arendt is widely considered one of the most important political philosophers of the twentieth century.Arendt was born in Hanover, Germany but mostly raised in Königsberg in a secular merchant Jewish culture by parents who were politically progressive, being supporters of the Social Democrats. Her father died when she was seven, so she was raised by her mother and grandfather. After completing her secondary education, she studied at the University of Marburg under Martin Heidegger, with whom she had a brief affair, and who had a lasting influence on her thinking. She obtained her doctorate in philosophy in 1929 at the University of Heidelberg with Karl Jaspers.Hannah Arendt married Günther Stern in 1929, but soon began to encounter increasing antisemitism in 1930s Nazi Germany. Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, and while researching antisemitic propaganda for the Zionist Federation of Germany in Berlin that year, Arendt was denounced and briefly imprisoned by the Gestapo. On release, she fled Germany, living in Czechoslovakia and Switzerland before settling in Paris. There she worked for Youth Aliyah, assisting young Jews to emigrate to Palestine. Divorcing Stern in 1937, she married Heinrich Blücher in 1940, but when Germany invaded France in 1940 she was detained by the French as an alien, despite having been stripped of her German citizenship in 1937. She escaped and made her way to the United States in 1941 via Portugal. She settled in New York, which remained her principal residence for the rest of her life. She became a writer and editor and worked for the Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, becoming an American citizen in 1950. With the publication of The Origins of Totalitarianism in 1951, her reputation as a thinker and writer was established and a series of seminal works followed. These included The Human Condition in 1958, as well as Eichmann in Jerusalem and On Revolution in 1963. She taught at many American universities, while declining tenure-track appointments. She died suddenly of a heart attack in 1975, at the age of 69, leaving her last work, The Life of the Mind, unfinished.Her works cover a broad range of topics, but she is best known for those dealing with the nature of power and evil, as well as politics, direct democracy, authority, and totalitarianism. In the popular mind she is best remembered for the controversy surrounding the trial of Adolf Eichmann, her attempt to explain how ordinary people become actors in totalitarian systems, which was considered an apologia, and for the phrase "the banality of evil". She is commemorated by institutions and journals devoted to her thinking, the Hannah Arendt Prize for political thinking, and on stamps, street names and schools, amongst other things.{{TOC limit|3}}

Early life and education (1906–1929)

Family of origin

{{multiple image | header = Parents | align = right | direction = horizontal | total_width = 250 | float = nonecaption1 = Martha Cohn ca. 1899|alt1= Photo of Hannah's mother, Martha Cohn, in 1899caption2= Paul Arendt ca. 1900|alt2=Photo of Hannah's father, Paul Arendt, in 1900}}Hannah Arendt was born Johanna Cohn Arendt{{sfn|Wood|2004}}{{sfn|LoC|2001}} in 1906 into a comfortable educated secular family of German Jews in Linden, Prussia (now a part of Hanover), in Wilhelmine Germany. Her family were merchants of Russian extraction from Königsberg,{{efn|After World War II Königsberg became Kaliningrad, Russia }} the East Prussian capital. Arendt's grandparents were members of the Reform Jewish community there. Hannah's paternal grandfather, {{ill|Max Arendt|de}} (1843–1913), was a prominent businessman, local politician,{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=pp. 33–34}} one of the leaders of the Königsberg Jewish community and a member of the Centralverein deutscher Staatsbürger jüdischen Glaubens (Central Organization for German Citizens of the Jewish Faith). Like other members of the Centralverein he primarily saw himself as a German and disapproved of the activities of Zionists, such as the young Kurt Blumenfeld (1884–1963), who was a frequent visitor to their home and would later become one of Hannah's mentors. Of Max Arendt's children, Paul Arendt (1873–1913) was an engineer and Henriette Arendt (1874–1922) was a policewoman who became a social worker.{{sfn|Riepl-Schmidt|2005}}{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 8–9}}Hannah was the only child of Paul and Martha (born Cohn) Arendt (1874–1948),{{sfn|Geni|2018}} who were married on April 11, 1902. She was named after her paternal grandmother.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 17}}{{sfn|McGowan|1998}} The Cohns had originally come to Königsberg from nearby Russian territory (now Lithuania) in 1852, as refugees from anti-Semitism, and made their living as tea importers; J. N. Cohn & Company became the largest business in the city. The Arendts had reached Germany from Russia a century earlier.{{sfn|Gould|2009|loc=p. 65}}{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 5–7}} Hannah's extended family contained many more women, who shared the loss of husbands and children. Hannah's parents were better educated and politically more to the left than her grandparents, both being members of the Social Democrats, {{sfn|Wood|2004}} rather than the German Democratic Party that most of their contemporaries supported. Paul Arendt was educated at the Albertina (University of Königsberg). Though he worked as an engineer, he prided himself on his love of Classics. He collected a large library, in which Hannah immersed herself. Martha Cohn, a musician, had studied for three years in Paris.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 8–9}}In the first four years of their marriage, the Arendts lived in Berlin, where they were supporters of the socialist journal Sozialistische Monatshefte.{{efn|Sozialistische Monatshefte was edited by the Königsberg Jewish scholar, (:de:Joseph Bloch|Joseph Bloch), and formed the focal point of Martha Arendt's Königsberg socialist discussion group}}{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 27}} At the time of Hannah's birth, Paul Arendt was employed by an electrical engineering firm in Linden, and they lived in a frame house on the market square (Marktplatz).{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 13}} The Arendt family moved back to Königsberg in 1909, because of Paul's deteriorating health.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 5}}{{sfn|Yar|2018}} Hannah's father suffered from a prolonged illness with syphilis and had to be institutionalized in the Königsberg psychiatric hospital in 1911. For years later, Hannah had to have annual WR tests for congenital syphilis.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 22}} He died on October 30, 1913, when Hannah was seven, leaving her mother to raise her.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 17}}{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}} They lived at Hannah's grandfather's house at Tiergartenstrasse 6, a leafy residential street adjacent to the Königsberg Tiergarten, in the predominantly Jewish neighborhood of Hufen.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 10,16,26}} Although Hannah's parents were non-religious, they were happy to allow Max Arendt to take Hannah to the Reform synagogue. She also received religious instruction from the rabbi, Hermann Vogelstein, who would come to her school for that purpose. At the time the young Hannah confided that she wished to marry him when she grew up.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 8–9}} Her family moved in circles that included many intellectuals and professionals. It was a social circle of high standards and ideals. As she recalled it:My early intellectual formation occurred in an atmosphere where nobody paid much attention to moral questions; we were brought up under the assumption: Das Moralische versteht sich von selbst, moral conduct is a matter of course.{{sfn|Arendt|1964|loc=p. 6}}{{multiple image | header = The Arendt Family | align = center | direction = horizontal | total_width = 800 | float = nonecaption1 = Hannah Arendt with her grandfather, Max, in 1907|alt1= Photo of Hannah's grandfather, Max Arendt holding Hannah. Date unknown, probably aged 3-4caption2=Hannah with her mother in 1912|alt2=Hannah with her mother, age 6caption3=Hannah with her mother in 1914|alt3=Photo of Hannah with her mother in 1914, at the age of 8caption4=Hannah as a schoolgirl in 1920|alt4=Photo of Hannah as a schoolgirl studying in the family library in 1920}}This time was a particularly favorable period for the Jewish community in Königsberg, an important center of the Haskalah (enlightenment).{{sfn|Schuler-Springorum|1999}}{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 33}} Arendt's family was thoroughly assimilated ("Germanized"){{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 7}} and she later remembered: "With us from Germany, the word 'assimilation' received a 'deep' philosophical meaning. You can hardly realize how serious we were about it."{{sfn|Kirsch|2009}} Despite these conditions, the Jewish population lacked full citizenship rights, and although antisemitism was not overt, it was not absent.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 10–11}} Arendt came to define her Jewish identity negatively after encountering overt antisemitism as an adult.{{sfn|Kirsch|2009}} She came to greatly identify with Rahel Varnhagen (1771–1833), the Prussian socialite{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}} who desperately wanted to assimilate into German culture, only to be rejected because she was born Jewish.{{sfn|Kirsch|2009}} Arendt later said of Varnhagen that she was "my very closest woman friend, unfortunately dead a hundred years now."{{sfn|Kirsch|2009}} Varnhagen would later become the subject of a biography by Hannah.{{sfn|Arendt|1997}}{{multiple image | header = Beerwald-Arendt Family | align = center | direction = horizontal | total_width = 350 | float = nonecaption1 = Martin Beerwald, Hannah and her mother, 1923|alt1= Photo of Hannah's stepfather, Martin Beerwald, Hannah and her mother, Martha Arendt Beerwwald in 1923caption2=Eva and Clara Beerwald & Hannah, 1922 |alt2=Photo of Hannah with her stepsisters, Eva and Clara Beerwald in 1922}}In the last two years of the First World War, Hannah's mother organized social democratic discussion groups and became a follower of Rosa Luxemburg (1871–1919) as socialist uprisings broke out across Germany.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 27}}{{sfn|Villa|2000|loc=p. xiii}} Luxemburg's writings would later influence Hannah's political thinking. In 1920, Martha Cohn married Martin Beerwald (1869–1941),{{efn|The Beerwalds had previously lived in the same house as Martha Arendt's widowed mother{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 28}}}} an ironmonger and widower of four years, and they moved to his home, two blocks away, at Busoldstrasse 6,{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 28}}{{sfn|Grunenberg|2017|loc=p. 62}} providing Hannah with improved social and financial security. Hannah was fourteen at the time and acquired two older stepsisters, Clara (1901–1932) and Eva (1902–1988).{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 28}}


Early education

{{multiple image | header = Schools | align = center | direction = horizontal | total_width = 400 | float = nonecaption1 =Hufen-Oberlyzeum ca. 1923 |alt1=Photo of Hufen-Oberlyzeum, Hannah's first schoolcaption2=Königin-Luise-Schule in Königsberg ca. 1914|alt2=Photo of Hannah's secondary school, the Queen Louise School for girls}}Hannah Arendt's mother, who considered herself progressive, sought to raise her daughter along strict Goethean lines, which amongst other things, involved the reading of the complete works of Goethe, often summed up in the phrase from Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship (1796) as — Was aber ist deine Pflicht? Die Forderung des Tages (And just what is your duty? The demands of the day). Goethe, at the time, was considered the essential mentor of Bildung (education), the conscious formation of mind, body and spirit. The key elements were considered to be self-discipline, constructive channeling of passion, renunciation and responsibility for others. Hannah's developmental progress (Entwicklung) was carefully documented by her mother in a book, which she titled Unser Kind (Our Child) and measured her against the benchmark of what was then considered normale Entwicklung ("normal development").{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 12–13}}Arendt attended kindergarten from 1910 where her precocity impressed her teachers and enrolled in the Szittnich School, Königsberg (Hufen-Oberlyzeum), on Bahnstrasse in August 1913,{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 16,19}} but her studies there were interrupted by the outbreak of World War I, forcing the family to temporarily flee to Berlin on August 23, 1914, in the face of the advancing Russian army.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 21}} There they stayed with her mother's younger sister, Margarethe Fürst (1884–1942),{{efn|Margarethe delayed fleeing Germany when her sister did, and was deported to a camp in 1941, where she died{{sfn|Geni|2018}} }} and her three children, while Hannah attended a girl's Lyzeum school in Berlin-Charlottenburg. After ten weeks, when Königsberg appeared to be no longer threatened, the Arendts were able to return,{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 21}} where they spent the remaining war years at her grandfather's house. Arendt's precocity continued, learning ancient Greek as a child,{{sfn|Villa|2009}} writing poetry in her teenage years,{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 3}} and starting both a philosophy club and Greek Graecae at her school. She was fiercely independent in her schooling and a voracious reader,{{efn|Anne Mendelssohn described her as someone who had "read everything"{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 32}}}} absorbing French and German literature and poetry (committing large amounts to heart) and philosophy. By the age of 16, she had read Kierkegaard, Jaspers' Psychologie der Weltanschauungen and Kant's Kritik der reinen Vernunft (Critique of Pure Reason). Kant, whose home town was also Königsberg, was an important influence on her thinking, and it was Kant who had written about Königsberg that "such a town is the right place for gaining knowledge concerning men and the world even without travelling".{{sfn|Kant|2006|loc=p. 4}}{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 36}}Arendt attended the Königin-Luise-Schule for her secondary education, a girls' Gymnasium on Landhofmeisterstrasse.{{sfn|Heller|2015a}} Most of her friends, while at school, were gifted children of Jewish professional families, generally older than her and went on to university education. Among them was (:de:Ernst Grumach|Ernst Grumach) (1902–1967), who introduced her to his girlfriend, Anne Mendelssohn,{{efn|Anne Mendelssohn: Descendant of Moses Mendelssohn (1729–1786) and Felix Mendelssohn (1809–1847), an influential local family. Anne left Germany for Paris at the same time as Arendt, married the philosopher Eric Weil (1904-1977) in 1934, and worked for the French Resistance under the alias Dubois. She died on July 5, 1984{{sfn|Kirscher|2003}}}} who would become a lifelong friend. When Anne moved away, Ernst became Arendt's first romantic relationship. Like Arendt, Anne would go on to become a philosopher, obtaining her doctorate at Hamburg,{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 32}} while Ernst became a philologist.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 29}}{{multiple image | header = Early homes | align = center | direction = horizontal | total_width = 800 | float = nonecaption1 =Hannah Arendt's birthplace in Linden-Limmer >alt1=Photograph of the house that Arendt was born in, in the marketplace in Lindencaption2=Tiergartenstrasse, Königsberg 1920s|alt2=Photo of Tiergartenstrasse in the 1920scaption3= Lutherstrasse 4, Marburg|alt3=Photo of the House Hannah Arendt lived in in Marburgcaption4=Schlossberg, Heidelberg|alt4=Old postcard of Schlossberg in Heidelberg, where Hannah lived}}

Higher education (1922–1929)

{{multiple image | header = Almae matres | align = center | direction = horizontal | total_width = 600 | float = nonecaption1 = Berlin University |alt1= University of Berlincaption2=Marburg University|alt2=University of Marburgcaption3=Freiburg University |alt3=University of Freiburgcaption4=Heidelberg University|alt4=University of Heidelberg}}(File:Hannah Arendt 1924.jpg|thumb|upright|Hannah 1924|alt=Photo of Hannah in 1924)

Berlin (1922–1924)

Arendt's education at the Luise-Schule ended in 1922 when she was expelled at the age of fifteen for leading a boycott of a teacher who insulted her. Instead, her mother arranged for her to go to Berlin to be with social democrat family friends. In Berlin she lived in a student residence and audited courses of her choosing at the University of Berlin (1922–1923), including classics and Christian theology under Romano Guardini. This enabled her to successfully sit the entrance examination (Abitur) for the University of Marburg, where Ernst Grumach had studied under Martin Heidegger, who had been appointed a professor there in 1922. For the examination, her mother engaged a private tutor, while her Aunt Frieda Arendt,{{efn|Frieda Arendt. After Paul Arendt's mother, died ca 1880, Max Arendt married Klara Wohlgemuth, by whom he had two children, Alfred (1881) and Frieda (1884–1928). Frieda married Ernst Aron.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 34,477}}}} a teacher, also helped her, and Frieda's husband Ernst Aron provided financial assistance for her to attend university.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 32,34}}

Marburg (1924–1926)

In Berlin, Guardini had introduced her to Kierkegaard, and she resolved to make theology her major field.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 36}} At Marburg (1924–1926) she studied classical languages, German literature, Protestant theology with Rudolf Bultmann and philosophy with Nicolai Hartmann and Heidegger.{{sfn|Maier-Katkin|2010}} Arendt arrived at Marburg that fall in the middle of an intellectual revolution led by the young Heidegger, of whom she was in awe, describing him as "the hidden king [who] reigned in the realm of thinking".{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 44}} Heidegger was continuing an intellectual movement started by Edmund Husserl, whose assistant he had been at Freiburg before coming to Marburg.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 47}} This was a period when Heidegger was preparing his lectures on Kant, which he would develop in the second part of his Sein und Zeit (Being and Time) in 1927 and Kant und das Problem der Metaphysik (1929). In his classes he and his students struggled with the meaning of "Being" as they worked together through Aristotle's concept of ἀλήθεια (truth) and Plato's Sophist.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 47}} Many years later Arendt would describe these classes, how people came to Marburg to hear him, and how, above all he imparted the idea of Denken ("thinking") as activity, which she qualified as "passionate thinking".{{sfn|Arendt|1971}}Arendt was restless. To date her studies had not been either emotionally or intellectually satisfying. She was ready for passion, finishing her poem Trost (Consolation, 1923) with the lines:Die Stunden verrinnen,Die Tage vergehen,Es bleibt ein GewinnenDas blosse Bestehen.(The hours run downThe days pass on.One achievement remains:Mere being alive{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 49,479}})Her encounter with Heidegger represented a dramatic departure from the past. He was handsome, a genius, romantic and taught that thinking and "aliveness" were but one.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 49}} The 17-year-old Arendt then began a long and problematic romantic relationship with the 35-year-old Heidegger,{{sfn|Grunenberg|2017}} who was married with two young sons.{{efn|Martin Heidegger, a Roman Catholic, had married Elfride Petri on 21 March 1917. They had two sons, Jorg and Hermann{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 47}}}}{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 47}} Arendt later faced criticism for this because of Heidegger's support for the Nazi Party after being elected rector at the University of Freiburg in 1933. Nevertheless, he remained one of the most profound influences on her thinking,{{sfn|Maier-Katkin|2010a}} and he would later relate that she had been the inspiration for his work on passionate thinking in those days. They agreed to keep the details of the relationship a secret, preserving their letters but keeping them unavailable.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 50}} The relationship was not known until Elisabeth Young-Bruehl's biography of Arendt appeared in 1982, by which time Arendt and Heidegger had both died, though Heidegger's wife, Elfride (1893–1992), was still alive. Nevertheless, the affair was not well known until 1995, when Elzbieta Ettinger gained access to the sealed correspondence{{sfn|Kohler|1996}} and published a controversial account that was used by Arendt's detractors to cast doubt on her integrity. That account,{{efn|Ettinger set out to write a biography of Arendt, but, being in poor health, never completed it, only this chapter being published as a separate work before she died{{sfn|Brent|2013}}}} which caused a scandal, was subsequently refuted.{{sfn|Lilla|1999}}{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. xiv}}{{sfn|Brent|2013}}At Marburg, Arendt lived at Lutherstrasse 4.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004}} Among her friends there was Hans Jonas, her only Jewish classmate. Another fellow student of Heidegger's was Jonas' friend, the Jewish philosopher Gunther Siegmund Stern (1902–1992){{snd}}son of the noted psychologist Ludwig Wilhelm Stern{{snd}}who would later become her first husband.{{sfn|Dries|2018}} Stern had completed his doctoral dissertation with Edmund Husserl at Freiburg, and was now working on his Habilitation thesis with Heidegger, but Arendt, involved with Heidegger, took little notice of him at the time.{{sfn|Ettinger|1997|loc=p. 31}}

Die Schatten (1925)

In the summer of 1925, while home at Königsberg, Arendt composed her sole autobiographical piece, Die Schatten (The Shadows), a "description of herself"{{sfn|May|1986|loc=p. 24}}{{sfn|Balber|2017}} addressed to Heidegger.{{efn|The essay is preserved in the published correspondence between Arendt and Heidegger{{sfn|Arendt|Heidegger|2004}}}}{{sfn|Heidegger|1925}} In this essay, full of anguish and Heideggerian language, she reveals her insecurities relating to her femininity and Jewishness, writing abstractly in the third person.{{efn|for instance "perhaps her youth will free itself from this spell"}} She describes a state of "Fremdheit" (alienation), on the one hand an abrupt loss of youth and innocence, on the other an "Absonderlichkeit" (strangeness), the finding of the remarkable in the banal.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 51}} In her detailing of the pain of her childhood and longing for protection she shows her vulnerabilities and how her love for Heidegger had released her and once again filled her world with color and mystery. Her relationship with Heidegger, she refers to as Eine starre Hingegebenheit an ein Einziges (An unbending devotion to a single one).{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 50–54}}{{sfn|Brightman|2004}}{{sfn|Kirsch|2009}} This period of intense introspection was also one of the most productive of her poetic output,{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 50–56}} such as In sich versunken (Lost in Self-Contemplation).{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 50–51, 481–482}}
{{multiple image | header = Teachers | align = center | direction = horizontal | total_width = 400 | float = nonecaption1 =Martin Heidegger |alt1=Photo of Martin Heideggercaption2=Edmund Husserl|alt2=Portrait of Edmund Husserlcaption3=Karl Jaspers |alt3=Photo of Karl Jaspers}}

Freiburg and Heidelberg (1926–1929)

After a year at Marburg, Arendt spent a semester at Freiburg, attending the lectures of Husserl.{{sfn|d'Entreves|2014}} In 1926 she moved to the University of Heidelberg, where in 1929, she completed her dissertation under the other leading figure of the then new and revolutionary Existenzphilosophie,{{sfn|Villa|2009}} Karl Jaspers (1883–1969), a friend of Heidegger's.{{sfn|Villa|2000|loc=p. xiii}} Her thesis was entitled (:de:Der Liebesbegriff bei Augustin|Der Liebesbegriff bei Augustin): Versuch einer philosophischen Interpretation ("On the concept of love in the thought of Saint Augustine: Attempt at a philosophical interpretation").{{sfn|Arendt|1929}} She remained a lifelong friend of Jaspers and his wife, Gertrud Mayer (1879–1974), developing a deep intellectual relationship with him.{{sfn|Arendt|Jaspers|1992}} At Heidelberg, her circle of friends included Hans Jonas, who had also moved from Marburg to study Augustine, working on his Augustin und das paulinische Freiheitsproblem. Ein philosophischer Beitrag zur Genesis der christlich-abendländischen Freiheitsidee (1930),{{efn|Augustin and the Pauline freedom problem. A philosophical contribution to the genesis of the Christian-Western idea of freedom}} and also a group of three young philosophers: Karl Frankenstein, Erich Neumann and (:de:Erwin Loewenson|Erwin Loewenson).{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 66}} Other friends and students of Jaspers were the linguists (:de:Benno von Wiese|Benno von Wiese) and (:de:Hugo Friedrich|Hugo Friedrich) (seen with Hannah, here), with whom she attended lectures by Friedrich Gundolf at Jaspers' suggestion and who kindled in her an interest in German Romanticism. She also became reacquainted with Kurt Blumenfeld, at a lecture, who introduced her to Jewish politics. At Heidelberg, she lived in the old town (Altstadt) near the castle, at Schlossberg 16. The house was demolished in the 1960s, but the one remaining wall bears a plaque commemorating her time there (see image).{{sfn|Jen|2016}}{{multiple image | header = Arendt at Heidelberg 1926–1929 | align = center | direction = horizontal | total_width = 400 | float = nonecaption1=Hannah Arendt (2nd from right), (:de:Benno von WieseHugo Friedrich) (2nd from left) and friend at Heidelberg University 1928|alt1=Photo of Hannah with student friends at the university at Heildelberg in 1928caption2 = Plaque marking Arendt's residence in Heidelberg |alt2= Plaque on house where Hannah lived at Heidelberg}}On completing her dissertation, Arendt turned to her Habilitationsschrift, initially on German Romanticism,{{sfn|Zebadúa Yáñez|2017}} and hence an academic teaching career. However 1929 was also the year of the Depression and the end of the golden years (Goldene Zwanziger) of the Weimar Republic, which was to become increasingly unstable over its remaining four years. Arendt, as a Jew, had little if any chance of obtaining an academic appointment in Germany.{{sfn|Saussy|2013}} Nevertheless, she completed most of the work before she was forced to leave Germany.{{sfn|Weissberg|Elon|1999}}


