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Halal
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{{About||the 2016 film|Halal (film)}}{{italic title}}{{Usul al-fiqh}}File:Halal shop sign, Rue de Patay, Paris 13.jpg|thumb|right|A halal (حلال) sign at a butcher's shop in Paris, FranceParis, FranceHalal ({{IPAc-en|h|ə|ˈ|l|ɑː|l}}; {{transl|ar|ALA|ḥalāl}}), also spelled hallal or halaal, is an Arabic word that translates to "permissible" into English.In the Quran, the word halal is contrasted with haram (forbidden). This binary opposition was elaborated into a more complex classification known as "the five decisions": mandatory, recommended, neutral, reprehensible, and forbidden.ENCYCLOPEDIA, harv, Knut S., Vikør, Sharīʿah, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics, Oxford University Press, Emad El-Din Shahin, 2014,weblink Islamic jurists disagree on whether the term halal covers the first two or the first four of these categories. In recent times, Islamic movements seeking to mobilize the masses and authors writing for a popular audience have emphasized the simpler distinction of halal and haram.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopedia of Islam, Halal, Juan Eduardo Campo, Infobase Publishing, 2009, 284, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Lowry, Joseph E, 2006, Lawful and Unlawful, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Brill, 10.1163/1875-3922_q3_EQCOM_00107, The term halal is particularly associated with Islamic dietary laws, and especially meat processed and prepared in accordance with those requirements.

In the Quran

The words halal and haram are the usual terms used in the Quran to designate the categories of lawful or allowed and unlawful or forbidden.File:Halal Market in Minneapolis, Minnesota.jpg|thumb|A Halal Market in Minneapolis, Minnesota.]]In the Quran, the root h-l-l denotes lawfulness and may also indicate exiting the ritual state of a pilgrim and entering a profane state. In both these senses, it has an opposite meaning to that conveyed by the root h-r-m (cf. haram and ihram). In a literal sense, the root h-l-l may refer to dissolution (e.g., breaking of an oath) or alighting (e.g., of God's wrath). Lawfulness is usually indicated in the Quran by means of the verb ahalla (to make lawful), with God as the stated or implied subject.

Foods

File:清真中國牛肉館.JPG|thumb|A halal sign in Chinese (清真) at a restaurant in Taipei, TaiwanTaiwanSeveral food companies offer halal processed foods and products, including halal foie gras, spring rolls, chicken nuggets, ravioli, lasagna, pizza, and baby food.Halal ready meals are a growing consumer market for Muslims in Britain and America and are offered by an increasing number of retailers.NEWS,weblink Halal la carte, The Economist, 0013-0613, 2016-08-31, Vegetarian cuisine is halal if it does not contain alcohol.The most common example of haram (non-halal) food is pork (pig meat products). While pork is the only meat that categorically may not be consumed by Muslims (the Quran forbids it,WEB,weblink Pork (لَحم الخنزير) From the Quranic Arabic Corpus – Ontology of Quranic Concepts, 29 December 2015, Sura 2:173 and 16:115 WEB,weblink Surah Al-Baqarah [2:173], Surah Al-Baqarah [2:173], en-US, 2018-09-07, WEB,weblink Surah An-Nahl – The Noble Qur'an - القرآن الكريم, ) other foods not in a state of purity are also considered haram. The criteria for non-pork items include their source, the cause of the animal's death, and how it was processed.File:Halal Market Woodbury, Minnesota (US).jpg|thumb|A halal market store for groceries in Woodbury, MinnesotaWoodbury, MinnesotaMuslims must also ensure that all foods (particularly processed foods), as well as non-food items like cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, are halal. Frequently, these products contain animal by-products or other ingredients that are not permissible for Muslims to eat or use on their bodies. Foods which are not considered halal for Muslims to consume include bloodQuran Surah Al-Maaida ( Verse 3 ) and intoxicants such as alcoholic beverages.Quran Surah Al-Maaida ( Verse 90 ) A Muslim who would otherwise starve to death is allowed to eat non-halal food if there is no halal food available.BOOK, Islam, Maqsood, Rubaiyat Waris, Hodder & Stoughton, 2004, 978-0-340-60901-9, Teach Yourself World Faiths, London, 204, registration,weblink During airplane flights Muslims will usually order kosher food (if halal food is not available) to assure their chosen dish will not have any pork ingredients.