Germany (1929–1933)

Berlin-Potsdam (1929)

File:Günther Stern and Hannah Arendt (cropped).jpg|thumb|alt=Photo of Günther Stern with Hannah Arendt in 1929In 1929, Arendt met Günther Stern again, this time in Berlin at a New Year's masked ball,{{sfn|Magenau|2016}} and began a relationship with him.{{efn|"I won Hannah's heart at a ball, whilst dancing: I remarked that "love is the act in which one transforms an a posteriori, the other person one has encountered by coincidence – into the a priori of one's own life." – This pretty formula did admittedly not turn out to be true."{{sfn|Dries|2018}}}}{{sfn|Villa|2000|loc=p. xiii}}{{sfn|Dries|2018}} Within a month she had moved in with him in a one-room studio, shared with a dancing school in Berlin-Halensee. Then they moved to Merkurstrasse 3, Nowawes,{{sfn|Kramer|2017}} in Potsdam{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 74}} and were married there on September 26.{{efn|Extramarital cohabitation was not unusual amongst Berlin intelligentsia, but would be considered scandalous in provincial university communities, necessitating their marriage before moving to Heidelberg and Frankfurt to pursue Günther's academic aspirations.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 78}}}}{{sfn|Grunenberg|2017|loc=p. 84}} They had much in common and the marriage was welcomed by both sets of parents.{{sfn|Ettinger|1997|loc=p. 31}} In the summer, Hannah Arendt successfully applied to the Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaft for a grant to support her Habilitation, which was supported by Heidegger and Jaspers among others, and in the meantime, with Günther's help was working on revisions to get her dissertation published.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 77}}

Wanderjahre (1929–1931)

After Arendt and Günther were married, they began two years of what Christian Dries refers to as the Wanderjahre (years of wandering). They had the ultimately fruitless aim of having Günther accepted for an academic appointment.{{sfn|Dries|2011}} They lived for a while in Drewitz,{{sfn|Berkowitz|2012}} a southern neighborhood of Potsdam, before moving to Heidelberg, where they lived with the Jaspers. After Heidelberg, where Günther completed the first draft of his Habilitation thesis, the Sterns then moved to Frankfurt where Günther hoped to finish it. There, Arendt participated in the university's intellectual life, attending lectures by Karl Mannheim and Paul Tillich, among others.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 82}} The Sterns collaborated intellectually, writing an article together{{sfn|Arendt|Stern|1930}} on Rilke's Duino Elegies (1923){{sfn|Rilke|1912–1922}} and both reviewing Mannheim's Ideologie und Utopie (1929).{{sfn|Kettler|2009}} The latter was Arendt's sole contribution in sociology.{{sfn|Arendt|1930a}}{{sfn|Ettinger|1997|loc=p. 31}}{{sfn|Dries|2018}} In both her treatment of Mannheim and Rilke, Arendt found love to be a transcendent principle "Because there is no true transcendence in this ordered world, one also cannot exceed the world, but only succeed to higher ranks".{{efn|Da es nun wahre Transzendenz in dieser geordneten Welt nicht gibt, gibt es auch nicht wahre Ãœbersteigung, sondern nur Aufsteigen in andere Ränge}} In Rilke she saw a latter day secular Augustine, describing the Elegies as the letzten literarischen Form religiösen Dokumentes (ultimate form of religious document). Later, she would discover the limitations of transcendent love in explaining the historical events that pushed her into political action.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 84–85,500}} Another theme from Rilke that she would develop was the despair of not being heard. Reflecting on Rilke's opening lines, which she placed as an epigram at the beginning of their essayWer, wenn ich schriee, hörte mich denn aus der Engel Ordnungen?(Who, if I cried out, would hear me among the angel's hierarchies?)Arendt and Stern begin by statingThe paradoxical, ambiguous, and desperate situation from which standpoint the Duino Elegies may alone be understood has two characteristics: the absence of an echo and the knowledge of futility. The conscious renunciation of the demand to be heard, the despair at not being able to be heard, and finally the need to speak even without an answer–these are the real reasons for the darkness, asperity, and tension of the style in which poetry indicates its own possibilities and its will to form{{efn|Echolosigkeit und das Wissen um die Vergeblichkeit ist die paradoxe, zweideutige und verzweifelte Situation, aus der allein die Duineser Elegien zu verstehen sind. Dieser bewußte Verzicht auf Gehörtwerden, diese Verzweiflung, nicht gehört werden zu können, schließlich der Wortzwang ohne Antwort ist der eigentliche Grund der Dunkelheit, Abruptheit und Ãœberspanntheit des Stiles, in dem die Dichtung ihre eigenen Möglichkeiten und ihren Willen zur Form aufgibt.}}{{sfn|Hill|2015}}Arendt also published an article on Augustine (354–430) in the Frankfurter Zeitung{{sfn|Arendt|1930}} to mark the fifteen hundredth anniversary of his death. She saw this article as forming a bridge between her treatment of Augustine in her dissertation and her subsequent work on Romanticism.{{sfn|Scott|Stark|1996}}{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 79,81}} When it became evident Stern would not succeed in obtaining an appointment,{{efn|Stern was advised that employment at a university was unlikely due to the rising power of the Nazis.}} the Sterns returned to Berlin in 1931.{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}}

Return to Berlin (1931–1933)

(File:Hannah Arendt 1933.jpg|thumb|upright|Hannah 1933|alt=Photo of Hannah in 1933)In Berlin, where the couple initially lived in the predominantly Jewish area of Bayerisches Viertel (Bavarian Quarter or "Jewish Switzerland") in Schöneberg,{{sfn|Rosenberg|2012}}{{sfn|KGB|2018}} Stern obtained a position as a staff-writer for the cultural supplement of the Berliner Börsen-Courier, edited by Herbert Ihering, with the help of Bertold Brecht. There he started writing using the nom-de-plume of Günther Anders, i.e. "Günther Other".{{efn|Anders - there are a number of theories as to reason why, including Herbert Ihering stating there were too many writers called Stern, so choose something "different" (anders), to being less Jewish sounding,{{sfn|Dries|2018}} to not wanting to be seen as the son of his famous father{{sfn|Jonas|2006}}}}{{sfn|Dries|2018}} Arendt assisted Günther with his work, but the shadow of Heidegger hung over their relationship. While Günther was working on his Habilitationsschrift, Arendt had abandoned the original subject of German Romanticism for her thesis in 1930, and turned instead to Rahel Varnhagen and the question of assimilation.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 85}}{{sfn|Zebadúa Yáñez|2017}} Anne Mendelssohn had accidentally acquired a copy of Varhagen's correspondence and excitedly introduced her to Arendt, donating her collection to her. A little later, Arendt's own work on romanticism led her to a study of Jewish salons and eventually to those of Varnhagen. In Rahel, she found qualities she felt reflected her own, particularly those of sensibility and vulnerability.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 56}} Rahel, like Hannah, found her destiny in her Jewishness. Hannah Arendt would come to call Rahel Varnhagen's discovery of living with her destiny as being a "conscious pariah".{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 38}} This was a personal trait that Arendt had recognized in herself, although she did not embrace the term till later.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 39}}Back in Berlin, Arendt found herself becoming more involved in politics and started studying political theory, and reading Marx and Trotsky, while developing contacts at the Deutsche Hochschule für Politik.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 92}} Despite the political leanings of her mother and husband she never saw herself as a political leftist, justifying her activism as being through her Jewishness.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 104–105}} Her increasing interest in Jewish politics and her examination of assimilation in her study of Varnhagen led her to publish her first article on Judaism, (:de:Aufklärung und Judenfrage|Aufklärung und Judenfrage) ("The Enlightenment and the Jewish Question", 1932).{{sfn|Arendt-Stern|1932}}{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 93}} Blumenfeld had introduced her to the "Jewish question", which would be his lifelong concern.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. xxxix}} Meanwhile, her views on German Romanticism were evolving. She wrote a review of (:de:Hans Weil|Hans Weil)'s Die Entstehung des deutschen Bildungsprinzips (The Origin of German Educational Principle, 1930),{{sfn|Weil|1967}} which dealt with the emergence of (:de:Bildungselite|Bildungselite) (educational elite) in the time of Rahel Varnhagen.{{sfn|Arendt|1931}} At the same time she began to be occupied by Max Weber's description of the status of Jewish people within a state as pariavolk (pariah people) in his Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft (1922),{{sfn|Weber|1978|loc=p. 493ff}}{{sfn|Swedberg|Agevall|2016|loc=p. 245–246}} while borrowing Bernard Lazare's term paria conscient (conscious pariah){{sfn|Lazare|2016|loc=p. 8}} with which she identified.{{efn|Pariavolk: In Religionssoziologie (The Sociology of Religion). While Arendt based her work on Weber, a number of earlier authors had also used this term, including Theodor Herzl{{sfn|Momigliano|1980}}}}{{sfn|Arendt|1944}}{{sfn|Momigliano|1980}}{{sfn|Ray|Diemling|2016}} In both these articles she advanced the views of Johann Herder.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 93}} Another interest of hers at the time was the status of women, resulting in her 1932 review{{sfn|Arendt|1932a}} of Alice Rühle-Gerstel's book Das Frauenproblem in der Gegenwart. Eine psychologische Bilanz (Contemporary Women's Issues: A psychological balance sheet).{{sfn|Rühle-Gerstel|1932}} Although not a supporter of the women's movement, the review was sympathetic. At least in terms of the status of women at that time, she was skeptical of the movement's ability to achieve political change.{{sfn|Bagchi|2007}} She was also critical of the movement, because it was a women's movement, rather than contributing with men to a political movement, abstract rather than striving for concrete goals. In this manner she echoed Rosa Luxemburg. Like Luxemburg, she would later criticize Jewish movements for the same reason. Arendt consistently prioritized political over social questions.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 95–97}}By 1932, faced with a deteriorating political situation, Arendt was deeply troubled by reports that Heidegger was speaking at National Socialist meetings. She wrote, asking him to deny that he was attracted to National Socialism. Heidegger replied that he did not seek to deny the rumors (which were true), and merely assured her that his feelings for her were unchanged.{{sfn|Kirsch|2009}} As a Jew in Nazi Germany, Arendt was prevented from making a living and discriminated against and confided to Anne Mendelssohn that emigration was probably inevitable. Jaspers had tried to persuade her to consider herself as a German first, a position she distanced herself from, pointing out that she was a Jew and that "Für mich ist Deutschland die Muttersprache, die Philosophie und die Dichtung" (For me, Germany is the mother tongue, philosophy and poetry), rather than her identity. This position puzzled Jaspers, replying "It is strange to me that as a Jew you want to be different from the Germans".{{sfn|Arendt|Jaspers|1992|loc=pp. 52ff}}By 1933, life for the Jewish population in Germany was becoming precarious. Adolf Hitler became Reichskanzler (Chancellor) in January, and the Reichstag was burned down (Reichstagsbrand) the following month. This led to the suspension of civil liberties, with attacks on the left, and, in particular, members of the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (German Communist Party: KPD). Stern, who had communist associations, fled to Paris, but Arendt stayed on to become an activist. Knowing her time was limited, she used the apartment at Opitzstrasse 6 in Berlin-Steglitz that she had occupied with Stern since 1932 as an underground railway way-station for fugitives. Her rescue operation there is now recognized with a plaque on the wall (see image).{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=pp. 62–64}}{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 102–104}} (File:Gedenktafel Opitzstr 6 (Stegl) Hannah Arendt.JPG|thumb|upright|Memorial at Opitzstrasse 6|alt=Plaque on the wall at Hannah's apartment building on Opitzstrasse, commemorating her)File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-P014772, Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, Unter den Linden.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=Photo of exterior of Prussian State Library in 1938 Arendt had already positioned herself as a critic of the rising Nazi Party in 1932 by publishing "Adam-Müller-Renaissance?"{{sfn|Arendt|1932b}} a critique of the appropriation of the life of Adam Müller to support right wing ideology. The beginnings of anti-Jewish laws and boycott came in the spring of 1933. Confronted with systemic antisemitism, Arendt adopted the motiv "If one is attacked as a Jew one must defend oneself as a Jew. Not as a German, not as a world citizen, not as an upholder of the Rights of Man."{{sfn|Arendt|1964}}{{sfn|Villa|2009}} This was Arendt's introduction of the concept of Jew as Pariah that would occupy her for the rest of her life in her Jewish writings.{{sfn|Grunenberg|2017|loc=p. 133}} She took a public position by publishing part of her largely completed biography of Rahel Varnhagen as "Originale Assimilation: Ein Nachwort zu Rahel Varnhagen 100 Todestag" ("Original Assimilation: An Epilogue to the One Hundredth Anniversary of Rahel Varnhagen's Death") in the (:de:Kölnische Zeitung|Kölnische Zeitung) on March 7, 1933 and a little later also in (:de:Jüdische Rundschau|Jüdische Rundschau).{{efn|"Original Assimilation" was first published in English in 2007, as part of the collection Jewish Writings.{{sfn|Arendt|2009a|loc=pp. 22–28}}}}{{sfn|Saussy|2013}} In the article she argues that the age of assimilation that began with Varnhagen's generation had come to an end with an official state policy of antisemitism. She opened with the declaration:Today in Germany it seems Jewish assimilation must declare its bankruptcy. The general social antisemitism and its official legitimation affects in the first instance assimilated Jews, who can no longer protect themselves through baptism or by emphasizing their differences from Eastern Judaism.{{efn|"Die jüdische Assimilation scheint heute in Deutschland ihren Bankrott anmelden zu müssen. Der allgemein gesellschaftliche und offiziell legitimierte Antisemitismus trifft in erster Linie das assimilierte Judentum, das sich nicht mehr durch Taufe und nicht mehr durch betonte Distanz zum Ostjudentum entlasten kann."{{sfn|Goethe Institut|2011}}}}{{sfn|Arendt|2009a|loc=p. 22}}As a Jew, Arendt was anxious to inform the world of what was happening to her people in 1930–1933.{{sfn|Villa|2009}} She surrounded herself with Zionist activists, including Kurt Blumenfeld, Martin Buber and Salman Schocken, and started to research antisemitism. Arendt had access to the Prussian State Library for her work on Varnhagen. Blumenfeld's Zionistische Vereinigung für Deutschland (Zionist Federation of Germany) persuaded her to use this access to obtain evidence of the extent of antisemitism, for a planned speech to the Zionist Congress in Prague. This research was illegal at the time.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 63}} Her actions led to her being denounced by a librarian for anti-state propaganda, resulting in the arrest of both Arendt and her mother by the Gestapo. They served eight days in prison but her notebooks were in code and could not be deciphered, and she was released by a young, sympathetic arresting officer to await trial.{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}}{{sfn|Maier-Katkin|2010}}{{sfn|EWB|2010}}

Exile: France (1933–1941)

Paris (1933–1940)

File:Rahel Levin.png|thumb|upright|alt=Portrait of Rahel Varnhagen in 1800On release, realizing the danger she was now in, Arendt and her mother fled Germany{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}} following the established escape route over the Erzgebirge Mountains by night into Czechoslovakia and on to Prague and then by train to Geneva. In Geneva, she made a conscious decision to commit herself to "the Jewish cause". She obtained work with a friend of her mother's at the League of Nations' Jewish Agency for Palestine, distributing visas and writing speeches.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 64}}From Geneva the Arendts traveled to Paris in the autumn, where she was reunited with Stern, joining a stream of refugees.{{sfn|Villa|2000|loc=p. xiv}} While Arendt had left Germany without papers, her mother had travel documents and returned to Königsberg and her husband.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 64}} In Paris, she befriended Stern's cousin, the Marxist literary critic and philosopher Walter Benjamin (1892–1940) and also the Jewish philosopher Raymond Aron (1905–1983).{{sfn|Villa|2000|loc=p. xiv}}Arendt was now an émigré, an exile, stateless, without papers, and had turned her back on the Germany and Germans of the Nazizeit.{{sfn|Villa|2009}} Her legal status was precarious and she was coping with a foreign language and culture, all of which took its toll on her mentally and physically.{{sfn|Grunenberg|2017|loc=p. 136}} In 1934 she started working for the Zionist-funded outreach program Agriculture et Artisanat,{{sfn|Vowinckel|2004|loc=p. 33}} giving lectures, and organizing clothing, documents, medications and education for Jewish youth seeking to emigrate to the British Mandate of Palestine, mainly as agricultural workers. Initially she was employed as a secretary, and then office manager. To improve her skills she studied French, Hebrew and Yiddish. In this way she was able to support herself and her husband.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=pp. 64–65}} When the organization closed in 1935, her work for Blumenfeld and the Zionists in Germany brought her into contact with the wealthy philanthropist (:fr:Germaine de Rothschild|Baroness Germaine Alice de Rothschild) (born Halphen, 1884–1975),{{sfn|Adelman|2016}} wife of Édouard Alphonse James de Rothschild, becoming her assistant. In this position she oversaw the baroness' contributions to Jewish charities through the Paris Consistoire, although she had little time for the family as a whole.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 64}} The Rothschilds had headed the central Consistoire for a century but stood for everything Arendt did not, opposing immigration and any connection with German Jewry.{{sfn|Villa|2000|loc=p. xiv}}{{sfn|Maier-Katkin|2010a|loc=pp. 90–91}}Later in 1935, Arendt joined Youth Aliyah (Youth immigration),{{efn|Youth Aliyah, literally Youth Immigration, reflecting the fundamental Zionist tenet of "going up" to Jerusalem }} an organization similar to Agriculture et Artisanat that was founded in Berlin on the day Hitler seized power. It was affiliated with Hadassah.{{sfn|Grunenberg|2017|loc=p. 135}}{{sfn|Cullen-DuPont|2014|loc=pp 16–17}} These organizations saved many from the Holocaust.{{sfn| Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 137–139}}{{sfn|Whitfield|1998}}{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}} There she eventually became Secretary-General (1935–1939).{{sfn|LoC|2001}}{{sfn|Villa|2000|loc=p. xiv}} Her work with Youth Aliyah also involved finding food, clothing, social workers and lawyers, but above all, fund raising.{{sfn|Maier-Katkin|2010}} She made her first visit to Palestine in 1935, accompanying one of these groups and meeting with her cousin Ernst Fürst there.{{efn|Hannah Arendt's mother, Martha Arendt (born Cohn) had a sister Margarethe Fürst in Berlin, with whom the Arendt's sought refuge for a while during World War I. Margarethe's son Ernst (Hannah Arendt's cousin) married Hannah's childhood friend Käthe Lewin, and they emigrated to Palestine in 1934. There, their first daughter was named Hannah after Arendt ("Big Hannah"). Their second daughter, (:de:Edna Brocke|Edna Fürst) (b. 1943), later married (:de:Michael Brocke|Michael Brocke) and accompanied her great aunt Hannah Arendt at the Eichmann trial{{sfn|Brocke|2009a}} }}{{sfn|Grunenberg|2017|loc=p. 136}} With the Nazi annexation of Austria and invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1938, Paris was flooded with refugees, and she became the special agent for the rescue of the children from those countries.{{sfn|LoC|2001}} In 1938, Arendt completed her biography of Rahel Varnhagen,{{sfn|Arendt|1997}}{{sfn| Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 91}}{{sfn|Azria|1987}} although this was not published until 1957.{{sfn|Zohn|1960}}{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}} In April 1939, following the devastating Kristallnacht pogrom of November 1938, Martha Beerwald realized her daughter would not return and made the decision to leave her husband and join Arendt in Paris. One stepdaughter had died and the other had moved to England, Martin Beerwald would not leave and she no longer had any close ties to Königsberg.{{sfn| Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 149}}

Heinrich Blücher

In 1936, Arendt met the self-educated Berlin poet and Marxist philosopher Heinrich Blücher (1899–1970) in Paris.{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}}{{sfn| Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 139}} Blücher had been a Spartacist and then a founding member of the KPD, but had been expelled due to his work in the Versöhnler (Conciliator faction).{{sfn|Kippenberger|1936|loc=p. 1185 n. 110}}{{sfn|Weber et al|2014|loc=p. 1392 n. 343}}{{sfn| Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. xxxix}} Although Arendt had rejoined Stern in 1933, their marriage existed in name only, with them having separated in Berlin. She fulfilled her social obligations and used the name Hannah Stern, but the relationship effectively ended when Stern, perhaps recognizing the danger better than her, emigrated to America with his parents in 1936.{{sfn|Grunenberg|2017|loc=p. 136}} In 1937, Arendt was stripped of her German citizenship and she and Stern divorced. She had begun seeing more of Blücher, and eventually they began living together. It was Blücher's long political activism that began to move Arendt's thinking towards political action.{{sfn| Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. xxxix}} Arendt and Blücher married on January 16, 1940, shortly after their respective divorces were finalized.{{sfn| Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 152}}

Internment and escape (1940–1941)

File:Camp de Gurs panneau mémoriel 1980.jpg|thumb|Memorial at alt=Memorial plaque at Camp Gurs to al who were detained thereOn May 5, 1940, in anticipation of the German invasion of France and the Low Countries that month, the Gouverneur général of Paris issued a proclamation ordering all "enemy aliens" between 17 and 55 who had come from Germany (predominantly Jews) to report separately for internment. The women were gathered together in the Vélodrome d'Hiver on May 15, so Hannah Arendt's mother, being over 55, was allowed to stay in Paris. Arendt described the process of making refugees as "the new type of human being created by contemporary history ... put into concentration camps by their foes and into internment camps by their friends".{{sfn| Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 152}} {{sfn|Bernstein|2013|loc=p. 71}} The men, including Blücher, were sent to Camp Vernet in southern France, close to the Spanish border. Arendt and the other women were sent to Camp Gurs, to the west of Gurs, a week later. The camp had originally been set up to accommodate refugees from Spain. On June 22, France capitulated and signed the Compiègne armistice, dividing the country. Gurs was in the southern Vichy controlled section. Arendt describes how, "in the resulting chaos we succeeded in getting hold of liberation papers with which we were able to leave the camp",{{sfn| Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 155}} which she did with about 200 of the 7,000 women held there, about four weeks later.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=pp. 72–73}} There was no Résistance then, but she managed to walk and hitchhike north to Montauban,{{efn|Gurs to Montauban, about 300 km}} near Toulouse where she knew she would find help.{{sfn|Bernstein|2013|loc=p. 71}}{{sfn|Vowinckel|2004|loc=p. 38}}Montauban had become an unofficial capital for former detainees,{{efn|The Huguenot mayor of Montauban had made welcoming political refugees an official policy{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 73}}}} and Arendt's friend Lotta Sempell Klembort was staying there. Blücher's camp had been evacuated in the wake of the German advance, and he managed to escape from a forced march, making his way to Montauban, where the two of them led a fugitive life. Soon they were joined by Anne Mendelssohn and Arendt's mother. Escape from France was extremely difficult without official papers; their friend Walter Benjamin had taken his own life after being apprehended trying to escape to Spain. One of the best known illegal routes operated out of Marseilles, where Varian Fry, an American journalist, worked to raise funds, forge papers and bribe officials with Hiram Bingham, the American vice-consul there.Fry and Bingham secured exit papers and American visas for thousands, and with help from Günther Stern, Arendt, her husband, and her mother managed to secure the requisite permits to travel by train in January 1941 through Spain to Lisbon, Portugal, where they rented a flat at Rua da Sociedade Farmacêutica, 6b.{{efn|In December 2018, a plaque to recognize Arendt's stay in Lisbon was unveiled at the corner of Rua da Sociedade Farmacêutica and Conde Redondo, including a quotation from "We Refugees" (see image){{sfn|Tavares|2018}}{{sfn|Paula|2018}} }}{{sfn|Moreira|2017}} They eventually secured a passage to New York in May on the Companhia Colonial de Navegação's S/S Guiné II.{{sfn| Teixeira|2006}} A few months later, Fry's operations were shut down and the borders sealed.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=pp. 73–74}}{{sfn|Bernstein|2013|loc=pp. 72–73}}

New York (1941–1975)

World War II (1941–1945)

Upon arriving in New York City on May 22, 1941 with very little, they received assistance from the Zionist Organization of America and the local German immigrant population, including Paul Tillich and neighbors from Königsburg. They rented rooms at 317 West 95th Street and Martha Arendt joined them there in June. There was an urgent need to acquire English, and it was decided that Hannah Arendt should spend two months with an American family in Winchester, Massachusetts, through Self-Help for Refugees, in July.{{sfn| Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 164}} She found the experience difficult but formulated her early appraisal of American life, Der Grundwiderspruch des Landes ist politische Freiheit bei gesellschaftlicher Knechtschaft (The fundamental contradiction of the country is political freedom coupled with social slavery).{{efn|Arendt to Jaspers 29 January 1946}}{{sfn| Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 166}}On returning to New York, Arendt was anxious to resume writing and became active in the German-Jewish community, publishing her first article, "From the Dreyfus Affair to France Today" (in translation from her German) in July 1942.{{efn|Arguing that anti-semitism in France was a continuum from Dreyfus to Pétain{{sfn| Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 168}}}}{{sfn|Arendt|1942}} While she was working on this article, she was looking for employment and in November 1941 was hired by the New York German-language Jewish newspaper and from 1941 to 1945, she wrote a political column for it, covering anti-semitism, refugees and the need for a Jewish army. She also contributed to the Menorah Journal, a Jewish-American magazine,{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 196}} and other German émigré publications.{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}}Arendt's first full-time salaried job came in 1944, when she became the director of research and Executive Director for the newly emerging Commission on European Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, a project of the Conference on Jewish Relations.{{efn|The Conference on Jewish Relations, established in 1933 by Salo Baron and Morris Raphael Cohen was renamed the Conference on Jewish Social Studies in 1955, and began publishing Jewish Social Studies in 1939{{sfn|Baron|2007}}{{sfn| Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 186–187}}}} She was recruited "because of her great interest in the Commission's activities, her previous experience as an administrator, and her connections with Germany". There she compiled lists of Jewish cultural assets in Germany and Nazi occupied Europe, to aid in their recovery after the war.{{sfn|Herman|2008}} Together with her husband, she lived at 370 Riverside Drive in New York and at Kingston, New York, where Blücher taught at nearby Bard College for many years.{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}}{{sfn|Bird|1975}}

Post-war (1945–1975)

File:Hannah and Heinrich Blücher, New York (cropped).jpg|thumb|Hannah Arendt with alt=Photo of Hannah and Heinrich Blücher in New York in 1950In July 1946, Arendt left her position at the Commission on European Jewish Cultural Reconstruction to become an editor at Schocken Books,{{efn|Schocken Books began as Schocken Verlag, a German-Jewish publishing house that relocated to New York in 1945{{sfn|Howe|2013}}}} which later published a number of her works.{{sfn|Miller|2017}}{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}} In 1948 she became engaged with the campaign of Judah Magnes for a two-state solution in Palestine.{{sfn| Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. xxxix}} She returned to the Commission in August 1949. In her capacity as executive secretary, she traveled to Europe, where she worked in Germany, Britain and France (December 1949 to March 1950) to negotiate the return of archival material from German institutions, an experience she found frustrating, but providing regular field reports.{{sfn|Arendt|1950}} In January 1952, she became secretary to the Board, although the work of the organization was winding down{{efn|The Commission, by then called Jewish Cultural Reconstruction (JCR), was largely the work of Hannah Arendt and Salo Baron}} and she was simultaneously pursuing her own intellectual activities, however she retained her position until her death.{{efn|JCR was wound up in 1977}}{{sfn|Herman|2008}}{{sfn|Swift|2008|loc=p. 12}}{{sfn|Sznaider|2006}} Arendt's work on cultural restitution provided further material for her study of totalitarianism.{{sfn| Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 188}}In the 1950s Arendt wrote The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951),{{sfn|Arendt|1976}} The Human Condition (1958){{sfn|Arendt|2013}} and On Revolution (1963).{{sfn|Arendt|2006}}{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}} Arendt began corresponding with the American author Mary McCarthy, six years her junior, in 1950 and they soon became lifelong friends.{{sfn| Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. xii}}{{sfn|Arendt|McCarthy|1995}} In 1950, Arendt also became a naturalized citizen of the United States.{{sfn|Pfeffer|2008}} The same year, she started seeing Martin Heidegger again, and had what the American writer Adam Kirsch called a "quasi-romance", lasting for two years, with the man who had previously been her mentor, teacher, and lover.{{sfn|Kirsch|2009}} During this time, Arendt defended him against critics who noted his enthusiastic membership in the Nazi Party. She portrayed Heidegger as a naïve man swept up by forces beyond his control, and pointed out that Heidegger's philosophy had nothing to do with National Socialism.{{sfn|Kirsch|2009}} In 1961 she traveled to Jerusalem to report about Eichmann's trial for the New Yorker. This report has been influential in forming her popular recognition, and raised much controversy (see below). Her work was recognized by many awards, including the Danish Sonning Prize in 1975 for Contributions to European Civilization.{{sfn|Arendt|1975}}{{sfn|Villa|2009}}


(File:Hannah Arendt 1955 (cropped).jpg|thumb|Hannah Arendt lecturing in Germany, 1955|alt=Photo of Hannah Arendt lecturing in Germany, 1955)Arendt taught at many institutions of higher learning from 1951 onwards, but, preserving her independence, consistently refused tenure-track positions. She served as a visiting scholar at the University of Notre Dame; University of California, Berkeley; Princeton University (where she was the first woman to be appointed a full professor in 1959); and Northwestern University. She also taught at the University of Chicago from 1963 to 1967, where she was a member of the Committee on Social Thought; The New School in Manhattan where she taught as a university professor from 1967; {{sfn|Courtine-Denamy|2000|loc=p. 36}}{{sfn|Bird|1975}} Yale University, where she was a fellow; and the Center for Advanced Studies at Wesleyan University (1961–62, 1962–63).{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}}{{sfn|CAS|2011}} She was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1962{{sfn|AAAS|2018}} and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1964.{{sfn|AAAL|2018}}In 1974, Arendt was instrumental in the creation of Structured Liberal Education (SLE) at Stanford University. She wrote a letter to the president of Stanford to persuade the university to enact Mark Mancall's vision of a residentially based humanities program.{{sfn|Bird|1975}} At the time of her death, she was University Professor of Political Philosophy at the New School.{{sfn|Bird|1975}}


{{see also|#Correspondence}}File:Arendt and McCarthy.jpg|thumb|upright|Arendt with Mary McCarthyMary McCarthyIn addition to her affair with Heidegger, and her two marriages, Arendt had a number of close friendships. Since her death, her correspondences with many of them have been published, revealing much information about her thinking. To her friends she was both loyal and generous, dedicating a number of her works to them.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. xl}} Freundschaft (friendship) she described as being one of "tätigen Modi des Lebendigseins" (the active modes of being alive),{{sfn|Berkowitz|Storey|2017|loc=p. 107}} and, to her, friendship was central both to her life and to the concept of politics.{{sfn|Nixon|2015|loc=p. viii}}{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. xl}} Hans Jonas described her as having a "genius for friendship", and, in her own words, "der Eros der Freundschaft" (love of friendship).{{sfn|Weyembergh|1999|loc=p. 94}}{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. xl}}Her philosophy-based friendships were male and European, while her later American friendships were more diverse, literary, and political. Although she became an American citizen in 1950, her cultural roots remained European, and her language remained her German "Muttersprache".{{sfn|Arendt|Gaus|1964}} She surrounded herself with German-speaking émigrés, sometimes referred to as "The Tribe". To her, wirkliche Menschen (real people) were "pariahs", not in the sense of outcasts, but in the sense of outsiders, unassimilated, with the virtue of "social nonconformism ... the sine qua non of intellectual achievement", a sentiment she shared with Jaspers.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. xli–xliv}}Arendt always had a beste Freundin. In her teens she had formed a lifelong relationship with her Jugendfreundin, Anne Mendelssohn Weil ("Annchen"). On emigrating to America, Hilde Frankel, Paul Tillich's secretary and mistress, filled that role until her death in 1950. After the war, Arendt was able to return to Germany and renew her relationship with Weil, who made several visits to New York, especially after Blücher's death in 1970. Their last meeting was in Tegna, Switzerland in 1975, shortly before Arendt's death.{{sfn|Ludz|2008}} With Frankel's death, Mary McCarthy became Arendt's closest friend and confidante.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 29}}{{sfn|Jones|2013}}{{sfn|Weigel|2013}}

Final illness and death

File:HannahArendtGrave-BardCollege.jpg|thumb|Hannah Arendt's grave at Bard College Cemetery, Annandale-on-Hudson, New YorkAnnandale-on-Hudson, New YorkHeinrich Blücher had survived a cerebral aneurysm in 1961 and remained unwell after 1963, sustaining a series of heart attacks. On October 31, 1970 he died of a massive heart attack. A devastated Arendt had previously told Mary McCarthy, "Life without him would be unthinkable".{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 109}} Arendt was also a heavy smoker and was frequently depicted with a cigarette in her hand. She sustained a near fatal heart attack while lecturing in Scotland in May 1974, and although she recovered, she remained in poor health afterwards, and continued to smoke.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 459}} On the evening of December 4, 1975, shortly after her 69th birthday, she had a further heart attack in her apartment while entertaining friends, and was pronounced dead at the scene.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 468}}NEWS, Bird, David, Hannah Arendt, Political Scientist Dead,weblink 15 November 2019, The New York Times, 5 December 1975, Her ashes were buried alongside those of Blücher at Bard College, in Annandale-on-Hudson, New York in May 1976.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. xlviii,469}}{{sfn|Bird|1975}}After Arendt's death the title page of the final part of The Life of the Mind ("Judging") was found in her typewriter, which she had just started, consisting of the title and two epigraphs. This has subsequently been reproduced (see image).{{sfn|Arendt|1992|loc=p. 4}}


Arendt wrote works on intellectual history as a philosopher, using events and actions to develop insights into contemporary totalitarian movements and the threat to human freedom presented by scientific abstraction and bourgeois morality. Intellectually, she was an independent thinker, a loner not a "joiner", separating herself from schools of thought or ideology.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. xxxviii}} In addition to her major texts she published a number of anthologies, including Between Past and Future (1961),{{sfn|Arendt|1961}} Men in Dark Times (1968){{sfn|Arendt|1968}} and Crises of the Republic (1972).{{sfn|Arendt|1972}} She also contributed to many publications, including The New York Review of Books, Commonweal, Dissent and The New Yorker.{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}} She is perhaps best known for her accounts of Adolf Eichmann and his trial,{{sfn|Arendt|2006a}} because of the intense controversy that it generated.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=pp.1–32}}

Political theory and philosophical system

While Arendt never developed a coherent political theory and her writing does not easily lend itself to categorization, the tradition of thought most closely identified with Arendt is that of civic republicanism, from Aristotle to Tocqueville. Her political concept is centered around active citizenship that emphasizes civic engagement and collective deliberation.{{sfn|d'Entreves|2014}} She believed that no matter how bad, government could never succeed in extinguishing human freedom, despite holding that modern societies frequently retreat from democratic freedom with its inherent disorder for the relative comfort of administrative bureaucracy. Her political legacy is her strong defense of freedom in the face of an increasingly less than free world.{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}} She does not adhere to a single systematic philosophy, but rather spans a range of subjects covering totalitarianism, revolution, the nature of freedom and the faculties of thought and judgment.{{sfn|Yar|2018}}While she is best known for her work on "dark times",{{efn|Dark Times: A phrase she took from Brecht's poem (:de:An die Nachgeborenen|An die Nachgeborenen) ("To Those Born After", 1938),{{sfn|Brecht|2018}} the first line of which reads Wirklich, ich lebe in finsteren Zeiten! (Truly, I live in dark times!). To both Brecht and Arendt, "Dark Times" was not merely a descriptive term for perceived atrocities but an explanation of the loss of guiding principles of theory, knowledge and explanation{{sfn|Luban|1994}}}} the nature of totalitarianism and evil, she imbued this with a spark of hope and confidence in the nature of mankind:{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. xxxviii}}That even in the darkest of times we have the right to expect some illumination, and that such illumination might well come less from theories and concepts than from the uncertain, flickering, and often weak light that some men and women, in their lives and their works, will kindle under almost all circumstances and shed over the time span that was given to them.{{sfn|Arendt|1968|loc=p .ix}}

Love and Saint Augustine (1929)

Arendt's doctoral thesis, Der Liebesbegriff bei Augustin. Versuch einer philosophischen Interpretation{{sfn|Arendt|1929}} (Love and Saint Augustine), was published in 1929 and attracted critical interest, although an English translation did not appear until 1996.{{sfn|Arendt|1996}} In this work, she combines approaches of both Heidegger and Jaspers. Arendt's interpretation of love in the work of Augustine deals with three concepts, love as craving or desire (Amor qua appetitus), love in the relationship between man (creatura) and creator (Creator - Creatura), and neighborly love (Dilectio proximi). Love as craving anticipates the future, while love for the Creator deals with the remembered past. Of the three, dilectio proximi or caritas{{efn|Latin has three nouns for love: amor, dilectio and caritas. The corresponding verbs for the first two are amare and diligere{{sfn|Augustine|1995|loc=p. 115 n. 31}}}} is perceived as the most fundamental, to which the first two are oriented, which she treats under vita socialis (social life). The second of the Great Commandments (or Golden Rule) "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself" uniting and transcending the former.{{efn|{{bibleref|Matthew|22:39|KJV}} }}{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 74}} Augustine's influence (and Jaspers' views on his work) persisted in Arendt's writings for the rest of her life.{{sfn|Calcagno|2013}}}}Some of the leitmotifs of her canon were apparent, introducing the concept of (:de:Natalität|Natalität) (Natality) as a key condition of human existence and its role in the development of the individual,{{sfn|Arendt|1996}}{{sfn|Beiner|1997}}{{sfn|Kiess|2016|loc=pp. 22,40}} developing this further in The Human Condition (1958).{{sfn|Arendt|2013}}{{sfn|Fry|2014}} She explained that the construct of natality was implied in her discussion of new beginnings and man's elation to the Creator as nova creatura.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 49–500}}{{sfn|Kiess|2016|loc=pp. 101ff}} The centrality of the theme of birth and renewal is apparent in the constant reference to Augustinian thought, and specifically the innovative nature of birth, from this, her first work, to her last, The Life of the Mind.{{sfn|Durst|2004}}Love is another connecting theme. In addition to the Augustinian loves expostulated in her dissertation, the phrase amor mundi (love of the world) is one often associated with Arendt and both permeates her work and was an absorbing passion throughout her work.{{sfn|Bernauer|1987a|loc=p. 1}}{{sfn|Hill|2017}} She took the phrase from Augustine's homily on the (:s:Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers: Series I/Volume VII/First Epistle of John/Part 2|first epistle of St John), "If love of the world dwell in us".{{sfn|Augustine|2008|loc=II: 8 p. 45}} Amor mundi was her original title for The Human Condition (1958),{{efn|Arendt explained to Karl Jaspers, in a letter dated August 6, 1955, that she intended to use St Augustine's concept of amor mundi as the title, as a token of gratitude{{sfn|Vollrath|1997}}}}{{sfn|Bernauer|1987|loc=p. v}} the subtitle of Elisabeth Young-Bruehl's biography (1982),{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004}} the title of a collection of writing on faith in her work{{sfn|Bernauer|1987}} and is the newsletter of the Hannah Arendt Center at Bard College.{{sfn|Amor Mundi|2018}}

The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951)

Arendt's first major book, The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951),{{sfn|Arendt|1976}} examined the roots of Communism and Nazism, structured as three essays, "Antisemitism", "Imperialism" and "Totalitarianism". Arendt argues that totalitarianism was a "novel form of government," that "differs essentially from other forms of political oppression known to us such as despotism, tyranny and dictatorship"{{sfn|Arendt|1976|loc=p. 460}} in that it applied terror to subjugate mass populations rather than just political adversaries.{{sfn|Arendt|1953}}{{sfn|FCG|2018|loc=Introduction}} Criticism included the interpretation that the two movements were portrayed as equally tyrannical.{{sfn|Nisbet|1992}} Arendt also maintained that Jewry was not the operative factor in the Holocaust, but merely a convenient proxy because Nazism was about terror and consistency, not merely eradicating Jews.{{sfn|Riesman|1951}}{{sfn|FCG|2018|loc=Introduction}} Arendt explained the tyranny using Kant's phrase "Radical Evil",{{sfn|Copjec|1996}} by which their victims became "Superfluous People".{{sfn|Hattem|Hattem|2005}}{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 7}} In later editions she enlarged the text {{sfn|Arendt|1976|loc=p. xxiv}} to include her work on "Ideology and Terror: A novel form of government"{{sfn|Arendt|1953}} and the Hungarian Revolution, but then published the latter separately.{{sfn|Arendt|1958}}{{sfn|Arendt|1958a}}{{sfn|Szécsényi|2005}}

Rahel Varnhagen: The Life of a Jewess (1957)

Arendt's Habilitationsschrift on Rahel Varnhagen was completed while she was living in exile in Paris in 1938, but not published till 1957, in the United Kingdom by East and West Library, part of the Leo Baeck Institute.{{sfn|Aschheim|2011}} This biography of a nineteenth century Jewish socialite, formed an important step in her analysis of Jewish history and the subjects of assimilation and emancipation, and introduced her treatment of the Jewish diaspora as either pariah or parvenu. In addition it represents an early version of her concept of history.{{sfn|Grunenberg|2003|loc=p. 34}}{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp .85–92}} The book is dedicated to Anne Mendelssohn, who first drew her attention to Varnhagen.{{sfn|Grunenberg|2017|loc=p. 107}}{{sfn|Zebadúa Yáñez|2017}}{{sfn|Benhabib|1995}}Arendt's relation to Varnhagen permeates her subsequent work. Her account of Varnhagen's life was perceived during a time of the destruction of German-Jewish culture. It partially reflects Arendt's own view of herself as a German-Jewish woman driven out of her own culture into a stateless existence,{{sfn|Grunenberg|2003|loc=p. 34}} leading to the description "biography as autobiography".{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp .85–92}}{{sfn|Goldstein|2009}}{{sfn|Cutting-Gray|1991}}

The Human Condition (1958)

In what is arguably her most influential work, The Human Condition (1958),{{sfn|Arendt|2013}} Arendt differentiates political and social concepts, labor and work, and various forms of actions; she then explores the implications of those distinctions. Her theory of political action, corresponding to the existence of a public realm, is extensively developed in this work. Arendt argues that, while human life always evolves within societies, the social part of human nature, political life, has been intentionally realized in only a few societies as a space for individuals to achieve freedom. Conceptual categories, which attempt to bridge the gap between ontological and sociological structures, are sharply delineated. While Arendt relegates labor and work to the realm of the social, she favors the human condition of action as that which is both existential and aesthetic.{{sfn|d'Entreves|2014}} Of human actions, Arendt identifies two that she considers essential. These are forgiving past wrong (or unfixing the fixed past) and promising future benefit (or fixing the unfixed future).{{sfn|Baier|1997|loc=p. 330}}Arendt had first introduced the concept of "natality" in her Love and Saint Augustine (1929){{sfn|Arendt|1929}} and in The Human Condition starts to develop this further. In this, she departs from Heidegger's emphasis on mortality. Arendt's positive message is one of the "miracle of beginning", the continual arrival of the new to create action, that is to alter the state of affairs brought about by previous actions.{{sfn|Canovan|2013}} "Men", she wrote "though they must die, are not born in order to die but in order to begin". She defined her use of "natality" as:The miracle that saves the world, the realm of human affairs, from its normal, "natural" ruin is ultimately the fact of natality, in which the faculty of action is ontologically rooted. It is, in other words, the birth of new men and the new beginning, the action they are capable of by virtue of being born.{{sfn|Arendt|2013|loc=p. 247}}Natality would go on to become a central concept of her political theory, and also what Karin Fry considers its most optimistic one.{{sfn|Fry|2014}}

Between Past and Future (1961)

Between Past and Future is an anthology of eight essays written between 1954 and 1968, dealing with a variety of different but connected philosophical subjects. These essays share the central idea that humans live between the past and the uncertain future. Man must permanently think to exist, but must learn thinking. Humans have resorted to tradition, but are abandoning respect for this tradition and culture. Arendt tries to find solutions to help humans think again, since modern philosophy has not succeeded in helping humans to live correctly.{{sfn|Arendt|1961}}

On Revolution (1963)

Arendt's book On Revolution{{sfn|Arendt|2006b}} presents a comparison of two of the main revolutions of the eighteenth century, the American and French Revolutions. She goes against a common impression of both Marxist and leftist views when she argues that France, while well-studied and often emulated, was a disaster and that the largely ignored American Revolution was a success. The turning point in the French Revolution occurred when the leaders rejected their goals of freedom in order to focus on compassion for the masses. In the United States, the founders never betray the goal of . Arendt believes the revolutionary spirit of those men had been lost, however, and advocates a "council system" as an appropriate institution to regain that spirit.{{sfn|Wellmer|1999}}

Men in Dark Times (1968)

The anthology of essays Men in Dark Times presents intellectual biographies of some creative and moral figures of the twentieth century, such as Walter Benjamin, Karl Jaspers, Rosa Luxemburg, Hermann Broch, Pope John XXIII, and Isak Dinesen.{{sfn|Arendt|1968}}

Crises of the Republic (1972)

Crises of the Republic{{sfn|Arendt|1972}} was the third of Arendt's anthologies, consisting of four essays, "Lying in Politics", "Civil Disobedience", "On Violence" and "Thoughts on Politics and Revolution". These related essays deal with contemporary American politics and the crises it faced in the 1960s and 1970s. "Lying in Politics" looks for an explanation behind the administration's deception regarding the Vietnam War, as revealed in the Pentagon Papers. "Civil Disobedience" examines the opposition movements, while the final "Thoughts on Politics and Revolution" is a commentary, in the form of an interview on the third essay, "On Violence".{{sfn|Arendt|1972}}{{sfn|Nott|1972}} In "On Violence" Arendt substantiates that violence presupposes power which she understands as a property of groups. Thus, she breaks with the predominant conception of power as derived from violence.