Genetically modified organisms (GMO)

At a conference called "Agri-biotechnology: Shariah Compliance" held in Malaysia in December 2010 by the Malaysian Biotechnology Information Centre (MABIC) and International Halal Integrity Alliance (IHIA), participants "adopted a resolution that accepts GM crops and products as halal should all ingredients used to develop them are from halal sources....The only Haram [forbidden] cases are limited to products derived from Haram origin retaining their original characteristics that are not substantially changed."WEB, Resolution on Halal Solution on Halal Status of GM Crops and Foods adopted at Agri-Biotech Workshop for Islamic Scholars,weblink Crop Biotech Update (Dec. 10, 2010), 6 December 2017, An article from 2000 stated: "Should a product be brought to market with a gene from a haram source [such as pig DNA in a soy product], today it would at least be considered Mashbooh — questionable — if not outright haram. However, all biotechnology-derived foods on the market today are from approved sources."WEB, Hazzah, K., Are GMO's Halal?,weblink AG Bio World (Aug. 4, 2000), 6 December 2017,

Certification

Globally, halal food certification has been criticized by anti-halal lobby groups and individuals using social media.NEWS,weblink Halal Certification Stamp – Today Tonight (Australia), 7 March 2012, Today Tonight, Hansen, Damien, 20 February 2015, Critics have argued that the practice results in added costs; a requirement to officially certify intrinsically-halal foods leads to consumers subsidising a particular religious belief.NEWS,weblink Why halal certification is in turmoil, 28 December 2014, Sydney Morning Herald, Johnson, Chris, 8 January 2015, Australian Federation of Islamic Councils spokesman Keysar Trad told a journalist in July 2014 that this was an attempt to exploit anti-Muslim sentiments.NEWS, Masanauskas, John, Halal food outrage from anti-Islam critics,weblink 6 January 2015, Herald Sun, 18 July 2014,

Business

The Dubai Chamber of Commerce estimated the global industry value of halal food consumer purchases to be $1.1 trillion in 2013, accounting for 16.6 percent of the global food and beverage market, with an annual growth of 6.9 percent.WEB,weblink Dubai Chamber Report shows increasing preference for halal food as global market grows to US$1.1 trn {{!, Zawya|website=www.zawya.com|access-date=2016-08-31}} Growth regions include Indonesia ($197 million market value in 2012) and Turkey ($100 million).WEB,weblink REPORT: Consumer Demand for Halal is On the Rise, www.fdfworld.com, 2016-08-31, The European Union market for halal food has an estimated annual growth of around 15 percent and is worth an estimated $30 billion.WEB,weblink USDA Foreign Agricultural Service – Halal Food Market, Aug 30, 2016,

Method of slaughter

The food must come from a supplier that uses halal practices. {{transl|ar|ALA|Dhabīḥah}} () is the prescribed method of slaughter for all meat sources, excluding fish and other sea-life, per Islamic law. This method of slaughtering animals consists of using a well-sharpened knife to make a swift, deep incision that cuts the front of the throat, the carotid artery, trachea, and jugular veins.WEB,weblink Islamic Method of Slaughtering – Department of Halal Certification, halalcertification.ie, The head of an animal that is slaughtered using halal methods is aligned with the qiblah. In addition to the direction, permitted animals should be slaughtered upon utterance of the Islamic prayer Bismillah "in the name of God".The slaughter can be performed by a Muslim or an adherent of religions traditionally known as People of the Book.BOOK, The Routledge Handbook of Muslim-Jewish Relations, Josef Meri, Routledge,weblink 311, 2016, Blood must be drained from the veins. Carrion (carcasses of dead animals, such as animals who died in the wild) cannot be eaten. Additionally, an animal that has been strangled, beaten (to death), killed by a fall, gored (to death), savaged by a beast of prey (unless finished off by a human), or sacrificed on a stone altar cannot be eaten.QURAN, 5, 3, The animal may be stunned prior to having its throat cut. The UK Food Standards Agency figures from 2011 suggest that 84% of cattle, 81% of sheep and 88% of chickens slaughtered for halal meat were stunned before they died.Supermarkets selling halal products also report that all animals are stunned before they are slaughtered. Tesco, for example, says "the only difference between the halal meat it sells and other meat is that it was blessed as it was killed."WEB,weblink What is halal meat?, Nick, Eardley, 12 May 2014, www.bbc.co.uk, The British Veterinary Association, along with citizens who have assembled a petition with 100,000NEWS,weblink Millions more animals are slaughtered for halal food: Numbers rise 60 per cent amid calls for them to be stunned before death, Wilkinson, Ben, 30 January 2015, Daily Mail, 1 February 2015, signatures, have raised concerns regarding a proposed halal abattoir in Wales, in which animals are not to be stunned prior to killing.NEWS,weblink Fury over plans to use taxpayers' money to fund halal abattoir that refuses to stun its animals before killing them, Rahman, Khaleda, 25 January 2015, Daily Mail, 26 January 2015, Concerns about animal suffering from slaughter without prior stunning has resulted in the ban of slaughter of unstunned animals in Denmark, Luxembourg, Belgium, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland.NEWS,weblink Dutch vote to ban religious slaughter of animals, Sekularac, Ivana, 28 June 2011, Reuters, 26 January 2015, NEWS,weblink Comment: Danish halal, kosher ban leaves religious groups with nowhere to turn, 25 February 2014, Special Broadcasting Service, 26 January 2015, Generally, killing animals in Islam is only permissible for two main reasons, to be eatenSunan an-Nasa'i 4349, Book:42, Hadith:87;Quran (40:79) and to eliminate a danger, e.g. a rabid dog.Sahih al-Bukhari 3314, Book:59, Hadith:120