Arendt was a minor poet, but kept this very private.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 3}}{{sfn|Waterhouse|2013}}{{sfn|Bertheau|2016}} She had started writing at seventeen, and her work is marked by a deep melancholy she called Müdigkeit (weariness), a Romantic yearning from the past steeped in Kierkegaardian angst. Its opening stanza read:{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 36}}
In 1948, she wrote a poem dedicated to the late Walter Benjamin, which began:

Posthumous publications

When Hannah Arendt died in 1975, she left a major work incomplete, which was later published in 1978 as The Life of the Mind. Since then a number of her minor works have been collected and published, mainly under the editorship of Jerome Kohn. In 1994 "Essays in Understanding" appeared as the first of a series covering the period 1930–1954, but attracted little attention. A new version of Origins of Totalitarianism appeared in 2004 followed by The Promise of Politics in 2005. The renewed interest in Arendtiana following these publications led to a second series of essays, Thinking Without a Banister: Essays in Understanding, 1953-1975, published in 2018. Other collections have dealt with her Jewish identity, including The Jew as Pariah (1978) and The Jewish Writings (2007), moral philosophy including Lectures on Kant's Political Philosophy (1982) and Responsibility and Judgment (2003), together with her literary works as Reflections on Literature and Culture (2007).{{sfn|Miller|2017}}

The Life of the Mind (1978)

File:Immanuel Kant (painted portrait).jpg|thumb|upright|alt=Portrait of Kant Arendt's last major work, The Life of the Mind{{sfn|Arendt|1978a}} remained incomplete at the time of her death, but marked a return to moral philosophy. The outline of the book was based on her graduate level political philosophy class, Philosophy of the Mind, and her Gifford Lectures in Scotland.{{sfn|Addison|1972–1974}} She conceived of the work as a trilogy based on the mental activities of thinking, willing, and judging. Her most recent work had focused on the first two, but went beyond this in terms of . her discussion of thinking was based on Socrates and his notion of thinking as a solitary dialogue between oneself, leading her to novel concepts of conscience.{{sfn|Ojakangas|2010}}Arendt died suddenly five days after completing the second part, with the first page of Judging, still in her typewriter, and McCarthy then edited the first two parts and provided some indication of the direction of the third.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 467}}{{sfn|Mckenna|1978}} Arendt's exact intentions for the third part are unknown but she left a number of manuscripts (such as Thinking and Moral Considerations, Some Questions on Moral Philosophy and Lectures on Kant's Political Philosophy) relating to her thoughts on the mental faculty of Judging. These have since been published separately.{{sfn|Arendt|2009}}{{sfn|Arendt|1992}}

Collected works

After Hannah Arendt's death a number of her essays and notes have continued to be edited and published posthumously by friends and colleagues, including those that give some insight into the unfinished third part of The Life of the Mind.{{sfn|Miller|2017}} The Jew as Pariah: Jewish Identity and Politics in the Modern Age (1978),{{sfn|Arendt|1978b}} is a collection of 15 essays and letters from the period 1943–1966 on the situation of Jews in modern times, to try and throw some light on her views on the Jewish world, following the backlash to Eichmann, but proved to be equally polarizing.{{sfn|Dannhauser|1979}}{{sfn|Botstein|1983}} A further collection of her writings on being Jewish was published as The Jewish Writings (2007).{{sfn|Arendt|2009a}}{{sfn|Butler|2007}} Other work includes the collection of forty, largely fugitive,{{efn|Fugitive writings: Dealing with subjects of passing interest}} essays, addresses, and reviews entitled Essays in Understanding 1930–1934: Formation, Exile, and Totalitarianism (1994),{{sfn|Arendt|2011}} that presaged her monumental The Origins of Totalitarianism,{{sfn|Arendt|1976}} in particular On the Nature of Totalitarianism (1953) and The Concern with Politics in Contemporary European Philosophical Thought (1954).{{sfn|Teichman|1994}} The remaining essays were published as Thinking Without a Banister: Essays in Understanding, 1953-1975 (2018).{{sfn|Arendt|2018}} Her notebooks which form a series of memoirs, were published as Denktagebuch in 2002.{{sfn|Arendt|2002a}}{{sfn|Arendt|2002b}}{{sfn|Berkowitz|Storey|2017}}


Some further insight into her thinking is provided in the continuing posthumous publication of her correspondence with many of the important figures in her life, including Karl Jaspers (1992),{{sfn|Arendt|Jaspers|1992}} Mary McCarthy (1995),{{sfn|Arendt|McCarthy|1995}} Heinrich Blücher (1996),{{sfn|Arendt|Blücher|2000}} Martin Heidegger (2004),{{efn|Arendt/Heidegger: Arendt willed that her correspondence be taken to the Deutsches Literaturarchiv in Marbach in 1976 and sealed for 5 years, and Heidegger's family stipulated that it remained sealed during Martin Heidegger's wife Elfride's lifetime (1893–1992). In 1976, Elzbieta Ettinger sought access and was granted this for a planned biography after Elfride's death. The subsequent scandal following Ettinger's disclosures, led to a decision to publish the correspondence in entirety{{sfn|Kohler|1996}}{{sfn|Lilla|1999}}}}{{sfn|Arendt|Heidegger|2004}} Alfred Kazin (2005),{{sfn|Arendt|Kazin|2005}} Walter Benjamin (2006),{{sfn|Arendt|Benjamin|2006}} Gershom Scholem (2011){{sfn|Arendt|Scholem|2017}} and Günther Stern (2016).{{sfn|Arendt|Anders|2016}} Other correspondence that has been published, include those with a number of women friends such as Hilde Fränkel and Anne Mendelsohn Weil (see Relationships).{{sfn|Arendt|2017}}{{sfn|Arendt|Benjamin|2006}}

Arendt and the Eichmann trial (1961–1963)

(File:Adolf Eichmann at Trial1961.jpg|thumb|upright|Eichmann on trial in 1961)In 1960, on hearing of Adolf Eichmann's capture and plans for his trial, Hannah Arendt contacted The New Yorker and offered to travel to Israel to cover it when it opened on 11 April 1961.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 2}} Arendt was anxious to test her theories, developed in The Origins of Totalitarianism, and see how justice would be administered to the sort of man she had written about. Also she had witnessed "little of the Nazi regime directly"{{efn|Arendt to Jaspers, 2 December 1960}}{{sfn|Arendt|Jaspers|1992|loc=pp. 409–410}} and this was an opportunity to witness an agent of totalitarianism first hand.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 7}}The offer was accepted and she attended six weeks of the five-month trial with her young cousin from Israel, (:de:Edna Brocke|Edna Brocke).{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 2}} On arrival she was treated as a celebrity, meeting with the trial chief judge, Moshe Landau, and the foreign minister, Golda Meir.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 8}} In her subsequent 1963 report,{{sfn|Arendt|1963}} based on her observations and transcripts,{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 2}} and which evolved into the book (Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil),{{sfn|Arendt|2006a}} Arendt was critical of the way the trial was conducted by the Israelis as a "show trial" with ulterior motives other than simply trying evidence and administering justice.{{sfn|NYT|1960a}}{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 8}} She portrayed the prosecutor, Attorney General Gideon Hausner, as one who employed hyperbolic rhetoric in the pursuit of Prime Minister Ben-Gurion's political agenda.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 8–11}} Arendt, who believed she could maintain her focus on moral principles in the face of outrage, became increasingly frustrated with Hausner, describing his parade of survivors as having "no apparent bearing on the case".{{efn|A position that the judges would later agree with{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 12}}}}{{sfn|Arendt|2006a|loc=p. 207}} She objected to the idea that a strong Israel was necessary to protect world Jewry being again placed where "they'll let themselves be slaughtered like sheep", recalling the biblical phrase.{{efn|Arendt to Jaspers, 23 December 1960}}{{sfn|Arendt|Jaspers|1992|loc=pp. 416}} She was particularly concerned that Hausner repeatedly asked "why did you not rebel?",{{sfn|Arendt|2006a|loc=p. 124}} rather than question the role of the Jewish leaders, as she would do with unforeseen consequences.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 12}}Most famously, Arendt coined the phrase "the banality of evil" to describe the phenomenon of Eichmann. She, like others,{{sfn|Gellhorn|1962}} was struck by his very ordinariness and the demeanor he exhibited of a small, slightly balding, bland bureaucrat, in contrast to the horrific crimes he stood accused of.{{sfn|Scott|2016}} He was, she wrote, "terribly and terrifyingly normal".{{sfn|Arendt|2006a|loc=p. 276}} She examined the question of whether evil is radical or simply a function of thoughtlessness, a tendency of ordinary people to obey orders and conform to mass opinion without a critical evaluation of the consequences of their actions. Arendt's argument was that Eichmann was not a monster, contrasting the immensity of his actions with the very ordinariness of the man himself. Eichmann, she stated, not only called himself a Zionist, having initially opposed the Jewish persecution, but also expected his captors to understand him. She pointed out that his actions were not driven by malice, but rather blind dedication to the regime and his need to belong, to be a joiner.On this, Arendt would later state "Going along with the rest and wanting to say 'we' were quite enough to make the greatest of all crimes possible".{{efn|"Er wollte Wir sagen, und dies Mitmachen und dies Wir-Sagen-Wollen war ja ganz genug, um die allergrössten Verbrechen möglich zu machen."}}{{sfn|Arendt|Fest|1964}} What Arendt observed during the trial was a bourgeois sales clerk who found a meaningful role for himself and a sense of importance in the Nazi movement. She noted that his addiction to clichés and use of bureaucratic morality clouded his ability to question his actions, "to think". This led her to set out her most famous, and most debated, dictum: "the lesson that this long course in human wickedness had taught us – the lesson of the fearsome, word-and-thought-defying banality of evil".{{sfn|Arendt|1963}}{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}} By stating that Eichmann did not think, she did not imply lack of conscious awareness of his actions, but by "thinking" she implied reflective rationality, that was lacking. Arendt, who eschewed identity politics, was also critical of the way Israel depicted Eichmann's crimes as crimes against a nation state, rather than against humanity itself.{{sfn|Butler|2011}}Arendt was also critical of the way that some Jewish leaders associated with the Jewish Councils (Judenräte), notably M. C. Rumkowski, acted during the Holocaust, in cooperating with Eichmann "almost without exception" in the destruction of their own people.{{sfn|Arendt|2006a|loc=p. 123}} She had expressed concerns on this point, prior to the trial.{{efn|Arendt to Jaspers, 23 December 1960}}{{sfn|Arendt|Jaspers|1992|loc=p. 417}} She described this as a moral catastrophe. While her argument was not to allocate blame, rather she mourned what she considered a moral failure of compromising the imperative that it is better to suffer wrong than to do wrong. She describes the cooperation of the Jewish leaders in terms of a disintegration of Jewish morality: "This role of the Jewish leaders in the destruction of their own people is undoubtedly the darkest chapter in the whole dark story". Widely misunderstood, this caused an even greater controversy and particularly animosity toward her in the Jewish community and in Israel.{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}} For Arendt, the Eichmann trial marked a turning point in her thinking in the final decade of her life, becoming increasingly preoccupied with moral philosophy.{{sfn|Luban|2018|loc=p. 5}}


Arendt's five-part series "Eichmann in Jerusalem" appeared in the New Yorker in February 1963{{sfn|Arendt|1963}} some nine months after Eichmann was hanged on May 31, 1962. By this time his trial was largely forgotten in the popular mind, superseded by intervening world events.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 15}} However, no other account of either Eichmann or National Socialism has aroused so much controversy.{{sfn|Stangneth|2014|loc=p. 200}} Prior to its publication, Arendt was considered a brilliant humanistic original political thinker.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 1}} However her mentor, Karl Jaspers, warned her about a possible adverse outcome, "The Eichmann trial will be no pleasure for you. I'm afraid it cannot go well".{{efn|Jaspers to Arendt 14 October 1960{{sfn|Arendt|Jaspers|1992|loc=p. 267}}}}{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 7}} On publication, three controversies immediately occupied public attention: the concept of Eichmann as banal, her criticism of the role of Israel and her description of the role played by the Jewish people themselves.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=pp. 15–18}}Arendt was profoundly shocked by the response, writing to Karl Jaspers "People are resorting to any means to destroy my reputation ... They have spent weeks trying to find something in my past that they can hang on me". Now she was being called arrogant, heartless and ill-informed. She was accused of being duped by Eichmann, of being a "self-hating Jewess", and even an enemy of Israel.{{sfn|Maier-Katkin|2010}}{{sfn|Maier-Katkin|2011}}{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 1}} Her critics included The Anti-Defamation League and many other Jewish groups, editors of publications she was a contributor to, faculty at the universities she taught at and friends from all parts of her life.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 1}} Her friend Gershom Scholem, a major scholar of Jewish mysticism, broke off relations with her, publishing their correspondence without her permission.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=pp. 29–31}} Arendt was criticized by many Jewish public figures, who charged her with coldness and lack of sympathy for the victims of the Holocaust. Because of this lingering criticism neither this book nor any of her other works were translated into Hebrew until 1999.{{sfn|Elon|2006a}} Arendt responded to the controversies in the book's Postscript.Although Arendt complained that she was being criticized for telling the truth – "what a risky business to tell the truth on a factual level without theoretical and scholarly embroidery"{{efn|Letter to McCarthy Sept 16 1963}}{{sfn|Arendt|McCarthy|1995| loc=p. 146}} – the criticism was largely directed to her theorizing on the nature of mankind and evil and that ordinary people were driven to commit the inexplicable not so much by hatred and ideology as ambition, and inability to empathize. Equally problematic was the suggestion that the victims deceived themselves and complied in their own destruction.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=pp. 1–2}} Prior to Arendt's depiction of Eichmann, his popular image had been, as the New York Times put it "the most evil monster of humanity"{{sfn|NYT|1960}} and as a representative of "an atrocious crime, unparalleled in history", "the extermination of European Jews".{{sfn|NYT|1960a}} As it turned out Arendt and others were correct in pointing out that Eichmann's characterization by the prosecution as the architect and chief technician of the holocaust was not entirely credible.{{sfn|Heller|2015|loc=p. 5}}Roger Berkowitz states that Arendt neither defended Eichmann, nor denied that his actions were evil and that he was an anti-semite, nor that he should be executed for his actions. But rather that we should understand that those actions were neither monstrous, nor sadistic. In understanding Eichmann, Arendt argues, we come to understand a greater truth about the nature of evil, that individuals participate in atrocities from an inability to critically examine blind allegiance to ideologies that provide a sense of meaning in a lonely and alienating world. Thus, she concludes, thoughtless zealotry is the face of evil in the modern world.{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013}} Nor was Arendt alone in raising concerns about the role played by the Judenräte.{{sfn|Wieseltier|1981}}Rejections of Arendt's characterization of Eichmann{{sfn|Walters|2015}} and allegations of racism against her have persisted ever since,{{sfn|Frantzman|2016}} though much of this is based on information that was not available at the time of the trial.{{sfn|Stangneth|2014|loc=p. 200}} Issues around factual accuracy have been disputed, as well as whether Eichmann was merely dissembling. Irving Howe, one of her critics, described how the Eichmann issue engendered what approached "civil war" amongst New York intellectuals. Howe rightly surmised that "such controversies are never settled. They die down, simmer, and erupt again".{{sfn|Howe|2013}} Thus the appearance of the 2012 film Hannah Arendt reignited the controversy. Berkowitz states that claiming Arendt exonerated Eichmann as simply a man who followed orders, is a misreading of the book. In fact she argued that Eichmann acted equally out of conviction, and even at times disobeyed orders, such as those of Himmler. Eichmann was, as Berkowitz states, "someone convinced that he was sacrificing an easy morality for a higher good".{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013a}}{{sfn|Wolters|2013}} What has emerged following this revisiting of the controversy, is a consensus that whether Arendt was right or wrong about Eichmann, she was correct about the nature of evil,{{sfn|Austerlitz|2013}}{{sfn|Kaplan|2013}}{{sfn|Browning|2013}} in that events of horror can too easily arise from origins that are mundane. Arendt's depiction of the nature of evil has proved both tenacious and timeless in its relevance.{{sfn|Scott|2016}}While much has been made of Arendt's treatment of Eichmann, Ada Ushpiz, in her 2015 documentary Vita Activa: The Spirit of Hannah Arendt,{{sfn|Zeitgeist|2015}} placed it in a much broader context of the use of rationality to explain seemingly irrational historical events.{{efn|The title vita activa (active life) is taken from Arendt's position in The Human Condition(1958) that thinking is a form of action, and that the active life is as important as the contemplative (vita contemplativa){{sfn|Scott|2016}}}}{{sfn|Scott|2016}}

{{vanchor|Niemand hat das Recht zu gehorchen}}

{{multiple image | header = Palazzo degli Uffici Finanziari, Bolzano| align = center | direction = horizontal | total_width = 300 | float = nonecaption1 = |alt1= University of Berlincaption2=|alt2=University of Marburg|footer= By Day and Night. Fascist monument with Arendt statement over it and explicatory panels in the square in front}}In an interview with Joachim Fest in 1964,{{sfn|Arendt|Fest|1964}} Arendt was asked about Eichmann's defense that he had made Kant's principle of the duty of obedience his guiding principle all his life. Arendt replied that that was outrageous and that Eichmann was misusing Kant, by not considering the element of judgement required in assessing one's own actions – "Kein Mensch hat bei Kant das Recht zu gehorchen" (No man has, according to Kant, the right to obey), she stated, paraphrasing Kant. The reference was to Kant's Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft (Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason 1793) in which he states:Der Satz 'man muß Gott mehr gehorchen, als den Menschen' bedeutet nur, daß, wenn die letzten etwas gebieten, was an sich böse (dem Sittengesetz unmittelbar zuwider) ist, ihnen nicht gehorcht werden darf und soll{{sfn|Kant|1793|loc=p. 99}} (The saying, "We must hearken to God, rather than to man," signifies no more than this, viz. that should any earthly legislation enjoin something immediately contradictory of the moral law, obedience is not to be rendered{{sfn|Kant|1838|loc=p. 125}})Kant clearly defines a higher moral duty than rendering merely unto Caesar. Arendt herself had written in her book "This was outrageous, on the face of it, and also incomprehensible, since Kant's moral philosophy is so closely bound up with man's faculty of judgment, which rules out blind obedience."{{sfn|Arendt|2006a|loc=p. 135}} Arendt's reply to Fest was subsequently corrupted to read Niemand hat das Recht zu gehorchen (No one has the right to obey), which has been widely reproduced, although it does encapsulate an aspect of her moral philosophy.{{sfn|Miller|2017}}{{sfn|Krieghofer|2017}}The phrase Niemand hat das Recht zu gehorchen has become one of her iconic images, appearing on the wall of the house in which she was born (see Commemorations), among other places.{{sfn|HAT|2018}} A fascist bas-relief on the Palazzo degli Uffici Finanziari (1942), in the Piazza del Tribunale,{{efn|The Palazzo degli Uffici Finanziari was originally the Casa del Fascio and the square, the Piazza Arnaldo Mussolini, and was erected as the Fascist headquarters for the region. The bas-relief is by (:it:Hans Piffrader|Hans Piffrader)}} Bolzano, Italy celebrating Mussolini, read Credere, Obbedire, Combattere (Believe, Obey, Combat).{{sfn|Obermair|2018}} In 2017 it was altered to read Hannah Arendt's original words on obedience in the three official languages of the region.{{efn|Ladin, German and Italian: Degnu n'a l dërt de ulghè - Kein Mensch hat das Recht zu gehorchen - Nessuno ha il diritto di obbedire}}{{sfn|Invernizzi-Accetti|2017}}{{sfn|Obermair|2018}}The phrase has been appearing in other artistic work featuring political messages, such as the 2015 installation by Wilfried Gerstel, which has evoked the concept of resistance to dictatorship, as expressed in her essay "Personal Responsibility under Dictatorship" (1964).{{sfn|Arendt|1964}}{{sfn|DP|2017}}

List of selected publications


  • WEB, Heller, Anne C, Selected Bibliography: A Life in Dark Times,weblink 17 August 2018, 23 July 2005b, harv,
  • WEB, Kohn, Jerome, Bibliographical Works,weblink The Hannah Arendt Center for Politics and Humanities at Bard College, 2018, harv, , in {{harvtxt|HAC Bard|2018}}
  • WEB, Yanase, Yosuke, Hnnah Arendt's major works,weblink Philosophical Investigations for Applied Linguistics, 26 July 2018, 3 May 2008, harv,
  • WEB, Arendt works,weblink Thinking and Judging with Hannah Arendt: Political theory class, 2010–2012, University of Helsinki,


Articles and essays

  • JOURNAL, Arendt, Hannah, Stern, Günther, Hannah Arendt, Günther Stern, Rilkes Duineser Elegien, Neue Schweizer Rundschau, 1930, 23, 855–871,weblink harv, (English translation by Susannah Young-ah Gottlieb in {{harvtxt|Arendt|2007|loc=pp. 1–23}})
  • NEWS, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, trans. Robert and Rita Kimber, Augustin und Protestantismus, Augustine and Protestanism, Frankfurter Zeitung, 902, 12 April 1930, 1, harv, (reprinted in {{harvtxt|Arendt|2011|loc=pp. 24–27}})
  • JOURNAL, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, trans. Robert and Rita Kimber, Philosophie und Soziologie. Anläßlich Karl Mannheims Ideologie und Utopie, Philosophy and Sociology, Die Gesellschaft, 1930a, 7, 1, 163−176, harv, (reprinted in {{harvtxt|Arendt|2011|loc=pp. 28–43}})
  • JOURNAL, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, trans. Elisabeh Young-Bruehl, Rezension von: Hans Weil: Die Entstehung des Deutschen Bildungsprinzips, On the emancipation of women, Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik, 1931, 66, 200–205, Review, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Arendt-Stern, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, trans. John E. Woods, Aufklärung und Judenfrage, The Enlightenment and the Jewish Question, Zeitschrift für die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland, 1932, 4, 2/3, 65–77,weblink harv, (reprinted in {{harvtxt|Arendt|2009a|loc=pp. 3–18}}
  • JOURNAL, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Rezension über Alice Rühle-Gerstel: Das Frauenproblem in der Gegenwart. Eine psychologische Bilanz, Die Gesellschaft, 1932a, 10, 2, 177–179, de, harv, (reprinted in {{harvtxt|Arendt|2011|loc=pp. 66–68}})
  • NEWS, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Adam-Müller-Renaissance?, (:de:Kölnische Zeitung, Kölnische Zeitung), 501, 510, 13-17 September 1932b, de, harv, , reprinted in translation in {{harvtxt|Arendt|2007|loc=pp. 38–45}}
  • JOURNAL, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, From the Dreyfus Affair to France Today, Jewish Social Studies, July 1942, 4, 3, 195–240, 4615201, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, We refugees, Menorah Journal, 31 January 1943, 31, 1, 69–77,weblink harv, , reprinted in {{harvtxt|Arendt|1978b|loc=pp. 55–67}} and {{harvtxt|Robinson|1996|loc=pp. 110–119}}
  • JOURNAL, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, The Jew as Pariah: A Hidden Tradition, Jewish Social Studies, 1944, 6, 2, 99–122, harv, 4464588, (reprinted in {{harvtxt|Arendt|2009a|loc=pp. 275–297}}
  • JOURNAL, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Ideology and Terror: A Novel Form of Government, The Review of Politics, 1953, 15, 3, 303–327, harv, 1405171, 10.1017/S0034670500001510,weblink (reprinted in {{harvtxt|Hollinger|Capper|1993|loc=pp. 338–348}} hereweblink
  • JOURNAL, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Totalitarian Imperialism: Reflections on the Hungarian Revolution, The Journal of Politics, 1958, 20, 1, 5–43, 10.2307/2127387, harv, 2127387,
  • MAGAZINE, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Reflections on Little Rock, Dissent (American magazine), Dissent, Winter 1959, 6, 6, 45–56,weblink 3 August 2018, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, A reply to critics, Dissent (American magazine), Dissent, Spring 1959, 6, 7, 179–181,weblink 3 August 2018, {{harvid, Arendt, 1959a, }}
  • MAGAZINE, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Eichmann in Jerusalem. 5 parts,weblink February–March 1963, The New Yorker, 11 August 2018, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Contributions,weblink New York Review of Books, 11 August 2018,
  • MAGAZINE, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Walter Benjamin,weblink The New Yorker, 19 October 1968, 65,
  • MAGAZINE, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, trans. German Albert Hofstadter, Martin Heidegger at Eighty,weblink New York Review of Books, 51, 21 October 1971, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Remembering W. H. Auden,weblink The New Yorker, 20 January 1975, harv,