Meat slaughtered or prepared by non-Muslims

Animals slaughtered by Christians or Jews is halal only if the slaughter is carried out by jugular slice, it is mentioned before slaughter that the purpose is of permissible consumption, the slaughter is carried out following the name of the God (indicating that you are grateful for God's blessings), and the meat is not explicitly prohibited, like pork. The requirement to invoke God's name is a must. In other words, the word ṭaʻām refers to {{transl|ar|ALA|dhabīḥah}} meat; i.e., the meat prepared after the slaughter of an animal by cutting the throat (i.e., the jugular vein, the carotid arteries, and the trachea) and during slaughter God's name is invoked (Ibn ʻAbbās, Mujāhid, ʻIkrimah{{nsmdns}}all quoted by Ṭabarī, Ibn Kathīr).Kosher meats are permitted to be eaten by Muslims.WEB,weblink Lawful Foods, Just Islam, Now in the case of Jews this is very easy. As long as the Jew is a practising Jew and the meat is slaughtered in accordance with Jewish law (Torat Moshe) then this meat and other Kosher food is lawful (halal) and can be eaten by Muslims., 2 May 2014, This is due to the similarity between both methods of slaughter and the similar principles of kosher meat which are observed by Jews.WEB,weblink Islamic ruling on Christian food, islamqa, 2012-08-26,

Lifestyle and tourism

{{stub section|date=August 2016}}Halal lifestyle can include travel, finance, clothing, media, recreation, and cosmetics as well as halal food and diet.WEB,weblink Halal Lifestyle in Indonesia – UN World Tourism Organization, Aug 30, 2016,

Halal in UK shops

As of August 2012, an estimated 27 UK Tesco superstores had halal meat counters, selling meat approved for consumption by Muslims.NEWS
, National Halal Centre
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100308212651weblink">weblink
, dead
, 8 March 2010
, National Halal Food Group
, National Halal Food Group
, 20 August 2012
, 20 August 2012
, According to the Food Standards Agency Animal Welfare Update report, published September 2017, 16 percent of animals slaughtered by the Halal method were not stunned before slaughter, which violates RSPCA standards on animal welfare.NEWS, Religious Slaughter - RSPCA,weblink RSPCA, 21 March 2019, However, it is legal in the UK due to an exemption in the law granted to Jews and Muslims.WEB, The stunning of livestock before slaughter has been compulsory in the EU since 1979 but most member states, including the UK, grant exemptions to Muslims and Jews.,weblink Halal hysteria, New Statesman, 9 May 2012,

See also

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References

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Further reading

  • Yungman, Limor, "Food", in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol I.

External links

{{Commons category|Halal}}{{Cookbook|Halal}} {{Use dmy dates|date=April 2012}} {{Islam topics|state=collapsed}}

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