  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Jaspers, Karl, Hannah Arendt, Karl Jaspers, Köhler, Lotte, Saner, Hans, translated by Robert and Rita Kimber, Hannah Correspondence, 1926-1969,weblink 1992, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, 978-0-15-107887-5, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Arendt, Hannah, Kazin, Alfred, Hannah Arendt, Alfred Kazin, Mahrdt, Helgard, The correspondence between Hannah Arendt and Alfred Kazin,weblink Samtiden, 1, February 2005, 107–154, harv,
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, McCarthy, Mary, Brightman, Carol, Hannah Arendt, Mary McCarthy (author), Between friends: the correspondence of Hannah Arendt and Mary McCarthy, 1949-1975,weblink 1995, Harcourt Brace, 978-0-15-100112-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, Blücher, Heinrich, Heinrich Blücher, Kohler, Lotte, translated by Peter Constantine, Within Four Walls: The Correspondence Between Hannah Arendt and Heinrich Blücher, 1936-1968,weblink 2000, 1996, Harcourt (publisher), Harcourt, 978-0-15-100303-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, Heidegger, Martin, Martin Heidegger, Ludz, Ursula, translated by Andrew Shields, Briefe 1925 bis 1975 und andere Zeugnisse, Letters, 1925-1975,weblink 2004, 1999 Klostermann, Harcourt (publisher), Harcourt, New York, 978-0-15-100525-3, harv,
    • MAGAZINE, Heidegger, Martin, Martin Heidegger, This Day in Letters: Letter to Hannah Arendt,weblink The American Reader, 24 April 1925, harv,
    • MAGAZINE, Lilla, Mark, Mark Lilla, Ménage à Trois,weblink The New York Review of Books, 18 November 1999, review, harv,
    • MAGAZINE, Brightman, Carol, The Metaphysical Couple,weblink The Nation, 20 May 2004, Review, harv,
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, Benjamin, Walter, Walter Benjamin, Schöttker, Detlev, Wizisla, Erdmut, Arendt und Benjamin: Texte, Briefe, Dokumente,weblink 2006, Suhrkamp, 978-3-518-29395-9, german, harv,
    • JOURNAL, Knott, Marie Luise, Arendt und Benjamin. Texte, Briefe, Dokumente. Herausgegeben von Detlev Schöttker und Erdmut Wizisla, Frankfurt 2006,weblink, 1, 3, 8 November 2018, May 2007, Review, de,
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Anders, Günther, Hannah Arendt, Günther Stern, Putz, Kerstin, Schreib doch mal 'hard facts' über dich: Briefe 1939 bis 1975,weblink 2016, C.H.Beck, 978-3-406-69911-5, de, harv, (excerpts)
    • NEWS, Magenau, Jörg, Die Geschiedenen: Die Frage ist, wie man überlebt: Der Briefwechsel zwischen Hannah Arendt und Günther Anders,weblink 12 September 2018, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 9 October 2016, de, Review, harv,
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, Ludz, Ursula, Nordmann, Ingeborg, Wie ich einmal ohne Dich leben soll, mag ich mir nicht vorstellen: Briefwechsel mit den Freundinnen Charlotte Beradt, Rose Feitelson, Hilde Fränkel, Anne Weil-Mendelsohn und Helen Wolff (I do not like to imagine how I should live without you: correspondence with my friends),weblink 2017, Piper ebooks, 978-3-492-97837-8, german, harv,
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, Scholem, Gershom, Gershom Scholem, Knott, Marie Louise, trans. Anthony David, The Correspondence of Hannah Arendt and Gershom Scholem,weblink 2017, 2011, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-92451-9, harv,


  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, McCarthy, Mary, Mary McCarthy (author), The Life of the Mind: The Groundbreaking Investigation on How We Think,weblink 1981, 1978, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, 978-0-547-54147-1, {{harvid, Arendt, 1978, }} Online text at Pensar el Espacio Público
    • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, McCarthy, Mary, Mary McCarthy (author), The Life of the Mind. Volume I: Thinking,weblink 1981, 1978, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, 978-0-15-651992-2, {{harvid, Arendt, 1978a, }}
    • JOURNAL, Donoghue, Denis, Denis Donoghue (academic), Hannah Arendt's "The Life of the Mind", The Hudson Review, Summer 1979, 32, 2, 281–288, 10.2307/3849978, Review, harv, 3849978,
    • JOURNAL, Mckenna, George, The Life of the Mind, The Journal of Politics, November 1978, 40, 4, 1086–1088, Review, 10.2307/2129914, harv, 2129914,
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Feldman, Ron H, The Jew as Pariah: Jewish Identity and Politics in the Modern Age,weblink 1978b, Grove Press, 978-0-394-17042-8, harv,
    • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, 1, We refugees, 1943,weblink harv,
    • JOURNAL, Botstein, Leon, Leon Botstein, The Jew as Pariah: Hannah Arendt's Political Philosophy, Dialectical Anthropology, 1983, 8, 1/2, 47–73, Review, harv, 29790091,
    • JOURNAL, Budwig, Ernest. G., The Jew As Pariah: Jewish Identity and Politics in the Modern Age. By Hannah Arendt. Edited by Ron Feldman. New York: Grove Press, 1978. 288 pp. $12.50 cloth; $6.95 paper, Journal of Church and State, 1 January 1980, 22, 1, 165, 10.1093/jcs/22.1.165, Review, harv,
    • MAGAZINE, Dannhauser, Werner J., The Jew as Pariah, by Hannah Arendt, edited by Ron H. Feldman, Commentary (magazine), Commentary, 1 January 1979,weblink Review, harv,
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Beiner, Ronald, Lectures on Kant's Political Philosophy,weblink 1992, 1982, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-23178-5, harv, Online text also Internet Archive
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Ludz, Ursula, Nordmann, Ingeborg, Denktagebuch: 1950 bis 1973, 1,weblink 2002a, Piper, 978-3-492-04429-5, german, harv,
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Ludz, Ursula, Nordmann, Ingeborg, Denktagebuch: 1950 bis 1973, 2,weblink 2002b, Piper, 978-3-492-04429-5, german, harv,
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Baehr, Peter, The Portable Hannah Arendt,weblink January 2000, Penguin Books, 978-0-14-026974-1, harv, Full text on Internet Archive
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Kohn, Jerome, Essays in Understanding, 1930-1954: Formation, Exile, and Totalitarianism,weblink 2011, 1994 Harcourt Brace & Company, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 978-0-307-78703-3, harv, Full text on Internet Archive
    • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Gaus, Günter, :de:Günter Gaus, 1, trans. Joan Stambaugh, Was bleibt? Es bleibt die Muttersprache. Günter Gaus im Gespräch mit Hannah Arendt, "What remains? The Language remains": An interview with Günter Gaus, 28 October 1964, 1–23,weblink harv, (video and original German transcription)
    • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, 1, trans. Robert and Rita Kimber, Augustine and Protestanism, 1930, 24–27,weblink harv,
    • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, 1, trans. Robert and Rita Kimber, Philosophy and Sociology, 1930, 28–43,weblink harv, (also in translation by Clare McMillan and Volker Meja, in {{harvtxt|Meja|Stehr|2014|loc=pp. 196–208}}
    • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, 1, trans. Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, On the emancipation of women, 1932, 66–68,weblink harv,
    • MAGAZINE, Teichman, Jenny, Jenny Teichman, Understanding Arendt, The New Criterion, April 1994,weblink 10 August 2018, Review, harv,
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Ludz, Ursula, Ich will verstehen: Selbstauskünfte zu Leben und Werk; mit einer vollständigen Bibliographie,weblink 2005, Piper, 978-3-492-24591-3, de, harv,
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Gottlieb, Susannah Young-ah, Reflections on Literature and Culture,weblink 2007, Stanford University Press, 978-0-8047-4499-7, harv,
    • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, 1, Adam-Müller-Renaissance?, 1932, 38–45, en,
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Responsibility and Judgment, Kohn, Jerome,weblink 2009, 2003, Schocken Books, Schocken, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 978-0-307-54405-6, harv,
    • {{citation |last=Arendt|first=Hannah|authorlink=Hannah Arendt|authormask=1|title= Prologue: Sonning Prize acceptance speech|date=1975 |url=|pages=3–16}}
    • {{citation |last=Arendt|first=Hannah|authorlink=Hannah Arendt|authormask=1|title=Personal responsibility under dictatorship |date=1964 |url=|pages=17–48|ref=harv}}
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Kohn, Jerome, The Promise of Politics,weblink 2009, 2005 Schocken Books, Schocken, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 978-0-307-54287-8, harv, , partly based on Was ist Politik? (1993), French translation as Qu'est-ce que la politique ?
    • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Ludz, Ursula, Was ist Politik?: Fragmente aus dem Nachlass,weblink 1993, Piper, german, harv, (fragments)
    • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, trans. Carole Widmaier, Qu'est-ce que la politique ?,weblink 2001, Éditions du Seuil, 978-2-02-048190-8, french, harv, see also (extract)
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Kohn, Jerome, Feldman, Ron H, The Jewish Writings,weblink 2009a, 2007 Schocken Books, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 978-0-307-49628-7, harv, Full text on Internet Archive and also at Pensar el Espacio Público
    • BOOK, Arendt-Stern, Hannah, 1, trans. John E. Woods, The Enlightenment and the Jewish Question, 1932, 3–18,weblink harv,
    • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, 1, The Jew as Pariah: A Hidden Tradition, 1944, 275–297,weblink harv,
    • MAGAZINE, Butler, Judith, Judith Butler, 'I merely belong to them': The Jewish Writings by Hannah Arendt, edited by Jerome Kohn and Ron Feldman 2007, London Review of Books, Review, 10 May 2007, 29, 9, 26–28,weblink 0260-9592, 14 August 2018, harv,
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Kohn, Jerome, Thinking Without a Banister: Essays in Understanding, 1953-1975,weblink 2018, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 978-1-101-87030-3, harv,


  • WEB, The Hannah Arendt Papers,weblink Library of Congress, 14 August 2018, 2001, {{harvid, LoC, 2001, }}
    • WEB, Kohn, Jerome, Three Essays: The Role of Experience in Hannah Arendt's Political Thought,weblink 2001,
  • WEB, Hannah Arendt-Archiv,weblink Institut für Philosophie: Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, 27 August 2018, de, 2018, {{harvid, HAArchiv, 2018, }}
  • WEB, Hannah Arendt (publications),weblink Internet Archive, 13 October 2018,


  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, Fischer-Defoy, Christine, Hannah Arendt: das private Adressbuch 1951-1975,weblink 2007, Koehler & Amelang, 978-3-7338-0357-5, german, harv,
    • JOURNAL, Ludz, Ursula, Gut gestaltet, unterhaltsam, aber nicht zuverlässig – das kürzlich erschienene Arendt-Adressbuch,weblink 4, 1,, 26 August 2018, May 2008, Review, german, harv,
  • BOOK, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Hannah Arendt: The Last Interview And Other Conversations,weblink 2013a, Melville House Publishing, 978-1-61219-312-0, harv,
    • JOURNAL, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Fest, Joachim, Joachim Fest, trans. Andrew Brown, Eichmann war von empörender Dummheit: Hannah Arendt im Gespräch mit Joachim Fest,, 3, 1, Eichmann was outrageously stupid: Hannah Arendt in conversation with Joachim Fest,weblink 9 November 1964, Südwestrundfunk, SWR TV, Germany, German, English, harv, (Original video)
    • MAGAZINE, Brody, Richard, Richard Brody, Hannah Arendt's Failures of Imagination,weblink The New Yorker, December 3, 2013, harv, Review,
  • WEB, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Sonning Prize acceptance speech,weblink Miscellaneous Material, 25 October 2018, Copenhagen, 18 April 1975, harv, , reprinted as the Prologue in {{harvtxt|Arendt|2009|loc= pp.3–16}}
  • JOURNAL, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, 1, Jewish Cultural Reconstruction Field Reports, 1948–1951, No. 18, February 15 – March 10, 1950,weblink Key Documents of German-Jewish History, Institut für die Geschichte der deutschen Juden (IGdJ), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Hamburg, en, 10.23691/jgo:source-126.en.v1, 7 March 2019, {{harvid, Arendt, 1950, }}


In 1961, while covering the trial of Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem, Arendt wrote a letter to Karl Jaspers that Adam Kirsch described as reflecting "pure racism" toward Sephardic Jews from the Middle East and Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe. She wrote:On top, the judges, the best of German Jewry. Below them, the prosecuting attorneys, Galicians, but still Europeans. Everything is organized by a police force that gives me the creeps, speaks only Hebrew, and looks Arabic. Some downright brutal types among them. They would obey any order. And outside the doors, the oriental mob, as if one were in Istanbul or some other half-Asiatic country.{{sfn|Kirsch|2009}}Although Arendt remained a Zionist both during and after World War II, she made it clear that she favored the creation of a Jewish-Arab federated state in Palestine, rather than a purely Jewish state. She believed that this was a way to address Jewish statelessness and to avoid the pitfalls of nationalism.{{sfn|Seliger|2011}}{{sfn|Butler|2007}}It was not just Arendt's analysis of the Eichmann trial that drew accusations of racism. In her 1958 essay in Dissent entitled Reflections on Little Rock{{sfn|Arendt|1959}} she expressed opposition to desegregation following the 1957 Little Rock Integration Crisis in Arkansas. As she explains in the preface, for a long time the magazine was reluctant to print her contribution, so far did it appear to differ from the publication's liberal values. Eventually it was printed alongside critical responses. Later the New Yorker would express similar hesitancy over the Eichmann papers. So vehement was the response, that Arendt felt obliged to defend herself in a sequel.{{sfn|Arendt|1959a}} The debate over this essay has continued since.{{sfn|Morey|2011}} William Simmons devotes a whole section of his 2011 text on human rights (Human Rights Law and the Marginalized Other){{sfn|Simmons|2011}} to a critique of Arendt's position and in particular on Little Rock.{{sfn|Simmons|2011a}} While a number of critics feel she was fundamentally racist,{{sfn|Burroughs|2015}} many of those who have defended Arendt's position have pointed out that her concerns were for the welfare of the children, a position she maintained throughout her life. She felt that the children were being subjected to trauma in order to serve a broader political strategy of forcible integration.{{sfn|Lebeau|2016}} While over time Arendt conceded some ground to her critics, namely that she argued as an outsider, she remained committed to her central critique that children should not be thrust into the front-lines of geopolitical conflict.{{sfn|Pickett|2009}}


Embraced by feminists, as a pioneer in a world dominated by men up to her time, Arendt did not call herself a feminist and would be very surprised to hear herself described as a feminist,{{sfn|Baier|1995|loc=p. 301}}{{sfn|Baier|1998|loc=p. 254}} remaining opposed to the social dimensions of Women's Liberation, urging independence, but always keeping in mind Viva{{Not a typo}} la petite différence!{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. 238}} On becoming the first woman to be appointed a professor at Princeton in 1953, the media were much engaged in this exceptional achievement, but she never wanted to be seen as an exception, either as a woman (an "exception woman"){{sfn|Courtine-Denamy|2000|loc=p. 36}} or a Jew, stating emphatically "I am not disturbed at all about being a woman professor, because I am quite used to being a woman".{{sfn|Baier|1998|loc=p. 255}} In 1972, discussing women's liberation, she observed "the real question to ask is, what will we lose if we win?".{{sfn|Baier|1997|loc=p. 332}} She rather enjoyed what she saw as the privileges of being feminine as opposed to feminist, "Intensly feminine and therefore no feminist", stated Hans Jonas.{{sfn|Courtine-Denamy|2000|loc=p. 36}} Arendt considered some professions and positions unsuitable for women, particularly those involving leadership, telling Güunter Gaus "It just doesn't look good when a woman gives orders".{{sfn|Courtine-Denamy|2000|loc=p. 35}} Despite these views, and having been labelled "anti-feminist", much space has been devoted to examining Arendt's place in relation to feminism.{{sfn|Markus|1987}}{{sfn|Honig|2010}} In the last years of her life, Virginia Held noted that Arendt's views evolved with the emergence of a new feminism in America in the 1970s to recognize the importance of the women's movement.{{sfn|Held|Kazin|1982}}

Critique of human rights

In The Origins of Totalitarianism, Hannah Arendt devotes a lengthy chapter (The Decline of the Nation-State and the End of the Rights of Man){{sfn|Arendt|1976|loc=pp. 267–302}} to a critical analysis of human rights, in what has been described as "the most widely read essay on refugees ever published".{{sfn|Lamey|2011|loc=p. 14}} Arendt is not skeptical of the notion of political rights in general, but instead defends a national or civil conception of rights.{{sfn|Arendt|1976|loc=p. 389}} Human rights, or the Rights of Man as they were commonly called, are universal, inalienable, and possessed simply by virtue of being human. In contrast, civil rights are possessed by virtue of belonging to a political community, most commonly by being a citizen. Arendt's primary criticism of human rights is that they are ineffectual and illusory because their enforcement is in tension with national sovereignty.{{sfn|Lamey|2011|loc=pp. 17–19}} She argued that since there is no political authority above that of sovereign nations, state governments have little incentive to respect human rights when such policies conflict with national interests. This can be seen most clearly by examining the treatment of refugees and other stateless people. Since the refugee has no state to secure their civil rights, the only rights they have to fall back on are human rights. In this way Arendt uses the refugee as a test case for examining human rights in isolation from civil rights.{{sfn|Birmingham|2006}}Arendt's analysis draws on the refugee upheavals in the first half of the twentieth century along with her own experience as a refugee fleeing Nazi Germany. She argued that as state governments began to emphasize national identity as a prerequisite for full legal status, the number of minority resident aliens increased along with the number of stateless persons whom no state was willing to recognize legally.{{sfn|Arendt|1976|loc=p. 379–381}} The two potential solutions to the refugee problem, repatriation and naturalization, both proved incapable of solving the crisis. Arendt argued that repatriation failed to solve the refugee crisis because no government was willing to take them in and claim them as their own. When refugees were forcibly deported to neighboring countries, such immigration was deemed illegal by the receiving country, and so failed to change the fundamental status of the migrants as stateless. Attempts at naturalizing and assimilating refugees also had little success. This failure was primarily the result of resistance from both state governments and the majority of citizens, since both tended to see the refugees as undesirables who threatened their national identity. Resistance to naturalization also came from the refugees themselves who resisted assimilation and attempted to maintain their own ethnic and national identities.{{sfn|Arendt|1976|loc=p. 378–384}} Arendt contends that neither naturalization nor the tradition of asylum was capable of handling the sheer number of refugees. Instead of accepting some refugees with legal status, the state often responded by denaturalizing minorities who shared national or ethnic ties with stateless refugees.{{sfn|Birmingham|2006}}Arendt argues that the consistent mistreatment of refugees, most of whom were placed in internment camps, is evidence against the existence of human rights. If the notion of human rights as universal and inalienable is to be taken seriously, the rights must be realizable given the features of the modern liberal state.{{sfn|Lamey|2011|loc=pp. 27–29}} She concluded "The Rights of Man, supposedly inalienable, proved to be unenforceable–even in countries whose constitutions were based upon them–whenever people appeared who were no longer citizens of any sovereign state".{{sfn|Arendt|1976|loc=p. 293}} Arendt contends that they are not realizable because they are in tension with at least one feature of the liberal state—national sovereignty. One of the primary ways in which a nation exercises sovereignty is through control over national borders. State governments consistently grant their citizens free movement to traverse national borders. In contrast, the movement of refugees is often restricted in the name of national interests.{{sfn|Lamey|2011|loc=pp. 239–240}} This restriction presents a dilemma for liberalism because liberal theorists typically are committed to both human rights and the existence of sovereign nations.{{sfn|Birmingham|2006}}In one of her most quoted passages,{{sfn|Lamey|2011|loc=p. 18}} she puts forward the concept that human rights are little more than an abstraction:The conception of human rights based upon the assumed existence of a human being as such broke down at the very moment when those who professed to believe in it were for the first time confronted with people who had indeed lost all other qualities and specific relationships - except that they were still human. The world found nothing sacred in the abstract nakedness of being human.{{sfn|Arendt|1976|loc=p. 299}}

In popular culture

Several authors have written biographies that focus on the relationship between Hannah Arendt and Martin Heidegger.{{sfn|Ettinger|1997}}{{sfn|Grunenberg|2017}}{{sfn|Maier-Katkin|2010a}} In 1999, the French feminist philosopher Catherine Clément wrote a novel, Martin and Hannah,{{sfn|Clément|2001}} speculating on the triangular relationship between Heidegger and the two women in his life, Arendt and Heidegger's wife Elfriede Petri. In addition to the relationships, the novel is a serious exploration of philosophical ideas, that centers on Arendt's last meeting with Heidegger in Freiburg in 1975. The scene is based on Elisabeth Young-Bruehl's description in Hannah Arendt: For Love of the World (1982),{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004}} but reaches back to their childhoods, and Heidegger's role in encouraging the relationship between the two women.{{sfn|Kristeva|2001}} The novel explores Heidegger's embrace of Nazism as a proxy for that of Germany and, as in Arendt's treatment of Eichmann, the difficult relationship between collective guilt and personal responsibility. Clément also brings Hannah's other mentor and confidante, Karl Jaspers, into the matrix of relationships.{{sfn|Schroeder|2002}}Hannah Arendt - and parts of her life before America - appears as the appropriately named Athena at the end of Book II and particularly in Chapters 9-11 (Berlin, Dresden, 1933) and Chapter 49 (Montauban, 1940) in Book III of the series of novels 'In the Shadow of the Fallen'.

{{vanchor|Hannah Arendt (2012)}}

Arendt's life remains part of current culture and thought. In 2012 the German film, Hannah Arendt, directed by Margarethe von Trotta was released. The film, with Barbara Sukowa in the title role, depicted the controversy over Arendt's coverage of the Eichmann trial and subsequent book,{{sfn|Arendt|2006a}} in which she was widely misunderstood as defending Eichmann and blaming Jewish leaders for the Holocaust.{{sfn|BBFC|2018}}{{sfn|IMDb|2012}}


(File:Hannah-Arendt-Strasse-Berlin.jpg|thumb|upright|Hannah-Arendt Straße in Berlin)Hannah Arendt is widely considered one of the most influential political philosophers of the twentieth century.{{sfn|d'Entreves|2014}} As a political theorist, moral philosopher and polemicist, she is unmatched in both range and rigor.{{sfn|Scott|2016}} In 1998 Walter Laqueur stated "No twentieth-century philosopher and political thinker has at the present time as wide an echo", as philosopher, historian, sociologist and also journalist.{{sfn|Laqueur|1998}} In popular imagination she is known primarily for the reaction to her work on Adolf Eichmann, and in particular for the one phrase "the banality of evil".{{sfn|Scott|2016}} Arendt's legacy has been described as a cult,{{sfn|Laqueur|1998}}{{sfn|Shenhav|2007}} yet she shunned publicity, never expecting, as she explained to Karl Jaspers in 1951, to see herself as a "cover girl" on the newsstands.{{efn|Letter to Jaspers May 14, 1951.{{sfn|Arendt|Jaspers|1992|loc=p. 170}} Her image appeared on the cover of the Saturday Review of Literature on Saturday, March 24, 1951 (see image), shortly after the publication of The Origins of Totalitarianism. She also appeared on Time and Newsweek in the same week{{sfn|Ring|1998|loc=p. 106}}}}{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. xxxviii}} In Germany, there are tours available of sites associated with her life.{{sfn|Kulturreise|2018}}The study of the life and work of Hannah Arendt, and of her political and philosophical theory is described as (:wikt:Arendtian|Arendtian).{{sfn|HAC Verona|2018 }}{{sfn|Canovan|2013}} In her will she established the Hannah Arendt Bluecher Literary Trust as the custodian of her writings and photographs.{{sfn|Kohn|2018}} Her personal library was deposited at Bard College at the Stevenson Library in 1976, and includes approximately 4,000 books, ephemera, and pamphlets from Arendt's last apartment as well as her desk (in McCarthy House).{{sfn|About HAC Bard|2018}} The college has begun archiving some of the collection digitally, which is available at The Hannah Arendt Collection.{{sfn|Bard|2018}} Most of her papers were deposited at the Library of Congress and her correspondence with her German friends and mentors, such as Heidegger, Blumenfeld and Jaspers, at the (:de:Deutsches Literaturarchiv Marbach|Deutsches Literaturarchiv) in Marbach.{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=p. xlvii}} The Library of Congress listed more than 50 books written about her in 1998, and that number has continued to grow, as have the number of scholarly articles, estimated as 1000 at that time.{{sfn|Laqueur|1998}}Her life and work is recognized by the institutions most closely associated with her teaching, by the creation of Hannah Arendt Centers at both Bard (Hannah Arendt Center for Politics and Humanities){{sfn|HAC Bard|2018}} and The New School,{{sfn|Bernstein|2017}} both in New York State. In Germany, her contributions to understanding authoritarianism is recognised by the Hannah-Arendt-Institut für Totalitarismusforschung (Hannah Arendt Institute for the Research on Totalitarianism) in Dresden. There are Hannah Arendt Associations (Hannah Arendt Verein){{sfn|Laqueur|1998}} such as the Hannah Arendt Verein für politisches Denken in Bremen that awards the annual Hannah-Arendt-Preis für politisches Denken (Hannah Arendt Prize for Political Thinking) established in 1995. In Oldenburg, the Hannah Arendt Center at Carl von Ossietzky University was established in 1999,{{sfn|HAC Oldenburg|2018}} and holds a large collection of her work (Hannah Arendt Archiv),{{sfn|HAArchiv|2018}} and administers the internet portal (A Journal for Political Thinking){{sfn|Heuer|2018}} as well as a monograph series, the Hannah Arendt-Studien.{{sfn|Grunenberg|2018}} In Italy, the Hannah Arendt Center for Political Studies is situated at the University of Verona for Arendtian studies.{{sfn|HAC Verona|2018 }}In 2017 a journal, Arendt Studies, was launched to publish articles related to the study of the life, work, and legacy of Hannah Arendt.{{sfn|Barry|2017}} Many places associated with her, have memorabilia of her on display, such as her student card at the University of Heidelberg (see image).{{sfn|UHeidelberg|2015}} 2006, the anniversary of her birth, saw commemorations of her work in conferences and celebrations around the world.{{sfn|Villa|2009}}In 2015, the filmmaker Ada Ushpiz produced a documentary on Hannah Arendt, Vita Activa: The Spirit of Hannah Arendt.{{sfn|Zeitgeist|2015}} The New York Times designated it a New York Times critics pick.{{sfn|Scott|2016}} Of the many photographic portraits of Arendt, that taken in 1944 by Fred Stein (see image), whose work she greatly admired,{{efn|Arendt wrote to Stein "It is my honest opinion that you are one of the best portrait photographers of the present day"{{sfn|AIE|2018}}}} has become iconic, and has been described as better known than the photographer himself,{{sfn|Heinrich|2013}} having appeared on a German postage stamp.(see image) Among organizations that have recognized Arendt's contributions to civilization and human rights, is the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR).{{sfn|UNHCR|2017}}

Contemporary interest

(File:2014-08 Graffiti Patrik Wolters alias BeneR1 im Team mit Kevin Lasner alias koarts, Hannah Arendt-Haus am Lindener Marktplatz 2, Hannover-Linden-Mitte, Blick durch die Seiteneinfahrt in der Falkenstraße.jpg|thumb|upright|Courtyard of Arendt's house in Linden-Mitte|alt=Photograph of the courtyard of the house in which she was born, showing Hannah with a cigarette in her hand and the inscription, attributed to her "No one has the right to obey", in German)The rise of nativism, such as the election of Donald Trump in America,{{sfn|DP|2017}}{{sfn|Hill|2017}}{{sfn|Scroll|2017}} and concerns regarding an increasingly authoritarian style of governance has led to a surge of interest in Arendt and her writings, including{{sfn|Bernstein|2018}} radio broadcasts{{sfn|Bragg et al|2017}} and writers, including Jeremy Adelman{{sfn|Adelman|2016}} and Zoe Williams,{{sfn|Williams|2017}} to revisit Arendt's ideas to seek the extent to which they inform our understanding of such movements,{{sfn|Grenier|2017}}{{sfn|Coombes|2017|}} which are being described as "Dark Times".{{sfn|Bernstein|2018b}} At the same time Amazon reported that it had sold out of copies of The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951).{{sfn|Gold|2017}} Michiko Kakutani has addressed what she refers to as "The Death of Truth".{{sfn|Kakutani|2018}} In her book, she argues that the rise of totalitarianism has been founded on the violation of truth. She begins her book with an extensive quote from The Origins of Totalitarianism:{{sfn|Arendt|1976}}The ideal subject of totalitarian rule is not the convinced Nazi or the convinced communist, but people for whom the distinction between fact and fiction (i.e., the reality of experience) and the distinction between true and false (i.e., the standards of thought) no longer exist{{sfn|Arendt|1976|loc=p. 474}}{{sfn|Kakutani|2018|loc=p. 1}}Kakutani and others believed that Arendt's words speak not just events of a previous century but apply equally to the contemporary cultural landscape{{sfn|Bernstein|2018a}} populated with fake news and lies. She also draws on Arendt's essay "Lying in Politics" from Crises in the Republic{{sfn|Arendt|1972}} pointing to the lines:The historian knows how vulnerable is the whole texture of facts in which we spend our daily life; it is always in danger of being perforated by single lies or torn to shreds by the organized lying of groups, nations, or classes, or denied and distorted, often carefully covered up by reams of falsehoods or simply allowed to fall into oblivion. Facts need testimony to be remembered and trustworthy witnesses to be established in order to find a secure dwelling place in the domain of human affairs{{sfn|Arendt|1972|loc=p. 6}}Arendt drew attention to the critical role that propaganda plays in gaslighting populations, Kakutani observes, citing the passage:{{sfn|Hayes|2018}}{{sfn|Kakutani|2018a}}In an ever-changing, incomprehensible world the masses had reached the point where they would, at the same time, believe everything and nothing, think that everything was possible and that nothing was true . ... The totalitarian mass leaders based their propaganda on the correct psychological assumption that, under such conditions, one could make people believe the most fantastic statements one day, and trust that if the next day they were given irrefutable proof of their falsehood, they would take refuge in cynicism; instead of deserting the leaders who had lied to them, they would protest that they had known all along that the statement was a lie and would admire the leaders for their superior tactical cleverness{{sfn|Arendt|1976|loc=p. 382}}But it is also relevant that Arendt took a broader perspective on history than merely totalitarianism in the early twentieth century, stating "the deliberate falsehood and the outright lie have been used as legitimate means to achieve political ends since the beginning of recorded history".{{sfn|Arendt|1972|loc=p. 4}}{{sfn|Hanlon|2018}} Contemporary relevance is also reflected in the increasing use of the phrase, attributed to her, "No one has the right to obey" to reflect that actions result from choices, and hence judgement, and that we cannot disclaim responsibility for that which we have the power to act upon.{{sfn|Invernizzi-Accetti|2017}} In addition those centers established to promote Arendtian studies continue to seek solutions to a wide range of contemporary issues in her writing.{{sfn|HAC|2018}}Arendt's teachings on obedience have also been linked to the controversial psychology experiments by Stanley Milgram, that implied that ordinary people can easily be induced to commit atrocities.{{sfn|Oatley|2018|loc=p. 254}}{{sfn|Wolters|2013}} Milgram himself drew attention to this in 1974, stating that he was testing the theory that Eichmann like others would merely follow orders, but unlike Milgram she argued that actions involve responsibility.{{sfn|Milgram|2017|loc=p. 23}}{{sfn|Berkowitz|2013a}}Arendt's theories on the political consequences of how nations deal with refugees has remained relevant and compelling. Arendt had observed first hand the displacement of large stateless and rightsless populations, treated not so much as people in need than problems to solve, and in many cases, resist.{{sfn|Scott|2016}} She wrote about this in her 1943 essay "We refugees".{{sfn|Arendt|1943}}{{sfn|Bhabha|Weigel|2018}} Another Arendtian theme that finds an echo in contemporary society is her observation, inspired by Rilke, of the despair of not being heard, the futility of tragedy that finds no listener that can bring comfort, assurance and intervention. An example of this being gun violence in America and the resulting political inaction.{{sfn|Hill|2015}}In Search of the Last Agora, an illustrated documentary film by Lebanese director Rayyan Dabbous about Hannah Arendt's 1958 work The Human Condition, was released in 2018 to mark the book's 50th anniversary. Screened at Bard College, the experimental film is described as finding "new meaning in the political theorist's conceptions of politics, technology and society in the 1950s", particularly in her prediction of abuses of phenomena unknown in Arendt's time, including social media, intense globalization, and obsessive celebrity culture.{{sfn|Bard News|2018}}


Hannah Arendt's life and work continue to be commemorated in many different ways, including plaques (Gedenktafeln) indicating places she has lived. A number of public places and institutions bear her name,{{sfn|Google Maps|2018}} including schools.{{sfn|HAG Berlin|2018}} There is also a Hannah Arendt Day (Hannah Arendt Tag) in her birthplace.{{sfn|Hannover|2017}} Objects named after her vary from asteroids to trains{{sfn|Shenhav|2007}}{{sfn|Laqueur|1998}} and she has been commemorated in stamps. Museums and foundations include her name.{{sfn|GDW|2016}}

Arendt Studies

Arendt Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal that examines the life, work, and legacy of Hannah Arendt. Established in 2017, it publishes research articles and translations, including the first English translation of Hannah Arendt's "Nation-State and Democracy"(1963)JOURNAL, Arendt Studies, 10.5840/arendtstudies201712, JOURNAL,weblink HannahArendt.Net: Zeitschrift für politisches Denken,, 2, 1, 28 May 2019, 2006-09-15, Arendt, Hannah, Notable contributors include Andrew Benjamin, Peg Birmingham, Adriana Cavarero, Robert P. Crease, and Celso Lafer. Articles published in this journal are covered in the international Hannah Arendt Bibliographie.JOURNAL,weblink HannahArendt.Net: Literatur über Hannah Arendt 2017, 2018, 29 May 2019, Arendt Studies is forthcoming in JSTOR's selective Lives of Literature Collection.JOURNAL,weblink JSTOR web site, 28 May 2019, It is edited by James Barry at Indiana University and published by the Philosophy Documentation Center.

Family tree

{{chart top|Arendt-Cohn families{{sfn|Young-Bruehl|2004|loc=pp. 476–477}}{{sfn|Geni|2018}}|collapsed=no}}{{chart/start|align=center; style=font-size:65%; line-height: 120%; margin:1em; }}{{chart|||||IW|v|EH|IW=Judas Isak Wohlgemuthd. 1896|EH=Esther Heimen1821–1893}}{{chart||||||,|-|^|-|-|-|-|.}}{{chart|||||JW|v|MA|v|KW|||||||JC|v|FS|MA= (:de:Max Arendt|Max Arendt)1843–1913|JW=(1) Johannah Wohlgemuth1849-1876|KW=(2) Klara Wohlgemuth1855–1938|JC=Jacob Cohn1836–1906|FS=Fanny Spiero1855–1923}}{{chart||||||||!|||,|^|-|-|.||||||||||!}}{{chart||||||||!||AA|||FA|-|EA||||!|AA=Alfred Arendtb. 1881|FA=Frieda Arendt1884–1928|EA=Ernst Aronb. 1870}}{{chart||||||,|-|^|-|.||||||,|-|v|-|-|-|-|-|-|^|-|-|v|-|-|.}}{{chart||||PA||||HA||LC||MC|-|MB||RC||Marg|v|Fu|PA=Paul1873–1913|HA=Henrietta1874–1922|LC=Linab.1873|MC=Martha1874–1948m.(1) 1902 m.(2) 1920|MB=Martin Beerwald1869–1941|RC=Rafael1876–1916|Marg=Margarethe1884–1942|Fu=Fürst1924}}{{chart||||`|-|-|-|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|-|-|-|'|||,|-|^|.|||||||,|-|^|v|-|-|-|-|.}}{{chart||||LS|v|CJ|!||||||||||!|||!|||||||!|||!|||||!|LS=Ludwig Stern|CJ= (:de:Clara Stern|Clara Joseephy)}}{{chart|||||||!||||!||||||||||!|||!|||||||!|||!|||||!}}{{chart||||||GS|-|HA|-|HB|||CW||EW|||||WF||EvF||EF|v|KL|HA=Hannah Arendt1906–1975|GS=m.(1) 1929Günther Stern1902–1992|HB=m.(2) 1940Heinrich Blücher1889–1970|CW=Clara1901–1932|EW=Eva1902–1988|WF=Werner|EvF=Eva|EF=Ernst|KL=Käthe Lewin|boxstyle_HA=background-color: #fcc;border: 1px dashed #000; border-radius: 0.5em;border: 3px solid #000;}}
{{chart|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||,|-|^|-|-|.}}{{chart|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||HF||EF|-|MB|HF=Hannah|EF=(:de:Edna Brocke|Ednab.1943)|MB=(:de:Michael Brocke|Michael Brocke)b.1940}}{{chart/end}}{{chart bottom}}

See also

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Articles (journals and proceedings)

  • JOURNAL, Allen, Wayne F., 1 July 1982, Hannah Arendt: existential phenomenology and political freedom, Philosophy & Social Criticism, 9, 2, 170–190, 10.1177/019145378200900203, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Bagchi, Barnita, Barnita Bagchi, Hannah Arendt, Education, and Liberation : A Comparative South Asian Feminist Perspective, Heidelberg Papers in South Asian and Comparative Politics, January 2007, 35,weblink harv,
  • JOURNAL, Balber, Samantha, Hannah Arendt: A Conscious Pariah and Her People, Footnotes, 2017, 1, 165–183
  • JOURNAL, Beiner, Ronald, Judging in a world of appearances: A Commentary on Hannah Arendt's Unwritten Finale, History of Political Thought, Spring 1980, 1, 1, 117–135, harv, 26211840,
  • JOURNAL, Betz, Joseph, An Introduction to the Thought of Hannah Arendt, Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society, 1992, 28, 3, 379–422, harv, 40320369,
  • JOURNAL, Brandes, Daniel, Nietzsche, Arendt, and the Promise of the Future, Animus (journal), Animus, 2010, 14,weblink 1209-0689,
  • JOURNAL, Burroughs, Michael D, Hannah Arendt, 'Reflections on Little Rock,' and White Ignorance, Critical Philosophy of Race, 2015, 3, 1, 52–78, 10.5325/critphilrace.3.1.0052, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Calcagno, Antonio, The Desire For And Pleasure Of Evil: The Augustinian Limitations Of Arendtian Mind, The Heythrop Journal, January 2013, 54, 1, 89–100, 10.1111/j.1468-2265.2009.00513.x, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Cook, Joseph J., "Ich Bin Adolf Eichmann" Recalling the Banality of Evil, Saber and Scroll, 5, 1, 81–93,weblink harv,
  • JOURNAL, Elon, Amos, Amos Elon, The Excommunication of Hannah Arendt, World Policy Journal, 2006, 23, 4, 93–102, harv, 40210059, 10.1162/wopj.2007.23.4.93,
  • JOURNAL, Epstein, Alek D., Alek D. Epstein, Judging the Trial: Hannah Arendt as a Moral Philosopher of Nation-State Building, The European Legacy, 30 September 2014, 19, 7, 901–905, 10.1080/10848770.2014.965516, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Horst, Gerfried, Ханна Арендт и Кёнигсберг, Voprosy Filosofii, Hannah Arendt and Königsberg, 2015, 8, 184–190,weblink russian, harv, (French translation)
  • JOURNAL, Jakopovich, Dan, Hannah Arendt and Nonviolence, Peace Studies Journal, Fall 2009, 2, 1, 1 14,weblink harv,
  • JOURNAL, Jonas, Hans, Hans Jonas, trans. Brian Fox and Richard Wolin, Hannah Arendt: An Intimate Portrait, New England Review (1990-), 2006, 2003, 27, 2, 133–142, harv, 40244828,
  • JOURNAL, Laqueur, Walter, Walter Laqueur, The Arendt Cult: Hannah Arendt as Political Commentator, Journal of Contemporary History, 1998, 33, 4, 483–496, harv, 260982, 10.1177/002200949803300401, , reprinted in {{harvtxt|Aschheim|2001|loc=pp. 47–64}}
  • JOURNAL, Lebeau, Vicky, The Unwelcome Child: Elizabeth Eckford and Hannah Arendt, Journal of Visual Culture, 29 June 2016, 3, 1, 51–62, 10.1177/1470412904043598,weblink harv,
  • JOURNAL, Lefort, Claude, Claude Lefort, Thinking with and against Hannah Arendt, (Social Research (journal), Social Research: An International Quarterly), 2002, 69, 2, 447–459,weblink harv, 1944-768X, Social Research
  • JOURNAL, Maier-Katkin, Daniel, The Reception of Hannah Arendt's Eichmann in Jerusalem in the United States 1963-2011,, November 2011, 6, 1,weblink harv,
  • JOURNAL, Markus, Maria, Maria Márkus, The 'Anti-Feminism' of Hannah Arendt, Thesis Eleven, 1987, 17, 1, 76–87, 10.1177/072551368701700106, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Momigliano, Arnaldo, Arnaldo Momigliano, A Note on Max Weber's Definition of Judaism as a Pariah-Religion, History and Theory, 1980, 19, 3, 313–318, 10.2307/2504547, harv, 2504547,
  • JOURNAL, Morey, Maribel, Reassessing Hannah Arendt's "Reflections on Little Rock" (1959), Law, Culture and the Humanities, 20 December 2011, 10, 1, 88–110, 10.1177/1743872111423795, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Pickett, Adrienne, Images, Dialogue, and Aesthetic Education: Arendt's response to the Little Rock Crisis, Philosophical Studies in Education, 2009, 40, 188–199,weblink harv,
  • JOURNAL, Ray, Larry, Diemling, Maria, Arendt's 'conscious pariah' and the ambiguous figure of the subaltern,weblink European Journal of Social Theory, 24 July 2016, 19, 4, 503–520, 10.1177/1368431016628261, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Riepl-Schmidt, Mascha, Henriette Arendt,, 15 February 2005, 1, 1,weblink de, 1869-5787, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Rösch, Felix, Realism as social criticism: The thinking partnership of Hannah Arendt and Hans Morgenthau, International Politics, 20 September 2013, 50, 6, 815–829, 10.1057/ip.2013.32, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Rosenberg, Elissa, Walking in the city: memory and place, The Journal of Architecture, February 2012, 17, 1, 131–149, 10.1080/13602365.2012.659914, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Saussy, Haun, Haun Saussy, The Refugee Speaks of Parvenus and Their Beautiful Illusions: A Rediscovered 1934 Text by Hannah Arendt, Critical Inquiry, 2013, 40, 1, 1–14, 10.1086/673223, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Schuler-Springorum, Stefanie, Stefanie Schüler-Springorum, Assimilation and Community Reconsidered: The Jewish Community in Konigsberg, 1871-1914, Jewish Social Studies, 1 June 1999, 5, 3, 104–131, 10.1353/jss.1999.0008, 1527-2028, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Shmueli, Efraim, The "Pariah-People" and Its "Charismatic Leadership": A Revaluation of Max Weber's "Ancient Judaism", Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, 1968, 36, 167–247, 10.2307/3622338, harv, 3622338,
  • JOURNAL, Shenhav, Yehouda, Yehouda Shenhav, Beyond 'instrumental rationality': Lord Cromer and the imperial roots of Eichmann's bureaucracy,weblink Journal of Genocide Research, December 2013, 15, 4, 379–399, 10.1080/14623528.2013.856083,
  • CONFERENCE, Szécsényi, Endre, The Hungarian Revolution in the "Reflections" by Hannah Arendt, 30 March 2005,weblink 3 August 2018, Europe or the Globe? Eastern European Trajectories in Times of Integration and Globalization, Institut für die Wissenschaften vom Menschen, IWM, Vienna, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Sznaider, Natan, Hannah Arendt: Jew and Cosmopolitan, Socio, 25 April 2015, 4, 197–221, 10.4000/socio.1359,weblink harv,
  • JOURNAL, Teixeira, Christina Heine, Wartesaal Lissabon 1941: Hannah Arendt und Heinrich Blücher,, September 2006, 1, 2,weblink harv,
  • JOURNAL, Villa, Dana, Political violence and terror: Arendtian reflections, Ethics & Global Politics, 2008, 1, 3, 97–113, 10.3402/egp.v1i3.1861, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Villa, Dana, 1, Hannah Arendt, 1906-1975, The Review of Politics, 2009, 71, 1, 20–36, harv, 25655783, 10.1017/S0034670509000035,
  • JOURNAL, Visvanathan, Susan, Susan Visvanathan, Hannah Arendt and the Problem of Our Age, Economic and Political Weekly, April 2001, 36, 16, 1307–1309, harv, 4410510,
  • JOURNAL, Vogel, Lawrence A., The Responsibility of Thinking in Dark Times: Hannah Arendt versus Hans Jonas,weblink Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal, Spring 2008, 29, 1, 253–293, 10.5840/gfpj20082919,
  • JOURNAL, Waite, Robert G., Robert G. L. Waite, Returning Jewish Cultural Property: The Handling of Books Looted by the Nazis in the American Zone of Occupation, 1945 to 1952, Libraries & the Cultural Record, 37, 3, 2002, 213–228, 1932-9555, 10.1353/lac.2002.0062, 2262716, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Wellmer, Albrecht, Albrecht Wellmer, Hannah Arendt On Revolution, Revue Internationale de Philosophie, 1999, 53, 208 (2), 207–222, harv, 23955552,
  • JOURNAL, Young-Bruehl, Elizabeth, Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, Reflections on Hannah Arendt's the Life of the Mind, Political Theory, May 1982, 10, 2, 277–305, 10.1177/0090591782010002008, harv,

Rahel Varnhagen

  • JOURNAL, Benhabib, Seyla, Seyla Benhabib, The Pariah and Her Shadow: Hannah Arendt's Biography of Rahel Varnhagen, Political Theory (journal), Political Theory, 1995, 23, 1, 5–24, harv, 192171, 10.1177/0090591795023001002,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Cutting-Gray, Joanne, Hannah Arendt's Rahel Varnhagen, Philosophy and Literature, 1991, 15, 2, 229–245, 10.1353/phl.1991.0023, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Goldstein, Donald J., Hannah Arendt's Shared Destiny with Rahel Varnhagen, Spring 2009, Women in Judaism, 6, 1, 18,weblink harv,
  • JOURNAL, Zebadúa Yáñez, Verónica, Reading the Lives of Others: Biography as Political Thought in Hannah Arendt and Simone de Beauvoir, Hypatia (journal), Hypatia, 18 November 2017, 33, 1, 94–110, 10.1111/hypa.12383, 0887-5367, harv,

Special issues and proceedings

  • JOURNAL, Ojakangas, Mika, Hannah Arendt: Practice, Thought and Judgement, Collegium, 2010, 8,weblink Special issue,
    • JOURNAL, Scott, Joanna Vecchiarelli, What St. Augustine Taught Hannah Arendt about "how to live in the world": Caritas, Natality and the Banality of Evil, 2010, 8–27,weblink harv,
    • JOURNAL, Ojakangas, Mika, Arendt, Socrates, and the Ethics of Conscience, 2010, 67–85,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Tymieniecka, Anna-Teresa, Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, Does the World Exist?: Plurisignificant Ciphering of Reality (Proceedings of the 51st International Congress of Phenomenology, Rome 2001, Analecta Husserliana, 79,weblink 2004, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-94-010-0047-5, harv,
    • BOOK, Durst, Margarete, Birth and Natality in Hannah Arendt,weblink 2004, 777–797, harv, 9789401000475,
  • JOURNAL, Zamora, José Antonio, Arribas, Sonia, Hannah Arendt. Pensar en tiempos sombríos, Arbor, 2010, 186, 742, 10.3989/arbor.2010.i742, spanish, Special issue,
  • JOURNAL, Hannah Arendt, Social Research, Spring 1977, 44, 1, i40043622, Special issue,
    • JOURNAL, Jonas, Hans, Hans Jonas, Acting, Knowing, Thinking: Gleanings from Hannah Arendt's Philosophical Work, Social Research, 1977, 44, 1, 25–43, harv, 40970269,


Hannah Arendt Center for Political Studies, Video and Audio recordings,weblink University of Verona, 2018, de, en, fr, 14 September 2018, {{harvid, HACPS, 2018, }}
  • AV MEDIA, Lozowick, Yaacov, Yaacov Lozowick, Hannah Arendt, Adolf Eichmann, and how Evil Isn't Banal,weblink video, Apr 5, 2011, The Holocaust Resource Center, Yad Vashem. The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, Jerusalem, harv,
  • AV MEDIA, Zeitgeist, Zeitgeist Films, Vita Activa - The Spirit of Hannah Arendt,weblink Film, Documentary, 2015, German, English, Hebrew, Zeitgeist Films, {{harvid, Zeitgeist, 2015, }}
    • NEWS, Scott, A. O., 5 April 2016, Review: In 'Vita Activa: The Spirit of Hannah Arendt,' a Thinker More Relevant Than Ever,weblink The New York Times, Review, harv,
  • AV MEDIA, Günter, Gaus, Arendt, Hannah, Hannah Arendt, :de:Günter Gaus, Hannah Arendt—A New Look at a Discerning Political Analyst of Her Own Time,weblink Television interview (English subtitles), 1964, German, Jewish Museum Berlin, 14 August 2018,

Books and monographs

  • BOOK, Adamson, Jane, Freadman, Richard, Parker, David, Renegotiating Ethics in Literature, Philosophy, and Theory,weblink 1998, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-62938-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Baier, Annette, Annette Baier, Moral Prejudices: Essays on Ethics,weblink 1995, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-58716-8, harv,
    • "Ethics in many different voices" pp. 247–268, see also revised versions as {{harvtxt|Baier|1998|loc=pp. 247–268}} and {{harvtxt|Baier|1997|loc=pp. 325–346}}
  • BOOK, Bernstein, Richard J., Richard J. Bernstein, Why Read Hannah Arendt Now?,weblink 2018, Wiley (publisher), Wiley, 978-1-5095-2863-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Cesarani, David, David Cesarani, Becoming Eichmann: Rethinking the Life, Crimes, and Trial of a ""Desk Murderer"",weblink 2007, Da Capo Press, Cambridge, MA, 978-0-306-81539-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Clément, Catherine, Catherine Clément, translated from French by Julia Shirek Smith, Martin et Hannah, Martin and Hannah: A Novel,weblink 2001, 1999 Calmann-Lévy, Prometheus Books, 978-1-57392-906-6, harv,
    • JOURNAL, Schroeder, Steven, Review of "Martin and Hannah: A Novel", Essays in Philosophy, 2002, 3, 1,weblink 1526-0569, Review, harv,
  • BOOK, Copjec, Joan, Joan Copjec, Radical Evil,weblink 1996, Verso Books, Verso, 978-1-85984-911-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Gellhorn, Martha, Martha Gellhorn, The View from the Ground,weblink 1988, Atlantic Monthly Press, 978-0-8021-9117-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Hattem, Cornelis Van, Hattem, Kees van, Superfluous people: a reflection on Hannah Arendt and evil,weblink 2005, University Press of America, 978-0-7618-3304-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Hollinger, David A., Capper, Charles, David Hollinger, Charles Capper, The American Intellectual Tradition: Volune II 1865 to the present,weblink 1993, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-507780-3, 2nd, harv,
  • BOOK, Kakutani, Michiko, Michiko Kakutani, The Death of Truth: Notes on Falsehood in the Age of Trump,weblink 2018, Crown/Archetype, 978-0-525-57484-2, harv,
    • NEWS, Hayes, Chris, Chris Hayes, Michiko Kakutani's Book About Our Post-Truth Era,weblink 3 September 2018, New York Times, 18 July 2018, Review, harv,
  • BOOK, Keen, David, David Keen, Endless war? Hidden functions of the "war on terror",weblink 2006, Pluto Press, 978-0-7453-2417-3, harv, (see also excerpt at {{harvtxt|Keen|2007}}
  • BOOK, Kielmansegg, Peter Graf, Mewes, Horst, Glaser-Schmidt, Elisabeth, Hannah Arendt and Leo Strauss: German Émigrés and American Political Thought After World War II,weblink 1997, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-59936-8, {{harvid, Kielmansegg et al, 1997, }}
  • BOOK, King, Richard H., Arendt and America,weblink 2018, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-31152-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Kopić, Mario, Mario Kopić, Otkucaji drugoga, The Beats of the Other, 2013, Službeni glasnik, Belgrade, 978-86-519-1721-2, serbian,
  • BOOK, Lamey, Andy, Frontier Justice: The Global Refugee Crisis and What To Do About It,weblink 2011, Doubleday Canada, 978-0-307-36792-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Meja, Volker, Stehr, Nico, Nico Stehr, Knowledge and Politics: The Sociology of Knowledge Dispute,weblink 2014, 1990, Routledge, 978-1-317-65163-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Milgram, Stanley, Stanley Milgram, Obedience to Authority,weblink 2017, 1974, HarperCollins, 978-0-06-280340-5, harv, (see also (Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View|Obedience to Authority))
  • BOOK, Oatley, Keith, Keith Oatley, Our Minds, Our Selves: A Brief History of Psychology,weblink 2018, Princeton University Press, 978-1-4008-9004-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Richter, William L., Approaches to Political Thought,weblink 2009, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 978-1-4616-3656-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Robinson, Marc, Altogether Elsewhere: Writers on Exile,weblink 1996, Harcourt Brace, 978-0-15-600389-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Sheldon, Garrett Ward, The History of Political Theory: Ancient Greece to Modern America,weblink 2003, Peter Lang Publishing, 978-0-8204-2300-5,
  • BOOK, Simmons, William Paul, Human Rights Law and the Marginalized Other,weblink 2011, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-139-50326-6, harv,
    • {{citation|last=Simmons|first=William Paul|title=Arendt, Little Rock, and the Cauterization of the Marginalized Other|url=|date= 2011|type=Essay|ref={{harvid|Simmons|2011a}}}}
  • BOOK, Swedberg, Richard, Agevall, Ola, Richard Swedberg, The Max Weber Dictionary: Key Words and Central Concepts, 2nd,weblink 2016, Stanford University Press, 978-1-5036-0022-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Villa, Dana, 1, Public Freedom,weblink 2008, Princeton University Press, 978-1-4008-3742-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Wasserman, Janek, Black Vienna: The Radical Right in the Red City, 1918–1938,weblink 2014, Cornell University Press, 978-0-8014-5521-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Weber, Hermann, Drabkin, Jakov, Bayerlein, Bernhard H., Hermann Weber, Bernhard H. Bayerlein, Deutschland, Russland, Komintern. II Dokumente (1918–1943): Nach der Archivrevolution: Neuerschlossene Quellen zu der Geschichte der KPD und den deutsch-russischen Beziehungen, Germany, Russia, Comintern. II Documents (1918-1943): After the Archive Revolution: New sources on the history of the KPD and German-Russian relations,weblink 2014, Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, Berlin, 978-3-11-033978-9, {{harvid, Weber et al, 2014, }}
  • BOOK, Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth, Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, Subject to Biography: Psychoanalysis, Feminism, and Writing Women's Lives,weblink 1998, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-85371-3, harv,

Autobiography and biography

  • BOOK, AAAS, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Book of members, 1780 – present: A, 2018, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Cambridge MA, 18,weblink 27 July 2018, harv,
  • BOOK, Anders, Günther, Günther Stern, Oberschlick, Gerhard, Gerhard Fritz Oberschlick, with an essay by Christian Dries, Die Kirschenschlacht: Dialoge mit Hannah Arendt und ein akademisches Nachwort, La Bataille de cerises,weblink 2011, C.H.Beck, 978-3-406-63278-5, harv,
    • WEB, Flechard, Jean-Pierre, La Bataille de cerises de Günther Anders,weblink Les cahiers psychologie politique 24, 18 September 2018, fr, 28 January 2014, Review, harv,
    • WEB, Berkowitz, Roger, The Cherry Battle,weblink News, Hannah Arendt Center, Bard College, 18 September 2018, Review, 13 February 2012, harv,
  • BOOK, Bahr, Raimund, Günther Anders: Leben und Denken im Wort,weblink 2012, epubli GmbH, Berlin, 978-3-8442-2682-9, de, harv,
  • BOOK, Ettinger, Elzbieta, Elzbieta Ettinger, Hannah Arendt/Martin Heidegger,weblink 1997, 1995, Yale University Press, 978-0-300-07254-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Grunenberg, Antonia, Antonia Grunenberg, Arendt,weblink 2003, Herder, Freiburg, 978-3-451-04954-5, de, harv,
  • BOOK, Grunenberg, Antonia, Antonia Grunenberg, 1, Hannah Arendt and Martin Heidegger: History of a Love,weblink 2017, Indiana University Press, 978-0-253-02718-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Heller, Anne Conover, Hannah Arendt: A Life in Dark Times,weblink 2015, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 978-0-544-45619-8, harv, excerpt
  • BOOK, Hilmes, Oliver, Oliver Hilmes, Malevolent Muse: The Life of Alma Mahler,weblink 2015, Northeastern University Press, 978-1-55553-845-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Honig, Bonnie, Bonnie Honig, Feminist Interpretations of Hannah Arendt,weblink 2010, 1995, Penn State Press, 978-0-271-04320-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Howe, Irving, Irving Howe, A Margin of Hope: An Intellectual Autobiography,weblink 1984, 1982, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 978-0-15-657245-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Kristeva, Julia, Julia Kristeva, translated from the French by Ross Guberman, Le Génie féminin: Hannah Arendt, Hannah Arendt,weblink 2001, 1999 Librairie Arthème Fayard, Columbia University Press, 978-0-231-12102-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Maier-Katkin, Daniel, Stranger from Abroad: Hannah Arendt, Martin Heidegger, Friendship and Forgiveness,weblink 2010a, W. W. Norton, 978-0-393-07731-5, harv,
    • NEWS, Chamberlain, Lesley, Lesley Chamberlain, Stranger from Abroad, By Daniel Maier-Katkin,weblink 3 August 2018, The Independent, 2 July 2010, Review, harv,
  • BOOK, May, Derwent, Hannah Arendt,weblink 1986, Penguin Books, harv,
  • BOOK, Nixon, Jon, Hannah Arendt and the Politics of Friendship,weblink 2015, Bloomsbury Publishing, 978-1-4725-0754-9, harv,
    • NEWS, Austerlitz, Saul, The Hannah Arendt Guide to Friendship,weblink 27 August 2018, The New Republic, 9 March 2015, Review, harv,
  • BOOK, Stangneth, Bettina, Eichmann Before Jerusalem: The Unexamined Life of a Mass Murderer,weblink 2014, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 978-0-307-95968-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Vowinckel, Annette, Hannah Arendt: zwischen deutscher Philosophie und jüdischer Politik, Hannah Arendt: Between German philosophy and Jewish politics,weblink 2004, Lukas Verlag, 978-3-936872-36-1, german, harv, (full text)
  • BOOK, Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth, Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, Hannah Arendt: For Love of the World,weblink 2004, 1982, Second, Yale University Press, 978-0-300-10588-9, harv, (updated by way of a second preface, pagination unchanged){{efn|group=Bibliography|1st ed. Preface ix–xxv; 2nd ed. Preface to Second Edition ix–xxxvi, Preface xxxvii-l}}

Critical works

  • BOOK, Aharony, Michal, Hannah Arendt and the Limits of Total Domination: The Holocaust, Plurality, and Resistance,weblink 2015, Routledge, 978-1-134-45789-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Aschheim, Steven E., Hannah Arendt in Jerusalem, Hannah Arendt Beyerushalayim, Hebrew University of Jerusalem 2007 (in Hebrew),weblink 2001, University of California Press, 978-0-520-22057-7, harv,
    • NEWS, Shenhav, Yehouda, Yehouda Shenhav, All Aboard the Arendt Express,weblink 30 July 2018, Haaretz, Review, 3 May 2007, harv,
  • BOOK, Beiner, Ronald, Nedelsky, Jennifer, Judgment, Imagination, and Politics: Themes from Kant and Arendt,weblink 2001, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-8476-9971-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Benhabib, Seyla, Seyla Benhabib, The Reluctant Modernism of Hannah Arendt,weblink 2003, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-7425-2151-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Berkowitz, Roger, Katz, Jeffrey, Keenan, Thomas, Thinking in Dark Times: Hannah Arendt on Ethics and Politics,weblink 2010, Fordham University Press, 978-0-8232-3075-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Berkowitz, Roger, Storey, Ian, Artifacts of Thinking: Reading Hannah Arendt's Denktagebuch,weblink 2017, Oxford University Press, 978-0-8232-7217-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Bernauer, J.W., Amor Mundi: Explorations in the Faith and Thought of Hannah Arendt,weblink 1987, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-94-009-3565-5, harv,
    • BOOK, Bernauer, James W., The Faith of Hannah Arendt: Amor Mundi and its Critique — Assimilation of Religious Experience, 1–28, 1987a, harv,
  • BOOK, Bernstein, Richard J., Richard J. Bernstein, Hannah Arendt and the Jewish Question,weblink 2013, Wiley (publisher), Wiley, 978-0-7456-6570-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Birmingham, Peg, Peg Birmingham, Hannah Arendt and Human Rights: The Predicament of Common Responsibility,weblink 2006, Indiana University Press, 978-0-253-11226-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Bowen-Moore, Patricia, Hannah Arendt's Philosophy of Natality,weblink 1989, Palgrave Macmillan UK, 978-1-349-20125-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Courtine-Denamy, Sylvie, trans. from French by GM Goshgarian, Trois femmes dans de sombres temps, Three Women in Dark Times: Edith Stein, Hannah Arendt, Simone Weil, or Amor fati, amor mundi,weblink 2000, 1997 Editions Albin Michel, Cornell University Press, 978-0-8014-8758-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Dietz, Mary G., Mary G. Dietz, Turning Operations: Feminism, Arendt, and Politics,weblink 2002, Routledge, 978-0-415-93244-8, harv,
  • BOOK, d'Entrèves, Maurizio Passerin, The Political Philosophy of Hannah Arendt,weblink 2002, 1994, Routledge, New York, 978-1-134-88196-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Faye, Emmanuel, Arendt et Heidegger: Extermination nazie et destruction de la pensée,weblink 2016, Albin Michel, Paris, 978-2-226-42113-5, french, harv,
    • MAGAZINE, Roza, Stéphanie, Emmanuel Faye, Arendt et Heidegger. Extermination nazie et destruction de la pensée, Paris, Albin Michel, collection " Bibliothèque Idées ", 2016, 560 pages, 29 €.,weblink 18 August 2018, Dissidences, 23 October 2017, french, Review, harv,
  • BOOK, Goldoni, Marco, McCorkindale, Christopher, Hannah Arendt and the Law,weblink 2012, Bloomsbury Publishing, 978-1-84731-932-6, harv,
  • WEB, Grunenberg, Antonia, :de:Antonia Grunenberg, Hannah Arendt-Studien / Hannah Arendt Studies,weblink Peter Lang (publisher), Peter Lang, 27 August 2018, en, de, 2018, harv,
  • BOOK, Hansen, Phillip, Hannah Arendt: Politics, History and Citizenship,weblink 2013, 1993, Polity (publisher), Polity, 978-0-7456-6694-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Harms, Klaus, Hannah Arendt und Hans Jonas: Grundlagen einer philosophischen Theologie der Weltverantwortung,weblink 2003, WiKu-Verlag, 978-3-936749-84-7, german, harv,
  • BOOK, Hayden, Patrick, Hannah Arendt: Key Concepts,weblink 2014, Routledge, 978-1-317-54588-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Hermsen, Joke J., Villa, Dana Richard, The Judge and the Spectator: Hannah Arendt's Political Philosophy,weblink 1999, Peeters Publishers, 978-90-429-0781-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Heuer, Wolfgang, Heiter, Bernd, Rosenmüller, Stefanie, Arendt-Handbuch: Leben – Werk – Wirkung,weblink 2017, Springer-Verlag, 978-3-476-05319-0, de, {{harvid, Heuer et al, 2017, }}
  • BOOK, Hinchman, Lewis P., Hinchman, Sandra, Hannah Arendt: Critical Essays,weblink 1994, SUNY Press, 978-0-7914-1853-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Jones, Kathleen B., Diving for Pearls: A Thinking Journey with Hannah Arendt,weblink 2013a, Thinking Women Books, 978-0-9860586-0-8, harv, excerpt, see also {{harvtxt|Jones|2013}}
  • BOOK, Luban, David, Arendt After Jerusalem: The Moral and Legal Philosophy, To be published,weblink 14 December 2018, {{harvid, Luban, 2018, }}
  • BOOK, Kampowski, Stephan, Arendt, Augustine, and the New Beginning: The Action Theory and Moral Thought of Hannah Arendt in the Light of Her Dissertation on St. Augustine,weblink 2008, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 978-0-8028-2724-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Kiess, John, Hannah Arendt and Theology,weblink 2016, Bloomsbury Publishing, 978-0-567-62851-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Knott, Marie Luise, trans. David Dollenmayer, Unlearning with Hannah Arendt,weblink 2014, Other Press, 978-1-59051-648-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Kristeva, Julia, Julia Kristeva, translated from French by Frank Collins, Hannah Arendt: Life is a Narrative,weblink 2001, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-3521-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Mahony, Deirdre Lauren, Hannah Arendt's Ethics,weblink 2018, Bloomsbury Publishing, 978-1-350-03416-7, harv,
  • BOOK, May, Larry, Kohn, Jerome, Hannah Arendt: Twenty Years Later,weblink 1997, MIT Press, 978-0-262-63182-2, harv,
  • BOOK, McGowan, John, John McGowan (professor), Hannah Arendt: An Introduction,weblink University of Minnesota Press, 1998, 978-1-4529-0338-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Ring, Jennifer, The Political Consequences of Thinking: Gender and Judaism in the Work of Hannah Arendt,weblink 1998, SUNY Press, 978-1-4384-1739-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Schwartz, Jonathan Peter, Arendt's Judgment: Freedom, Responsibility, Citizenship,weblink 2016, University of Pennsylvania Press, 978-0-8122-4814-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Skoller, Eleanor Honig, The In-between of Writing: Experience and Experiment in Drabble, Duras, and Arendt,weblink 1993, University of Michigan Press, 978-0-472-10260-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Swift, Simon, Hannah Arendt,weblink 2008, Routledge, 978-1-134-09355-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Topolski, Anya, Arendt, Levinas and a Politics of Relationality,weblink 2015, Rowman & Littlefield International, Lanham, MD, 978-1-78348-341-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Villa, Dana, Arendt and Heidegger: The Fate of the Political,weblink 1996, Princeton University Press, 978-1-4008-2184-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Villa, Dana, 1, Politics, Philosophy, Terror: Essays on the Thought of Hannah Arendt,weblink 1999, Princeton University Press, 978-1-4008-2316-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Villa, Dana, 1, The Cambridge Companion to Hannah Arendt,weblink 2000, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-64571-3, harv, text at Pensar el Espacio Público
  • BOOK, Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth, Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, Why Arendt Matters,weblink 2006, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 978-0-300-13619-7,


  • BOOK, Augustine, Saint, Saint Augustine, trans. John W Rettig, In Joannis evangelium tractatus, Tractates on the Gospel of John, 111-24,weblink 1995, CUA Press, 978-0-8132-0092-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Augustine, Saint, Saint Augustine, 1, trans. Boniface Ramsay, Tractatus in epistolam Joannis ad Parthos, Homilies on the First Epistle of John,weblink 2008, New City Press, harv, , available in Latin as
    • BOOK, Augustine, Saint, Saint Augustine, 1, Sancti Aurelii Augustini Hipponensis episcopi Opera omnia: post Lovaniensium theologorum recensionem castigata denuo ad manuscriptos codices gallicanos, vaticanos, belgicos etc. necnon ad editiones antiquiores et castigatiores,weblink 1837, apud Gaume fratres, la, harv],
  • BOOK, Kant, Immanuel, Immanuel Kant, translated from German by Robert Louden, Anthropologie in pragmatischer Hinsicht, Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View,weblink 2006, 1798, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-67165-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Kant, Immanuel, Immanuel Kant, 1, Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft,weblink 1793, Friedrich Nicolovius, Königsberg, 99, harv,
  • BOOK, Kant, Immanuel, Immanuel Kant, 1, translated from German by J W Semple, Religion Within the Boundary of Pure Reason,weblink 1838, Thomas Clark, Edinburgh, 125, harv,
  • BOOK, Lazare, Bernard, Bernard Lazare, Le Nationalisme Juif,weblink 2016, 1898 Kadimah, Paris, Hachette Livre, 978-2-01-359879-8, harv, facsimile text at Gallica, and (:s:fr:Le Nationalisme Juif|reproduced) on Wikisource
  • BOOK, Rühle-Gerstel, Alice, Alice Rühle-Gerstel, Das Frauenproblem der Gegenwart: eine psychologische Bilanz, Contemporary Women's Issues: A psychological balance sheet,weblink 1932, S. Hirzel, de, harv,
  • BOOK, Weber, Max, Max Weber, Roth, Guenther, Wittich, Claus, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft: Grundriss der verstehenden Soziologie, Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology,weblink 1978, 1922, University of California Press, 978-0-520-03500-3, harv, full text available on Internet Archive
  • BOOK, Weil, Hans, :de:Hans Weil, Die Entstehung des deutschen Bildungsprinzips, The Origin of the German Educational Principle,weblink 1967, 1930, H. Bouvier, harv,

Chapters and contributions

  • BOOK, Baier, Annette C, Annette Baier, Ethics in many different voices, 325–346, 1997, harv, , in {{harvtxt|May|Kohn|1997}}
  • BOOK, Baier, Annette C, Annette Baier, 1, Ethics in many different voices, 247–268, 1998, harv, , in {{harvtxt|Adamson|Freadman|Parker|1998}}
  • BOOK, Beiner, Ronald, Love and worldliness: Hannah Arendt's reading of Saint Augustine, 269–284, 1997, harv, , in {{harvtxt|May|Kohn|1997}}
  • BOOK, Brocke, Edna, :de:Edna Brocke, Afterword. "Big Hannah" - My Aunt, 2009a, 512–522, harv, , in {{harvtxt|Arendt|2009a}}
  • BOOK, Canovan, Margaret, Margaret Canovan, Introduction, 2013, vii–xx,weblink harv, 9780226924571, , in {{harvtxt|Arendt|2013}}
  • BOOK, Dries, Christian, Günther Anders und Hannah Arendt - eine Beziehungsskizze, 2011, 71–140,weblink de, harv, , in {{harvtxt|Anders|2011}}
  • BOOK, Elon, Amos, Amos Elon, Introduction, 2006a, xxi,weblink harv, 9781101007167, , in {{harvtxt|Arendt|2006a}}
  • BOOK, Fry, Karin, Natality,weblink 2014, 23–35, harv, , in {{harvtxt|Hayden|2014}}
  • BOOK, Gould, Carol, Hannah Arendt and Remebrance, 2009, 65–72,weblink harv, 9781461636564, , in {{harvtxt|Richter|2009}}
  • BOOK, Kippenberger, Hans, Hans Kippenberger, 376a. Vertraulicher Bericht Kippenbergers uber den Parteiselbstschutz (PSS) der KPD, Confidential report by Kippenberger on the party self-protection of the KPD, 8 February 1936, Moscow, 1182–1185, harv, , in {{harvtxt|Weber et al|2014}}
  • BOOK, Luban, David, Explaining Dark Times: Hannah Arendt's Theory of Theory, 1994, 79–110, harv, , in {{harvtxt|Hinchman|Hinchman|1994}}
  • BOOK, Scott, Joanna Vecchiarelli, Stark, Judith Chelius, Preface: Rediscovering Love and Saint Augustine,weblink 1996, vii–xviii, harv, 9780226025964, , in {{harvtxt|Arendt|1996}}
  • BOOK, Vollrath, Ernst, Hannah Arendt: A German-American Jewess views the United States - and looks back to Germany, 45–58, 1997, harv, , in {{harvtxt|Kielmansegg et al|1997}}
  • BOOK, Weyembergh, Maurice, Remembrance and Oblivion, 1999, 79–96,weblink harv, 9789042907812, , in {{harvtxt|Hermsen|Villa|1999}}

Dictionaries and encyclopedias


  • MAGAZINE, Adelman, Jeremy, Jeremy Adelman, Pariah: Can Hannah Arendt Help Us Rethink Our Global Refugee Crisis?,weblink 2 September 2018, Wilson Quarterly, Spring 2016, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Austerlitz, Saul, A New Movie Perpetuates the Pernicious Myth of Hannah Arendt,weblink The New Republic, 30 May 2013, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Bernstein, Richard, Richard J. Bernstein, The Urgent Relevance of Hannah Arendt,weblink The Philosophers' Magazine, 82, 19 August 2018a, 24–31, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Browning, Christopher R., Christopher Robert Browning, How Ordinary Germans Did It,weblink The New York Review of Books, 20 June 2013, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Gellhorn, Martha, Martha Gellhorn, Eichmann and the Private Conscience, Atlantic Monthly, February 1962, harv, , reprinted in {{harvtxt|Gellhorn|1988|loc=pp .217–233}}
  • MAGAZINE, Heinrich, Kaspar, Fotografien von Fred Stein: Der Poet mit der Kleinbildkamera, Der Spiegel, 19 November 2013,weblink german, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Kazin, Alfred, Held, Virginia, Virginia Held, Alfred Kazin, Feminism & Hannah Arendt,weblink The New York Review of Books, 21 October 1982, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Howe, Irving, Irving Howe, Banality and Brilliance,weblink 6 September 2018, Dissent (American magazine), Dissent, 5 June 2013, harv, , reprinted from {{harvtxt|Howe|1984|loc=pp. 269ff}}
  • MAGAZINE, Jones, Kathleen B., Hannah Arendt's Female Friends,weblink 18 August 2018, Los Angeles Review of Books, 12 November 2013, harv, , reprinted in {{harvtxt|Jones|2013a}}
  • MAGAZINE, Jones, Kathleen B., 1, The Trial of Hannah Arendt,weblink 16 August 2018, Humanities (magazine), Humanities, 35, 2, March–April 2014,
  • MAGAZINE, Keen, David, David Keen, Action-as-Propaganda: Learning About the Iraq War from Hannah Arendt,weblink CounterPunch, 24 September 2007, 12 August 2018, harv, (extract from {{harvtxt|Keen|2006}}
  • MAGAZINE, Kirsch, Adam, Kirsch, Beware of Pity: Hannah Arendt and the power of the impersonal, The New Yorker, 12 January 2009,weblink 25 July 2018, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Kohler, Lotte, The Arendt/Heidegger Affair,weblink The New York Review of Books, 21 March 1996, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Maier-Katkin, Daniel, How Hannah Arendt Was Labeled an "Enemy of Israel", Tikkun (magazine), Tikkun, 2010, 25, 6, 11–14,weblink 2164-0041, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Maier-Katkin, Daniel, Stoltzfus, Nathan, Nathan Stoltzfus, Hannah Arendt on Trial,weblink 26 July 2018, The American Scholar (magazine), The American Scholar, 10 June 2013,
  • MAGAZINE, Obermair, Hannes, April 2018, Da Hans a Hannah—il "duce" di Bolzano e la sfida di Arendt, From Hans to Hannah—Mussolini in Bolzano and Arendt's Challenge, Il Cristallo. Rassegna di Varia Umanità, 60, 1, 27–32, 0011-1449, 978-88-7223-312-2,weblink italian, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Robin, Corey, Corey Robin, The Trials of Hannah Arendt,weblink The Nation, 1 June 2015, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Seliger, Ralph, Hannah Arendt: From Iconoclast to Icon,weblink Tikkun (magazine), Tikkun, 15 April 2011, 16 January 2016, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Wieseltier, Leon, Leon Wieseltier, Understanding Anti-Semitism: Hannah Arendt on the origins of prejudice,weblink 2 September 2018, The New Republic, 7 October 1981, harv,
  • MAGAZINE, Wieseltier, Leon, Leon Wieseltier, Pariahs and Politics: Hannah Arendt and the Jews,weblink 2 September 2018, The New Republic, 14 October 1981a, harv,


  • NEWS, Avineri, Shlomo, Shlomo Avineri, Where Hannah Arendt Went Wrong,weblink Haaretz, 3 March 2010, 12 August 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, Berkowitz, Roger, Misreading 'Eichmann in Jerusalem',weblink New York Times (Opinionator: The Stone), 7 July 2013a, harv,
  • NEWS, Bernstein, Richard J., Richard J. Bernstein, The Illuminations of Hannah Arendt,weblink The New York Times, 20 June 2018b, harv,
  • NEWS, Bird, David, Hannah Arendt, Political Scientist Dead,weblink 24 July 2018, New York Times, 4 December 1975, Obituary, harv,
  • NEWS, Butler, Judith, Judith Butler, Hannah Arendt's challenge to Adolf Eichmann,weblink 13 December 2018, The Guardian, 29 August 2011, harv,
  • NEWS, Frantzman, Seth J., Hannah Arendt, white supremacist It's time to admit that through Arendt's writing runs a thread of European white supremacy,weblink Jerusalem Post, 5 June 2016, harv,
  • NEWS, Gassner, Peter, Eine philosophische Liebe in Marburg,weblink 18 August 2018, Oberheissische Presse, 30 November 2014, de, harv,
  • NEWS, Grenier, Elizabeth, Why the world is turning to Hannah Arendt to explain Trump,weblink 2 February 2017, Deutsche Welle, DW, harv,
  • NEWS, Hanlon, Aaron, Postmodernism didn't cause Trump. It explains him.,weblink Washington Post, 31 August 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, Invernizzi-Accetti, Carlo, A small Italian town can teach the world how to defuse controversial monuments,weblink 5 September 2018, The Guardian, 6 December 2017, harv,
  • NEWS, Kakutani, Michiko, Michiko Kakutani, The death of truth: how we gave up on facts and ended up with Trump,weblink The Guardian, 14 July 2018a, harv,
  • NEWS, Kaplan, Fred, Fred Kaplan (journalist), 'Hannah Arendt' Directed by Margarethe von Trotta,weblink New York Times, 24 May 2013, harv,
  • NEWS, Kramer, Henri, Gedenktafel für Hannah Arendt in Babelsberg,weblink Potsdamer Neueste Nachrichten, 1 March 2017, de, harv,
  • NEWS, Moreira, Cristiana Faria, Hannah Arendt. A passagem por Lisboa a caminho da liberdade,weblink Publico (Portugal), Publico, 23 December 2017, pt, harv,
  • NEWS, Pfeffer, Anshel, Anshel Pfeffer, Dear Hannah,weblink Haaretz, 9 May 2008, 27 July 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, Sznaider, Natan, Human, citizen, Jew,weblink Haaretz, 20 October 2006, 27 July 2018, harv,
  • NEWS, Tavares, Rui, Hannah Arendt em Lisboa,weblink Publico (Portugal), Publico, 10 December 2018, pt, harv,
  • NEWS, Walters, Guy, Guy Walters, Don't be fooled - Eichmann was a monster,weblink 21 August 2018, The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, 19 January 2015, harv,
  • NEWS, Williams, Zoe, Zoe Williams, Totalitarianism in the age of Trump: lessons from Hannah Arendt,weblink 1 February 2017, The Guardian, harv,
  • NEWS, Killer of 6,000,000; Adolf Eichmann,weblink New York Times, 26 May 1960, 18, {{harvid, NYT, 1960, }}
  • NEWS, 'Show' Trial Promised,weblink New York Times, 28 May 1960, 9, {{harvid, NYT, 1960a, }}


  • THESIS, Abt, Ryan Nolan, Representations of the Holocaust in Texas World History Textbooks from 1947 to 1980, May 2015, University of Texas at Arlington,weblink MA thesis, harv,
  • THESIS, Bertheau, Anne, "Das Mädchen aus der Fremde": Hannah Arendt und die Dichtung: Rezeption - Reflexion - Produktion,weblink 2016, transcript Verlag for Department of Germanic Studies (Études germaniques), Sorbonne, 2010, 978-3-8394-3268-6, PhD thesis, de, harv, (at
  • THESIS, Herman, Dana, Hashavat Avedah: a history of Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, Inc., 2008, Department of History, McGill University, Montreal,weblink PhD thesis, harv,
  • THESIS, Honkasalo, Julian, Sisterhood, Natality, Queer: Reframing Feminist Interpretations of Hannah Arendt, Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies. University of Helsinki, 2016, 978-951-51-1896-7,weblink PhD thesis,
  • THESIS, Miller, Joshua A, Hannah Arendt's theory of deliberative judgement, August 2010, Pennsylvania State University,weblink PhD thesis, harv,


  • WEB, Ali, Amro, "We Refugees" – an essay by Hannah Arendt,weblink 25 April 2017, harv,
  • WEB, Fry, Karin, Hannah Arendt 1906-1975: Philosophy of Mind, Social & Political Philosophy,weblink Women Philosophers, Society for the Study of Women Philosophers, 23 July 2018, 2009, harv,
  • WEB, Hannah Arendt's 108th Birthday,weblink 14 October 2014, Google Doodle Archives, 1 August 2018, {{harvid, Doodle, 2014, }}
  • WEB, Onfray, Michel, Michel Onfray, Contre-histoire de la philosophie - Saison 12: La pensée post-nazie,weblink France Culture, 2014, 15 April 2017, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 August 2014, Podcast, harv,
  • WEB, Fred Stein: Hannah Arendt, photograph (1944): Philosopher in a contemplative pose,weblink Arts in Exile, Virtual exhibition, 2 August 2018, {{harvid, AIE, 2018, }}
  • WEB, Young-Bruehl, Elizabeth, Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, Who's Afraid of Social Democracy,weblink 14 August 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2011, 28 January 2011, Blog,
  • WEB, Heuer, Wolfgang, Zeitschrift für politisches Denken,weblink 14 August 2018, english, german, {{harvid, Heuer, 2018, }}
  • WEB, Barry, James, Arendt Studies, 2017,weblink 14 August 2018, journal, harv,
  • WEB, Addison, Sam, Hannah Arendt: The Life of the Mind,weblink Gifford Lectures, University of Aberdeen, 1972–1974, harv,
  • WEB, Hannah Arendt & the University of Heidelberg,weblink Between Truth and Hope, 30 October 2016, {{harvid, Jen, 2016, }}
  • WEB, Rosenthal, Abigail L., Spoiling One's Story: The Case of Hannah Arendt,weblink VoegelinView, 29 August 2018, 17 February 2018, harv,
  • WEB, Pensar el Espacio Público ~ Seminario de Filosofía Política,weblink 31 August 2018, es, 2014–2015,
  • WEB, Hannah Arendt. Vertrauen in das Menschliche,weblink Goethe Institut, 2011, 31 August 2018, de, Exhibition brochure, {{harvid, Goethe Institut, 2011, }}
  • WEB, Krieghofer, Gerald, "Niemand hat das Recht zu gehorchen." Hannah Arendt (angeblich),weblink Zitaträtsel, 5 September 2018, 1 July 2017, harv,
  • WEB, Miller, Joshua A., How the Schocken Books collections changed Arendt scholarship,weblink Anotherpanacea, 5 September 2018, 25 September 2017, harv,
  • WEB, Obedience and Dictatorship,weblink Desperado Philosophy, 6 September 2018, 22 December 2017, {{harvid, DP, 2017, }}
  • WEB, Wolters, Eugene, Everyone is Wrong About Hannah Arendt,weblink Critical-Theory, 16 July 2013, harv,
  • WEB, Hill, Samantha Rose, What does it mean to love the world? Hannah Arendt and Amor Mundi,weblink openDemocracy, 8 September 2018, 26 March 2017, harv,
  • WEB, Ten things Hannah Arendt said that are eerily relevant in today's political times,weblink, 4 December 2017, {{harvid, Scroll, 2017, }}
  • WEB, Brecht, Bertolt, An die Nachgeborenen,weblink Lyrik-line: Listen to the poet, Haus für Poesie, 14 September 2018, de, {{harvid, Brecht, 2018, }} - includes Brecht reading (english)
  • WEB, Waterhouse, Peter, Peter Waterhouse (writer), Truth And Translation,weblink European Institute for Progressive Cultural Policies (EIPCP), July 2013, harv,
  • WEB, Coombes, Thomas, Why we all need to read 'The Origins of Totalitarianism',weblink Medium (website), Medium, 12 February 2017, harv,
  • WEB, Gold, Hannah, Amazon Needs to Restock Hannah Arendt's The Origins of Totalitarianism,weblink Jezebel (website), Jezebel, 29 January 2017, 20 September 2018, harv,
  • WEB, Hannah Arendt,weblink kulturreise-ideen, 8 October 2018, de, {{harvid, Kulturreise, 2018, }}
  • WEB, Hill, Samantha Rose, A Meditation on Arendt, Rilke, & Guns,weblink Hannah Arendt Center, 17 October 2018, en, 6 December 2015, harv,
  • WEB, Rilke, Rainer Maria, Rainer Maria Rilke, Duineser Elegien,weblink Zeno, 17 October 2018, de, 1912–1922, harv, (English translation by A. S. Kline 2004)
  • WEB, Paula, Luisa, Hannah Arendt em Lisboa,weblink Espaço Crítico, 20 February 2019, pt, 28 December 2018, harv,

Biography, genealogy and timelines

see also: Principal Dates in {{harvtxt|Arendt|2000|loc=pp. lv–lvii}}
  • WEB, AAAL, American Academy of Arts and Letters, Academy Members: Deceased,weblink Members, American Academy of Arts and Letters, 28 July 2018, {{harvid, AAAL, 2018, }}
  • WEB, Heller, Anne C, Hannah Arendt: A Brief Chronology,weblink 17 August 2018, 6 July 2015a, harv,
  • WEB, Ludz, Ursula, Vita Hannah Arendt,weblink, 251–256, 16 September 2018, 2005, de, harv, , in {{harvtxt|Arendt|2005}}
  • WEB, Schoenberg, Randy, Hannah Arendt,weblink, Geni, 27 July 2018, 23 May 2018, {{harvid, Geni, 2018, }}
  • WEB, Hannah Arendt,weblink Monoskop, 27 July 2018, 24 July 2018,
  • JOURNAL, Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth, Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, Arendt, Hannah, 1,weblink American National Biography, Oxford University Press, 10.1093/anb/9780198606697.article.1400024, 2000, harv,
  • WEB, Hannah Arendt,weblink Contemporary Thinkers, The Foundation for Constitutional Government, 2018, 28 July 2018, {{harvid, FCG, 2018, }}

Institutions, locations and organizations

  • WEB, Bernstein, Richard J., Richard J. Bernstein, Hannah Arendt Center,weblink The New School for Social Research, 14 August 2018, New York, 2017, harv,
  • WEB, Bhabha, Homi K., Weigel, Sigrid, Homi K. Bhabha, Sigrid Weigel, We Refugees« – 75 Years Later. Hannah Arendt's Reflections on Human Rights and the Human Condition,weblink Zentrum für Literatur- und Kulturforschung, 26 November 2018, Berlin, March 2018, harv,
  • WEB, Hannah Arendt Centre,weblink Institut für Philosophie: Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, 27 August 2018, {{harvid, HAC Oldenburg, 2018, }}
  • WEB, Hannah Arendt Center for Political Studies,weblink Department of Human Sciences, University of Verona, 10 September 2018, 2018, {{harvid, HAC Verona, 2018, }}
  • WEB, Hannah Arendt Gymnasium, Haßloch,weblink 31 July 2018, german, {{harvid, HAGH, 2018, }}
  • WEB, Hannah Arendt Gymnasium, Barsinghausen,weblink 1 August 2018, German, {{harvid, HAGB, 2018, }}
  • WEB, Hannah Arendt Gymnasium, Lengerich,weblink Schulen in Lengerich, 2018, 1 August 2018, German, {{harvid, HAGL, 2018, }}
  • WEB, Hannah Arendt Gymnasium, Berlin,weblink 1 August 2018, 2018, German, {{harvid, HAG Berlin, 2018, }}
  • WEB, Dries, Christian, Translated by Christopher John Müller, Vita Günther Anders (1902-1992),weblink Internationale Günther Anders Gesellschaft, 11 September 2018, July 2018, harv,
  • WEB, Kirscher, Gilbert, Éric Weil : A Biography,weblink Institut Eric Weil-Université de Lille, 27 August 2018, 27 March 2003, harv,
  • WEB, GDW, German Resistance Memorial Center, Hannah Arendt,weblink Exile and Resistance, German Resistance Memorial Center, 19 September 2018, 2016, harv,
  • WEB, Hannah Arendt Tage,weblink Das offizielle Portal der Region und der Landeshauptstadt Hannover, City of Hanover, 24 July 2018, {{harvid, HAT, 2018, }}
    • WEB, Hannah Arendt in Hannover,weblink Das offizielle Portal der Region und der Landeshauptstadt Hannover, City of Hanover, 24 July 2018, 22 August 2017, {{harvid, Hannover, 2017, }}
  • WEB, CAS, Guide to the Center for Advanced Studies Records, 1958 - 1969,weblink Wesleyan University, Wesleyan University Library, 27 July 2018, 2011, harv,
  • WEB, UNHCR, UNHCR, Arendt, Hannah,weblink UNHCR Central Europe, 2 August 2018, 2 Aug 2017, harv,
  • WEB, FBI, FBI, Hannah Arendt,weblink 14 August 2018, 30 April 1956, Memorandum to Director,
  • WEB, Orte des Erinnerns – Denkmal im Bayerischen Viertel, 1993 (Berlin-Schöneberg),weblink Kunstgeschichtliche Gesellschaft zu Berlin, 19 September 2018, de, 2018, {{harvid, KGB, 2018, }}

Hannah Arendt Center (Bard)

  • WEB, The Hannah Arendt Center for Politics and Humanities at Bard College,weblink 14 August 2018, {{harvid, HAC Bard, 2018, }}
    • WEB, McCarthy House,weblink About Us, The Hannah Arendt Center, 18 September 2018, en, {{harvid, About HAC Bard, 2018, }}
    • WEB, Bard, Bard College, The Hannah Arendt Collection,weblink Hannah Arendt Center, Stevenson Library, Bard College, 29 July 2018, {{harvid, Bard, 2018, }}
      • WEB, Kettler, David, Hannah Arendt Collection: Arendt on Mannheim,weblink 21 September 2018, 2009, harv,
    • WEB, The Hannah Arendt Center,weblink Medium (website), Medium, 20 September 2018, {{harvid, HAC, 2018, }}
    • WEB, Amor Mundi,weblink Medium (website), Medium, 26 October 2018, {{harvid, Amor Mundi, 2018, }}
    • WEB, Berkowitz, Roger, Jacques Ranciere and Hannah Arendt on Democratic Politics,weblink Hannah Arendt Center News, 9 March 2012b, 21 November 2018, harv,
    • WEB, Film Screening: In Search of The Last Agora, Hannah Arendt Center News,weblink 13 March 2019, 15 November 2018, {{harvid, Bard News, 2018, }}


  • WEB, Hannah-Arendt-Str., Marburg,weblink, 5 October 2018, 2018, de, {{harvid, Meinestadt, 2018, }}
  • WEB, Rue Hannah Arendt,weblink Google Maps, 8 October 2018, {{harvid, Google Maps, 2018, }}

External images

  • {{anchor|Stamp}}ENCYCLOPEDIA, Hannah Arendt (1906—1975),weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Photograph of commemorative stamp, 18 July 2018, 1988,
  • {{anchor|UNHCRStamp}}WEB, Hannah Arendt, stamp, Germany 2006,weblink UNHCR, Photograph of commemorative stamp, 2 August 2018, 2006,
  • WEB, Map of location of Hannah Arendt Straße, Berlin,weblink Wikipedia:GeoHack, GeoHack, 30 July 2018, Map, {{harvid, Geohack, 2018, }}
  • {{anchor|Stein44}}WEB, Stein, Fred, Hannah Arendt, 1944,weblink Portrait Portfolio, Fred Stein Archive, Photographic portrait, 1 August 2018, 2018,
  • {{anchor|studentid}}WEB, Hannah Arendts Erkennungskarte der Universität Heidelberg 1928,weblink Bild des Monats, University of Heidelberg, Student identity card, 28 August 2018, November 2015, {{harvid, UHeidelberg, 2015, }}
  • {{anchor|judging}}BOOK, Life of the Mind: Judging, 1975,weblink 9780226025957, Arendt, Hannah,
  • {{anchor|SRL}}WEB, Cover,weblink Saturday Review of Literature, 25 September 2018, 24 March 1951, Cover image,
  • {{anchor|Lisboa}}WEB, Plaque,weblink Lisbon City Council, 25 September 2018, 10 December 2018,

Bibliographic notes


External links

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Eastern Philosophy
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